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Sample records for deodorized soybean oil

  1. Neutralization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate for Vitamin Supplement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelem Iribarrem Benites

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD, a byproduct of the soybean oil refining process, is a complex mixture of compounds, such as free fatty acids (FFA, hydrocarbons, and sterols, such as tocopherols, a class of major natural antioxidants with vitamin E activity. As the utilization of SODD for tocopherol extraction is shown to be not economically viable, SODD in the semirefined form (neutral is an interesting alternative to animal and possibly human diet enrichment. This study aimed to evaluate the SODD neutralization process varying the alkali (Na2CO3 concentration, temperature, and homogenization time. The optimal conditions for the neutralizing process, in order to obtain the greatest reduction in FFA content, the lowest leaching of tocopherols, and the greatest yield, were the following: Na2CO2 concentration of 4.34 N, temperature of 45.8°C, and homogenization time of 3 min 20 s. The FFA content was reduced from 53.4% to 6.1% after the initial neutralization, thus requiring a second neutralization step. The final FFA content was of 1.8% and total tocopherol (TT accounted for about 11% of SODD.

  2. Optimization of direct acid esterification process of soybean oil deodorizer distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the reaction conditions for the direct acid esterification of free fatty acid from soybean oil deodorizer distillate was optimized, using anhydrous ethyl alcohol and concentrated sulfuric acid as catalyst to determine the best process conditions to get the best conversion rates of free fatty acids to ethylic esters, preserving the tocopherols. The conversion extent of free fatty acids to ethyl esters was optimized using a Response Surface Methodology obtained through a second order factorial experimental design. The optima conditions for the direct acid esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate were: ethanol:free fatty acids from 6.4 to 11.2:1, H2SO4 concentration from 0.9 to 1.5 % and reaction time from 1.3 to 2.6 h, with conversions extent above 94 %. No significant tocopherol losses were observed during the process. Results showed a good fit between mathematical model and data obtained at different processing conditions, making this model predictive and statistically significant (pEn este estudio fueron optimizadas las condiciones de reacción de esterificación ácida directa de los ácidos grasos libres del destilado de desodorización del aceite de soja, usando alcohol etílico anhidro y ácido sulfúrico concentrado como catalizador. Fueron determinadas las mejores condiciones de proceso para obtener las tasas de conversión más altas de ácidos grasos libres en ésteres etílicos, manteniendo los tocoferoles. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante la metodología de superficie de respuesta usando un delineamiento experimental factorial completo de segundo orden. Las condiciones óptimas encontradas para la esterificación ácida directa del destilado de desodorización del aceite de soja obtenidas fueron: etanol:ácidos grasos libres entre 6.4 y 11.2:1, concentración de ácido sulfúrico entre 0.9 y 1.5 % y tiempo de reacción entre 1.3 y 2.6 h, obteniendo tasas de conversión mayores que 94 %. No

  3. 两段式脱臭过程对大豆油中反式脂肪酸含量的影响%Effect of Two- Stage Deodorizing Process on Content of TransFatty Acid in Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振岚; 罗淑年; 史加宁; 冯丽丽; 于殿宇

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment, bleaching vegetable oil was chosen as a raw material, and two - stage deodoriza-tion was obtained by using the external heating method in the process of oil deodorizing. First, deodorizing temperature of the oil reached to 170 ℃ , and the direct steam came into the tray column in order to remove low boiling point materials, including ketone. The water steam pressure was 0.5 Mpa,deodorizing time was 12 min,the consumption of water stream was 1% of oil weight,and residual pressure was 266 Pa. After the preliminary deodorization,the content of trans fatty acid in Soybean Oil was 0.016 %. Then in order to remove high boiling point materials, such as Free fatty acid and hydrocarbon, deodorizing temperature reached to 240 ℃ , deodorizing time was 40 min, the consumption of water stream was 0.5% of oil weight and residual pressure was 266 Pa. The deodorizing time of the oil was greatly shortened at a high temperature,it was unlikely to form trans -fatty acids,and the trans -fatty acids content in the soybean oil was only 0.38%.%本试验以脱色大豆油为原料,采用两段式的脱臭方式,首先将脱色大豆油加热至170℃,通入直接蒸汽脱除油脂中的酮类等低沸点的物质,通入压力为0.5 MPa蒸汽,蒸汽用量为油重的0.3%,脱臭时间为12 min,残压为266Pa,初步脱臭后大豆油中反式脂肪酸的质量分数为0.016%,为了脱除油脂中的游离脂肪酸、烃类等高沸点的物质,将大豆油加热至240℃,蒸汽用量为油重的0.5%,脱臭时间为40 min,残压为266Pa.由于大豆油在高温条件下脱臭时间短,不易形成反式脂肪酸,成品油中反式脂肪酸质量分数仅为0.38%.

  4. Estudio de la Desodorización de Aceite de Soja por Simulación Study of Soybean Oil Deodorization using Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo N Yerien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados de la simulación de la operación de desodorización de aceites vegetales. Para efectos de simulación, el aceite de soja se modeló como una mezcla multicomponente de cinco compuestos: triglicérido, ácido graso, esterol, tocoferol y escualeno. Se estudiaron las condiciones de operación de flujo cruzado y flujo en contracorriente. Se varió la temperatura, presión y tiempo de contacto, se estudió cantidad de tocoferoles, esteroles y escualeno en el destilado y la presencia de compuestos trans en el aceite. Los resultados obtenidos estuvieron de acuerdo con resultados experimentales, e indicaron que el flujo en contracorriente es más conveniente desde el punto de vista de la calidad del destilado y del aceite, así como del consumo de vapor.This work presents simulation results of a vegetable oil deodorization process. For simulation purposes, the soybean oil was modelled as a five component mixture: triglyceride, fatty acid, sterol, tocopherol and squalene. Two types of flow, cross and countercurrent, were studied. The process temperature, pressure and contact time were changed, the amount of tocopherol, sterol and squalene in the distillate and the presence of trans compounds in the vegetable oil were analyzed. The results were in agreement with experiment and indicate that countercurrent flow is more convenient from the point of view of quality of the distillate and of the oil, as well as of steam consumption.

  5. 大豆油脱臭馏出物中角鲨烯的富集研究%Enrichment of Squalene from Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁辉; 程楠; 齐德珍; 徐世民

    2012-01-01

    以大豆油脱臭馏出物(SODD)为原料,研究了经皂化和二级分子蒸馏过程提取角鲨烯的工艺路线.分别采用正交试验设计和响应面法对皂化及第一级分子蒸馏工艺条件进行优化,所得优化条件为:皂化反应时间40 min,反应温度80℃,KOH浓度0.8 mol/L;一级分子蒸馏过程蒸发温度73℃,进料速率1.1 mL/min,刮膜转速250 r/min.经过二级分子蒸馏,角鲨烯质量分数从原料中的1.95%富集到21.01%,总收率为86.8%.%A process to extract squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate by using saponification and two steps of molecular distillation was studied. The appropriate process conditions were obtained by orthogonal design and response surface method respectively. For saponification process, reaction time is 40 min, reaction temperature is 80℃ , alkali concentration is 0. 8 mol/L. For first-stage molecular distillation process, evaporation temperature is 73℃ , feed rate is 1. 1 Ml/min, wiped film speed is 250 r/min. After two steps of molecular distillation, the mass fraction of squalene was increased from 1. 95% to 21. 01 % and the total yield was 86. 8% .

  6. Deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Rastogi, S C; Bruze, M

    1998-01-01

    the last 12 months. 2 applications per day were made in the axilla and simultaneously on a 25 cm2 area on the upper arm. A total of 20 deodorants were tested among the 14 patients. Afterwards, the deodorants were subjected to quantitative chemical analysis identifying constituents of the fragrance mix. 12....../20 (60%) deodorants elicited eczema on use testing in the axilla. 8/12 deodorants were positive in the axilla on day (D) 7 and 4 both in the axilla and on the upper arm. 2 of the 4 developed a reaction in the axilla before it developed on the upper arm. Chemical analysis revealed that 18/19 deodorants...... the deodorants in terms of elicitation potential were more related to quantitative aspects of allergen content than of a qualitative nature. It is recommended that deodorants are tested in the axilla in the case of a negative use test on the upper arm and a strong clinical suspicion....

  7. Deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Rastogi, S C; Bruze, M

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most marketed types of cosmetics and are frequently reported as a cause of dermatitis, particularly among fragrance-sensitive persons. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of deodorants, which had previously caused axillary dermatitis in fragrance...... the last 12 months. 2 applications per day were made in the axilla and simultaneously on a 25 cm2 area on the upper arm. A total of 20 deodorants were tested among the 14 patients. Afterwards, the deodorants were subjected to quantitative chemical analysis identifying constituents of the fragrance mix. 12....../20 (60%) deodorants elicited eczema on use testing in the axilla. 8/12 deodorants were positive in the axilla on day (D) 7 and 4 both in the axilla and on the upper arm. 2 of the 4 developed a reaction in the axilla before it developed on the upper arm. Chemical analysis revealed that 18/19 deodorants...

  8. 强酸性离子交换树脂催化大豆油脱臭馏出物连续酯化反应%Continuous esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by strong acidic ion exchange resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉平; 汪宝和; 陈学兵

    2012-01-01

    Free fatty acid esterification is the key step in the preparation of vitamin E and phytosterols from oil deodorizer distillate ( DD) , but the traditional esterification method has disadvantages, such as batch operation and easy equipment corrosion. Continuous esterification of soybean oil DD catalyzed by strong acidic ion exchange resin was studied. The influences of reaction temperature,feed flow rate,water content of raw material and volume ratio of methanol to soybean oil DD on the esterification reaction were investigated. The results showed that reducing the water content of raw material could promote the esterification reaction;the esterifcation rate of soybean oil DD could reach above 98% by two -step esterification under the conditions of reaction temperature 70 ℃ , volume ratio of methanol to soybean oil DD 1: 1 , feed flow rate 1 BV/h and water content of soybean oil DD 0. 05%%游离脂肪酸酯化是以油脂脱臭馏出物为原料,制备天然维生素E和植物甾醇的关键步骤,而传统酯化方法存在间歇操作、设备易腐蚀等缺点.以强酸性离子交换树脂为催化剂,对大豆油脱臭馏出物(DD油)的连续酯化反应进行了研究.考察了反应温度、进料流速、原料含水量以及醇油体积比对酯化反应的影响.结果表明:减少原料DD油中的含水量可促进酯化反应的进行,在反应温度70℃、醇油体积比1∶1、流速1 BV/h、DD油含水量0.05%的条件,通过二次酯化DD油酯化率可达到98%以上.

  9. Deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Bruze, M

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most marketed types of cosmetics and are frequently reported as a cause of dermatitis, particularly among fragrance-sensitive persons. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of deodorants, which had previously caused axillary dermatitis in fragrance-mix-sen...

  10. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...

  11. Deodorization of lipase-interesterified butterfat and rapeseed oil blends in a pilot deodorizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    by free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV), volatiles, and the sensory evaluation of the samples with respect to flavor and odor (most importantly the butter flavor and odor and the off-flavor and odor from butyric acid). ANOVA partial least squares regression analysis showed that deodorization...... time, and especially deodorization temperature, significantly affected the sensory properties and levels of volatiles, FFA and peroxides in the samples. The best compromise between removing undesirable off-flavors while maintaining the desirable butter flavor seemed to be obtained by using...

  12. Deodorization optimization of Camelina sativa oil: Oxidative and sensory studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrastar, Robert; Cheong, Ling‐Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    [peroxide value (PV), p‐anisidine value (p‐AV), γ‐tocopherol (γ‐T) and oxidative stability (OS)]. Additionally, sensory evaluation was performed. RSM analysis showed a significant effect of deodorization temperature and to a lesser extent, deodorization steam flow and time on removal of oxidative compounds...

  13. Soft-deodorization of virgin olive oil: Study of the changes of quality and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    The potential adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with soft-deodorized virgin olive oil (VOO) has raised the interest of researchers in investigating this fraud in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine chemical changes occurring after a soft-deodorization process in terms of volatiles, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and pyropheophytins (PPPs) concentrations in VOOs. After testing several conditions (80, 100 and 130°C, for 30 and 60min), the parameters of 100°C and 60min were considered as the optima. These conditions allowed removing volatiles responsible for sensory defects with low losses of total phenols (14%-32%), and values of PPPs (11.83%) and FAEEs (34.53mg/kg) lower than the limits of standard regulations. The experiments show that soft-deodorized VOOs could be added up to 50% to EVOOs and current standard methods would not detect this kind of adulteration.

  14. Effects of Neutralization, Decoloration, and Deodorization on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during Laboratory-Scale Oil Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of technological operations during oil refining process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils was investigated on the basis of laboratory-scale study. Under the best experimental conditions, benzo[a]pyrene decreased by 85.1%, 99.7%, and 40.8% in neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils, respectively. Total of 16 analytes decreased by 55.7%, 87.5%, and 47.7%, respectively. Bleaching with activated charcoal was the most efficient procedure to reduce PAHs in crude oil. Neutralization had a modest influence on sixteen analytes; however, deodorization was only responsible for a slight decrease in the light PAHs and heavy PAHs contents. Data obtained in this study suggest that the use of activated carbon during oil refining process is highly recommended; moreover, these results provide a useful guidance for oil refining plant to reduce security risk and ensure the quality of the vegetable oil products.

  15. Degumming of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Degumming process was carried out on Factory grade crude soybean oil in fats and oils Department. Thirty two samples were treated with different concentrations of phosphoric acid and / or water at different temperatures and with different time of stirring. It was found that degumming 100 gm of oil with 3,5% water only and with 0,34 gm phosphoric acid in 5,8% water, at 75°C with stirring time of 30 minutes gave better results compared with other conditions. The analysis of variance of factorial experiments for illustrating the different effect and interaction between time of stirring and temperature during degumming process was recorded.

    El proceso de desgomado fue llevado a cabo en una fábrica de aceite crudo de soja en el departamento de aceites y grasas. Treinta y dos muestras fueron tratadas con concentraciones diferentes de ácido fosfórico y/o agua a temperaturas diferentes y con tiempo diferente de agitación. Se encontró que el desgomado de 100 g de aceite con solo 3,5% de agua y con 0,34 g de ácido fosfórico en 5,8% de agua a 75°C, con tiempo de agitación de 30 minutos, dio mejores resultados comparado con otras condiciones. Se realizó el análisis de varianza de experiencias factoriales para ilustrar el diferente efecto y la interacción entre el tiempo de agitación y la temperatura, durante el proceso de desgomado.

  16. Effect of deodorization of camelina (Camelina sativa) oil on its phenolic content and the radical scavenging effectiveness of its extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, Robert; Terpinc, Petra; Košir, Iztok Jože; Abramovič, Helena

    2013-08-28

    The influence of deodorization parameters (temperature (T), steam flow (S), time (t)) on the phenolic content and radical scavenging effectiveness (RSE) of methanolic extracts of camelina oil was investigated and analyzed by response-surface methodology (RSM). The phenolic content can be considered to be a linear function of all three parameters. A positive linear relationship between the content of phenolic compounds in deodorized oils and RSE was observed. Deodorization at 210 °C with a steam flow of 3 mL/h for 90 min resulted in the best preservation of phenolics, amounting to 29.9 mg/kg. The lowest reduction from RSE of 12.4 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g oil for the crude oil was observed for oil treated at 195 °C and 18 mL/h for 60 min with RSE of 10.1 μM TE/g oil. The lack of correlation between RSE or total phenolic content and oxidative stability (OS) of the deodorized oils suggests that antioxidants in scavenging radicals react by different mechanisms, depending on radical type and reaction medium.

  17. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  18. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Ling; Yan, Yunjun [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2009-07-15

    A two-step technique combining pre-esterification catalyzed by cation exchange resin with transesterification catalyzed by base alkali was developed to produce biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RDOD). The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the feedstock were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin. The acid value of oil was reduced from the initial 97.60 mg-KOH g{sup -1} oil to 1.12 mg-KOH g{sup -1} oil under the conditions of cation exchange resin D002 catalyst packed dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9, reaction temperature 60 C, and reaction time 4 h. The biodiesel yield by transesterification was 97.4% in 1.5 h using 0.8 wt.% KOH as catalyst and a molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:4 at 60 C. The properties of RDOD biodiesel production in a packed column reactor followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification were measured up the standards of EN14214 and ASTM6751-03. (author)

  19. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  20. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  1. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  2. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  3. Characterization of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate produced from olive oil deodorizer distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Araújo, Diana; Alves, Vítor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil deodorizer distillate (OODD) was used for the first time as the sole substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by the bacterium Pseudomonas resinovorans in bioreactor cultivation. A PHA content in the biomass of 36 ± 0.8 wt% was attained within 19 h of cultivation. A final polymer concentration of 4.7 ± 0.3 gL(-1) was reached, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 5.9 ± 0.2 gL(-1)day(-1). The PHA was composed of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (48.3 ± 7.3 mol%), 3-hydroxydecanoate (31.6 ± 2.6 mol%), 3-hydroxyhexanoate (12.1 ± 1.1 mol%) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (8.0 ± 0.7 mol%) and it had a glue-like consistency that did not solidify at room temperature. The polymer was highly amorphous, as shown by its low crystallinity of 6 ± 0.2%, with low melting and glass transition temperatures of 36 ± 1.2 and -16 ± 0.8°C, respectively. The polymer exhibited a shear thinning behavior and a mechanical spectrum with a predominant viscous contribution. Its shear bond strength for wood (67 ± 9.4 kPa) and glass (65 ± 7.3 kPa) suggests it may be used for the development of biobased glues.

  4. Chemical modification of soybean oil for lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Shijie; Mao Zongqiang [Tsinghua Univ., INET, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a series of structural modifications of soybean oils for lubricant. The reaction was monitored and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The structural modification is carried out in four stages, (1) synthesis of soybean oil isooctyl ester from soybean oil; (2) synthesis of epoxy-soybean oil isooctyl ester from soybean oil isooctyl ester; (3) synthesis of hydroxylated products from epoxy soybean oil isooctyl ester with fatty acid; (4) esterification of the hydroxylated product with anhydride. Rheological behaviour of the products was measured. Pour points of the products (3) were observed as low as -24 C (lauric acid) and -15 C (isooctanoic acid) respectively. When the hydroxyl groups in the products were esterified with and acid anhydride, the pour points were became higher, which were -21 C (lauric acid) and -6 C (isooctanoic acid) without pour point depressant, and -27 C (lauric acid) and -24 C (isooctanoic acid) with 1% of pour point depressant respectively. The products have suitable viscosity and viscosity index, and the viscosity indices are all above 100. (orig.)

  5. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  6. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  7. Effect of deodorization process on the quality of sunflower seed oil%脱臭工艺对葵花籽油品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴杰; 薛雅琳; 金青哲; 张东

    2016-01-01

    研究脱臭工艺对葵花籽油品质的影响,分析在不同脱臭温度、脱臭时间条件下,葵花籽油酸值、过氧化值、生育酚、角鲨烯、甾醇和反式脂肪酸的变化情况。结果表明:随脱臭温度升高,脱臭时间的延长,酸值、过氧化值逐渐降低,生育酚、甾醇、角鲨烯含量显著减少,反式脂肪酸含量增加。通过研究葵花籽油在不同脱臭工艺条件下的品质变化情况,以期为葵花籽油实际脱臭工艺提供数据支持。%The effect of deodorization process on the quality of sunflower see d oil was studied,the sunflow-er seed oil was deodorized for different time at different temperatures,the changes of acid value,peroxide value,the content of tocopherol,squalene,sterol and trans fatty acid were analysed.The results showed that with the deodorization temperature and time increased,acid value and peroxide value decreased grad-ually,the content of tocopherols,squalene,sterols significantly reduced,the content of trans fatty acid increased.According to the study on the quality of deodorized sunflower seed oil which was deodorized for different time at different temperatures,we hope to provide the data support for the actual deodorization process of sunflower seed oil.

  8. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  9. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  10. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaFu-go; WuFeng-zhi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed.In recent years.However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption.Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction.The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three different kinds of extrudates and processing conditions.These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time.The effects of process variables,including applied pressure,pressing temperature and sample height,were investigated.Results indicated that over 90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples.The information generated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pretreatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  11. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed. In recent years. However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption. Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction. The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three differ- ent kinds of extrudates and processing conditions. These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time. The effects of process variables ,in- cluding applied pressure, pressing temperature and sample height, were investigated. Results indicated that over90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples. The information gen- erated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pre- treatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  12. Rexona deodorant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Taiwanese pop singer Elva Hsiao demonstrates Rexona deodorant’s residue-free application for a new commercial. With Rexona’s unique body-responsive technology, which releases extra protection as you need it, you’ll know that your deodorant won’t let you down. Better

  13. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  14. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  15. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  16. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters; Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de esteres etilicos de acidos graxos de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Roseli Ap.; Oliveira, Vanessa da Silva; Scabio, Ardalla [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: ferrarir@uepg

    2005-06-01

    Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, bio diesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of bio diesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105 deg C, with an air flow of 20 L h{sup -1}. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, bio diesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The bio diesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced bio diesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the bio diesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the bio diesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occurring with the bio diesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other. (author)

  17. Detection and quantification of hogwash oil in soybean oils using low-cost spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cichelli, A.; Xing, J.; Yang, X.; Sun, W.; Yuan, L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the detection and quantification of hogwash oil in soybean oils by means of absorption spectroscopy. Three types of soybean oils were adulterated with different concentrations of hogwash oil. The spectra were measured in the visible band using a white LED and a low-cost spectrometer. The measured spectra were processed by means of multivariate analysis to distinguish the adulteration and, for each soybean oil, to quantify the adulterant concentration. Then the visible spectra were sliced into two bands for modeling a simple setup made of two LEDs only. The successful results indicate potentials for implementing a smartphone-compatible device for self-assessment of soybean oil quality.

  18. A simple method for purification of deodorizer distillate from Indian rice (Oryza Sativa bran oil and preparation of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajan, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of rice bran oil deodorizer distillates (RBO DOD-1 and RBO DOD-2 were studied for their physicochemical characteristics. The samples were semisolid and had a dark color. The free fatty acid values were 59.2% and 86.0%, the unsaponifiable matter was 18.7% and 7.75% and the phytosterol contents were 8.71% and 4.22%, respectively for the deodorizer distillates studied. A simple method of silica gel percolation was developed to purify DOD to obtain phytosterol concentrate fractions (PCF and a brown color and bad odor fraction (BCBOF. The color values were reduced by 72.8% and 73.0% of lovibond units in the PCF for DOD-1 and DOD-2 respectively, had no bad odor and were increased in the phytosterol concentration to 12.4% and 5.9%. The PCF was further processed to prepare high purity phytosterols. An HPLC analysis of the phytosterol mixture showed it to be formed by β-sitosterol (38.2%, stigmasterol (34.9%, campesterol (9.5% and other sterols (17.4%.Se estudiaron las características físico-químicas de muestras de destilados de desodorización de aceites de salvado de arroz (RBO DOD-1 y RBO DOD-2. Las muestras eran semi-sólidas y tenían un color oscuro. Los valores de ácidos grasos libres fueron 59,2% y 86,0%, materia insaponificable 18,7% y 7,75% y contenido de fitoesteroles de 8,71% y 4,22%, respectivamente, para los destilados de desodorización estudiados. Se desarrolló un método simple de filtración mediante sílica gel para purificar DOD y obtener concentrados de fitosteroles (PCF y una fracción de color marrón y olor desagradable (BCBOF. Los valores de color se redujeron en un 72,8% y el 73,0% de unidades Lovibond en el PCF para DOD-1 y DOD-2, respectivamente, no tenían mal olor y aumentaron su concentración en fitoesteroles al 12,4% y 5,9%. El PCF se procesó adicionalmente para preparar fitosteroles de alta pureza. El análisis por HPLC mostró que la mezcla de fitosteroles estaba formada por β-sitosterol (38

  19. Applying Neural Network to Dynamic Modeling of Biosurfactant Production Using Soybean Oil Refinery Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Tayyebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. Production of biosurfactants via fermentation of immiscible wastes has the dual benefit of creating economic opportunities for manufacturers, while improving environmental health. A predictor system, recommended in such processes, must be scaled-up. Hence, four neural networks were developed for the dynamic modeling of the biosurfactant production kinetics, in presence of soybean oil or refinery wastes including acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soap stock. Each proposed feed forward neural network consists of three layers which are not fully connected. The input and output data for the training and validation of the neural network models were gathered from batch fermentation experiments. The proposed neural network models were evaluated by three statistical criteria (R2, RMSE and SE. The typical regression analysis showed high correlation coefficients greater than 0.971, demonstrating that the neural network is an excellent estimator for prediction of biosurfactant production kinetic data in a two phase liquid-liquid batch fermentation system. In addition, sensitivity analysis indicates that residual oil has the significant effect (i.e. 49% on the biosurfactant in the process.

  20. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  1. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa E03-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy-polyols are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...

  2. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  3. Lignans as antioxidants for soybean oil at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignans including nordihydroguaiaretic acid, (+)-pinoresinol, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, two sesame lignans (sesamol, sesamin), and four model compounds were investigated for their antipolymerization activities for soybean oil at frying temperature (180 °C). GPC (gel permeation chromatogr...

  4. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  5. Camelina sativa Oil Deodorization: Balance Between Free Fatty Acids and Color Reduction and Isomerized Byproducts Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrastar, Robert; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing;

    2011-01-01

    Camelina sativa oil is characterized by its high content (up to 40 wt%) of α-linolenic acid and its unique flavor. It is considered to have beneficial health properties and is suitable for food and cosmetic uses. In the present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize processing p...

  6. STUDIES ON METHOD FOR AQUEOUS EXTRACTION OF SOYBEAN OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青

    2001-01-01

    Water extraction of soybean oil was studied to find the optimal conditions for recovery of oil pre-enriched protein and for aqueous extraction of soybean oil. Orthogonal tests were employed in the procedures of oil pre-enrichment and aqueous extraction. Soybeans were crushed to pass a 40 mesh sieve, soaked under the optimum conditions (solid/water=1/5(w/v), 40 ℃, pH 10, 3 h) and water-ground to 100 mesh, stirred in 65 ℃ water for 20 min, and centrifuged at 1400 g to separate oil pre-enriched protein. The protein yield was 17.8 g from 100 g soybeans, which contained 62.8% oil. The oil yield was 69.0%. Optimum conditions for the aqueous extraction procedure were: solid-to-water ratio 1∶2, pH 9.0, time 30 min, stirring in boiling water bath, stationary time 10 min, centrifuge at 3600 g for 10 min. Experimental values showed that the oil yield after aqueous extraction from oil pre-enriched protein reached 88.3%, so the total oil extraction rate was 60.8%.

  7. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  8. Preparation of microemulsions with soybean oil-based surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emulsions are widely applied in food, cosmeceutical and medicinal formulations. Smaller and highly stable droplets of emulsions are important for their application. This research reports that by using soybean oil-based surfactants, the higher stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were obtained via an ul...

  9. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  10. BIOSURFACTANTS PRODUCTION BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa USING SOYBEAN OIL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venty Suryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization condition of the biosurfactants production by P. aeruginosa using soybean oil as substrate has been examined. The media containing 10% v/v of the soybean oil and 6 days of the fermentation time was the optimum condition for the biosurfactants production. The extraction technique using different solvent polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol, respectively was applied for the isolation of the biosurfactants. The biosurfactant was found in the extract chloroform of the crude biospasoy (biosurfactants obtained from soybean oil as substrate which then is called chlo-biospasoy. The chlo-biospasoy was identified as rhamnolipids which had oil in water (o/w emulsion type, had the CMC of 860 mg/L and could reduced the surface tension of the water from 72 mN/m to 52 mN/m. The chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifier to form emulsion between water and hydrocarbon such as palm oil, benzene, premium or toluene with various stability. The results indicated that chlo-biospasoy could be used as an emulsifying and emulsion-stabilizing agent.     Keywords: Biosurfactants, P. aeruginosa, Soybean Oil, Emulsifier

  11. Toughening of epoxy resins by epoxidized soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischinger, I.; Dirlikov, S. [Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti, MI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Homogeneous mixtures of a liquid rubber based on prepolymers of epoxidized soybean oil with amines, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resins, and commercial diamines form, under certain conditions, two-phase thermosetting materials that consist of a rigid epoxy matrix and randomly distributed small rubbery soybean particles (0.1-5 {mu}m). These two-phase thermosets have improved toughness, similar to that of other rubber-modified epoxies, low water absorption, and low sodium content. In comparison to the unmodified thermosets, the two-phase thermosets exhibit slightly lower glass-transition temperatures and Young`s moduli, but their dielectric properties do not change. The epoxidized soybean oil is available at a price below that of commercial epoxy resins and appears very attractive for epoxy toughening on an industrial scale. 15 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  13. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  14. Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K

    2012-09-01

    Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

  15. Effect of deodorizing technology on the content of trans -fatty acid in palm oil%脱臭工艺条件对棕榈油中反式脂肪酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾枝丽; 梁少华; 黄永娜; 沈丽

    2011-01-01

    研究了脱臭温度和脱臭时间对棕榈油中反式脂肪酸含量的影响.结果表明:脱臭温度和脱臭时间对棕榈油中反式油酸含量的影响很小;脱臭温度对棕榈油中反式亚油酸含量影响显著,脱臭时间对其影响的显著性次之;在脱臭温度255℃以下和脱臭时间40 min以下棕榈油中总反式脂肪酸的形成速度缓慢,相对含量低;在脱臭温度255℃以上和脱臭时间40 min以上棕榈油中总反式脂肪酸的形成速度快,但生成量相对较少,其最高含量为0.637%.%The effects of deodorizing temperature and time on the content of trans - fatty acid in palm oil were studied. The results showed that deodorizing temperature and time had little effects on the content of trans -oleic acid in palm oil. For trans - linoleic acid in palm oil, deodorizing temperature affected its content significantly, and deodorizing time affected its content secondly. Below 255 t and 40 min, the total trans - fatty acid in palm oil formed slowly and its content was relatively low, and above 255 t and 40 min, the total trans - fatty acid in palm oil formed rapidly, but the generation amount was relatively few, and its highest content was 0. 637%.

  16. Deacidification of Soybean Oil Combining Solvent Extraction and Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fornasero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the removal of free fatty acids (FFAs from soybean oil, combining solvent extraction (liquid-liquid for the separation of FFAs from the oil and membrane technology to recover the solvent through nanofiltration (NF. Degummed soybean oil containing 1.05 ± 0.10% w/w FFAs was deacidified by extraction with ethanol. Results obtained in the experiences of FFAs extraction from oil show that the optimal operating conditions are the following: 1.8 : 1 w : w ethanol/oil ratio, 30 minutes extraction time and high speed of agitation and 30 minutes repose time after extraction at ambient temperature. As a result of these operations two phases are obtained: deacidified oil phase and ethanol phase (containing the FFAs. The oil from the first extraction is subjected to a second extraction under the same conditions, reducing the FFA concentration in oil to 0.09%. Solvent recovery from the ethanol phase is performed using nanofiltration technology with a commercially available polymeric NF membrane (NF-99-HF, Alfa Laval. From the analysis of the results we can conclude that the optimal operating conditions are pressure of 20 bar and temperature of 35°C, allowing better separation performance: permeate flux of 28.3 L/m2·h and FFA retention of 70%.

  17. Use of ultrasound to monitor physical properties of soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêsso, R. M.; Oliveira, P. A.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    The study of the monitoring physical properties of soybean oil was performed. The pulse-echo method allowed measuring the density and viscosity of the oil in real time and accurately. The physical property values were related to the acoustic time of flight ratio, dimensionless parameter that can be obtained from any reference. In our case, we used the time of flight at 20°C as reference and a fixed distance between the transducer and the reflector. Ultrasonic monitoring technique employed here has shown promising in the analysis of edible oils.

  18. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  19. Effects of stripping steam on the quality of microalgae DHA oil in the deodorization process%汽提蒸汽量在脱臭工艺中对微藻DHA油脂品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋露; 胡耀池; 梁井瑞; 龚东平; 陈园力; 张红漫

    2011-01-01

    The bleached microalgae DH A oil was deodorized in a self - designed deodorization equipment. Under the deodorization conditions of temperature of 180t ,time of 5 h and pressure of -0. 1 MPa,the effects of different amount of steam on the acid value,peroxide value,soap content,unsaponifiable matter, DHA content, sterol content and color of microalgae DHA oil were investigated by adjusting the amount of steam in deodorization process. The result indicated that the peroxide value,acid value,soap content,unsaponifiable matter, sterol content and the color of the microalgae DHA oil decreased with the increase of the amount of stripping steam,meanwhile,the oil loss increased. During the processing,the DHA content exhibited no significant difference.%在自行设计的脱臭装置上对微藻DHA脱色油进行脱臭处理.在脱臭温度180℃、脱臭时间5h、脱臭压力-0.1 MPa的条件下,通过调节脱臭过程中的蒸汽量,考察了不同蒸汽量对微藻DHA油脂酸值、过氧化值、含皂量、不皂化物、DHA含量、甾醇含量以及色泽的影响.结果表明:随着汽提蒸汽量的增加,DHA油脂的过氧化值、酸值、含皂量、不皂化物、甾醇含量以及色泽均随之降低,DHA油脂的损耗随之增加,但不同的汽提蒸汽量对DHA含量影响却不大.

  20. Oil and Protein Accumulation in Soybean Grains under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two factorial experiments based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications were conducted in 2007 and 2008, to evaluate grain development (four harvests and rate and duration of oil and protein accumulation in three soybean cultivars (�Williams�, �Zan� and �L17� under a non-saline (control and three saline (3, 6 and 9 ds/m NaCl conditions. Six seeds were sown in each pot filled with 900 g perlite, using 144 pots for each experiment. After emergence, seedlings were thinned and 4 plants were kept in each pot. Rate of oil accumulation up to maturity was not significantly affected by salinity. With increasing salinity, rate and percentage of protein accumulation, duration of oil and protein accumulation and oil and protein content per grain decreased, but oil percentage increased. Oil and protein yields per plant decreased as salinity increased. These reductions were mainly attributed to the short duration of protein and oil accumulation and grain yield per plant under saline conditions. �Williams� had the highest rate and duration of protein accumulation and rate of oil accumulation, but �L17� had the highest grain yield per plant. Consequently, differences in protein and oil yields per plant between these two cultivars were not statistically significant. However, �Zan� had the lowest protein and oil yields, due to the lowest grain yield per plant.

  1. Biobased composites from cross-linked soybean oil and thermoplastic polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethane contribute to the adhesion of the blend compon...

  2. New insights into the antioxidant activity and components in crude oat oil and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Qiu, Shuang; Gan, Jing; Li, Zaigui; Nirasawa, Satoru; Yin, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Developing new antioxidants and using natural examples is of current interest. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities and the ability to inhibit soybean oil oxidation of oat oil obtained with different solvents. Oat oil extract obtained by ethanol extraction gave the highest antioxidant activity with a DPPH radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity of 88.2 % and a reducing power (A 700) of 0.83. Oat oil extracted by ethanol contained the highest polyphenol and α-tocopherol content. Significant correlation was observed between the total polyphenol contents, individual phenolic acid, α-tocopherol, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Soybean oil with 2 % added oat oil showed low malondialdehyde content (8.35 mmol mL(-1)), suggesting that the added oat oil inhibited oxidation. Oat oil showed good antioxidant activity, especially when extracted with ethanol which could also retard the oxidation of soybean oil . DPPH radical scavenging activity was the best method to evaluate the antioxidant activity and components of oat oil.

  3. Improvement of Soybean Oil Solvent Extraction through Enzymatic Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Grasso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate multienzyme hydrolysis as a pretreatment option to improve soybean oil solvent extraction and its eventual adaptation to conventional processes. Enzymatic action causes the degradation of the cell structures that contain oil. Improvements in terms of extraction, yield, and extraction rate are expected to be achieved. Soybean flakes and collets were used as materials and hexane was used as a solvent. Temperature, pH, and incubation time were optimized and diffusion coefficients were estimated for each solid. Extractions were carried out in a column, oil content was determined according to time, and a mathematical model was developed to describe the system. The optimum conditions obtained were pH 5.4, 38°C, and 9.7 h, and pH 5.8, 44°C, and 5.8h of treatment for flakes and collets, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. Diffusion coefficients were estimated between 10-11 and 10-10. The highest diffusion coefficient was obtained for hydrolyzed collets. 0.73 g oil/mL and 0.7 g oil/mL were obtained at 240 s in a column for collets and flakes, respectively. Hydrolyzed solids exhibited a higher yield. The enzymatic incubation accelerates the extraction rate and allows for higher yield. The proposed model proved to be appropriate.

  4. The refining of soybean oil to optimum quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusell, J.

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the American Soybean Association is to improve the quality of soybean and related products in Turkey. In order to achieve this, a number of extraction plants and refineries were visited to enable first hand information to be obtained on the type of equipment used in all unit processes, the methodology employed, quality standards and levels of efficiency. The culmination of the visit was a seminar organised jointly by the American Soybean Association and the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association in Istanbul on 22nd September 1989, at which a paper with the above title was presented. A reproduction of this paper is attached which briefly describes the critical areas of soybean oil processing and includes recommendations for quality improvements. It concludes with the comment that provided proper care is taken and optimum refining processes employed, including hydrogenation where appropriate, an impressive range of oils, margarines and shortenings of high quality can ben produced. The author would like to record his grateful thanks to Dr. R. Leysen of the American Soybean Association for all his help and guidance, to Mr. Kenon Marasoglu, Chairman of the Turkish Vegetable Oil Association and to the management and staff of all the factories visited. Acknowledgement is also made to Dr. D. R. Arickson and Mr. L. H. Wiedermann of the American Soybean Association for the use of some technical information from a paper entitled «Soybean Oil-Modern Processing and Utilisation» which is to be published shortly.

    Uno de los objetivos de la Asociación Americana de Soja en Turquía es mejorar la calidad de la soja y de los productos relacionados. En orden a conseguir esto, diversas plantas de extracción y refinerías fueron visitadas para permitir obtener de primera mano información sobre el tipo de equipo usado en todas las unidades de proceso, la metodología empleada, los estándar de calidad y los niveles de eficacia. La

  5. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  6. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  7. Composition and antioxidant activities of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in Soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatifar, Nabi; Kamkar, Abolfazl; Shamse-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Misagi, Ali; Akhonzade, Afshin; Jamshidi, Amir Hossein

    2014-07-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes was studied in soybean oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activitiey of Iranian Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil in soybean oil during the storage period. The essential oil obtained from Pulicaria gnaphalodes by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/Mass. Fifty-eight compounds representing 90.7% of total was identified. Main ingredient in the oil were involved α -Pinene (30.2%), 1,8-Cineole (12.1%), Beta-Citronellol (9.6%), Mertenol (6.6%), α-Terpineol (6.1%), 4-Terpineol (5.9%) and Chrysanthenone (2.9%). Different concentrations (0.200, 400 and 800 ppm) of essential oil and β hydroxyl toluene (BHT; 100 and 200 ppm) was added to soybean oil and incubated for 35 days at 65°C. Peroxide values (PVs) and thiobarbitoric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels were measured every week during the time period of the study. Moreover, antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was determined using 1,1 diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid methods. Values were compared among groups in each incubation time using ANOVA test. Results revealed that DPPH β-carotene-linolic acid assay findings on the P. gnaphalodes essential oil were lower than these of synthetic antioxidant, BHT. Moreover, during the incubation time, P. gnaphalodes essential oil lowered PVs and TBARs levels when compared to the control (p<0.001). According to our results essential oil was less effective than synthetic antioxidant. Therefore it may be used as a food flavor, natural antioxidant and a preventive agent for many diseases caused by free radicals.

  8. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  9. Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil-based lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation and low temperature stability of polymerized soybean oil (PSO)-based lubricants have been investigated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method. It was found that PSO samples have lower oxidative stability than their precursor, soybean oil. The main reason for the...

  10. Molecular Interactions between a Novel Soybean Oil-Based Polymer and Doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel soybean oil-based polymer, hydrolyzed polymers of epoxidized soybean oil (HPESO), was developed and investigated for drug delivery. This work was aimed at determining the molecular interactions between HPESO and doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug. Powder X-ray diffraction, ATR-FTIR and ...

  11. Characterization of novel soybean-oil-based thermosensitive amphiphilic polymers for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization, aggregation behavior, physical properties and drug-polymer interaction of novel soybean oil-based polymers i.e., hydrolyzed polymers of (epoxidized) soybean oil (HPESO), were studied. The surface tension method was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC). CMC w...

  12. A novel direct synthesis of polyol from soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Juan Sun; Cheng Yao; Hai Fu Zheng; Jie Lin

    2012-01-01

    As the oil crisis and environment concerning deepen,the uses of renewable resources have attracted considerable attention.Polyol intended for synthesis of polyurethane polymers was prepared by a novel direct hydroxylation of soybean oil,alternative to petroleumbased process.The transformation can afford soybean oil polyol in excellent yield with a hydroxyl number up to 467.7 mg KOH/g in the presence of OsO4 as catalyst and NMO as oxidant.The major advantages of this approach are:two hydroxyl groups can be readily added to one double bond,replacing conventional two-step methods by an epoxidation step and then a ring opening step; a wide range of hydroxyl numbers can be obtained via varying catalyst loadings; the reaction can be performed at room temperature.The chemical structure of the polyol prepared was further characterized by chemical methods (hydroxyl number and iodine number) and spectra (1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy),which confirmed the cleavage of the double bonds and the produce of hydroxyl ggroups.

  13. Development of rigorous fatty acid near-infrared spectroscopy quantitation methods in support of soybean oil improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) is a valuable source of high quality edible oil and protein. Despite dramatic breeding gains over the past 80 years, soybean seed oil continues to be oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation. ...

  14. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-01

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  15. Calcium oxide based catalysts for ethanolysis of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornkanok Watcharathamrongkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol catalyzed by calcium oxides prepared from the calcinations of CaO,Ca(OH2, limestone, and Ca(OH2/CaO as solid base catalysts was investigated. It was found that the catalytic activitiessignificantly depended upon their base site strengths and their structures. Increases in catalytic performance of CaO could beachieved by loading Ca(OH2 on CaO and calcinations at a high temperature. The catalytic reaction using a 9:1 molar ratio ofethanol to oil at 70 °C, using CaO loaded with 3.7 wt% Ca(OH2 exhibited the optimal results, where the conversion of soybeanoil reached 96.3% after 10 hrs of the reaction.

  16. Identification of molecular species of polyol oils produced from soybean oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa e03-12 nrrl b-59991

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier methods for microbial screening and production of polyol oils from soybean oil (Hou and Lin, 2013). The polyol oil produced by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NR...

  17. Soybean oil-isosorbide-based waterborne polyurethane-urea dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-03-21

    A series of soybean oil-based amide diol-isosorbide waterborne polyurethane-urea (PUU) dispersions have been successfully prepared, with amounts of isosorbide ranging from 0 to 20 wt % of the total diol content. The thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting PUU films have been characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical testing. The results reveal that the glass transition temperature is increased with increased amounts of isosorbide, and the mechanical properties are improved significantly with the incorporation of isosorbide. For example, the Young's modulus increases from 2.3 to 63 MPa and the ultimate tensile strength increases from 0.7 to 8.2 MPa when the isosorbide amount is increased from 0 to 20 wt %. The thermal stability decreases slightly with the incorporation of isosorbide. This work provides a new way of utilizing biorenewable materials, such as isosorbide and a soybean oil-based amide diol, for the preparation of high-performance polyurethane-urea coatings.

  18. Effect of refining on the fatty acid, sterol and tocopherols compositions of soybean oil from GM seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; Casal,Susana; Costa, J.; Mafra, I; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Soybeans are an exceptional source of polyunsaturated fats, high quality proteins and high levels of vitamin E, being part of the human diet mainly as vegetable oil and as source of protein. Nowadays, soybean oil represents almost 30% of the world’s vegetable oil production. As most vegetable oils, crude soybean oil must be refined in order to remove unacceptable materials, such as phospholipids, free fatty acids and pigments, that cause a decrease in the product quality. Nevertheless, during...

  19. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-02-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P.

  20. Selection for Oil Content During Soybean Domestication Revealed by X-Ray Tomography of Ancient Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yunbing; Yao, Shengkun; Crawford, Gary W.; Fang, Hui; Lang, Jianfeng; Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Luan, Fengshi; Wang, Qing; Chen, Xuexiang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    When and under what circumstances domestication related traits evolved in soybean (Glycine max) is not well understood. Seed size has been a focus of archaeological attention because increased soybean seed weight/size is a trait that distinguishes most modern soybeans from their ancestors; however, archaeological seed size analysis has had limited success. Modern domesticated soybean has a significantly higher oil content than its wild counterpart so oil content is potentially a source of new insight into soybean domestication. We investigated soybean oil content using X-ray computed tomography (CT; specifically, synchrotron radiation X-ray CT or SRX-CT) of charred, archaeological soybean seeds. CT identified holes in the specimens that are associated with oil content. A high oil content facilitates the development of small holes, whereas a high protein content results in larger holes. The volume of small holes increased slowly from 7,500 to 4,000 cal B.P. We infer that human selection for higher oil content began as early as 7,500 cal B.P. and that high oil content cultivars were well established by 4,000 cal B.P. PMID:28240321

  1. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  2. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  3. Variations of quality characteristics among oils of different soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Anwar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the variation of quality attributes among oils from different soybean varieties (Bovender special, Foster and F-8827.Oils were extracted using n-hexane as solvent. Results indicated that contents of seed oil among the tested varieties varied from 15.85% to 19.49%, moisture 8.4–10.2%, protein 41.67–45.64%, fiber 6.6–7.6% while ash 5.5–6.9%. The physical and chemical characteristics among the tested oils varied as: color (4.2–5.3R + 40–50Y, iodine value (119–128 g of I/100 g of oil, refractive index (1.4590–1.468, density (0.8698–0.8712 g/cm3 at 36 °C, free fatty acid content (0.39–0.67% as oleic acid, saponification value (181–187 mg KOH/g and unsaponifiable matter (0.42–0.74%. The oxidation parameters including peroxide value, conjugated dienes and conjugated triene were recorded as 1.80–2.64 meq/kg, 0.41–0.65 and 1.50–1.91, respectively. The fatty acid composition showed the presence of palmitic acid (11.00–13.50%, stearic acid (3.02–4.90%, oleic acid (22.60–24.00%, linoleic acid (49.03–53.00% and linolenic acid (6.50–8.00%. The amounts of α, γ and δ-tocopherols ranged from 66.5 to 90.7 mg/kg, 907.5–1011.9 mg/kg and 399.8–411.5 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated a significant variation for most of the physicochemical parameters among three soybean oils which can be mainly linked to the specific genetic makeup of each variety as well as the agro-climatic conditions of the harvest.

  4. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  5. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Although food grains are commonly protected by insecticidal application and fumigation, ... (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or .... Effectiveness of vegetable oil fractions in controlling the Mexican.

  6. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Ferdous, M. Rakib Uddin, Maksudur R. Khan, M. A. Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO. Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  7. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  8. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  9. Phosphorus fertilization differentially influences fatty acids, protein and oil in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is limited about phosphorus (P) fertilization effects on soybean seed composition. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of P application rates on the concentrations of various fatty acids, protein, and oil in soybean under no-tillage on low and high testing P soils...

  10. Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VB Fascina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

  11. Catalytic production of biodiesel from soy-bean oil, used frying oil and tallow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, R.; Amores, J.; Canoira, L.; Fidalgo, E.; Franco, M.J.; Navarro, A. [Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Fuels

    2000-07-01

    Three fatty materials, soy-bean oil, used frying oil and tallow, were transformed into two different types of biodiesel, by transesterification and amidation reactions with methanol and diethylamine respectively. The ignition properties of these types of biodiesel were evaluated calculating the cetane index of the transesterification products, and the blending cetane number of the amide biodiesel blended with conventional diesel. Amide biodiesel enhances the ignition properties of the petrochemical diesel fuel, and it could account for the 5% market share that should be secured to biofuels by 2005. (author)

  12. Comparison of soybean and cottonseed oils upon hydrogenation with nickel, palladium and platinum catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is current interest in reducing the trans fatty acids (TFA) in hydrogenated vegetable oils because consumption of foods high in TFA has been linked to increased serum cholesterol content. In this work, hydrogenation was carried out on soybean oil and cottonseed oil at two pressures (2 and 5 b...

  13. Comparison of Oxidation Stability and Quenchant Cooling Curve Performance of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Diego; Belinato, Gabriela; Sarmiento, Gustavo S.; Otero, Rosa L. Simencio; Totten, George E.; Gastón, Analía; Canale, Lauralice C. F.

    2013-07-01

    The potential use of vegetable oil-derived industrial oils continues to be of great interest because vegetable oils are relatively non-toxic, biodegradable, and they are a renewable basestock alternative to petroleum oil. However, the fatty ester components containing conjugated double bonds of the triglyceride structure of vegetable oils typically produce considerably poorer thermal-oxidative stability than that achievable with petroleum basestocks under typical use conditions. Typically, these conditions involve furnace loads of hot steel (850 °C), which are rapidly immersed and cooled to bath temperatures of approximately 50-60 °C. This is especially true when a vegetable oil is held in an open tank with agitation and exposed to air at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time (months or years). This paper will describe the thermal-oxidative stability and quenching performance of soybean oil and palm oil and the resulting impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These results are compared to typical fully formulated, commercially available accelerated (fast) and an unaccelerated (slow) petroleum oil-based quenchants.

  14. Structural effect of lignans and sesamol on polymerization of soybean oil at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipolymerization activities of lignans including nordihydroguaiaretic acid, (+)-pinoresinol, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, two sesame lignans (sesamol, sesamin), and four model compounds were investigated for soybean oil at frying temperature (180 °C). The heated samples were analyzed by G...

  15. POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE PRODUCTION BY Cupriavidus necator SUPPLEMENTED WITH MINIEMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmidt

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that the supplementation of vegetable oils, in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production, provides an increase in the process productivity, besides inducing lipase activity in the medium. The supplementation with miniemulsified oils could potentialize these results. In this work, the influence of supplementation of the medium with soybean oil, without treatment and miniemulsified, on polymerr production was evaluated. The best moment to supplement the medium and its influence on lipase activity were also analyzed. The results showed that the supplementation with miniemulsified soybean oil promoted an increase of 9.7% in polymer content and the productivity increased from 0.58 to 0.63 g.L-1.h-1, when compared with the culture without supplementation. The best time to add the supplement is in the beginning of the production phase. The lipase activity was higher for the culture supplemented with miniemulsified soybean oil, promoting the use of the oil.

  16. Economic viability of feeding dairy cows on diets containing different levels of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic viability of feeding dairy cows with diets containing different levels of soybean oil. Cows were fed diets based on tropical forage (Pennisetum purpureum Schum supplemented with different levels of soybean oil (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of diet DM. The calculations were made considering the prices of the dietary ingredients and the daily consumption of each dietary treatment. The milk quality-based payment was estimated on the bonus paid for milk fat and protein contents according to two systems used by companies of the dairy sector. The economic benefit was calculated as the difference between the income obtained from milk sale and the cost associated with animal feeding. The MOP scenario analysis (most likely - optimistic - pessimistic was performed on the basis of the real scenario and variations in milk price and inputs observed in season and off-season periods over the years under study. The diet with 1.5% soybean oil had higher economic benefit when compared with those containing 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil. All the dietary soybean oil levels would result in bonuses for milk protein content (higher than 3.03 and 3.21. Only the control diet showed a positive economic balance. The bonuses paid for milk protein content were insufficient to cover the additional costs associated with the inclusion of soybean oil in the diets, resulting in negative balances for the treatments with 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5% soybean oil, demonstrating the economic non-viability of supplementing diets of lactating cows with soybean oil.

  17. Performance of Regular and Modified Canola and Soybean Oils in Rotational Frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Roman; Gruczynska, Eliza; Aladedunye, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Canola and soybean oils both regular and with modified fatty acid compositions by genetic modifications and hydrogenation were compared for frying performance. The frying was conducted at 185 ± 5 °C for up to 12 days where French fries, battered chicken and fish sticks were fried in succession. Modified canola oils, with reduced levels of linolenic acid, accumulated significantly lower amounts of polar components compared to the other tested oils. Canola oils generally displayed lower amounts of oligomers in their polar fraction. Higher rates of free fatty acids formation were observed for the hydrogenated oils compared to the other oils, with canola frying shortening showing the highest amount at the end of the frying period. The half-life of tocopherols for both regular and modified soybean oils was 1-2 days compared to 6 days observed for high-oleic low-linolenic canola oil. The highest anisidine values were observed for soybean oil with the maximum reached on the 10th day of frying. Canola and soybean frying shortenings exhibited a faster rate of color formation at any of the frying times. The high-oleic low-linolenic canola oil exhibited the greatest frying stability as assessed by polar components, oligomers and non-volatile carbonyl components formation. Moreover, food fried in the high-oleic low-linolenic canola oil obtained the best scores in the sensory acceptance assessment.

  18. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  19. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries.

  20. Water in soybean oil microemulsions as medium for electrochemical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Carla R. B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Microemulsions of water in soybean oil (w/o ME were prepared with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as surfactant and amyl or isoamyl alcohol, as co-surfactants. Microemulsions containing 40.0% oil, 43.2% alcohol, 10.8% SDS and 6.0% water in weight, in the ratio 1:4 [SDS]:[alcohol] showed the highest thermodynamic stability. The aqueous droplet size and its diffusion coefficient Dw/o in the ME were determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS. Voltammetric measurements in the ME at a Pt disk ultramicroelectrode (ume evidenced the oxidation of both water and ferrocene (Fc, and the reduction of oleic acid. The Dw/o values calculated from the limiting current being lower than the ones obtained from DLS indicate that water oxidation probably requires diffusion towards the electrode of both the droplets and the water molecules from inside the droplets. The results show that electroanalytical determinations can be carried out in w/o ME.

  1. Phase inversion in polylactide/soybean oil blends compatibilized by poly(isoprene-b-lactide) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwanho; Robertson, Megan L; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2009-10-01

    Renewable composites were prepared by melt blending of polylactide and soybean oil. The blend morphology was tuned by the addition of poly(isoprene-b-lactide) block copolymers. Due to the extreme difference in the viscosities of soybean oil and polylactide, a critical block copolymer composition was found to induce a phase inversion point at which the minor soybean oil phase became the matrix surrounding polylactide particles. This transition was due to the thermodynamic interactions between the block copolymer and the two phases and shear forces acting on the mixture during blending. The size of the soybean oil droplets in the polylactide matrix was also highly dependent on the block copolymer composition. In binary polylactide/soybean oil blends, there was a limiting concentration of soybean oil that could be incorporated into the polylactide matrix (6% of the total blend weight), which could be increased up to 20% by the addition of block copolymers.

  2. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  3. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  4. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuel production process from sunflower oil, rapeseed oil and soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Requena, J.F.; Guimaraes, A.C.; Quiros Alpera, S.; Relea Gangas, E.; Hernandez-Navarro, S.; Navas Gracia, L.M.; Martin-Gil, J.; Fresneda Cuesta, H. [Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Natural Resources; Valladolid Univ., Palencia (Spain). Dept. of Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Once ratified the Kyoto protocol, Spain arises the great challenge of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. Among the measures proposed is the introduction of biofuels in the market, both for the transport sector and for the production of heat. This paper compares the environmental impact from the production of biofuels whose origin is the oil obtained from sunflower, rapeseed and soybeans. The environmental impact of each production is performed by applying the methodology of life cycle analysis (LCA). The categories where you get a greater impact are land use, fossil fuels, carcinogens, inorganic respiratory and climate change. The cause is mainly due to the processes of seed production. We have also found a significant impact on the drying and preparation processes of the seed as well as the crude soybean oil extracting process. Moreover as the LCA shows production of rapeseed and sunflower has a positive contribution to climate change. (author)

  5. Antimicrobial properties of microemulsions formulated with essential oils, soybean oil, and Tween 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-06-02

    It was previously found that blending soybean oil with cinnamon bark oil (CBO), eugenol or thyme oil, Tween 80, and equal masses of water and propylene glycol could be used to prepare microemulsions. In the present study, the objective was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the microemulsions in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and 2% reduced fat milk. In TSB, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CBO solubilized in microemulsions was up to 625 ppm against cocktails of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7, which was equal to or higher in concentration than free CBO dissolved in ethanol. However, MICs of eugenol or thyme oil in microemulsions were much higher than that of free antimicrobials. Therefore, microemulsions of CBO were chosen to do further study. Inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 in TSB or 2% reduced fat milk were tested and fitted using the Weibull model. In TSB, a gradual decrease in cell viability of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was observed with the microemulsion treatments at 625 ppm CBO, which was in contrast to the more rapid and greater inactivation by free CBO. Gradual inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 2% reduced fat milk was also observed in the treatment with 10,000 ppm free or microemulsified CBO. When fitted using the Weibull model, the predicted time to obtain a 3-log decrease of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in TSB or 2% reduced fat milk increased with an increased amount of soybean oil in microemulsions. Additionally, increasing the amount of Tween 80 in mixtures with different mass ratios of Tween 80 and essential oils significantly decreased the log reductions of L. monocytogenes in TSB. Our study showed that microemulsions can be used to dissolve EOs and control the rate of inactivating bacteria, but the composition of microemulsions is to be carefully chosen to minimize the reduction of antimicrobial activities.

  6. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  7. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  8. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  9. Rheological properties of a biological thermo-responsive hydrogel produced from soybean oil polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of a newly developed biological thermo-hydrogel made from vegetable oil were investigated. The material named HPSO-HG is a hydrolytic product of polymerized soybean oil (PSO). HPSO-HG is a thermo-responsive gel, and it exhibited viscoelastic behavior above 2% (wt.%) at roo...

  10. Biodiesel Fuel Production by the Transesterification Reaction of Soybean Oil Using Immobilized Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Otávio L.; Bevilaqua, Juliana V.; Leal, Márcia C. M. R.; Freire, Denise M. G.; Langone, Marta A. P.

    The enzymatic alcoholysis of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using a commercial, immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), enzyme concentration, molar ratio of alcohol to soybean oil, solvent, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best conditions were obtained in a solvent-free system with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50°C, and enzyme concentration of 7.0% (w/w). Three-step batch ethanolysis was most effective for the production of biodiesel. Ethyl esters yield was about 60% after 4 h of reaction.

  11. Vitamin A is rapidly degraded in retinyl palmitate-fortified soybean oil stored under household conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Dumhart, Bettina; Gartner, Stephanie; Jirsa, Franz; Steiger, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-07-30

    Oil fortification with retinyl palmitate is intended to lower the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Although the stability of vitamin A in vegetable oil has been shown to depend on environmental factors, very little information is known about the stability of vitamin A in preoxidized vegetable oils. The present study investigated the stability of retinyl palmitate in mildly oxidized (peroxide value 10 mequiv O2/kg) soybean oil stored under domestic and retail conditions. Soybean oil was filled in transparent bottles, which were exposed to cold fluorescent light at 22 or 32 °C for 56 days. Periodic oil sampling increased the headspace, thereby mimicking consumer handling. Loss of retinyl palmitate in soybean oil by a maximum of 84.8 ± 5.76% was accompanied by a decrease of vitamin E by 53.3 ± 0.87% and by an increase of the peroxide value from 1.20 ± 0.004 to 24.3 ± 0.02 mequiv O2/kg. Fortification of highly oxidized oil with 31.6 IU/g retinyl palmitate led to a doubling of the average decrease of retinol per day compared to fortification of mildly oxidized oil. In conclusion, oil fortification programs need to consider the oxidative status of the oil used for retinyl palmitate fortification.

  12. Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants

    OpenAIRE

    KRÁL, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Master's Thesis on topic Segmentation of antiperspirants and deodorants is to discover differences in consumer's behaviour, determinate and describe segments of consumers based on these differences and propose marketing strategy for the most attractive segments. Theoretical part describes market segmentation in general, process of segmentation and segmentation criteria. Analytic part characterizes Czech market of antiperspirants and deodorants, analyzes ACNielsen market data and d...

  13. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  14. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans.

  15. Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize, 1.30% (soybean and 1.75% (sunflower than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.

  16. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  17. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  18. Optimization of the production of biodiesel from soybean oil by ultrasound assisted methanolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Francisco F.P.; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Campus do Pici, Bloco 709, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Rodrigues, Sueli [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Tecnologia dos Alimentos, Campus do Pici, Bloco 858, Caixa Postal 12168, 60421-970 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The study and optimization was carried out at low catalyst concentration (0.2 to 0.6 w/w). The reaction was carried out with application of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of methanol to oil ratio and catalyst concentration on soybean oil conversion into biodiesel. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating condition affecting the reaction was the methanol to oil ratio, while catalyst amount showed little significance in the transesterification reaction. Total consumption of oil was obtained when alcohol to oil ratio of 9:1 and catalyst concentration of 0.2 w/w were applied. (author)

  19. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (padipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (padipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (padipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  20. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c. and intramuscular (i.m. adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control, with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03. SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04, and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43 gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01 PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05. AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03. Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05; SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  1. Identification of genes/loci and functional markers for seed oil quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes can be attributed mostly to variations in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil-related genes expressed in seeds. We applied the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence RNA populations in soybean seeds fro...

  2. 21 CFR 526.1696b - Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin in soybean oil for intramammary infusion (dry cows).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin in soybean oil for intramammary infusion (dry cows). 526.1696b Section 526.1696b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696b Penicillin G procaine-dihydrostreptomycin in soybean oil for...

  3. Simultaneous improvement in solvent permeability and deacidification of soybean oil by nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, L; Ochoa, N A; Marchese, J; Pagliero, C

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, soybean oil deacidification and hexane removal using laboratory scale solvent resistance nanofiltration membranes based technique is presented. Composite nanofiltration membranes made of different polymers poly(vinylideneflouride) (PVDF), polydimethylsiloxane (SI), polycarbonate (PC), and glycerol were tested to remove the hexane and free fatty acid (FFA) from soybean oil/hexane miscella (oil feed solution 10, 25, and 35% w/w) at 20 bar of transmembrane pressure and 30 °C, in a dead-end filtration set up. All membranes tested showed low fouling phenomena and high stability in the presence of hexane throughout the membrane pre-treatment and permeation procedure. The PVDF-10SI-1PC membrane showed the best performance achieving a miscella permeability of Lm = 6.8 × 10(-6) L (h m bar)(-1), oil and FFA sieving efficiency of β(oil) = 0.21(80% of oil rejection) and βFFA = 2.43 (27% of FFA removal), respectively, at oil feed concentration of 25%. Apart from these specific properties, the PVDF-10SI-1PC membrane presented excellent mechanical and chemical resistances and low reversible fouling. The results demonstrate that membrane technology can attain a high efficiency in the simultaneous solvent recovery and deacidification of oil/hexane miscella commonly processed in the soybean oil industry.

  4. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  5. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and phytosterol in supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Llibin, Sun; Li, Jun; Qi, Liangjun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Dianyu; Walid, Elfalleh; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2015-12-01

    The transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil was performed using Novozym 435 in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The transesterification reaction was conducted in soybean oil containing 5-25% phytosterol at 55-95 °C and free-water solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, phytosterol concentration, lipase dosage and reaction pressure on the conversion rate of transesterification were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were the reaction temperature (85 °C), reaction time (1 h), phytosterol concentration (5%), reaction pressure (8 Mpa) and lipase dosage (1%). The highest conversion rate of 92% could be achieved under the optimum conditions. Compared with the method of lipase-catalyzed transesterification of phytosterol and soybean oil at normal pressure, the transesterification in SC-CO2 reduced significantly the reaction temperature and reaction time.

  6. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  7. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm...

  8. UV-Vis spectrometric detection of biodiesel/diesel blend adulterations with soybean oil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,David D. S.; Gomes,Adriano A.; Fontes,Marcelo M. de; Costa,Gean B. da; Almeida,Valber E. de; Araújo,Mario C. U.; Galvão, Roberto K.H.; Véras,Germano

    2014-01-01

    A method for detecting adulterations of biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) with soybean oil using UV-Vis spectrometry is proposed. The study involves 90 samples comprising B5 blends with and without the addition of soybean oil (0.5 to 2.5% v/v). Suitable discrimination was achieved by using SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy), KNN (K-nearest neighbors), PLS-DA (partial least squares discriminant analysis) and SPA-LDA (linear discriminant analysis with spectral variables selected by t...

  9. Speed of sound as a function of temperature for ultrasonic propagation in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound has been used for characterization of liquid in several productive sectors and research. This work presents the studied about the behavior of the speed of sound in soybean oil with increasing temperature. The pulse echo technique allowed observing that the speed of sound decreases linearly with increasing temperature in the range 20 to 50 °C at 1 MHz. As result, a characteristic function capable to reproduce the speed of sound behavior in soybean oil, as a function of temperature was established, with the respective measurement uncertainty.

  10. Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N; Baer, R J; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kasperson, K M; Whitlock, L A

    2001-10-01

    Milk was collected from eight multiparous Holstein and four multiparous Brown Swiss cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four 4-wk periods. The four treatments included a control diet of a 50:50 ratio of forage-to-concentrate; a fish oil diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; a fish oil with extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil and 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans; and an extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets contained 3.31, 2.58, 2.94, and 3.47% fat, respectively. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk were highest in the fish oil (2.30 g/100 g of fatty acids) and fish oil with extruded soybean (2.17 g/100 g of fatty acids) diets compared with the control (0.56 g/100 g fatty acids) diet. Milk, cream, butter, and buttermilk from the fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets had higher concentrations of transvaccenic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with the controls. Butter made from the extruded soybean diet was softest compared with all treatments. An experienced sensory panel found no flavor differences in milks or butters.

  11. Fragrances and other materials in deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Lepoittevin, J P; Johansen, J D

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently-used types of cosmetics and are a source of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of 71 deodorants was performed for identification of fragrance and non-fragrance materials present in marketed deodorant...

  12. The Influence of Degumming Process on Tribological Behaviour of Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Georgescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results for pointing out the tribological behaviour of two soybean oils (crude and degummed in comparison to the transmission oil T90, with the help of tests on a four ball machine. The following parameters were analyzed: the friction coefficient, the average wear scar diameter (WSD and the flash temperature parameter (FTP. The test parameters are: load 100, 200 and 300 N, sliding speed 0.461, 0.576 and 0.691 m/s, test time being 60 minutes. The friction coefficient was higher for the two vegetable grades, but its values kept in the range of 0.025 – 0.095 for these vegetable oils, suggest a mixed or boundary regime that could be practically accepted. The WSD was lower for these two vegetable oils under lower load. For 300 N, WSD was higher than 0.4 mm for all tested oils. Flash temperature parameter (FTP was better for the two grades of soybean oil at tests with 200 N. Under higher load (300 N, this parameter is kept within the range 800 – 1000 N/mm1.4, for all tested oils. The conclusion is that, for all tested speeds and loads, the soybean oils (crude and degummed have a better tribological behaviour.

  13. Deodorants on the European market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, J D; Frosch, Peter J

    1998-01-01

    allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other commonly used fragrance materials. The deodorants were purchased at retail outlets in 5 European countries. It was found that in general, fragrance mix ingredients were more frequently present in vapo- and aerosol sprays than in roll-on products. The levels...... of the fragrance mix substances ranged from 0.0001-0.2355%. The products investigated contained cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol less frequently (17% and 29% respectively), and eugenol and geraniol most frequently (57% and 76% respectively). The 14 other fragrance materials were found in 40-97% of the deodorants...... could be drawn about the other fragrance mix constituents, as threshold levels in sensitized individuals have not been investigated. Furthermore, all of the fragrance materials investigated were frequently found in deodorants and, apart from the fragrance mix ingredients, the extent of problems...

  14. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding.

  15. Phenolic compounds from Andean mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tubers display protection against soybean oil oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betalleluz-Pallardel, I; Chirinos, R; Rogez, H; Pedreschi, R; Campos, D

    2012-06-01

    Phenolic compounds from mashua tuber were evaluated as potential antioxidants to retard the oxidation of crude soybean oil submitted to accelerated storage and frying. During the accelerated storage, an ethanolic crude extract, a purified extract, an aqueous fraction and an ethyl acetate fraction from mashua containing different gallic acid equivalent concentrations (100, 300 and 600 ppm) in oil were evaluated at 55 °C. After 15 days of storage, better effects were evidenced against soybean oil oxidation at 300 and 600 ppm of ethyl acetate fraction in comparison to 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and the control (no antioxidant added). During the frying process at ∼180 °C, principal component analysis revealed that the content of trienes and dienes were strongly correlated with the frying batch. Ethyl acetate fraction at 200 ppm showed the highest efficacy against oil oxidation in terms of polar compound values, free fatty acids and conjugated dienes and trienes in comparison to the oil containing 200 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone and control. Differential scanning calorimetry corroborated the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction phenolic and it is strongly recommended as method for validation of results. This study provides strong evidence related to the excellent protective effects against soybean oil oxidation of mashua phenolics. This crop could be utilized as an alternative source of natural antioxidants by the oil industry.

  16. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-11-21

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

  17. Fragrances and other materials in deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Lepoittevin, J P; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    1998-01-01

    Deodorants are one of the most frequently-used types of cosmetics and are a source of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, a gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis of 71 deodorants was performed for identification of fragrance and non-fragrance materials present in marketed deodorants......, ketone or esters. The combination of GC-MS and SARs analysis could be helpful in the selection of substances for supplementary investigations regarding sensitizing properties. Thus, it may be a valuable tool in the management of contact allergy to deodorants and for producing new deodorants...

  18. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  19. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil in Liquid Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3•OEt2), in liquid carbon dioxide, was conducted in an effort to develop useful biobased biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, diff...

  20. Separation of FFA from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Hydrolysate by Means of Membrane Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercial porous and non-porous polymeric membranes have been investigated for their capabilities to separate free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysate of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. A regenerated cellulose (RC, PLAC) membrane exhibited the most prominent difference...

  1. Isothermal thermogravimetric analysis of soybean oil oxidation correlated to thin film micro-oxidation test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method of correlation between the Thin Film Micro-Oxidation (TFMO) test with isothermal thermogravimetric analysis is reported utilizing a soybean oil system. Utilizing a kinetic model, pseudo-rate constants and “activation energy” can be calculated from weight loss data. This model accounts for o...

  2. Potential Large-Scale Production of Conjugated Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Photolyzed Iodine in Hexanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory apparatus is described for the production of conjugated soybean oil (SBO) in pound quantities via irradiation with visible-light. Under our reaction conditions, quantitative conversions (determined by NMR spectroscopy) of SBO to conjugated SBO, in hexanes at reflux temperatures, were a...

  3. Kl-impregnated Oyster Shells as a Solid Catalyst for Soybean Oil Transesterificaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on inexpensive and green catalysts is needed for economical production of biodiesel. The goal of the research was to test KI-impregnated oyster shell as a solid catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil. Specific objectives were to characterize KI-impregnated oyster shell, determine t...

  4. Characterization of a Soybean Oil-based Biosurfactant and Evaluation of its Ability to Form Microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper characterizes the physio-chemical properties of the soybean oil (SBO)-based polymeric surfactant, Palozengs R-004 (hereafter referred to as R-004). The surface activity of R-004 is comparable to the reported activities of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms and higher than some of ...

  5. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  6. Evaluation of a simple and sensitive sensory method for measuring rancidity in soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC sensory method in detecting rancidity in soybean oils. Additionally, correlations between the physico-chemical quality and the sensory attributes of edible soybean oils were studied. Soybean oil samples from four different plants were analyzed for their fatty acid profile, Free fatty acid (FFA, Anisidine Value (AV, Peroxide Value (PV, Conjugated Dienes (CD, Colour, Rancimat and TOTOX. The sensory attributes of the oils were measured using The American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS sensory method and additionally, rancidity was assessed using the 2-AFC sensory method. All oil samples fit the quality control criteria for edible soybean oil. The 2-AFC The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC sensory method in detecting rancidity in soybean oils. Additionally, correlations between the physico-chemical quality and the sensory attributes of edible soybean oils were studied. Soybean oil samples from four different plants were analyzed for their fatty acid profile, Free fatty acid (FFA, Anisidine Value (AV, Peroxide Value (PV, Conjugated Dienes (CD, Colour, Rancimat and TOTOX. The sensory attributes of the oils were measured using The American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS sensory method and additionally, rancidity was assessed using the 2-AFC sensory method. All oil samples fit the quality control criteria for edible soybean oil. The 2-AFC  method was sensitive to small differences in rancidity. Differences in anisidine value and Rancimat were correlated to the difference in rancidity (d' among oilsEl propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia de la prueba de selección forzada de dos alternativas (2-AFC para determinar la rancidez en aceite de soja. La correlación entre la calidad química y los atributos sensoriales de los aceites fue el segundo objetivo del trabajo. El perfil de ácidos grasos

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND CHOLESTEROL IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Shakoor, M. A. Javed1, Z. Iqbal2 Z. Nasir and N. Mukhtar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and cholesterol in layers. for this purpose. 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (3 experimental units/treatment containing 2,5% canola oil, 5% canola oil, 2.5% soybean oil, 5% soybean oil and control without any oil (all five rations were isocaloric and isonitrogenous for a period of9 weeks. Effect of these treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg mass, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio and egg quality parameters including shell thickness, albumen quality, yolk index, egg cholesterol level and yolk fatty acid composition were studied. The results indicated that the effect of canola and soybean oils on egg production and egg mass was non-significant. Significantly (P<0.05 less yolk cholesterol was found in hens fed diets containing oils compared with the control. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acids (SFA content decreased as oils percentage increased. Total Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was significantly (P<0.01 greater in canola and soybean oil fed hens eggs than the control diet fed hens eggs. Addition of 5% canola oil to the diet resulted in yolk omega-6:omega-3 PUFA being significantly lower (P<0.01 than those of the control diets.

  8. Utilization of soybean oil and tallow in young turkeys compared with young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossab, A; Hallouis, J M; Lessire, M

    2000-09-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy and apparent fatty acid digestibility of tallow and soybean oil (8% of the basal diet) in young (1 and 3 wk of age) turkeys compared with young chickens. At 1 wk of age, turkeys used fats, particularly saturated fats, more efficiently than young chickens (i.e., total fatty acid digestibility was 96.5 vs. 86.4% for soybean oil and 75.0 vs. 49.1% for tallow). This difference between the two species disappeared at 3 wk of age, when there was an increase (95.7 vs. 99.3% for soybean oil and 64.0 vs. 69.7% for tallow) in fat utilization in young chickens, whereas in turkeys it remained constant (96.5 vs. 99.3% for soybean oil and 75 vs. 69.3% for tallow). This result suggests a greater and earlier maturity of the digestive system for fat utilization in turkeys than in young chickens. This efficient utilization of saturated fatty acids in turkeys seemed to depend more on the fat origin than on bird age, because it remained constant with age (91.4 vs. 96%) when saturated fatty acids were provided by soybean oil, and decreased (particularly for C18:0: 5.08 vs. 35.8%) when saturated fatty acids were provided by tallow. In turkeys, fluctuations in secretion of bile salts or in lipase activity during the trial period may have caused the lower stearic acid digestibility at 3 wk of age. The present study revealed a difference in fat utilization between turkeys and young chickens. For higher validity of the digestibility of fats, it would be preferable to use turkeys to derive metabolizable energy and fatty acid digestibility of fat values in formulating turkey diets.

  9. Effect of Feeding Soybean and Palm Blended Oil on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blended dietary oil on the laying performance of hens and the fatty acid profiles of eggs produced by 21 to 40 wk old Dekalb Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design was a completely randomized design using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with one control. The different oil sources did not influence egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed efficiency, Haugh unit or egg shell thickness. However lipid profile of the egg yolk changed as a function of dietary lipid sources. The fatty acid composition of egg yolks produced by the laying hens was analyzed. The fatty acid profile of eggs can be modified by varying the lipid composition of their diet. High inclusion levels of dietary palm olein oil (POO or blended oil (POO plus soybean oil - SBO concentrations of total saturated fatty acid (SFA in egg yolks decreased, with SFA = 24.8167 - 0.63Oil, r2 = 0.66 (P < 0.05. Eggs laid by hens fed the diet containing a high portion of soybean oil had a large amount of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, whereas egg laid by hens fed the diet containing POO or blended oil 25 % POO plus 75 % SBO at 1.5 % level of inclusion had a high percentage of n-3 PUFA and n-9 family. The addition of blended palm olein oil plus soybean oil decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids while increased the concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acid, a-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. It did not promote the enrichment of the eggs with PUFA.

  10. Novel rubbers from cationic copolymerization of soybean oils and dicyclopentadiene. 1. Synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelkovic, Dejan D; Larock, Richard C

    2006-03-01

    Novel thermosetting copolymers, ranging from tough and ductile to very soft rubbers, have been prepared by the cationic copolymerization of regular (SOY) and 100% conjugated soybean oils (C(100)SOY) with dicyclopentadiene (DCP) catalyzed by Norway fish oil (NFO)-modified and SOY- and C(100)SOY-diluted boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFE). The gelation time of the reactions varies from 4 to 991 min at 110 degrees C. The yields of the bulk copolymers are essentially quantitative, while the yields of the cross-linked copolymers remaining after Soxhlet extraction with methylene chloride range from 69% to 88%, depending on the monomer stoichiometry and the catalyst used. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Soxhlet extraction data indicate that these copolymers consist of a cross-linked soybean oil-DCP network plasticized by certain amounts of methylene chloride-soluble linear or less cross-linked soybean oil-DCP copolymers, unreacted oil, and some low molecular weight hydrolyzed oil. The molecular weights of these soluble fractions are in the range from 400 to 10,000 g/mol based on polystyrene standards. The bulk copolymers have glass transition temperatures ranging from -22.6 to 56.6 degrees C, while their tan delta peak values range from 0.7 to 1.2. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that these soybean oil-DCP copolymers are thermally stable below 200 degrees C, with 10% and 50% weight loss temperatures ranging from 280 to 372 degrees C and 470-554 degrees C, respectively. These properties suggest that these biobased thermosets may prove useful alternatives to current petroleum-based plastics and find widespread utility.

  11. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

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    Poonamjot Deol

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD. They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36, diabetes (Igfbp1, inflammation (Cd63, mitochondrial function (Pdk4 and cancer (H19 were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  12. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Dhahbi, Joseph; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Han, Diana S; Spindler, Stephen; Sladek, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD). They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  13. Differential effects of dietary canola and soybean oil intake on oxidative stress in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Lexis Louise

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canola oil shortens the life span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP rats compared with rats fed soybean oil when given as the sole dietary lipid source. One possible mechanism leading to the damage and deterioration of organs due to canola oil ingestion is oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of canola oil intake on oxidative stress in this animal model. Method Male SHRSP rats, were fed a defatted control diet containing 10% wt/wt soybean oil or a defatted treatment diet containing 10% wt/wt canola oil, and given water containing 1% NaCl. Blood pressure was measured weekly. Blood was collected prior to beginning the diets and at the end of completion of the study for analysis of red blood cell (RBC antioxidant enzymes, RBC and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, plasma 8-isoprostane and plasma lipids. Results Canola oil ingestion significantly decreased the life span of SHRSP rats compared with soybean oil, 85.8 ± 1.1 and 98.3 ± 3.4 days, respectively. Systolic blood pressure increased over time with a significant difference between the diets at the 6th week of feeding. Canola oil ingestion significantly reduced RBC superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with soybean oil. There were no significant differences in RBC MDA concentration between canola oil fed and soybean oil fed rats. In contrast, plasma MDA and 8-isoprostane concentration was significantly lower in the canola oil group compared to the soybean oil group. Conclusion In conclusion, canola oil ingestion shortens the life span of SHRSP rats and leads to changes in oxidative status, despite an improvement in the plasma lipids.

  14. Adaptability and phenotypic stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and oil content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zuffo, A M; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; de Rezende, P M; Fronza, V; Vilela, G D L; Botelho, F B S; Teixeira, C M; de O Coelho, M A

    2016-04-25

    The aim of this study was to verify the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars with regards to yield and oil content. Data of soybean yield and oil content were used from experiments set up in six environments in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 crop seasons in the municipalities of Patos de Minas, Uberaba, Lavras, and São Gotardo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, testing 36 commercial soybean cultivars of both conventional and transgenic varieties. The Wricke method and GGE biplot analysis were used to evaluate adaptability and stability of these cultivars. Large variations were observed in grain yield in relation to the different environments studied, showing that these materials are adaptable. The cultivars exhibited significant differences in oil content. The cultivars BRSGO204 (Goiânia) and BRSMG (Garantia) exhibited the greatest average grain yield in the different environments studied, and the cultivar BRSMG 760 SRR had the greatest oil content among the cultivars evaluated. Ecovalence was adopted to identify the most stable cultivars, and the estimates were nearly uniform both for grain yield and oil content, showing a variation of 0.07 and 0.01%, respectively. The GGE biplot was efficient at identifying cultivars with high adaptability and phenotype stability.

  15. Using near infrared spectroscopy to classify soybean oil according to expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Gean Bezerra; Fernandes, David Douglas Sousa; Gomes, Adriano A; de Almeida, Valber Elias; Veras, Germano

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and non-destructive methodology is proposed for the screening of edible vegetable oils according to conservation state expiration date employing near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools. A total of fifty samples of soybean vegetable oil, of different brands andlots, were used in this study; these included thirty expired and twenty non-expired samples. The oil oxidation was measured by peroxide index. NIR spectra were employed in raw form and preprocessed by offset baseline correction and Savitzky-Golay derivative procedure, followed by PCA exploratory analysis, which showed that NIR spectra would be suitable for the classification task of soybean oil samples. The classification models were based in SPA-LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis coupled with Successive Projection Algorithm) and PLS-DA (Discriminant Analysis by Partial Least Squares). The set of samples (50) was partitioned into two groups of training (35 samples: 15 non-expired and 20 expired) and test samples (15 samples 5 non-expired and 10 expired) using sample-selection approaches: (i) Kennard-Stone, (ii) Duplex, and (iii) Random, in order to evaluate the robustness of the models. The obtained results for the independent test set (in terms of correct classification rate) were 96% and 98% for SPA-LDA and PLS-DA, respectively, indicating that the NIR spectra can be used as an alternative to evaluate the degree of oxidation of soybean oil samples.

  16. Continuous catalyst-free methanolysis and ethanolysis of soybean oil under supercritical alcohol/water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieitez, Ignacio; Grompone, Maria A.; Jachmanian, Ivan [Laboratorio de Grasas y Aceites, Departamento de Alimentos, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo 11800 (Uruguay); da Silva, Camila; Alckmin, Isabella; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI-Campus de Erechim, Erechim 99700-000 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    This work investigates and compares the reaction performance of soybean oil transesterification under supercritical methanol and ethanol, in a continuous catalyst-free process, as a cleaner alternative to conventional chemically catalyzed process. Reactions were performed in a tubular reactor, at 20 MPa, with oil to alcohol ratio of 1:40, varying the temperature in the range from 250 C to 350 C, and at two levels of water concentrations, 0 and 10 wt%. Although both processes proceeded with a relatively high reaction rate, conversion achieved by methanolysis was higher than that obtained by ethanolysis. Water positively affected both process: higher ester content and triacylglycerols depletion occurred when 10 wt% water was used compared with anhydrous conditions. Temperature increase favored the conversion of soybean oil to the corresponding methyl or ethyl esters, although temperatures above 300 C increased the fatty acid degradation degree, a phenomenon responsible for the low ester contents obtained at the highest temperatures and lowest flow rates studied. (author)

  17. Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil fatty acid ethyl esters Estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de ésteres etílicos de ácidos graxos de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ap. Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid esters, derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, and its utilization is associated to the substitution of the diesel oil in engines. Depending on the raw material, biodiesel can contain more or less unsaturated fatty acids in its composition, which are susceptible to oxidation reactions accelerated by exposition to oxygen and high temperatures, being able to change into polymerized compounds. The objective of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced by ethanolysis of neutralized, refined, soybean frying oil waste, and partially hydrogenated soybean frying oil waste. The evaluation was conducted by means of the Rancimat® equipment, at temperatures of 100 and 105ºC, with an air flow of 20 L h-1. The fatty acid composition was determined by GC and the iodine value was calculated. It was observed that even though the neutralized, refined and waste frying soybean oils presented close comparable iodine values, biodiesel presented different oxidative stabilities. The biodiesel from neutralized soybean oil presented greater stability, followed by the refined and the frying waste. Due to the natural antioxidants in its composition, the neutralized soybean oil promoted a larger oxidative stability of the produced biodiesel. During the deodorization process, the vegetable oils lose part of these antioxidants, therefore the biodiesel from refined soybean oil presented a reduced stability. The thermal process degrades the antioxidants, thus the biodiesel from frying waste oil resulted in lower stability, the same occuring with the biodiesel from partially hydrogenated waste oil, even though having lower iodine values than the other.Biodiesel consiste em ésteres de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, proveniente de fontes renováveis como óleos vegetais, e sua utilização está associada à substituição do diesel em motores. Dependendo da matéria-prima, o biodiesel

  18. Comparison of Formulas Based on Lipid Emulsions of Olive Oil, Soybean Oil, or Several Oils for Parenteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Meng-Ying; Ding, Cui-Ling; Su, Yu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Juan; Xue, Sen-Hai; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Chang-Hai; Wang, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that olive oil-based lipid emulsion (LE) formulas of soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil (SMOF) may be a viable alternative for parenteral nutrition. However, some randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have raised concerns regarding the nutritional benefits and safety of SMOFs. We searched principally the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from inception to March 2014 for the relevant literature and conducted a meta-analysis of 15 selected RCTs that 1) compared either olive oil- or SMOF-based LEs with soybean oil-based LEs and 2) reported plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and ω-6 (n-6) and ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and liver concentrations of total bilirubin and the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transferase. The meta-analysis suggested that SMOF-based LEs were associated with higher plasma concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, oleic acid, and the ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs correlated with lower plasma concentrations of long-chain ω-6 PUFAs and were similar to soybean oil-based LEs with regard to their effects on liver function indicators. In summary, olive oil- and SMOF-based LEs have nutritional advantages over soybean oil-based LEs and are similarly safe. However, their performance in clinical settings requires further investigation.

  19. Transesterification-crystallization Extraction of Cottonseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate Study on Phytosterol%转酯化-结晶提取棉籽油脱臭馏出物中植物甾醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静涛; 董娟; 肖婧; 史学伟

    2013-01-01

    本文系统地研究了棉籽油脱臭馏出物中甾醇提取方法,主要得出以下结论:采用转酯化-结晶法对棉籽油脱臭馏出物中甾醇进行萃取,最佳萃取条件为:料液比为1/5 (m/V),转酯化温度为60℃,催化剂使用量为35%,转酯化时间为4h,甾醇提取率为54.80%,甾醇纯度达到82.10%.%A process for extracting plant sterol from cotton oil deodorizer distillate and the crystal purification were studied. The optimal conditions for transesterification of sterol ester were obtained as followed: the rate of blend composition 1/5 (m/V), temperature 60 ℃, the dosage of catalyst 35% and time 4.0 hour. The recovery rate was 54.8% and purity of rough sterol was 82.10%.

  20. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Effects of Soybean Oil Modified Cellulose Fibril and Organosilane Modified Cellulose Fibril on Crystallization of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Thanomchat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil modified cellulose fibril (Oil-g-CF and organosilane modified cellulose fibril (Silane-g-CF were prepared using maleinized soybean oil and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane, respectively. Thus obtained modified cellulose fibril was added to polypropylene by a simple melt mixing on a hotplate. PP/modified CF composites with 4.0 wt% filler content were prepared. The composites were subject to a polarized optical microscope to investigate particle dispersion, supramolecular morphology, and crystallization behavior. It was found that Silane-g-CF exhibited smaller particle sizes with better particle distribution when compared to Oil-g-CF. In addition, the etched composite samples unveiled an increase in a number of spherulite crystals as well as a decrease in the spherulite size. The nonisothermal crystallization study of composites revealed that both Oil-g-CF and Silane-g-CF were capable of nucleating PP by facilitating faster crystallization process and raising the number of spherulites. The DSC results indicated that Silane-g-CF was able to perform a more effective nucleation than Oil-g-CF, judged by a higher crystallization temperature. Moreover, PP composites containing Oil-g-CF and Silane-g-CF had higher crystallinity by 7% and 10%, for the first and the latter, respectively, when compared to neat PP.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids enriched chocolate spreads using soybean and coconut oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyarani, T; Banerjee, T; Ravi, R; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2015-02-01

    Chocolate spreads were developed by incorporating two different soybean oil margarines, fat phases prepared using 85 % soybean oil (M1) and 1:1 blend of soybean oil and coconut oil (M2) with commercial palm stearin. Eight formulations were tried by varying skim milk powder (SMP)/fluid skimmed milk (FSM), type of fats (M1, M2, a commercial margarine and a table spread), sugar and cocoa powder and their quality characteristics were compared with a commercial hazelnut cocoa spread. The moisture and fat content were 5-6.1 % and 31.4-32.8 % for formulations with SMP and 21.5-24.7 % and 15.6-21.4 % respectively for those with FSM. Rheological studies of FSM spreads showed higher G″ value (loss modulus) than G' (storage modulus) indicating better spreadability. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed that the products had acceptability score of 8.3 to 10.5 (maximum score: 15). Fat extracted from spreads prepared using M1 and M2 was found to contain 43.9 and 22.3 % linoleic acid and 2.1 and 4.4 % linolenic acid respectively, were free from trans fat while the commercial hazelnut spread had 9.8 % linoleic acid but did not contain linolenic acid. Hence, the developed chocolate spreads have the potential to overcome ω-3 deficiency, ω-6/ω-3 imbalance and to enhance the health standard of people.

  3. Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods with supercritical fluid extraction on antioxidant activity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) fruit skin extract in stability of soybean oil at 25°C. Oxidative stability alterations of soybean oils containing 400 (SEA) and 1000 ppm (SEB) of ethanol extract, 400 (SSA) and 1000 ppm (SSB) of supercritical CO2 extract, 400 (SUA) and 1000 ppm (SUB) of ultrasound-assisted extract, and 100 ppm of tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were monitored by measuring the peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes values. Oxidative changes in SEA were lower than that of oils treated with other extracts, but the best protection was observed in soybean oil consisting TBHQ. The solvent extraction method produces the maximum amount of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin. Therefore, solvent extraction method had a better effect on antioxidant activity of the loquat fruit skin extract.

  4. Effects of the heating process of soybean oil and seeds on fatty acid biohydrogenation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Puaut, S; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2014-09-01

    Heating fat is an efficient way to alter ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) and milk fat quality. Nevertheless, results are variable among studies and this could be due to various heating conditions differently affecting BH. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of type and duration of heating of soybean oil or seeds on BH in vitro. Ruminal content cultures were incubated to first investigate the effects of roasting duration (no heating, and 0.5- and 6-h roasting) at 125°C and its interaction with fat source (soybean seeds vs. soybean oil), focusing on linoleic acid BH and its intermediates: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-C18:1. Additionally, we compared the effects of seed extrusion with the 6 combinations of unheated and roasted oils and seeds. None of the treatments was efficient to protect linoleic acid from BH. Soybean oil resulted in higher trans-11 isomer production than seeds: 5.7 and 1.2 times higher for cis-9,trans-11 CLA and trans-11 C18:1, respectively. A 125°C, 0.5-h roasting increased trans-11 isomer production by 11% compared with no heating and 6-h roasted fat. Extrusion of seeds was more efficient to increase trans-11 C18:1 production than seed roasting, leading to values similar to oils. For other fatty acids, including cis-9,trans-11 CLA, extrusion resulted in similar balances to seeds (mainly 0.5-h-roasted seeds). Extruded oilseeds would be more efficient than roasted seeds to produce trans-11 C18:1; nevertheless, effects of conditions of extrusion need to be explored.

  5. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  6. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  7. Essential oils and whole milk in the control of soybean powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano José Perina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils (EOs and cow's whole milk (CWM in order to control soybean powdery mildew and to estimate the most effective concentrations of these natural products in reducing the disease severity on soybean plants. Three experiments were carried out: The first experiment evaluated and selected the most effective treatments to reduce the severity of soybean powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions; the second experiment evaluated the effect of CWM and EOs of citronella, lemongrass, eucalyptus, cinnamon and tea tree on the pathogen through the ultrastructure analysis of soybean leaflets infected by Erysiphe diffusa using the scanning electron microscope (SEM and light microscope (LM technology. In the third experiment, the most effective products were tested at several concentrations in order to define the most effective concentrations to reduce disease severity under greenhouse conditions. The treatments CWM (100mL L-1 and EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus (1.0mL L-1, reduced the disease severity from 67 to 74%. Direct effects from all natural products tested on the structures of E. diffusa were demonstrated through the SEM and LM analysis. Concentrations at 1.5mL L-1 for EOs of citronella, lemongrass and eucalyptus and also at 180mL L-1 for the treatment CWM were the most effective against E. diffusa on soybean.

  8. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and overall CHD risk.

  9. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  10. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and oils. We chose to fulfill this mission while adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycerols (FSG) from the biocatalytic transester...

  11. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  12. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  13. [Application of ICP-MS to the detection of 22 elements in transgenic soybean oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wel, Zhen-lin; Shen, Lin; Rui, Yu-kui; Jiao, Chuan-zhen

    2008-06-01

    With the rapid development of transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market, and much attention has been paid to the edible safety of transgenic food. Transgenic soybean oils were studied by ICP-MS to detect 22 kinds of elements. The results showed that the contents of 7 kinds of macroelements range from 0. 13 to 12.52 microg x g(-1) in transgenic soybean oils, the range of the rest 15 kinds of microelements is from 0.15 ng x g(-1) to 7)0.00 ng x g(-1). The sequence of macroelement concentration is Ca>Na>K>Mg>Al>P>Si. There are 5 kinds of micoelements whose concentrations were higher than 200 ng x g(-1), including Zn>Ba>Cr>Fe>Ti, especially Zn, Ba, Cr and Fe.

  14. Application of nano-encapsulated olive leaf extract in controlling the oxidative stability of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Adeleh; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Esfanjani, Afshin Faridi; Akhavan, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of olive leave extract (OLE) encapsulated by nano-emulsions in soybean oil. The average droplet size one day after production was 6.16 nm for primary W/O nano-emulsion and, 675 nm and 1443 nm for multiple emulsions stabilized by WPC alone and complex of WPC-pectin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of these emulsions containing three concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg OLE during storage was evaluated in soybean oil by peroxide value, TBA value and rancimat thermal stability test and was compared with blank (non-encapsulated) OLE and synthetic TBHQ antioxidant. Nano-encapsulated OLE was capable of controlling peroxide value better than unencapsulated OLE. But because of blocking phenolic compounds within dispersed emulsions droplets, thermal stability of encapsulated OLE was lower. To summarize, with increased solubility and controlled release of olive leaf phenolic compounds through their nano-encapsulation, a higher antioxidant activity was achieved.

  15. Incorporation of Palmitic Acid or Stearic Acid into Soybean Oils Using Enzymatic Interesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Soek Sin; Voon, Phooi Tee; Hock Ong, Augustine Soon; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-09-01

    Incorporations of nature fatty acids which were palmitic acid and stearic acid into the end positions of soybean oils were done using sn-1,3 specific immobilised lipase from Rhizomucor miehei at different ratios in order to produce symmetrical triglycerides without changing the fatty acids at sn-2 position. The optimum ratio for the process was 25:75 w/w. There were 19.2% increase of SFA for P25 and 16% increase for S25 at the sn-1,3 positions. The research findings indicated that the structured lipids produced from enzymatic interesterification possessed a higher oxidative stability than soybean oil. The newly formed structured lipids (SUS type) could be good sources for various applications in food industry.

  16. Soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto a steel surface investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy**1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States’ 2010 annual production of soybean oil exceeded 8 million metric tons, making a significant vegetable oil surplus available for new uses, particularly as a lubricant. Investigation of soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto steel using a quartz crystal microbalance with diss...

  17. Assessing the reaction conditions to mediate the milkfat-soybean oil enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Veloso de Paula

    Full Text Available Summary A food grade lipase from Rhizopus oryzae immobilized on a hybrid polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol matrix (SiO2-PVA was used as the biocatalyst to mediate the interesterification reactions of a blend containing 65% milkfat and 35% soybean oil. All the reactions occurred in an inert nitrogen atmosphere in cylindrical glass reactors (80 mL with 40 g of the milkfat-soybean oil blend. The influence of the following variables was evaluated: biocatalyst loading (250-1500 activity units per gram of blend, biocatalyst moisture content (5-20%, temperature (45-60 °C and incubation time (2-48 h. The reactions were monitored by determining the free fatty acid content, triacylglycerol (TAGs composition in carbon species, and the consistency of the interesterified (IE products. The reaction conditions were set based on the parameters that provided a high interesterification yield and good consistency of the final product within the ideal range (200 to 800 gf cm-2. Hence the best results were obtained using a biocatalyst loading of 500 U g-1 of blend with 10% moisture content at 45 °C for 4 h. Under these conditions the consistency of the interesterified product was 539.7 ± 38 gf cm-2. The results demonstrated the potential of the immobilized lipase to alter the TAGs profile of the milkfat-soybean oil blend, allowing for the production of structured lipids.

  18. Synthesis and properties of a novel bio-based polymer from modified soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.; Tang, Z. J.

    2017-02-01

    Maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) was prepared by acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and maleic anhydride. AESO were obtained by the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) with acrylic acid as the ring-opening reagent. The polymer was prepared by MAESO react with styrene. The structures of the products were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and were consistent with the theoretical structures. Swelling experiment indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO. Thermal properties was tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), indicating that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing epoxy value of ESO, and thermal stability of polymer have a good correlation with the crosslinking degree. Mechanical properties analysis presented that tensile strength and impact strength affected by epoxy value of ESO. With the increase of epoxy value, the tensile strength increase, while the impact strength decrease. The property of the polymer ranged from elastomer to plastic character depended on the functionality of the ESO.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a novel bio-based resin from maleated soybean oil polyols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Yang, L. T.; Zhang, H.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a novel bio-based resin was prepared by the radical copolymerization of maleated soybean oil polyols (MSBOP) and styrene (ST). Structure of the product was studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and the result was found to be consistent with that of theoretical structure. Swelling experiments indicated that the crosslinking degree increased with the increase of hydroxyl value. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) revealed that glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer increased with increasing hydroxyl values, and that its thermal stability showed a good correlation with the hydroxyl value. The tensile strength and impact strength were significantly affected by the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols. With increasing hydroxyl value, the tensile strength presented an increasing trend, while the impact strength showed a decreasing one. Moreover, the property of the polymer from elastomer to plastic character also depended on the functionality of the hydroxyl value of soybean oil polyols.

  20. Biodiesel production from soybean oil by quaternized polysulfone alkali-catalyzed membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenying; Li, Hongbin; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Haixia; Du, Qiyun

    2016-06-01

    A series of alkalized polysulfones (APSF) were synthesized by several chemical reactions (chloromethylation, quaternization and alkalization). Among these reactions, chloromethylation and quaternization are two key reactions and have been studied in detail regarding the optimization of both chloromethylation and quaternization. FTIR and (1)H NMR spectrum confirmed the successful preparation of chloromethylated polysulfone. The best IEC of APSF was obtained for 1.68meqg(-1) under reaction time of 10h and reaction temperature of 45°C. The APSF membrane as a heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was prepared through the method of solvent evaporation phase inversion. The effects of co-solvent types, mass ratios of soybean oil/co-solvent, water content and free fatty acids (FFAs) content in soybean oil on the conversions using the APSF membrane during transesterification were studied. The reusability of the APSF membrane and the kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by the APSF membrane were also investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of epoxidized soybean oil and soy fibre composites with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) nano reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ryan Sietze

    Soy fibre and soybean oil were utilized to produce a bio-composite targeted as a substitute for conventional petroleum-based materials. The study was divided into two parts; the first was the development of a bio-epoxy that consisted of conventional epoxy, epoxidized soybean oil, and two types of functionalized POSS. The second part of the study involved blending of the bio-epoxy with titanate treated soy fibre. Combined incorporation of epoxide and amine functionalized POSS in the bio-epoxy matrix resulted in a 29% impact strength improvement compared to the petroleum-based epoxy. Incorporation of the epoxide functionalized POSS resulted in improvements in tensile strength by 8%, tensile modulus by 2%, and an increase in the glass transition temperature by 4% compared to the petroleum-based epoxy and epoxidized soybean oil hybrid. The coupling of titanate to soy fibre in comparison to the soy fibre without titanate treatment resulted in an impact strength improvement of 37%. Furthermore, the coupling of titanate increased the tensile strength and tensile modulus by 24% and 22% respectively, and reduced the water absorption by 70%.

  2. Investigation into photostability of soybean oils by thermal lens spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, E L; Malacarne, L C; Baesso, M L; Pintro, P T M; Croge, C; Shen, J; Astrath, N G C

    2015-06-15

    Assessment of photochemical stability is essential for evaluating quality and the shelf life of vegetable oils, which are very important aspects of marketing and human health. Most of conventional methods used to investigate oxidative stability requires long time experimental procedures with high consumption of chemical inputs for the preparation or extraction of sample compounds. In this work we propose a time-resolved thermal lens method to analyze photostability of edible oils by quantitative measurement of photoreaction cross-section. An all-numerical routine is employed to solve a complex theoretical problem involving photochemical reaction, thermal lens effect, and mass diffusion during local laser excitation. The photostability of pure oil and oils with natural and synthetic antioxidants is investigated. The thermal lens results are compared with those obtained by conventional methods, and a complete set of physical properties of the samples is presented.

  3. Investigation into photostability of soybean oils by thermal lens spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, E. L.; Malacarne, L. C.; Baesso, M. L.; Pintro, P. T. M.; Croge, C.; Shen, J.; Astrath, N. G. C.

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of photochemical stability is essential for evaluating quality and the shelf life of vegetable oils, which are very important aspects of marketing and human health. Most of conventional methods used to investigate oxidative stability requires long time experimental procedures with high consumption of chemical inputs for the preparation or extraction of sample compounds. In this work we propose a time-resolved thermal lens method to analyze photostability of edible oils by quantitative measurement of photoreaction cross-section. An all-numerical routine is employed to solve a complex theoretical problem involving photochemical reaction, thermal lens effect, and mass diffusion during local laser excitation. The photostability of pure oil and oils with natural and synthetic antioxidants is investigated. The thermal lens results are compared with those obtained by conventional methods, and a complete set of physical properties of the samples is presented.

  4. Microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying using oleosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, S.; Ghebremedhin, M.; Zielbauer, B. I.; Knorr, D.; Vilgis, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    The food industry has discovered that oleosomes are beneficial as carriers of bioactive ingredients. Oleosomes are subcellular oil droplets typically found in plant seeds. Within seeds, they exist as pre-emulsified oil high in unsaturated fatty acids, stabilised by a monolayer of phospholipids and proteins, called oleosins. Oleosins are anchored into the oil core with a hydrophobic domain, while the hydrophilic domains remain on the oleosome surface. To preserve the nutritional value of the oil and the function of oleosomes, microencapsulation by means of spray drying is a promising technique. For the microencapsulation of oleosomes, maltodextrin was used. To achieve a high oil encapsulation efficiency, optimal process parameters needed to be established. In order to better understand the mechanisms of drying behind powder formation and the associated powder properties, the findings obtained using different microscopic and spectroscopic measurements were correlated with each other. By doing this, it was found that spray drying of pure oleosome emulsions resulted in excessive component segregation and thus in a poor encapsulation efficiency. With the addition of maltodextrin, the oil encapsulation efficiency was significantly improved.

  5. Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciotti, Maíra; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

    2010-05-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main constituents of vegetable oils where they occur in complex mixtures with characteristic distributions. Mass spectrometry using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (APCI-MS) run in positive mode and an Ion Trap mass analyser were applied in the study of olive and soybean oils and their mixtures. Direct injections of soybean and olive oil solutions allowed the identification of ions derived from the main TAGs of both oils. This procedure showed to be a simple and powerful tool to evaluate mixtures or addition of soybean to olive oil. TAG separation was optimized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an octadecylsilica LiChrospher column (250mm x 3mm; 5microm) and a gradient composed of acetonitrile and 2-propanol allowed the separation of the main TAGs of the studied oils. APCI vaporization temperature was optimized and best signals were obtained at 370 degrees C. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) employing the transition of the protonated TAG molecules ([M+H](+)) to the protonated diacylglycerol fragments ([M+H-R](+)) improved the selectivity of TAG detection and was used in quantitative studies. Different strategies were developed to evaluate oil composition following TAG analysis by MRM. The external standard calibration and standard additions methods were compared for triolein quantification but the former showed to be biased. Further quantitative studies were based on the estimates of soybean and olive oil proportions in mixtures by comparison of TAG areas found in mixtures of known and unknown composition of both oils. Good agreement with expected or labeled values was found for a commercial blend containing 15% (w/w) of olive oil in soybean oil and to a 1:1 mixture of both oils, showing the potential of this method in characterizing oil mixtures and estimating oil proportions. Olive oils of different origins were also evaluated by mass spectra data obtained after direct injections of oil

  6. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is known about the ingredients in antiperspirants and deodorants? Aluminum -based compounds are used as the active ingredient ... no clear evidence showing that the use of aluminum-containing underarm ... used in some deodorants and antiperspirants that have been shown to mimic ...

  7. 27 CFR 21.115 - Kerosene (deodorized).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kerosene (deodorized). 21.115 Section 21.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....115 Kerosene (deodorized). (a) Distillation range. No distillate should come over below 340 °F. and...

  8. Deodorants: an experimental provocation study with hydroxycitronellal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedman, C; Bruze, M; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    Axillary dermatitis is a common problem, particularly in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorant to be the causal product of their fragrance allergy. It has been shown that deodorants containing cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamal) can elicit axillary derm...

  9. Deodorants: an experimental provocation study with isoeugenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2005-01-01

    Axillary dermatitis is common and overrepresented in people with contact allergy to fragrances. Many people suspect their deodorants to be the incriminating products. In order to investigate the significance of isoeugenol in deodorants for the development of axillary dermatitis when used by peopl...

  10. Chemical interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: Influence of the reaction time; Interesterificacao quimica de oleo de soja e oleo de soja totalmente hidrogenado: influencia do tempo de reacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Alimentos. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: badanribeiro@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Chemical interesterification is an important alternative to produce zero trans fats. In practice, however, excessive reaction times are used to ensure complete randomization. This work evaluated the influence of the reaction time on the interesterification of soybean oil/fully hydrogenated soybean oil blend, carried out in the following conditions: 100 deg C, 500 rpm stirring speed, 0.4% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst. The triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content and melting point analysis showed that the reaction was very fast, reaching the equilibrium within 5 min. This result suggests the interesterification can be performed in substantially lower times, with reduction in process costs. (author)

  11. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  13. Effects of age and dietary soybean oil level on eggshell quality, bone strength and blood biochemistry in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cui, L Y; Hou, J F; Shi, C; Ke, X; Yang, L C; Ma, X P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the differences in eggshell quality, bone quality and serum bone biochemistry markers associated with changes in age and dietary soybean oil levels in laying hens. A total of 54, 19-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were housed in 18 battery cages (3 birds/cage) and randomly divided into three diet treatments for 90 d: control-fat (CF, 1.9% soybean oil), moderate-fat (MF, 7% soybean oil) and high-fat (HF, 10% soybean oil). The hens' body weights (BW), egg production, egg weights, eggshell thickness and femoral diameter were higher at d 90 than at d 60 or d 30. Meanwhile, feed intake, relative bone weights, all bone strength parameters and serum Ca were lower at d 90 or 60 than at d 30. Compared to the CF hens, the feed intake, BW, abdominal fat pad weights and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated in MF or HF hens. The eggshell thickness, relative femoral and tibial weight, femoral stiffness, femoral modulus, tibial mixed force and serum calcium and phosphorus levels were lower in MF or HF hens than CF hens. These findings suggest that bone loss in caged hens starts from an early stage of the laying period, and dietary oil (particularly with diets over 10% soybean oil) has harmful effects on eggshell quality, bone strength and bone mineralisation from an early stage of the laying period.

  14. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  15. Epoxidized Soybean Oil: Evaluation of Oxidative Stabilization and Metal Quenching/Heat Transfer Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simencio Otero, Rosa L.; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Said Schicchi, Diego; Agaliotis, Eliana; Totten, George E.; Sánchez Sarmiento, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable and animal oils as a class of fluids have been used for hundreds of years, if not longer, as quenchants for hardening steel. However, when petroleum oils became available in the late 1800s and early 1900s, the use of these fluids as quenchants, in addition to their use in other industrial oil applications, quickly diminished. This was primarily, but not exclusively, due to their generally very poor thermal-oxidative instability and the difficulty for formulating fluid analogs with varying viscosity properties. Interest in the use of renewable fluids, such as vegetable oils, has increased dramatically in recent years as alternatives to the use of relatively non-biodegradable and toxic petroleum oils. However, the relatively poor thermal-oxidative stability has continued to be a significant reason for their general non-acceptance in the marketplace. Soybean oil (SO) is one of the most highly produced vegetable oils in Brazil. Currently, there are commercially produced epoxidized versions of SO which are available. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential use of epoxidized SO and its heat transfer properties as a viable alternative to petroleum oils for hardening steel.

  16. Transesterification of soybean oil catalyzed by potassium loaded on alumina as a solid-base catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenlei; Chen, Ligong [School of Pharmaceutical Technology and Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Peng, Hong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2006-01-20

    Biodiesel fuel, consisting of methyl esters of long chain fatty acids produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with methanol, is a promising alternative diesel fuel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concerns. In this work, an environmentally benign process for the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters using alumina loaded with potassium as a solid base catalyst in a heterogeneous manner was developed. The catalyst loaded KNO{sub 3} of 35wt.% on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, after being calcined at 773K for 5h, it was found to be the optimum catalyst, which can give the highest basicity and the best catalytic activity for this reaction. The effects of various reaction variables such as the catalyst loading, oil to methanol ratio, reaction time and temperature on the conversion of soybean oil were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, IR and Hammett titration method. The results indicated that K{sub 2}O derived from KNO{sub 3} at high temperature and that the Al-O-K groups were, probably, the main reasons for the catalytic activity towards the reaction. The catalyst activity was correlated closely with its basicity as determined by the Hammett method.

  17. Interesterification reaction activity, fatty acid composition and selectivity ratio of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The interesterification reaction was carried out by adding oleic acid to soybean oil by ratio 1:2 w/w under different conditions of temperature, stirring and catalyst percentages. Assessment of the interesterification of oils was reported by determination of saponification value, iodine value and fatty acids composition. This study showed that linolenic acid which is responsible for flavour instability of soybean oil and consider as primary factor contributing to deterioration of this oil could be reduced to less than or equals 3%.

    Se han llevado a cabo reacciones de interesterificación mediante la adición de ácido oleico a aceite de soja en la relación 1:2 w/w bajo diferentes condiciones de temperatura, agitación y porcentaje de catalizador. La evaluación de la interesterificación de los aceites se realizó por determinación del índice de saponificación, el índice de iodo y la composición en ácidos grasos. Este estudio mostró que el ácido linolénico, que es responsable de la inestabilidad del flavor del aceite de soja y considerado como factor primario que contribuye a la deterioración de este aceite, podría ser reducido a cantidades menores o iguales al 3%.

  18. Immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noureddini, H.; Gao, X.; Philkana, R.S. [Nebraska-Lincoln Univ., NE (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-05-01

    Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was studied. Of the nine lipases that were tested in the initial screening, lipase PS from Pseudomonas cepacia resulted in the highest yield of alkyl esters. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was further investigated in immobilized form within a chemically inert, hydrophobic sol-gel support. The gel-entrapped lipase was prepared by polycondensation of hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane and iso-butyltrimethoxysilane. Using the immobilized lipase PS, the effects of water and alcohol concentration, enzyme loading, enzyme thermal stability, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 10 g of soybean oil were: 35 {sup o}C, 1:7.5 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.5 g water and 475 mg lipase for the reactions with methanol, and 35 {sup o}C, 1:15.2 oil/ethanol molar ratio, 0.3 g water, 475 mg lipase for the reactions with ethanol. Subject to the optimal conditions, methyl and ethyl esters formation of 67 and 65 mol% in 1 h of reaction were obtained for the immobilized enzyme reactions. Upon the reaction with the immobilized lipase, the triglycerides reached negligible levels after the first 30 min of the reaction and the immobilized lipase was consistently more active than the free enzyme. The immobilized lipase also proved to be stable and lost little activity when subjected to repeated uses. (author)

  19. SUPPLEMENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH HOMOZYGOUS SICKLE-CELL DISEASE WITH ZINC, ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, VITAMIN-C, SOYBEAN OIL, AND FISH OIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MUSKIET, FAJ; MUSKIET, FD; MEIBORG, G; SCHERMER, JG

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen patients (aged 0.7-17.9 y) with homozygous sickle cell disease were supplemented with alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, zinc, and soybean oil (suppl 1; for 8 mo) and alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and fish oil (suppl 2; for 7 mo). Urinary zinc (suppl 1), plasma vitamin C, plasma cholesterol ester

  20. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. PMID:27110237

  1. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53±5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  2. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  3. Oil accumulation in soybean seeds grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The soybean seed presents around 20% of oil and 40% of protein. These levels, during the filling of the seeds, can be influenced by environmental conditions, where are produced changes on its biochemistry composition. The higher temperatures promote the accumulation of protein, and the moderate temperatures favor the oil accumulation. Under in vivo growing conditions the control of these factors is difficult. The in vitro procedure can help the research, because the seed can be isolated from the mother plant in controlled environment. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the oil content of BRS184 and BRS282in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo procedure, occurred in the greenhouse, with 3plantsper potand seed collectionin R8, and in vitro procedure, developed in the laboratory, where the immature seeds were taken from the mother plant in R5 stage, cultured with a liquid culture medium containing 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM glutamine, with a constant agitation, during eight days at 25 ± 0.2 °C, and sucrose concentration of 204.5 mM. After the in vitro cultivation time for, the fresh weight gain of the seeds was evaluated, and after both experiments, was determined by the oil content for cultivation in R5, and R8. The accumulation of oil in soybean seeds presents a complex interaction, ranging between the genotype and the environmental conditions, under in vivo and in vitro cultivation. There is a positive correlation between production and oil content in seeds.

  4. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  5. Production of Diacylglycerol-enriched Oil by Glycerolysis of Soybean Oil using a Bubble Column Reactor in a Solvent-free System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Xue; Fu, Junning; Chen, Qiong; Song, Ziliang; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, diacylglycerol-enriched soybean oil (DESO) was synthesized through Lipozyme 435-catalyzed glycerolysis of soybean oil (SO) in a solvent-free system using a modified bubble column reactor. The effects of enzyme load, mole ratio of glycerol to soybean oil, reaction temperature, gas flow and reaction time on DAG production were investigated. The selected conditions were established as being enzyme load of 4 wt% (mass of substrates), glycerol/soybean oil mole ratio of 20:1, reaction temperature of 80°C, gas flow of 10.6 cm/min, and a reaction time of 2.5 h, obtaining the DAG content of 49.4±0.5 wt%. The reusability of Lipozyme 435 was evaluated by monitoring the contents of DAG, monoacylglycerol (MAG) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in 10 consecutive runs. After purified by one-step molecular distillation, the DAG content of 63.5±0.3 wt% was achieved in DESO. The mole ratio of 1, 3-DAG to 1, 2-DAG was 2:1 and the fatty acid composition had no significant difference from that of soybean oil. However, the thermal properties of DESO and SO had considerable differences. Polymorphic form of DESO were mainly the β form and minor amounts of the β' form. Granular aggregation and round-shaped crystals were detected in DESO.

  6. Effects of high-pressure process on kinetics of leaching oil from soybean powder using hexane in batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Joo Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2011-08-01

    Mass transfer models of leaching oil from soybean (Glycine max) flour with hexane after high-pressure process (HPP) treatment were developed. High pressure (450 MPa) was applied to the soybean flour (mean diameter of flour particle: 365 μm) for 30 min before leaching the oil components in the solvent. The ratio of solvent (volume, mL) to soybean flour (mass, g), such as 1:10 and 1:20, was employed to characterize the effect of solvent ratio on the leaching rate in the batch type of extraction process. Ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm was used to monitor the extraction rate. Saturation solubility (C(AS)) was determined to be 21.73 kg/m³. The mass transfer coefficients (k) were determined based on the 1st- and 2nd-order kinetic models. The 2nd kinetic model showed better fit. The HPP treatment showed a higher extraction rate and yield compared to the control, while the amount of solvent did not affect the extraction rate and yield. The scanning electron microscope showed that HPP-treated soybean particles included more pores than the untreated. The pores observed in the HPP-treated soybean flours might help increase the mass transfer rate of solvent and solute in the solid matrix. High-pressure processing can help increase the extraction rate of oil from the soybean flour operated in batch systems. The conventional solid to solvent ratio (1:20) used to extract oil composition from the plant seed did not help increase the amount of oil extracted from the soybean flour. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Deodorants: an experimental provocation study with hydroxycitronellal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedman, C; Bruze, M; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    Axillary dermatitis is a common problem, particularly in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorant to be the causal product of their fragrance allergy. It has been shown that deodorants containing cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamal) can elicit axillary...... dermatitis in patients sensitized to this substance. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of hydroxycitronellal used in deodorants for the development of axillary dermatitis, when applied by individuals with and without contact allergy to this fragrance chemical. Patch tests...... on healthy skin in individuals hypersensitive to hydroxycitronellal can elicit axillary dermatitis in a few weeks....

  8. Antioxidant action of Rosemary extract in soybean oil submitted to thermoxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, Neuza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract added to soybean oil in thermoxidation conditions. Purified soybean oil, refined soybean oil and refined soybean oil containing 1,000 mg/kg rosemary extract were heated at 180 °C. The oxidation of the samples was evaluated after 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 hours of thermoxidation by means of oxidative stability determination, total polar compounds and conjugated dienes. The purified oil differed significantly from the refined oil, mainly in relation to oxidative stability due the removal of the natural antioxidants. Rosemary extract presented antioxidant effects at high temperatures. After 10 hours of heating, 1,000 mg/kg rosemary extract added to the refined soybean oil significantly increased the oil oxidative stability from 7.52 to 13.5 hours and decreased the formation of polymers and decomposing products measured through the polar rates from 17.35 to 7.99%. The build up of primary oxidation products gauged through diene rates also decreased from 1.61 to 0.80%. Rosemary extract could be recommended as an alternative antioxidant.Este trabajo fue conducido para evaluar, en condiciones de termoxidación, la actividad antioxidante del extracto de romero añadido al aceite de soja. Fueron sometidos al calentamiento a 180 °C tres tratamientos: aceite de soja purificado, aceite de soja refinado y aceite soja refinado añadido de 1.000 mg/kg de extracto de romero. Fue evaluada la evolución de la oxidación de las muestras después de 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 horas de termoxidación por medio de las determinaciones de la estabilidad oxidativa, compuestos polares totales y dienos conjugados. El aceite purificado difirió significativamente del aceite refinado, principalmente con relación a la estabilidad oxidativa debido a la remoción de los antioxidantes naturales. El extracto de romero presentó efecto antioxidante en alta temperatura. Después de 10 horas de calentamiento

  9. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J.; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at −18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques. PMID:27251982

  10. 4D printing smart biomedical scaffolds with novel soybean oil epoxidized acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Zhu, Wei; Castro, Nathan J; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Cui, Haitao; Fisher, John P; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-06-02

    Photocurable, biocompatible liquid resins are highly desired for 3D stereolithography based bioprinting. Here we solidified a novel renewable soybean oil epoxidized acrylate, using a 3D laser printing technique, into smart and highly biocompatible scaffolds capable of supporting growth of multipotent human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Porous scaffolds were readily fabricated by simply adjusting the printer infill density; superficial structures of the polymerized soybean oil epoxidized acrylate were significantly affected by laser frequency and printing speed. Shape memory tests confirmed that the scaffold fixed a temporary shape at -18 °C and fully recovered its original shape at human body temperature (37 °C), which indicated the great potential for 4D printing applications. Cytotoxicity analysis proved that the printed scaffolds had significant higher hMSC adhesion and proliferation than traditional polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), and had no statistical difference from poly lactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). This research is believed to significantly advance the development of biomedical scaffolds with renewable plant oils and advanced 3D fabrication techniques.

  11. Utilization of selected biorenewable resources: solubilization of lignocellulosics and conjugation of soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshel, Reed E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, concern has risen over the use of fossil fuels due to their contribution to global warming, and to our dependence on imports of petroleum from nations that could pose a threat to national security. As a result, it has become increasingly important to develop technologies to replace fossil fuel based products with biorenewable alternatives. In this thesis nearly quantitative solubilization of lignocellulosic materials using phosphite esters has been realized, and is presented as a potential pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars for use in manufacturing commodity chemicals, specifically ethanol. Water solubilization of lignocellulosics using phosphite esters will enhance digestibility by disrupting the lignocellulose structure, changing cellulose morphology, and cleaving some glycosidic bonds. In a second project, soybean oil, which contains un-conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, is isomerized into oil containing conjugated polyunsaturates. The process is carried out under photochemical conditions using iodine as a catalyst in a hexanes solution to achieve 99% conjugation. The resulting conjugated soybean oil is demonstrated to have enhanced drying properties for use in alkyd resins.

  12. Antioxidant Properties of Caffeic acid Phenethyl Ester and 4-Vinylcatechol in Stripped Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cai-Hua; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Qi, Jin-Feng; Hong, Soon-Taek; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid was used to synthesize 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) by thermal decarboxylation and to prepare caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) by esterification reaction. The identities of synthesized products were confirmed by (1)H NMR. Antioxidative activities of 4-VC and CAPE were compared with α-tocopherol and BHT in stripped soybean oil at 60 °C under the dark. To evaluate the degrees of oxidation at different concentrations and combinations, peroxide value (PV) and (1)H NMR were performed. From the results of PV, the formation of primary oxidation products (i.e., hydroperoxides) in stripped soybean oil containing 200 ppm CAPE was the slowest. The relative oxidation degree of 200 ppm CAPE (9.5%) was lower than other samples on 9 d. Similar results were obtained by (1)H NMR analysis. After 15 d of storage, levels of conjugated diene forms and aldehydes of 200 ppm CAPE sample (57.3 and 0.9 mmol/mol oil) were also lower than other treatments. In addition, 4-VC and α-tocopherol were found to have a synergistic antioxidant effect.

  13. Oxidative stability of soybean oil in oleosomes as affected by pH and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Yao, Linxing; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Tong; Murphy, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    The oxidative stability of oil in soybean oleosomes, isolated using the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process (EAEP), was evaluated. The effects of ferric chloride, at two concentration levels (100 and 500 μM), on lipid oxidation, was examined under pH 2 and 7. The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value of oil, in oleosome suspensions stored at 60 °C, were measured over a 12 day period. The presence of ferric chloride significantly (Poil in the isolated oleosome, as measured by the PV and TBARS. Greater lipid oxidation occurred under an acidic pH. In the pH 7 samples, the positively charged transition metals were strongly attracted to the negatively charged droplets. However, the low ζ-potential and the high creaming rate at this pH, may have limited the oxidation. Freezing, freeze-drying or heating of oleosomes have an insignificant impact on the oxidative stability of oil in isolated soybean oleosomes. Manufacturers should be cautious when adding oleosomes as ingredients in food systems containing transition metal ions.

  14. Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Silva, Sandra Diniz; Hamdi, Moktar; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil by using aromatic plants. Soybean oil flavored with rosemary (ROS) and soybean oil flavored with thyme (THY) were subjected to heating for 24h at 180°C. The samples were analyzed every 6h for their total polar compounds, anisidine values, oxidative stability and polyphenols content. The tocopherols content was determined and volatile compounds were also analyzed. After 24h of heating, the incorporation of these plants using a maceration process reduced the polar compounds by 69% and 71% respectively, in ROS and THY compared to the control. Until 6h of heating, the ROS kept the greatest oxidative stability. The use of the two extracts preserves approximately 50% of the total tocopherols content until 18h for the rosemary and 24h for the thyme flavored oils. Volatile compounds known for their antioxidant activity were also detected in the formulated oils. Aromatic plants added to the soybean oil improved the overall acceptability of potato crisps (p<0.05) until the fifteenth frying.

  15. Performance of an Argentinian acid-activated bentonite in the bleaching of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foletto E.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a bentonite clay from Mendoza, Argentina was activated with H2SO4 (4 and 8 N at 90ºC for 2 and 3.5 hours. Under these conditions several cations were removed from the octahedral sheet (Mg, Al, and Fe and the DTA-TGA curves of the solids obtained after treatment were modified. Treatment time and acid concentration increased the degree of destruction of the bentonite structure. Activated samples were tested in order to verify their capacity to bleach soybean oil and were compared to a standard commercial bleaching clay. Treated samples are more efficient in bleaching than the standard.

  16. Effect of various functional groups on biodiesel synthesis from soybean oils by acidic ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Ming Fan; Jing Jie Zhou; Qiu Ju Han; Ping Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oils catalyzed by five acidic ionic liquids with three cationic functional groups was investigated.The improvement of the catalytic activities was affected by various functional groups including pyridine group,N-methylimidazole group,triethylamine group.Among them [C4SO3Hpy]HSO4 with pyridine group showed better catalytic activity with the biodiesel yield of 94.5%,and still yielded more than 90% after six successive uses.The possible mechanism was also discussed by two reaction paths in detail.

  17. Using high intensity ultrasound as a tool to change the functional properties of interesterified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yubin; Wagh, Ashwini; Martini, Silvana

    2011-10-12

    High intensity ultrasound (HIU) was used to change the crystallization behavior, generate small crystals, and improve the texture of a low saturated shortening (interesterified soybean oil). Samples were crystallized at different temperatures (26, 28, 30, and 32 °C) without and with the application of HIU. Different acoustic power levels (110, 72, 61, 54, and 44 W) were used. Results show that higher acoustic powers had a greater effect on crystal size reduction, induced crystallization, and generated harder, more elastic and viscous materials. These effects were more significant when HIU was applied in the presence of crystals and when the sample was crystallized at 32 °C.

  18. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  19. Cellulose nanofibrils for one-step stabilization of multiple emulsions (W/O/W) based on soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carlos A; Nypelö, Tiina E; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-05-01

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were incorporated in water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions and emulsions, as well as water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions using soybean oil. The addition of CNF to the aqueous phase expanded the composition range to obtain W/O/W emulsions. CNF also increased the viscosity of the continuous phase and reduced the drop size both of which increased the stability and effective viscosity of the emulsions. The effects of oil type and polarity on the properties of the W/O/W emulsions were tested with limonene and octane, which compared to soybean oil produced a smaller emulsion drop size, and thus a higher emulsion viscosity. Overall, CNF are a feasible alternative to conventional polysaccharides as stability enhancers for normal and multiple emulsions that exhibit strong shear thinning behavior.

  20. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds.

  1. Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, William; Coffman, Andrew; Clasen, Benjamin M; Demorest, Zachary L; Lowy, Anita; Ray, Erin; Retterath, Adam; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Cedrone, Frederic; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement.

  2. Determination of cottonseed oil and soybean oil adulteration in edible peanut oil%花生油中掺杂棉籽油、大豆油的鉴定方法概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Edible peanut oil is often adulterated with soybean oil and cottonseed oil. Identification of adulterate d oil in edible peanut oil was researched in this paper. The sample was obtained by adulterating the peanut oil with the cotton-seed oil and soybean oil. By Belier experiment and gas chromatography (GC) method, different turbid temperature and fatty acid composition of adulterating were determined to identify the adulterated oil in edible peanut oil.%花生油中掺杂棉籽油、大豆油的现象比较普遍。主要以掺入这两种油的花生油为样品,通过伯利哀试验和气润色谱法测定不同掺入量的混浊温度和脂肪酸组成,从而对花生油的掺杂进行鉴定。

  3. Synthesis and self-assembly behavior of a biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer nanomicelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lixia; Bian, Longchun; Zhao, Mimi; Lei, Jingxin; Wang, Jiliang

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we report a novel amphiphilic biodegradable and sustainable soybean oil-based copolymer (SBC) prepared by grafting hydrophilic and biocompatible hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) polymeric segments onto the natural hydrophobic soybean oil chains. FTIR, H1-NMR, and GPC measurements have been used to investigate the molecular structure of the obtained SBC macromolecules. Self-assembly behaviors of the prepared SBC in aqueous solution have also been extensively evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared SBC nanocarrier with the size range of 40 to 80 nm has a potential application in the biomedical field.

  4. Do deodorants/underarm cosmetics cause cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Öztürkcan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of deodorant use on breast cancer development has generated considerable interest in both the scientific community and the mainstream media. Primary observational studies and numerous reviews investigating the effect of regular deodorant use on breast cancer development have been undertaken. There is no consensus in this regard. Some epidemiological studies have attempted to directly address the issue of underarm cosmetic use and breast cancer. On the other hand, many studies found no association between antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. There is no difference in the current use of antiperspirant/deodorant products between breast cancer patients and nonaffected matched controls. There is no scientific evidence or research data that ingredients in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause cancer.

  5. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of the sunflower and soybean oils: modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Fernando L P; Magalhães, Shayane P; Falcão, Pedro Wagner de Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase Novozyme 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation.

  7. Biodegradable Shape Memory Polymeric Material from Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Polycaprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tsujimoto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of plant oil-based shape memory materials from epoxidized soybean oil (ESO and polycaprolactone (PCL. PolyESO/PCLs were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed curing in the presence of PCL. During the reaction, PCL scarcely reacted with ESO and the crystallinity of the PCL component decreased to form a semi-interpenetrating network structure. The incorporation of the PCL components improved the maximum stress and strain at break of ESO-based network polymer. The polyESO/PCL was gradually degraded by Pseudomonas cepasia lipase. Furthermore, the polyESO/PCLs exhibited excellent shape memory properties, and the strain fixity depended on the feed ratio of ESO and PCL. The shape memory-recovery behaviors were repeatedly practicable. The resulting materials are expected to contribute to the development of biodegradable intelligent materials.

  8. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications.

  9. Biocatalyzed acidolysis of soybean oil triacylglycerols to increase oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossignani, Lina; Damiani, Pietro; Simonetti, M Stella; Manes, Jordi

    2004-10-15

    Lipase catalyzed acidolysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) of soybean oil with oleic acid in organic solvent was studied; immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei was used and the effects of reaction time, incubation temperature and enzyme load on TAG total and positional fatty acid (FA) percentage compositions were investigated. The results show that oleic acid incorporation was high after 24 and 48 h, while after 72 h a lower level of oleic acid in TAG was observed. Moreover, for the reactions carried out at 30 and 40 degrees C, it was observed that the oleic acid level was about 46.5% while ligtly higher values (about 49%) were observed at 50 degrees C; however, under this last condition, the modification of sn-2 position FA composition was higher. Finally, the variable enzyme load resulted also important on the incorporation of oleic acid; in particular, even if the value of 10% (w/w) of enzyme load resulted in a lightly lower incorporation of oleic acid in soybean oil TAG (about 45%), in this situation a minimal modification of sn-2 position FA composition was obtained.

  10. Lipase immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biodiesel production from soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. C. Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently attached to magnetite nanoparticles coated with a thin polydopamine film, and employed in the enzymatic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel, in the presence of methanol.  The proposed strategy explored the direct immobilization of the enzyme via Michael addition and aldolic condensation reactions at the catechol rings, with no need of using specific coupling agents. In addition, a larger amount of enzymes could be bound to the magnetic nanoparticles, allowing their efficient recycling with the use of an external magnet. In the biodiesel conversion, the transesterification reaction was carried out directly in soybean oil by the stepwise addition of methanol, in order to circumvent its inactivation effect on the enzyme. A better yield was  obtained in relation to the free enzyme, achieving 90% yield at 37 oC.  However, the catalysis became  gradually less effective after the third cycle, due to its prolonged exposition to the denaturating methanol medium.

  11. Poly(Lactic Acid Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopparut Kiangkitiwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid, PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA using dicumyl peroxide (DCP as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best.

  12. Epoxidation of soybean oil catalyzed by peroxo phosphotungstic acid supported on modified halloysite nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junqing; Zhang, Yanwu; Yan, Liwei; Jiang, Pingkai

    2012-06-01

    {PO4[W(O)(O2)2]4}3- was supported onto modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to prepare heterogeneous catalysts and these catalysts were applied in epoxidation of soybean oil. To enhance the cohesive force between {PO4[W(O)(O2)2]4}3- and HNTs, quaternary amino groups were anchored onto HNTs through silylation of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane and alkylation of amino groups. Further {PO4[W(O)(O2)2]4}3- was supported onto HNTs by ion exchange. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRF and TEM-EDS. Then the catalytic behaviour to epoxidation of soybean oil was studied in detail. The results show that the introduction of phase transfer agent during preparation of the catalysts is very effective to improve catalytic activity and mechanical agitation combining with ultrasonic agitation is the best agitation way. The catalytic reactivity increased as reaction time increased. Moreover, the catalysts can be easily recovered from the reaction system by centrifugation as deposit and recycled three times without obviously decreasing the catalytic activity. Through re-exchange of {PO4[W(O)(O2)2]4}3-, the heterogeneous catalyst can be regenerated without catalytic activity loss.

  13. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  14. Cold fluorescent light as major inducer of lipid oxidation in soybean oil stored at household conditions for eight weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Stolze, Klaus; Gartner, Stephanie; Dumhart, Bettina; Stoll, Christiane; Steiger, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-12

    Light, temperature, and oxygen availability has been shown to promote rancidity in vegetable oils. However, the contribution of each of these environmental factors to lipid oxidation in oil stored under household conditions is not known. We aimed to identify the major inducer of oxidative deterioration of soybean oil stored at constant (67.0 mL) or increasing (67.0-283 mL) headspace volume, 22 or 32 °C, with or without illumination by cold fluorescent light for 56 days by means of fatty acid composition, peroxide value, formation of conjugated dienes, lipid radicals, hexanal, and the decrease in the contents of tocopherols. Soybean oil stored in the dark for 56 days showed an increase of the peroxide value by 124 ± 0.62% (p = 0.006), whereas exposure of the oil to light in a cycle of 12 h light alternating with 12 h darkness for 56 days led to a rise of the peroxide value by 1473 ± 1.79% (p ≤ 0.001). Little effects on the oxidative status of the oil were observed after elevating the temperature from 22 to 32 °C and the headspace volume from 67.0 to 283 mL during 56 days of storage. We conclude that storing soybean oil in transparent bottles under household conditions might pose an increased risk for accelerated lipid oxidation induced by exposure to cold fluorescent light.

  15. Study on Extraction of Phytosterols from Deodorizer Distillate by Microbial Fermentation%微生物发酵脱臭馏出物提取植物甾醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国群; 赵丽华; 王子朝; 刘金龙

    2013-01-01

      Separation of phytosterols from deodorizer distillate by microbial fermentation was carried out for the first time and crude phytosterols was extracted successfully from the fermented broth. The influences of main components in culture medium on the cell growth of Candida tropicalis K12, consumption of fatty acid and releasing of sterols from deodorizer distillate were studied in this work. The optimal culture medium was:deodorizer distillate of soybean oil 40.0 g/L, yeast extract 1.5 g/L, K2HPO4 2.5 g/L and MgSO4 1.0 g/L. After fermentation of C. tropicalis K12 with the medium above, the maximum dry cell weight was 15.6 g/L, the maximum consumption rate of fatty acids was 42.3%and the maximum rat of sterol extraction from deodorizer distillate was 44.1 %. This study had proved that separation of phytosterols from deodorizer distillate by microbial fermentation was successful and feasible , which provided a new approach to produce of phytosterols without environmental pollution.%  首次采用微生物发酵法来分离脱臭馏出物中植物甾醇,并成功地从发酵液中提取出了粗甾醇。研究脱臭馏出物发酵过程中脱臭馏出物添加量、酵母粉、无机盐对热带假丝酵母K12菌体生长、脂肪酸消耗和甾醇释放的影响,确定适宜的发酵培养基为:大豆脱臭馏出物40.0 g/L、酵母粉1.5 g/L、K2HPO42.5 g/L、MgSO41.0 g/L。经过热带假丝酵母K12发酵,获得最高菌体干重为15.6 g/L,最大脂肪酸消耗率为42.3%,最高甾醇释放率为44.1%。本研究证实了微生物发酵法分离提取脱臭馏出物中植物甾醇的可行性,为植物甾醇的绿色清洁生产提供了新的途径。

  16. Effect of water stress and foliar boron application on seed protein oil fatty acids and nitrogen metabolism in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of water stress and foliar boron (FB) application on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition and nitrogen metabolism have not been well investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress and FB on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, nitra...

  17. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Investigation of the Structure of Adsorbed Soybean Oil and Methyl Oleate onto Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of soybean oil (SBO) and methyl oleate (MO) onto steel was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Adsorption of both SBO and MO increased with increasing concentrations. At full surface coverage, SBO and MO formed rigid thin films and ach...

  18. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  19. Influence of extended storage on fuel properties of methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils by homogenous base-catalyzed methanolysis were stored for 12 months at three constant temperatures (-15, 22, and 40 deg C) and properties such as oxidative stability, acid value, kinematic viscosity, low temperature ope...

  20. Synthesis of soybean oil-based polymeric surfactants in supercritical carbon dioxide and investigation of their surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports the preparation of polymeric surfactants (HPSO) via a two-step synthetic procedure: polymerization of soybean oil (PSO) in supercritical carbon dioxide and followed by hydrolysis of PSO with a base. HPSO was characterized and identified by using a combination of FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF THE SURFACE PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC SOAPS OBTAINED BY RING-OPENING POLYMERIZATION OF EPOXIDIZED SOYBEAN OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was converted to a polysoap via a two-step synthetic procedure of catalytic ring-opening polymerization (PESO), followed by hydrolysis with a base (HPESO). Various molecular weights of PESO and HPESO were prepared by varying the reaction temperature and/or catalyst conc...

  2. Studies on the mechanism by which a high intake of soybean oil depresses the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.L.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Vries, de H.T.; Hallebeek, J.M.; Hovenier, R.; Kuilen, van der J.; Huurdeman, C.M.; Verstappen, D.C.G.M.; Gresnigt, M.C.; Beynen, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of non-structural carbohydrates reduces the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses. Literature data indicate that bile acids and linoleic acid (C18:2 n ¿ 6) may inhibit growth of pure cultures of microorganisms. In the p

  3. The Research Progress of Soybean Oil-Based Polyurethane%大豆油基聚氨酯的研究及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小婷; 万园俊; 王念贵

    2014-01-01

    The soybean oil based polyurethane preparation method and application using soybean oil as raw ma-terial was introduced. The soybean oil-based polyol was synthetized using epoxy soybean oil through ring opening. The polyurethane foam, soybean oil based polyurethane emulsion and solvent type polyurethane resin were com-posed with reaction of soybean oil-based polyol and isocyanate. The applications of soybean oil on polyurethane foam, paint and adhesive fields were introduced.%综述了大豆油基聚氨酯的制备方法及应用,以大豆油为绿色原料,通过环氧化得到环氧大豆油,利用环氧大豆油开环制得大豆油基多元醇,再用此多元醇与异氰酸酯反应得到大豆油基聚氨酯泡沫、大豆油基聚氨酯乳液以及溶剂型大豆油基聚氨酯树脂。同时介绍了大豆油基聚氨酯在泡沫、涂料、胶粘剂等领域的具体应用。

  4. Topology and stability of a water-soybean-oil swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Luis; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reveals and explains the flow topology and instability hidden in an experimental study by Tsai et al. [Tsai et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 031002(R) (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.031002. Water and soybean oil fill a sealed vertical cylindrical container. The rotating top disk induces the meridional circulation and swirl of both fluids. The experiment shows a flattop interface shape and vortex breakdown in the oil flow developing as the rotation strength R eo increases. Our numerical study shows that vortex breakdown occurs in the water flow at R eo=300 and in the oil flow at R eo=941 . As R eo increases, the vortex breakdown cell occupies most of the water domain and approaches the interface at R eo around 600. The rest of the (countercirculating) water separates from the axis as the vortex breakdown cells in the oil and water meet at the interface-axis intersection. This topological transformation of water flow significantly contributes to the development of the flattop shape. It is also shown that the steady axisymmetric flow suffers from shear-layer instability, which emerges in the water domain at R eo=810 .

  5. Soybean Shortcomings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Before the Spring Festival,which falls on February 7 this year,the most important festival for the Chinese, counters selling soybean oil in a supermar- ket in Beijing’s Chaoyang District were especially crowded."Since September 2007,soybean oil has sold very well,"Li Ping,a sales assistant of the supermarket, told Beijing Review,"More than 1,000 bottles are sold every day."

  6. Preparation of Environmental Friendly Soybean Oil Ink%环保型大豆油墨的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌

    2014-01-01

    采用大豆油衍生物大豆油甲酯为溶剂,制备环保型大豆油墨,并与矿物油溶剂制备油墨的性能进行比较。试验结果表明:大豆油墨的总体性能与矿物油油墨相当,而在黏性、稳定性和光泽方面,大豆油墨更优于矿物油油墨。%An environmental friendly soybean oil ink was prepared by soybean oil derivatives methyl soyate as solvent. The performance comparison between methyl soyate based ink and mineral oil based ink was made. The experimental results showed that the comprehensive performance of soybean oil ink was equivalent to that of mineral oil ink,and its viscosity,stability,glossness were better than those of mineral oil ink.

  7. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  8. The characterization of soybean oil body integral oleosin isoforms and the effects of alkaline pH on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Ying, Yusang; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-06-15

    Oil body, an organelle in seed cell (naturally pre-emulsified oil), has great potentials to be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. Researchers have tried to extract oil body by alkaline buffers, which are beneficial for removing contaminated proteins. But it is not clear whether alkaline buffers could remove oil body integral proteins (mainly oleosins), which could keep oil body integrity and stability. In this study, seven oleosin isoforms were identified for soybean oil body (three isoforms, 24 kDa; three isoforms, 18 kDa; one isoform, 16kDa). Oleosins were not glycoproteins and 24 kDa oleosin isoforms possessed less thiol groups than 18 kDa ones. It was found that alkaline pH not only removed contaminated proteins but also oleosins, and more and more oleosins were removed with increasing alkaline pH.

  9. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybean oils by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Feng-ping; Liu, Yao-min; Wu, Zong-wen; Suo, You-rui

    2012-08-01

    In the present research, a novel method was established for determination of five fatty acids in soybean oil by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy. The optimum conditions of mathematics model of five components (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) were studied, including the sample set selection, chemical value analysis, the detection methods and condition. Chemical value was analyzed by gas chromatography. One hundred fifty eight samples were selected, 138 for modeling set, 10 for testing set and 10 for unknown sample set. All samples were placed in sample pools and scanned by transmission reflection-near infrared spectrum after sonicleaning for 10 minute. The 1100-2500 nm spectral region was analyzed. The acquisition interval was 2 nm. Modified partial least square method was chosen for calibration mode creating. Result demonstrated that the 1-VR of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.8839, 0.5830, 0.9001, 0.9776 and 0.9596, respectively. And the SECV of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.42, 0.29, 0.83, 0.46 and 0.21, respectively. The standard error of the calibration (SECV) of five fatty acids between the reference value of testing sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.891, 0.790, 0.900, 0.976 and 0.942, respectively. It was proved that the near infrared spectrum predictive value was linear with chemical value and the mathematical model established for fatty acids of soybean oil was feasible. For validation, 10 unknown samples were selected for analysis by near infrared spectrum. The result demonstrated that the relative standard deviation between predict value and chemical value was less than 5.50%. That was to say that transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy had a good veracity in analysis of fatty acids of soybean oil.

  10. Concentrations of oxysterols in meat and meat products from pigs fed diets differing in the type of fat (palm oil or soybean oil) and vitamin E concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, K; Müller, G; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Brandsch, C

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether concentrations of oxysterols in pig meat are affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. 48 growth-finishing pigs were fed diets with either palm oil or soybean oil and vitamin E concentrations of 15, 40 or 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of oxysterols were analyzed in fresh and heat-processed (180 °C, 20 min) meat (M. longissimus dorsi) and in boiled sausage prepared from meat and back fat of the animals. Concentrations of oxysterols in fresh muscle were below 5 nmol/g dry matter; they were independent of the dietary fat type and vitamin E concentration. Heating caused a large increase of oxysterol concentration (up to 55 nmol/g dry matter). This effect was reduced by increasing dietary vitamin E concentration but was independent of the dietary fat. Sausage from pigs fed soybean oil had higher concentrations of oxysterols than sausage from pigs fed palm oil; vitamin E reduced concentrations of oxysterols in sausage from pigs fed soybean oil, but not in sausage from pigs fed palm oil.

  11. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  12. Statement complementing the scientific opinion on application EFSA-GMO-NL-2010-78 to cover the safety of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this statement, the EFSA GMO Panel responds to a request from the European Commission (EC to assess the safety of soybean MON 87705 oil for commercial frying. The applicant provided exposure assessments based on total and partial substitutions of conventional soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils with the soybean MON 87705 oil in foods (salad dressings, margarines and spreads, mayonnaise, crackers and salty snacks and soybean/rapeseed/sunflower oils processed foods. No distinction was made between commercial and domestic use, nor whether the oils were used in frying or not. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that this exposure scenario is the most pertinent in that it addresses not only the question raised by the EC about the possible use of soybean MON 87705 oil in frying, but also other possible food uses. Having assessed total replacement, the most conservative scenario arising from both domestic and commercial use of the oil, the EFSA GMO Panel concluded that the use of soybean MON 80775 oil does not impact on human health and nutrition. The Panel recommends a post-market monitoring plan for the marketed foods and feed.

  13. Evaluation of metal oxide and carbonate nanoparticle stability in soybean oil: Implications for controlled release of alkalinity during subsurface remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Leach, O. I.; Sebik, J.; Muller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional methods for adjusting groundwater pH rely on injection of aqueous solutes and therefore, amendment distribution is reliant upon aqueous phase flow and transport. This reliance can limit mixing and sustention of amendments within the treatment zone. Oil-in-water emulsions offer an alternative for amendment delivery - one that has potential to enhance control of the distribution and release of buffering agents within the subsurface. Focus here is placed on using metal oxide and carbonate nanoparticles to release alkalinity from soybean oil, a common dispersed phase within emulsions designed to support remediation activities. Batch reactor systems were employed to examine the influence of dispersed phase composition on particle stability and solubility. The stability of uncoated MgO and CaCO3 particles in unmodified soybean oil was explored in a series of sedimentation studies conducted at solid loadings of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% mass. Three nominal sizes of MgO particles were examined (20, 50, and 100 nm) and one CaCO3 particle size (60 nm). Results from sedimentation studies conducted over four hours suggest that the viscosity of the soybean oil imparts a kinetic stability, for all sizes of the uncoated MgO and CaCO3 nanoparticles, which is sufficient time for particle encapsulation within oil-in-water emulsions. Based upon these results, the sedimentation of the 50 nm and 100 nm MgO, and 60 nm CaCO3 particles was assessed over longer durations (≥72 hr). Results from these stability tests suggest that the 50 nm and 100 nm MgO particles have greater kinetic stability than the 60 nm CaCO3. Batch studies were also used to assess the influence of n-butanol, a co-solvent hypothesized to aid in controlling the rate of alkalinity release, on phase behavior and metal (Mg2+ and Ca2+) solubility. Phase behavior studies suggest that n-butanol has a limited region of miscibility within the soybean oil-water system. Use of n-butanol and water within this region of

  14. Absorption, by humans, of beta-carotene from fortified soybean oil added to rice: effect of heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, J E; Fávaro, R M; Leonardo, I R; Jordão Júnior, A A; Vannucchi, H

    1998-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption of beta-carotene in humans when rice is prepared with refined cooking soybean oil fortified with beta-carotene and to assess the effect of heat treatment on its bioavailability. Sixteen healthy adults subjects participated in two experimental trials. Studies were carried out during two experimental periods of 11 days with a 12-day interval between them. Beta carotene was added to the soybean cooking oil and rice was cooked with it or it was added to the rice after cooking. Experimental diets included these two kinds of rice during the first day and fasting blood samples were collected on different days. All of the test diets were low in carotenoids. Plasma carotenoids were measured by HPLC method. beta-carotene absorption was calculated through postabsorptive peak rise in plasma beta-carotene and the total area under the absorption curve was determined by the trapezoidal method for the 11-day period. Absorption of carotene from heated or unheated fortified soybean oil were similar. Peak plasma carotene rise was different in men and women, p oil used in the preparation of rice is absorbed, heated or not, and could be a practical source of provitamin A. Developing countries looking for strategies to increase vitamin A intake could use fortification of vegetable oils with synthetic beta-carotene as a simple method.

  15. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  16. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of pfat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, poil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  17. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  18. Effect of Addition of Soybean Oil and Gamma-Ray Cross-linking on the Nanoporous HDPE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanoporous high-density polyethylene (HDPE membrane was prepared by a wet process. Soybean oil and dibutyl phthalate (DBP were premixed as codiluents, and gamma-rays were used for the cross-linking of HDPE. The pore volume of the nanoporous HDPE membranes with soybean oil was affected by the extracted amount of oil. The tensile strength of the membrane improved with an increasing absorbed dose up to 60 kGy, but decreased at 80 kGy due to severe degradation. The ionic conductivity of the nanoporous HDPE membrane did not really change with an increasing absorbed dose because the pores had already been formed before the gamma-ray radiation. Finally, the electrochemical stability of the HDPE membrane increased when the absorbed dose increased up to 60 kGy.

  19. Enhancement of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil by potassium fluoride modification of a calcium magnesium oxides catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingming; Zhang, Pingbo; Ma, Qinke

    2012-01-01

    Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of CaO-MgO and KF-modified CaO-MgO catalysts at atmospheric pressure. While the methyl ester yield for the CaO-MgO catalyst with a ratio of 8:2 (CaO:MgO) was 63.6%, it was 97.9% for the KF-modified catalyst at a 2% catalyst to the reactants (methanol/oil mixture) weight ratio, a temperature of 65 °C, a methanol-soybean oil ratio of 9:1 and a reaction time of 2.5 h. The KF/CaO-MgO catalyst still yielded 86.7% after four successive uses. The catalytic performance of the KF/CaO-MgO catalyst was attributed to the formation of active KCaF(3) and K(2)MgF(4) centers.

  20. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil by using immobilized lipase on magnetic nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenlei; Ma, Ning [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Lipase was covalently immobilized onto magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as an activating agent, and the bound lipase was used to catalyze the transesterification of vegetable oils with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters. The binding of lipase to magnetic particles was confirmed by enzyme assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. It was determined that the immobilized lipase exhibited better resistance to temperature and pH inactivation in comparison to free lipase. Using the immobilized lipase, the major parameters affecting the transesterification reaction, such as the alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme loading and free fatty acid present in reactants were investigated to obtain the optimum reaction condition. The conversion of soybean oil to methyl esters reached over 90% in the three-step transesterification when 40% immobilized lipase was used. Moreover, the lipase catalyst could be used for 3 times without significant decrease of the activity. (author)

  1. Mortadella sausage manufactured with Caiman yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare) meat, pork backfat, and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, C S N; Morais Júnior, N N; Vicente-Neto, J; Ramos, E M; Almeida, J; Roseiro, C; Santos, C; Gama, L T; Bressan, M C

    2013-10-01

    Mortadellas manufactured using Caiman yacare meat (70%) and pork fat (30%) were reformulated by substituting pork fat with increasing amounts of soybean oil (25%, 50%, and 100%) and evaluated 7, 30, and 60 days post-manufacture. The substitutions resulted in an increase in fat content and in the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (total PUFA; 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3), and a reduction in saturated fatty acids (total SFA; 14:0 and 16:0). These alterations reduced (Poil compared to the original formulation. The levels of TBARS obtained at day 7 were positively correlated (P<0.01) with 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3 (r=0.83 and 0.84, respectively) and negatively correlated with 17:0 and 17:1 (r=-0.91 and -0.89, respectively). All formulations received favourable overall acceptability by the sensory panel.

  2. Phase behavior of olive and soybean oils in compressed propane and n-butane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Ndiaye

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to report the experimental data and thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibrium of binary systems containing soybean and olive oils with propane and n-butane. Phase equilibrium experiments were carried out using the static synthetic method in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range from 30 to 70ºC and varying the solvent overall composition from 5 to 98 wt%. Vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid phase transitions were observed at relatively low pressures. The Peng-Robinson and the SAFT equations of state without any binary interaction parameters were employed in an attempt at representing the phase behavior of the systems. Results show the satisfactory performance of SAFT-EoS in predicting qualitatively all phase transitions reported in this work.

  3. Atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice fed cholesterol and soybean oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Olsen, P.; Frandsen, H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study aortic atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic response to dietary cholesterol and soybean oil in homozygous LDLR-/- mice, the 16 weeks old animals were randomized in 4 groups either fed standard diet (no cholesterol added, group I, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 0.......9 +/- 0.07 (group III), 32.6 +/-0.1 (group IV), and of females 6.9 +/- 2.7 (group I) and 31.7 +/- 4.4 (group II). No apparent difference in plasma triglyceride levels was observed between the groups of either sexes. Aortic atherosclerosis (ratio intima/media) in males was 0.17 +/- 0.09 (SD) (group I), 0...

  4. Antioxidant effect of radish seed oil on soybean oil and peanut oil%萝卜籽油对大豆油和花生油的抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵功玲; 梁新红; 杨淑媛; 侯新艳

    2012-01-01

    The radish seed oil was extracted by using dichloromethane as the solvent and its antioxidant effects on soybean oil and peanut oil were determined by testing the peroxide value and acid value of the oil. The results showed that radish seed oil had better antioxidant effect on soybean oil than on peanut oil. The antioxidant effect on soybean oil of 0. 1% radish seed oil was better than that of 0.02% BHT, and the effect on peanut oil of 0. 2% radish seed oil was slighly inferior to 0. 02% BHT%用二氯甲烷作溶剂提取萝卜籽中的油脂,并以过氧化值和酸值为指标研究了萝卜籽油在大豆油和花生油中的抗氧化性能.结果表明:萝卜籽油在大豆油和花生油中具有很好的抗氧化性能,对大豆油的抗氧化效果比花生油好;0.1%萝卜籽油对大豆油的抗氧化效果比0.02% BHT好;0.2%萝卜籽油对花生油的抗氧化效果稍差于0.02% BHT.

  5. Essential oils from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea reduce the progress of Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of essential oils derived from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea for controlling Asian soybean rust. The inhibitory activities of the essential oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 2% on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores were investigated using in vitro assays. The curative and eradicating properties of the oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 0.5% were studied under greenhouse conditions using the P. pachyrhizi-susceptible soybean cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the effects of the essential oils on the morphology of the P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The treatment with the essential oils at all concentrations tested led to the total inhibition of spore germination in vitro. The curative application of the essential oils reduced the disease severity, expressed as the area under the disease-progress curves, by 33 to 41%, whereas the commercial fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole employed as a positive control reduced the severity by 61%. The treatment of infected plants with the essential oils resulted in morphological alterations in the fungal structures that were similar to those produced by the commercial fungicide, namely, a shrivelling of the urediniospores, appressoria, germ tubes and paraphyses.

  6. Milk fatty acid profile from grazing buffaloes fed a blend of soybean and linseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Gagliostro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the changes in milk fatty acid (FA profile of grazing buffaloes fed either low (L, 276g/d or high (H, 572g/d doses of a blend (70:30, wt/wt of soybean and linseed oils. Fourteen multiparous Mediterranean buffaloes grazing on a native pasture were fed 4 kg/day of a commercial concentrate containing no supplemental oil over a pre-experimental period of ten days. The baseline milk production and composition and milk FA profile were measured over the last three days. After this pre-experimental period the animals received the same concentrate added with either the L or H oil doses for 26 additional days. Milk yield (g/animal/day did not differ at the start (1776 ± 522 and 1662 ± 291 for L and H, respectively, P<0.622 or at the end of the trial (4590 ± 991 and 4847 ± 447 in L and H, respectively, P<0.543. Baseline milk fat content (g/kg averaged 77.1 (±20.5 in L and 74.3 (±9.9 in H (P<0.10 and was reduced (P<0.031 to 60.7 (±23.6 and 49.4 (±11.2 (P<0.0031 respectively after L and H with no differences between treatments (P<0.277. Baseline milk protein content (L=43.2 ± 3.4 and H= 44.3 ± 6.9g/kg increased after oil supplementation (P<0.0001 in both L (73.2 ± 6.0g/kg and H (68.4 ± 4.9g/kg without differences between oil doses (P<0.123. Milk fat content of 14:0 decreased after oil supplementation only in the H treatment (5.29 to 4.03, P<0.007 whereas that of 16:0 was reduced (P<0.001 at both L (24.49 to 19.75g/100g FA and H (25.92 to 19.17g/100g FA doses. The reduction of total content of 12:0 to 16:0 was higher (P<0.052 in H (32.02 to 23.93g/100g FA than L (30.17 to 25.45g/100g FA. Vaccenic acid content increased (P<0.001 from 5.70 to 13.24g/100g FA in L and from 5.25 to 16.77 in H, with higher results in the in H treatment (P<0.001. Baseline rumenic acid was sharply increased (P<0.001 in L (1.80 to 4.09g/100g FA, +127% and H (1.60 to 4.61g/100g FA, +187% with no differences between L and H (P<0

  7. Manganese carbonate-zinc glycerolate, synthesis, characterization and application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiaochan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mixed system containing manganese carbonate (MnCO3 and zinc glycerolate (ZnGly was synthesized, and tested as solid catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and biodiesel production. The samples of MnCO3/ZnGly before and after usage for transesterification process were characterized using different techniques: determination of basic strength, determination of specific surface area according to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, measuring the mass change using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, investigating the solid phase content and presence of different specific elements and groups by X-Ray diffraction (XRD, the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The effects of different working parameters of transesterification were also investigated: temperature (438-458K, duration of transesterification (0-3.5h, methanol to oil molar ratio (12:1-36:1 and used amounts of catalyst (1-5 mass%. The reusability and stability of MnCO3/ZnGly were analyzed and obtained results showed that MnCO3/ZnGly exhibited a good activity with 100% TG conversion and 81.5% FAME yield with fresh catalyst, and can give 95-100% TG conversion and 62-78% FAME yield after 13 repeated use of same amount of catalyst without regeneration processes. Content of Mn and Zn in biodiesel and glycerol was analyzed by ICP-AAS after each reuse of catalyst.

  8. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Raphael Accorsini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  9. Dietary hydrogenated soybean oil affects lipid and vitamin E metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroglu, Mustafa; Brandsch, Corinna

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acids containing stearic acid, which are found in hydrogenated fat, may have a detrimental effect on the cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TAG) content of plasma lipoproteins, and on the absorption of fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. The aim of our study was to examine the tissue concentration of lipids and vitamins A and E after feeding a hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO) diet to rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, fed on coconut oil (control) and HSO, respectively in amounts corresponding to 15% of the total feed. Plasma total cholesterol, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and daily excretion of the TAG and cholesterol in feces were higher in the HSO than in the control group. TAG values in plasma and liver, and HDL-cholesterol levels in plasma were lower in the HSO than in the control group. The same was true for phospholipids in plasma and for saturated fatty acids, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in the liver and vitamin E in plasma, LDL and adipose tissue. The results of this study provide new evidence concerning the effect of dietary hydrogenated fat on lipid, TAG and vitamin E status, which are important for maintenance of good health. Consumption of dietary HSO may be associated with cardiovascular disease.

  10. Solvent Recovery from Soybean Oil/Hexane Miscella by PDMS Composite Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Weibin; SUN Yanzhi; PIAO Xianglan; LI Jiding; ZHU Shenlin

    2011-01-01

    Traditional solvent recovery in the extraction step of edible oil processing is distillation,which consumes large amounts of energy.If the distillation is replaced by membrane process,the energy consumption can be reduced greatly.In this work,two kinds of membrane,PDMS(polydimethylsiloxane) composite membrane and Zeolite filled PDMS membrane were prepared,in which asymmetric microporous PVDF(polyvinylidenefluoride) membrane prepared with phase inversion method was functioned as the microporous supporting layer in the flat-plate composite membrane.The different function compositions of the PDMS/PVDF composite membranes were characterized by reflection Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy.The surface and section of PDMS/PVDF composite membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscope(SEM).The PDMS NF(nanofiltration) membranes were then applied in the recovery of hexane from soybean oil/hexane miscellas(1:3,mass ratio).The effects of pressure(0.5-1.5 MPa),cross-linking temperature and PDMS layer thickness on membrane performances were investigated.The results indicated that both two kinds of NF membranes were promising for solvent recovery,and zeolite filled in PDMS NF membrane could enhance the separation performance.

  11. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsini, Fábio Raphael; Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Benincasa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans) to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  12. Epoxidized soybean oil/ZnO biocomposites for soft tissue applications: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2014-10-01

    Biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposites comprising epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) as matrix, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as reinforcements, and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst have been successfully prepared via epoxidization of the double bonds of the vegetable oil, ultrasonication, and curing without the need for interfacial modifiers. Their morphology, water uptake, thermal, mechanical, barrier, tribological, and antibacterial properties have been investigated. FT-IR analysis revealed the existence of strong ESO-ZnO hydrogen-bonding interactions. The nanoparticles acted as mass transport barriers, hindering the diffusion of volatiles generated during the decomposition process and leading to higher thermal stability, and also reduced the water absorption and gas permeability of the bioresin. Significant improvements in the static and dynamic mechanical properties, such as storage and Young's moduli, tensile strength, toughness, hardness, glass transition, and heat distortion temperature, were attained on reinforcement. A small drop in the nanocomposite stiffness and strength was found after exposure to several cycles of steam sterilization or to simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological temperature. Extraordinary reductions in the coefficient of friction and wear rate were detected under both dry and SBF conditions, confirming the potential of these nanoparticles for improving the tribological performance of ESO. The nanocomposites displayed antimicrobial action against human pathogen bacteria with and without UV illumination, which increased progressively with the ZnO content. These sustainable, ecofriendly, and low-cost biomaterials are very promising for use in biomedical applications, like structural tissue engineering scaffolds.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on the lipid profiles of soybean, peanut and sesame seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify, A. M.R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of soybean, peanut, and sesame were exposed to various doses of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy. Fatty acid and unsaponifiable profiles of the extracted oils were separated by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the ratios of unsaturated to saturated total fatty acids (TU/TS and total hydrocarbons to sterols (TH/TSt were significantly altered upon irradiation. These changes were clearly observed in the oil extracted from irradiated sesame seeds compared with the oils from irradiated peanuts and soybean. The major change in fatty acid composition was the decrease in the quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1 and C18:2 in all cases. In contrast, the sterol fractions such as cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol levels of irradiated seeds were generally lower than that of the un-irradiated seeds.Semillas de soja, cacahuete y de sésamo se expusieron a diferentes dosis de radiación gamma (0,0, 0,5, 1,0, 2,0, 3,0, 5,0 y 7,5 kGy. Se determinaron los perfiles de ácidos grasos y el insaponificable de los aceites mediante cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Los resultados demostraron que las relaciones de ácidos insaturados a ácidos grasos totales saturados (TU/TS e hidrocarburos totales a esteroles (TH/TSt se alteró significativamente tras la irradiación. Estos cambios se observaron claramente en el aceite extraído de las semillas de sésamo irradiados, en comparación con los aceites de soja y cacahuetes irradiados. El mayor cambio en la composición de ácidos grasos fue la disminución de la cantidad de ácidos grasos insaturados (C18:1 y C18:2 en todos los casos. En contraste, los niveles de las fracciones de esteroles como colesterol, campesterol, estigmasterol y β-sitosterol de las semillas irradiadas fueron en general más bajo que el de las semillas sin irradiados.

  14. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Streptomyces tsukubaensis reveals the metabolic mechanism of FK506 overproduction by feeding soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Jin, Lina; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    FK506 (tacrolimus) is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that possesses powerful immunosuppressant activity. In this study, feeding soybean oil into the fermentation culture of Streptomyces tsukubaensis improved FK506 production by 88.8%. To decipher the overproduction mechanism, comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis was carried out. A total of 72 protein spots with differential expression in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 66 intracellular metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analysis of proteome and metabolome indicated that feeding soybean oil as a supplementary carbon source could not only strengthen the FK506 precursor metabolism and energy metabolism but also tune the pathways related to transcriptional regulation, translation, and stress response, suggesting a better intracellular metabolic environment for the synthesis of FK506. Based on these analyses, 20 key metabolites and precursors of FK506 were supplemented into the soybean oil medium. Among them, lysine, citric acid, shikimic acid, and malonic acid performed excellently for promoting the FK506 production and biomass. Especially, the addition of malonic acid achieved the highest FK506 production, which was 1.56-fold of that in soybean oil medium and 3.05-fold of that in initial medium. This report represented the first comprehensive study on the comparative proteomics and metabolomics applied in S. tsukubaensis, and it would be a rational guidance to further strengthen the FK506 production.

  15. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer′s disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL, 2 (400 μg/mL, 3 (600 μg/mL of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract. A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy. Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours

  16. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M; Ribeaux, Daylin R; Luna, Marcos A C; Lima E Silva, Thayse A; Andrade, Rosileide F Silva; Gusmão, Norma B; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2016-09-23

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2² experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10⁷ cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm² of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.

  17. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adriana Ferreira; Rodriguez, Dayana M.; Ribeaux, Daylin R.; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Lima e Silva, Thayse A.; Andrade, Rosileide F. Silva; Gusmão, Norma B.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 22 experimental designs with 1% inoculums (107 cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2–5 µm), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm2 of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and γ-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources. PMID:27669227

  18. Beef tallow increases apoptosis and decreases aberrant crypt foci formation relative to soybean oil in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khil, Jinmo; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2004-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have implicated red meat as increasing colon cancer risk, animal studies have generally not been supportive of such an effect. This study examined red meat components, such as beef protein and tallow, on markers of colon cancer risk. Rats administered dimethylhydrazine were fed either casein or beef protein as the protein source and soybean oil or tallow as the fat source in a 2 2 factorial design for 9 wk. There were fewer preneoplastic lesions [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] and a greater apoptotic labeling index (P tallow compared with soybean oil. Fecal bile acid concentrations were significantly lower in rats fed tallow compared with soybean oil. There were no significant differences in mucosal cell proliferation. No significant effects were found due to protein source or to interactions between fat and protein sources for ACF, cell proliferation labeling indexes, or bile acid concentrations. However, there was a significant protein by fat source interaction for the apoptotic labeling index. The decreased number of ACF, decreased fecal bile acid concentration, and increased mucosal apoptosis with tallow consumption are not consistent with a role for this fat in increasing risk of colon cancer.

  19. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial polyurethane coatings made from soybean oil functionalized with dimethylphenylammonium iodide and hydroxyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Hadi; Yeganeh, Hamid; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2013-06-01

    Preparation of antibacterial polyurethane coatings from novel functional soybean oil was considered in this work. First, epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) as a low price and widely available renewable resource raw material was subjected to the reaction with aniline using an ionic liquid as a green catalyst. The intermediate phenylamine containing polyol (SAP) was then methylated by reaction with methyl iodide to produce a polyol (QAP) with pendant dimethylphenylammonium iodide groups. To regulate the physical and mechanical properties as well as biological characteristics of final coatings, QAP was mixed with different portions of a similar soybean oil-based polyol (MSP) without quaternary ammonium groups. The mixtures were reacted with isophorone diisocyanate to produce crosslinked polyurethane coatings. Evaluation of viscoelastic properties by DMA method revealed single phase structure with Tg in the range of 50-82°C. Stress-strain analysis of the prepared polyurethanes showed initial modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break in the ranges of 13-299 MPa, 4.5-13.8 MPa, and 16-109%, respectively. Additionally, the coatings showed good adherence to aluminum and PVC substrates. The solvent extracted samples showed excellent biocompatibility as determined by monitoring L929 fibroblast cells morphology and MTT assay. Meanwhile, very promising antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria with bacterial reduction in the range of 83-100% was observed.

  1. Quaternary ammonium salt containing soybean oil: an efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for halophile green microalgal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Fariba; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halophile green microalga, is considered a robust photobioreactor and a remarkable cost beneficial system for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. In this study, with low overall cost, a proper cationic lipid was synthesized from renewable soybean oil as an efficient gene delivery carrier for D. salina cells to create appropriate protein-producing transformed cell lines. To obtain an effective carrier, quaternary ammonium salt containing soybean oil (QASSO) was synthesized through the ring opening reaction of the epoxy groups of epoxidized soybean oil with diethylamine. QASSO was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared instruments. QASSO was used to prepare nanolipoplex construct using plasmid DNA molecules containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter gene. These nanolipoplexes (QASSO-pGFP, N/P=3) and QASSO had diameter of 63.62 and 110.63 nm, and zeta potential of -68.89 and 48.25 mV at pH 7.0, respectively. Results indicated the GFP gene expression and cytoplasmic accumulation of GFP protein in the transformants after incubation under desirable conditions for 48 h and 1 week. The transformation efficiency was quantitatively assayed by flow cytometry, which yielded transformations of 58.87% and 48.34% for QASSO and 38.32% and a negligible percentage for Polyfect® after 48 h and 1 week incubation, respectively.

  2. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. K. K.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment.

  3. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  4. Crystal morphology of binary and ternary mixtures of hydrogenated fats and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Sumiyoshi Simões

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the influence of temperature on crystallization of binary and ternary mixtures of two hydrogenated fats and soybean oil, by polarized light microscopy at temperatures of 30° C, 35° C, and 40° C. The types of crystals observed were spherulites type A, and B and the polymorphic forms were ß , and ß -prime. The soybean oil does not contribute statistically to total area or maximum diameter of the crystals. At 35° C the positive relative coefficients to the interactions presented, in general, absolute values higher than the negative ones, pointing that the crystals were larger than what could be expected, if there was no interaction among the components. At 40° C the negative relative coefficients revealed, in general, absolute values higher than the positive ones, indicating that the samples were close to the melting point, showing the presence of some small crystals.Os triacilgliceróis sofrem transições de fase sólido-líquido entre as temperaturas ambiente e corporal, e estas são altamente desejáveis para gorduras que atuam como ingredientes funcionais de alimentos. O objetivo foi estudar a influência da temperatura na cristalização de misturas binárias e ternárias de duas gorduras hidrogenadas e óleo de soja, por microscopia sob luz polarizada, às temperaturas de 30° C, 35° C e 40° C. Os tipos de cristais observados foram esferulitos A e B e as formas polimórficas eram ß e ß -prima. O óleo de soja não contribuiu estatisticamente para a área total ou para o diâmetro máximo dos cristais. A 35° C os coeficientes positivos relativos às interações entre os componentes apresentaram, geralmente, valores absolutos superiores aos negativos, indicando que os cristais eram maiores que o esperado se não houvesse interação. A 40° C os coeficientes negativos relativos às interações apresentaram, geralmente, valores absolutos superiores aos positivos, indicando que as amostras

  5. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, Seth R.; Porter, Paul; Jordan, Nicholas [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Borlaug 411, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States); Lazarus, William [Department of Applied Economics, 231 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, The University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L{sup -1} of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L{sup -1} and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L{sup -1} depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L{sup -1} and from 0.14 to 0.33 L{sup -1}, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L{sup -1} for soybean and 0.44 L{sup -1} for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Effect of alginate coatings with cinnamon bark oil and soybean oil on quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Qiumin; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-12-23

    The quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupes can potentially be improved using antimicrobial coatings that are able to maintain effectiveness throughout storage. The objective of this work was to study the effect of coating mixtures containing sodium alginate and cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on the quality of cantaloupes and the survival of inoculated bacterial pathogens and naturally occurring yeasts and molds during ambient storage at 21 °C. Cantaloupes were dipped in mixtures containing 1% sodium alginate with or without 2% CBO and 0 or 0.5% soybean oil (SBO). Weight loss and total soluble solids content of the flesh were not significantly different among coating treatments. However, changes in color and firmness of cantaloupes were delayed to different extents after coating, most significantly for the CBO+SBO treatment. Cocktails of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, or Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cantaloupes were reduced to the detection limit (1.3 log CFU/cm(2)) and completely inhibited during the 15-day storage by the CBO+SBO treatment, while L. monocytogenes and S. enterica reached populations of 2.9 log CFU/cm(2) and 2.4 log CFU/cm(2), respectively, on cantaloupes coated with CBO alone. Antimicrobial coatings, especially with SBO, also reduced yeast and mold counts on cantaloupes by 2.6 log CFU/cm(2). SBO improved the retention of CBO during storage suggesting it is related to the enhancement of quality and microbiological safety. Findings demonstrated the potential of the antimicrobial coating system studied to improve microbiological safety and quality of cantaloupes.

  7. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wei Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and palmitic acid (C16:0 were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.

  8. Authentication of Nigella sativa seed oil in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil and soybean oil using FTIR spectroscopy coupled with partial least square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Abdul; Ariani, Rizka

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of Nigella seed oil (NSO) in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil (CO) and soybean oil (SO). Based on PLS modeling performed, quantitative analysis of NSO in binary mixtures with CO carried out using the second derivative FTIR spectra at combined frequencies of 2977-3028, 1666-1739, and 740-1446 cm(-1) revealed the highest value of coefficient of determination (R (2), 0.9984) and the lowest value of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 1.34% v/v). NSO in binary mixtures with SO is successfully determined at the combined frequencies of 2985-3024 and 752-1755 cm(-1) using the first derivative FTIR spectra with R (2) and RMSEC values of 0.9970 and 0.47% v/v, respectively. Meanwhile, the second derivative FTIR spectra at the combined frequencies of 2977-3028 cm(-1), 1666-1739 cm(-1), and 740-1446 cm(-1) were selected for quantitative analysis of NSO in ternary mixture with CO and SO with R (2) and RMSEC values of 0.9993 and 0.86% v/v, respectively. The results showed that FTIR spectrophotometry is an accurate technique for the quantitative analysis of NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with CO and SO.

  9. Authentication of Nigella sativa Seed Oil in Binary and Ternary Mixtures with Corn Oil and Soybean Oil Using FTIR Spectroscopy Coupled with Partial Least Square

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rohman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR combined with multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS was developed and optimized for the analysis of Nigella seed oil (NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with corn oil (CO and soybean oil (SO. Based on PLS modeling performed, quantitative analysis of NSO in binary mixtures with CO carried out using the second derivative FTIR spectra at combined frequencies of 2977–3028, 1666–1739, and 740–1446 cm−1 revealed the highest value of coefficient of determination (, 0.9984 and the lowest value of root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 1.34% v/v. NSO in binary mixtures with SO is successfully determined at the combined frequencies of 2985–3024 and 752–1755 cm−1 using the first derivative FTIR spectra with and RMSEC values of 0.9970 and 0.47% v/v, respectively. Meanwhile, the second derivative FTIR spectra at the combined frequencies of 2977–3028 cm−1, 1666–1739 cm−1, and 740–1446 cm−1 were selected for quantitative analysis of NSO in ternary mixture with CO and SO with and RMSEC values of 0.9993 and 0.86% v/v, respectively. The results showed that FTIR spectrophotometry is an accurate technique for the quantitative analysis of NSO in binary and ternary mixtures with CO and SO.

  10. Consumption of Oxidized Soybean Oil Increased Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Affected Intestinal Immune Variables in Yellow-feathered Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shouqun; Mo, Yi; Zhou, Guilian; Yang, Lin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of oxidized soybean oil in the diet of young chickens on growth performance and intestinal oxidative stress, and indices of intestinal immune function. Corn-soybean-based diets containing 2% mixtures of fresh and oxidized soybean oil provided 6 levels (0.15, 1.01, 3.14, 4.95, 7.05, and 8.97 meqO2/kg) of peroxide value (POV) in the diets. Each dietary treatment, fed for 22 d, had 6 replicates, each containing 30 birds (n = 1,080). Increasing POV levels reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the broilers during d 1 to 10, body weight and average daily gain at d 22 but did not affect overall ADFI. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in plasma and jejunum as POV increased but total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) declined in plasma and jejunum. Catalase (CAT) activity declined in plasma and jejunum as did plasma glutathione S-transferase (GST). Effects were apparent at POV exceeding 3.14 meqO2/kg for early ADFI and MDA in jejunum, and POV exceeding 1.01 meqO2/kg for CAT in plasma and jejunum, GST in plasma and T-AOC in jejunum. Relative jejunal abundance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P50 and NF-κB P65 increased as dietary POV increased. Increasing POV levels reduced the jejunal concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4 and CD8 molecules with differences from controls apparent at dietary POV of 3.14 to 4.95 meqO2/kg. These findings indicated that growth performance, feed intake, and the local immune system of the small intestine were compromised by oxidative stress when young broilers were fed moderately oxidized soybean oil.

  11. 通过添加棕榈油提高一级豆油煎炸效果的方法%Improve the Frying Effect of Soybean Oil by Adding Palm Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷文忠; 武玲; 张世杰; 江旺; 王亮

    2014-01-01

    煎炸过程中会产生大量的有害物质,随着人们对食品卫生安全要求的不断提高,如何保证煎炸食用油的安全性和延长煎炸油的使用期,已成为厄待解决的问题。针对一级豆油的煎炸稳定性不好的缺点,向一级豆油中添加棕榈油来进行煎炸实验,并以一级豆油做对比,通过对比两种油脂煎炸后的理化指标来分析添加棕榈油是否能够提高一级豆油的煎炸效果。通过实验可以得出,煎炸后,添加了棕榈油的一级豆油其酸价、色泽、油烟方面与一级豆油基本相似,但是其煎炸稳定性更好,吸油量更小,在风味方面也更佳。因此可以得出结论,通过添加棕榈油可以提高一级豆油的煎炸效果。%Frying process producing a large number of harmful substances, with the constant improvement of people's requirements on food hygiene and safety , how to guarantee the safety of frying oil and extend the lifetime of frying oil has become an urgent problems to be solved. In order to improve the frying stability of soybean oil ,add palm oil to soybean oil to do the fry experiment .Analyze whether adding palm oil to soybean oil can improve the fry effect of soybean oil by comparing soybean oil with blend oil in change of physical and chemical index in the process of fry .The result showed that blend oil is similar to soybean oil in the aspect of acid value ,colour and lampblack .Blend oil have a good frying stability , small oil absorption and good flavour compared with soybean oil. So we can conclude that by adding palm oil can improve the effect of frying soybean oil.

  12. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Factors on Soybean Protein, Oil Contents, and Composition by Extensive and High-Density Sampling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenwen; Yang, Ruping; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Zhang, Shouwei; Jiang, Bingjun; Tian, Shiyan; Liu, Xiaobing; Han, Tianfu

    2016-05-25

    From 2010 to 2013, 763 soybean samples were collected from an extensive area of China. The correlations between seed compositions and climate data were analyzed. The contents of crude protein and water-soluble protein, total amount of protein plus oil, and most of the amino acids were positively correlated with an accumulated temperature ≥15 °C (AT15) and the mean daily temperature (MDT) but were negatively correlated with hours of sunshine (HS) and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The correlations of crude oil and most fatty acids with climate factors were opposite to those of crude protein. Crude oil content had a quadratic regression relationship with MDT, and a positive correlation between oil content and MDT was found when the daily temperature was soybean protein and oil contents. The study illustrated the effects of climate factors on soybean protein and oil contents and proposed agronomic practices for improving soybean quality in different regions of China. The results provide a foundation for the regionalization of high-quality soybean production in China and similar regions in the world.

  13. Effect of micella interesterification on fatty acids composition and volatile components of soybean and rapeseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi, Sherine M.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Micella interesterification of soybean and rapeseed oils was carried out using 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 percentages of nickel catalyst, each at different temperatures of 60, 90 and 120ºC for 2, 4, and 6 hours. The proposed interesterification reaction conditions to obtain an oil with low linoleic acid level were 0.2 % nickel catalyst at 120ºC for 4 hours, 0.4% nickel catalyst at 90ºC for 4 hours and 0.6% at 60ºC for 4 hours. Fatty acid composition and chemical analysis of the interesterified and non-esterified oils were estimated. Selected samples undergo heating at 180ºC for 4 hours determining the volatile components. The appearance of some components supported the interesterification process for modification of fatty acid constituents of the oils.Se ha llevado a cabo la interesterificación en fase miscelar de aceites de soja y de colza usando un 0.2%, 0.4% y 0.6% de níquel como catalizador, a diferentes temperaturas (60, 90 y 120ºC durante 2, 4 y 6 horas. Las condiciones de reacción de interesterificación propuestas para obtener un aceite con niveles de ácidos linolénicos bajos fueron 0.2 % de níquel a 120ºC durante 4 horas, 0.4 % de níquel a 90ºC durante 4 horas y 0.6 % a 60ºC durante 4 horas. Se han estimado la composición en ácidos grasos y el análisis químico de los aceites interesterificados y no-esterificados. Las muestras seleccionadas se sometieron a calentamiento a 180ºC durante 4 horas determinando los componentes volátiles. La aparición de algunos componentes apoyó el proceso de interesterificación por modificación de los ácidos grasos constituyentes de los aceites.

  14. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  15. Microencapsulation of stearidonic acid soybean oil in Maillard reaction-modified complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeduba, Ebenezer A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-05-15

    The antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction (MR)-modified gelatin (GE)-gum arabic (GA) coacervates was optimized to produce microcapsules with superior oxidative stability compared to the unmodified control. MR was used to crosslink GE and GA, with or without maltodextrin (MD), to produce anti-oxidative Maillard reaction products (MRP) which was used to encapsulate stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) by complex coacervation. Biopolymer blends (GE-GA [1:1, w/w] or GE-GA-MD [2:2:1, w/w/w]) were crosslinked by dry-heating at 80°C for 4, 8, or 16h. Relationships between the extent of browning, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and the total oxidation (TOTOX) of encapsulated SDASO were fitted to quadratic models. The [GE-GA-MD] blends exhibited higher browning rates and TEAC values than corresponding [GE-GA] blends. Depending on the type of biopolymer blend and dry-heating time, TOTOX values of SDASO in MRP-derived microcapsules were 29-87% lower than that of the non-crosslinked control after 30 days of storage.

  16. Synthesis and application of phenolic resin internally toughened by chain extension polymer of epoxidized soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) internally toughened phenolic resin(ESO-IT-PR) with both good toughness and excellent thermal stability was prepared as the matrix resin of copper clad laminate (CCL).FTIR was adopted to investigate the molecular structure of modified phenolic resins and SEM was used to observe the micro morphology of their impacted intersections.The properties of CCLs prepared with these modified phenolic resins were studied to determine the optimal process and investigate the toughening mechanism.The main modifying mechanism is the etherification reaction between phenol hydroxyl and ESO catalyzed by triethanolamine and the chain extension polymerization between ESO and multi-amine gives the long-chain ESO epoxy grafting on the phenolic resin prepolymer,when the ESO content is 30% and the curing agent content is 7%,the ESO toughened phenolic resin possesses optimal performance.The flexible ESO epoxy shows significant toughening effect and it crosslinks with the phenolic resin to form an internally toughened network,which is the key factor for improving the solderleaching resistance of CCL prepared with this modified phenolic resin.

  17. Antibody-conjugated soybean oil-filled calcium phosphate nanoshells for targetted delivery of hydrophobic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H T; Kroczynski, M; Maddox, J; Chen, Y; Josephs, R; Ostafin, A E

    2006-11-01

    Hollow calcium phosphate nanoparticles capable of encapsulating poorly water-soluble molecules were produced by self-assembly. Previously reported were solid calcium phosphate nanoparticles and water-filled calcium phosphate nanocapsules suited for encapsulating mostly hydrophilic, but not hydrophobic compounds. Here, calcium phosphate was deposited around 100 nm diameter, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate stabilized soybean oil nanoemulsions using either calcium chloride or NaOH titrations to achieve shell thickness between 20-70 nm. The surface was functionalized with carboxylic acid via the addition of carboxyethylphosphonic acid to attach Molecular Probes AB-594C antibody using sulpho-n-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride with an efficiency of approximately 70%, while retaining near complete antibody function. Hydrophobic pyrene was encapsulated with an efficiency of 95%, at concentrations much higher than its water solubility limit, and exhibited spectral features characteristic of a hydrophobic environment. These materials can be used in the targeted delivery of many useful, yet poorly water-soluble pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds.

  18. "Green" films from renewable resources: properties of epoxidized soybean oil plasticized ethyl cellulose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Peng, Xinwen; Zhong, Linxin; Cao, Xuefei; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xueming; Liu, Shijie; Sun, Runcang

    2014-03-15

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), which is a biomass-derived resource, was first used as a novel plasticizer for ethyl cellulose (EC) film preparation. Surface morphologies, mechanical performances, thermal properties, oxygen and water vapor permeabilities of plasticized EC films were detected in detail to evaluate the plasticizing effect of ESO and explore the plastication mechanisms. Results showed that ESO was an effective plasticizer that outstripped conventional plasticizers, i.e. dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and triethyl citrate (TEC) in producing high-quality films. Especially, at plasticizer concentrations of 15-25%, ESO-EC films had preferable mechanical properties and better thermal stability, as well as non-flammability. In addition, the water vapor permeability of ESO-EC films was lower than that of traditional plasticized films. Their oxygen permeability was also remained in a low level. These outstanding performances were related to the relatively high molecular weight, hydrophobicity, chemical structure of ESO, and the intermolecular interactions between ESO and EC chains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermodynamics of coil-hyperbranched poly(styrene-b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil) block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Yi; Hohmann, Austin; Hernández, Nacú; Cochran, Eric

    Here we present the phase behavior of a new type of coil-hyperbranched diblock copolymer: poly(styrene- b-acrylated epoxidized soybean oil), or PS-PAESO. PS-PAESO is an example of a biorenewable thermoplastic elastomer (bio-TPE). To date, we have shown that bio-TPEs can be economical commercial substitutes for their petrochemically derived analogues--such as poly(styrene- b-butadiene- b-styrene) (SBS)--in a range of applications including pressure sensitive adhesives and bitumen modification. From a polymer physics perspective, PS-PAESO is an interesting material in that it couples a linear coil-like block with a highly branched block. Thus in contrast to the past five decades of studies on linear AB diblock copolymers, coil-hyperbranched block copolymers are relatively unknown to the community and can be expected to deviate substantially from the standard ``universal'' phase behavior in the AB systems. To explore these new materials, we have constructed a library of PS-PAESO materials spanning a range of molecular weight and composition values. The phase transition behavior and the morphology information will be interpreted by isochronal temperature scanning in dynamic shear rheology, small angle X-ray scattering and the corresponding transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Antioxidant effect of leaf extracts from Cressa cretica against oxidation process in soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Afsaneh; Sayyed-Alangi, S Zahra

    2017-03-01

    Phenolic compounds from Cressa cretica leaves were extracted using different solvents (water and ethanol 70%) during 3-24 h by immersion method and were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reduction activity potential and total antioxidant capacity assays compared with synthetic antioxidant namely BHT. The results were shown that the most total phenol content was outcome of the ethanolic extract after 18 h (68.512 ± 0.36( )mg gallic acid/g dry extract) extraction. The results of different assays for determination of antioxidant potential of the extracts as well as their EC50 values were indicated antioxidant activities in order: BHT>ethanolic extract>aqueous extract. Also, the antioxidant activities were enhanced with increasing of the extracts and BHT concentrations. The results of Peroxide value (PV) and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests were revealed that the ethanolic extract with various concentrations (200-1000 ppm) were suppressed the oxidation of soybean oil. The highest oxidation inhibitor was belonged to 1000 ppm concentration of the ethanolic extract so that can be good alternative for BHT.

  1. Effect of epoxidised soybean oil loading as plasticiser on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of polyvinylchloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, M.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Farah Nordyana, A. R.; Syed Anas, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of epoxidised soybean oil (ESO) as an alternative plasticizer on physical, mechanical and thermal properties of plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PPVC). Samples were prepared using 10, 20, 30 and 40% by weight percent of ESO. The samples were characterized for density, water absorption, tensile, hardness and thermal properties. The addition of ESO as plasticizer in PVC had caused significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of PPVC. Increasing of ESO loading had resulted in decreased density, tensile strength, tensile modulus but increased in elongation at break and shore hardness. From water absorption study, it was observed that the all the samples reached the plateau absorption at days 8 to 10 with absorption percentages of between 1.8 to 2%. In general the crystallinity of PPVC maintained between 10 to 13% with increase in ESO loading while the melting point ( Tm) is slightly decreased about 3 to 6°C. In this study, ESO which acts as plasticiser were found to result in lower glass transition temperature (Tg). The enhancements of super cooling with higher ESO loading were found to increase the crystallization temperature, promoting crystallisation and act as nucleating agent.

  2. Synthesis and Properties of Novel Epoxidized Soybean Oil-modified Phenolic Resin/Montmorillonite Nanoeomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jianfeng; SITU Yue; XU li; HUANG Hong; FU Heqing; ZENG Hanwei; CHEN Huanqin

    2008-01-01

    The novel epoxidized soybean oil-modified-phenolic resin/clay nanocomposites(ESO-M-PR/CN)was prepared.The coupling agent-benzyldimethylphenylammonium chloride [C6H5CH2N+(CH3)2C6H5Cl-,B2MP]was adopted to modify the interface between the organic and inorganic phases.The effect of the nanocomposite structure on its physical and chemical properties was discussed.During the synthesizing process of ESO-M-PR/CN,the phenol hydroxyl was etherified by ESO or ESO epoxy resin prepolymer to provide long ESO epoxy segments.Long ESO epoxy resin chain segments enhanced the crosslink density of ESO-M-PR/CN.The thermal and mechanical properties exhibit a significant improvement.The temperature at which a weight loss of 5%Occurs increases from 287.1℃to 402.3℃.The flexural strength increases by 25%,while the flexural modulus increases by 39%.Moreover,the properties of resin were enhanced by the effect of the inorganic nanoparticles,while the size of the nanomontmorillonites in the phenolic resin was characterized with a scanning electron microscope.The particle size of inorganic montmorillonites in the modified system is less than 100 nm.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric Surfactants Based on Epoxidized Soybean Oil Grafted Hydroxyethyl Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xujuan; Liu, He; Shang, Shibin; Rao, Xiaoping; Song, Jie

    2015-10-21

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) was prepared via ring-opening polymerization, in which the hydroxyl groups of HEC acted as initiators and the polymeric ESO were covalently bonded to the HEC. Hydrolysis of ESO-grafted HEC (ESO-HEC) was performed with sodium hydroxide, and the hydrolyzed ESO-HEC (H-ESO-HEC) products were characterized via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, high-temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that ring-opening polymerization of ESO occurred with the hydroxyl groups of HEC as initiators. The molecular weights of the H-ESO-HEC products were varied by adjusting the mass ratio of HEC and ESO. Through neutralizing the carboxylic acid of H-ESO-HEC with sodium hydroxide, novel polymeric surfactants (H-ESO-HEC-Na) were obtained, and the effects of polymeric surfactants on the surface tension of water were investigated as a function of concentration of H-ESO-HEC-Na. The H-ESO-HEC-Na was effective at lowering the surface tension of water to 26.33 mN/m, and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value decreased from 1.053 to 0.157 g/L with increases in molecular weights of the polymeric surfactants. Rheological measurements indicated that the H-ESO-HEC-Na solutions changed from pseudoplastic property to Newtonian with increasing shear rate.

  4. Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories; Biodiesel de soja - reacao de transesterificacao para aulas praticas de quimica organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geris, Regina; Santos, Nadia Alessandra Carmo dos; Amaral, Bruno Andrade; Maia, Isabelle de Souza; Castro, Vinicius Dourado; Carvalho, Jose Roque Mota [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: rmgeris@ufba.br

    2007-09-15

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas. (author)

  5. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  6. [Antiperspirants and deodorants--ingredients and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, V A; Korting, H C

    1989-01-01

    Antitranspirants and deodorants gain more and more interest. Aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zirkonium tetrachlorohydrate glycine complex are the most frequently used active ingredients in commercial antitranspirants today. Aluminium chloride and propantheline bromide, the anticholinergic substance, are important alternatives although less common. Active ingredients of deodorants are mainly perfumes or bactericidal/bacteriostatic substances, such as triclosan. In addition, there are substances which are meant to bind offending smells (e.g. zinc ricinoleate) or to influence the skin surface pH (e.g. triethyl citrate). As in the cosmetics industry in general, both safety and efficacy of a product are major parameters in the experimental and clinical evaluation. Establishment of efficacy is based on olfactory tests in model situations as well as on the detection of associated effects (e.g. influence on cutaneous microflora).

  7. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections.

  8. Two-step synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from soybean oil catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jinnan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic biodiesel production by transesterification in solvent media has been investigated intensively, but glycerol, as a by-product, could block the immobilized enzyme and excess n-hexane, as a solution aid, would reduce the productivity of the enzyme. Esterification, a solvent-free and no-glycerol-release system for biodiesel production, has been developed, and two-step catalysis of soybean oil, hydrolysis followed by esterification, with Yarrowia lipolytica lipase is reported in this paper. Results First, soybean oil was hydrolyzed at 40°C by 100 U of lipase broth per 1 g of oil with approximately 30% to 60% (vol/vol water. The free fatty acid (FFA distilled from this hydrolysis mixture was used for the esterification of FFA to fatty acid ethyl ester by immobilized lipase. A mixture of 2.82 g of FFA and equimolar ethanol (addition in three steps were shaken at 30°C with 18 U of lipase per 1 gram of FFA. The degree of esterification reached 85% after 3 hours. The lipase membranes were taken out, dehydrated and subjected to fresh esterification so that over 82% of esterification was maintained, even though the esterification was repeated every 3 hours for 25 batches. Conclusion The two-step enzymatic process without glycerol released and solvent-free demonstrated higher efficiency and safety than enzymatic transesterification, which seems very promising for lipase-catalyzed, large-scale production of biodiesel, especially from high acid value waste oil.

  9. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  10. Oleosins (24 and 18 kDa) are hydrolyzed not only in extracted soybean oil bodies but also in soybean germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yeming; Zhao, Luping; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2014-01-29

    After oil bodies (OBs) were extracted from ungerminated soybean by pH 6.8 extraction, it was found that 24 and 18 kDa oleosins were hydrolyzed in the extracted OBs, which contained many OB extrinsic proteins (i.e., lipoxygenase, β-conglycinin, γ-conglycinin, β-amylase, glycinin, Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), and P34 probable thiol protease (P34)) as well as OB intrinsic proteins. In this study, some properties (specificity, optimal pH and temperature) of the proteases of 24 and 18 kDa oleosins and the oleosin hydrolysis in soybean germination were examined, and the high relationship between Bd 30K/P34 and the proteases was also discussed. The results showed (1) the proteases were OB extrinsic proteins, which had high specificity to hydrolyze 24 and 18 kDa oleosins, and cleaved the specific peptide bonds to form limited hydrolyzed products; (2) 24 and 18 kDa oleosins were not hydrolyzed in the absence of Bd 30K and P34 (or some Tricine-SDS-PAGE undetectable proteins); (3) the protease of 24 kDa oleosin had strong resistance to alkaline pH while that of 18 kDa oleosin had weak resistance to alkaline pH, and Bd 30K and P34, resolved into two spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis gel, also showed the same trend; (4) 16 kDa oleosin as well as 24 and 18 kDa oleosins were hydrolyzed in soybean germination, and Bd 30K and P34 were always contained in the extracted OBs from germinated soybean even when all oleosins were hydrolyzed; (5) the optimal temperature and pH of the proteases were respectively determined as in the ranges of 35-50 °C and pH 6.0-6.5, while 60 °C or pH 11.0 could denature them.

  11. Effect of Feeding Oxidized Soybean Oil against Antioxidant role of Pomegranate Seed on Physiology and Metabolism of Periparturient Saanen Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p

  12. The influence of natural tocopherols during thermal oxidation of refined and partially hydrogenated soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of refined and partially hydrogenated soybean oils, with iodine values between 60 and 130, tocopherol-stripped or not by aluminium oxide treatment, were submitted to thermal oxidation, at 180 °C (during for 10 hours. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 5, 8 and 10 hours, for the determination of dimers and polymers (degradation compounds and tocopherols. The relation of iodine value to the formation of dimers and polymers and the role of originally present tocopherols in the protection of fats and oils against thermal degradation was verified. The degradation curves for tocopherols showed that α and γ -tocopherols were destroyed faster than β and δ -tocopherols. In addition, the degradation rate of tocopherols was greater in the more saturated fats. The formation of dimers and polymers was greater in the oil than in the hydrogenated samples and in the samples treated with aluminium oxide with respect to the original, untreated samples.Muestras de aceites refinados y parcialmente hidrogenados de soja, con índices de yodo entre 60 y 130, tratadas o no con óxido de aluminio para eliminar los tocoferoles naturales presentes en los aceites, fueron sometidas a termoxidación, a 180 °C durante 10 horas. Se tomaron muestras en los tiempos 0, 2, 5, 8 y 10 horas, para determinación de dímeros y polímeros (compuestos de degradación y de tocoferoles. Se verificó la relación del índice de yodo con la formación de dímeros y polímeros, y también el papel de los tocoferoles originales del aceite y de las grasas en la protección contra la degradación térmica. Las curvas de degradación de los tocoferoles mostraron la destrucción más rápida de α y γ -tocoferoles, respecto a β y δ-tocoferoles. Además, la degradación de los tocoferoles ocurrió a mayor velocidad en las grasas más saturadas. La formación de dímeros y polímeros fue mayor en el aceite que en las muestras hidrogenadas y en las muestras tratadas

  13. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, G S; Santos, K O; Suarez, P A Z; Torres, F A G; De Marco, J L; Parachin, N S

    2014-01-01

    Crude glycerol, also known as glycerin, is the main byproduct of the biodiesel industry. It has been estimated that up to 40,000 tons of glycerin will be produced each year by 2020. This study evaluated the value-added use of crude glycerol derived from soybean biodiesel preparation as a carbon source for heterologous protein production using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Eleven glycerin samples were obtained by methanolysis of soybean oil using different acids or bases as catalysts. Cell growth experiments showed that crude glycerol containing either potassium or sodium hydroxide resulted in 1.5-2 times higher final cell densities when compared to glycerol P.A. Finally, crude glycerol containing sodium hydroxide was successfully utilized for constitutive heterologous α-amylase production in P. pastoris. This study demonstrated that crude glycerol without any purification steps may be directly used as carbon source for protein production in P. pastoris.

  14. Genotoxicity studies in the ST cross of the Drosophila wing spot test of sunflower and soybean oils before and after frying and boiling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard; Kaya, Bülent

    2012-10-01

    Sunflower and soybean oils were tested for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing somatic mutation and recombination assay. Results indicate that both oils produce genotoxic effects when tested without any previous frying or boiling processes. Boiling sunflower oil during fifteen, thirty and sixty minutes significantly increased its genotoxic response; nevertheless, after frying potatoes this oil showed a significant decrease in the genotoxic activity. On the other hand, boiling and frying soybean oil in the same conditions results in a decrease of its genotoxic potential. We have also detected that the amount of total polar materials increases significantly in oils submitted to frying or boiling process. Nevertheless, in oils obtained after frying potatoes, the amount of TPM was higher than after boiling. It is suggested that this effect is probably due to the amount of non-volatile TPM, the fatty acid composition of the oils, the types of frying oil, the high frying temperature and time, and the number of boiling and frying. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in Drosophila for the boiling and frying of both sunflower and soybean oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Melting properties of some structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil

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    Dunn, R. O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil were synthesized and their physical properties were determined by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Mettler dropping point and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. 1,3 Distearo-2-olein (SOS, 1,3 distearo-2-linolein (SLS and1,3 distearo-2-linolenin (SlnS were synthesized from pure 1,3 diacylglycerols and the appropriate fatty acid. Pulsed NMR determinations over the temperature range 10-50 ºC showed that the symmetrical triacylglycerols (SUS: where S = stearic, U = oleic, linoleic or linolenic are high and sharply melting materials, all showing substantial amounts of solids at temperatures up to 33.3 ºC, yet are completely melted at only a few degrees higher. Mettler dropping points for SOS, SLS and SlnS were 44.1, 37.9 and 36.5 ºC respectively. The heats of fusion for the structured triacylglycerols were determined by DSC and shown to be of the order 29-32 cal/gm compared to 45 cal/gm for SSS. The heats of fusion were also calculated from Mettler dropping point determinations as admixtures with soybean oil and showed consistent agreement with the DSC data.Se sintetizaron algunos lípidos estructurados procedentes del aceite de soja con alto contenido en ácido esteárico y sus propiedades físicas se determinaron por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (NMR, punto de goteo Mettler y calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se sintetizaron 1,3 diestearo-2-oleina (SOS, 1,3 diestearo-2-linoleina (SLS y 1,3 diestearo-2-linolenina (SlnS a partir de 1,3 diacilgliceroles y de los ácidos grasos adecuados puros. Las determinaciones de NMR pulsada en el rango de temperaturas 10- 50 ºC mostraron que los triacilgliceroles simétricos (SUS: donde S = esteárico, U = oleico, linoleico o linolénico funden a mayor temperatura y más bruscamente, todos presentan altos contenidos en sólidos a todas las temperaturas hasta los 33.3 ºC, estando completamente fundidos

  16. Soybean oil and beef tallow in dry extruded diets for adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Fábio Ritter; Trevizan, Luciano; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Kessler, Alexandre de Mello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of two different fat sources (soybean oil (SO) and beef tallow (BT)) in dry extruded dog diets on the intake of food and metabolizable energy (ME), on faecal characteristics and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. Ten adult dogs of different breeds were used in a Latin square design. Five experimental diets were designed from a basal diet. A Control diet was coated with 1% SO and four other diets were obtained by coating the basal diet with 6.5% and 13% of SO or BT. The Control, 6.5% and 13% coated diets contained approximately 8.5%, 15% and 20% fat, respectively. The dogs had similar dry matter (DM) intakes and, consequently, higher ME intakes with an increased fat content for both sources (p < 0.05). Fat digestibility was highest for Diet SO13% (p < 0.05). The ATTD of DM and organic matter was highest (p < 0.05) for Diets SO13% and BT13%. Fat coating improved the faecal score, especially for Diet BT13%. The dietary ratios of protein:fat:carbohydrate [% of ME] were close to AAFCO's estimates. For SO a higher ATTD (99.1%) and ME content (38.88 MJ/kg) was estimated than for BT (ATTD 92.9% and 36.37 MJ ME/kg). Both SO and BT can comprise up to 13% of the diet. However, SO was more susceptible to leaking from the kibbles with the coating method applied.

  17. Improvement in genetic characteristics and oil yield of selected soybean progenies from octuple crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamawaki Osvaldo Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate 44 soybean octuple crosses in the F4:3[8] and F5:3[8] generations in order to select progenies superior for seed oil yield (OY and other important agronomic characteristics. Octuple crosses were hybridized in a chain mating system. In one group, crosses were carried out for three generations with the adapted x exotic parents until octuple crosses with 75% adapted genes and 25% exotic genes were obtained. In a second group, hybridization of adapted x adapted parents originated crosses with 100% adapted genes. During the growing season 1994/95, the progenies F4:3[8] were evaluated by using the augmented block design. The progenies F5:3[8] were evaluated during the growing season 1995/96 in three experiments using augmented block design without repetition. The octuple crosses gave origin to superior progenies for all the characters studied. In the C22 cross, OY values were 707 kg/ha. The estimates of heritability in relation to the crosses average resulted in the following mean, minimum and maximum values, respectively: number of days to maturity (52.35%, 3.71%, 84.23%; agronomic value (26.69%, 1.62%, 61.28% and grain yield (29.28%, 1.52%, 61.06%. The observed genetic gains for grain yield in the early, intermediate and late F5:3[8] progenies were superior to the expected genetic gains and the observed genetic gains for OY were more expressive in the early and late F5:[8] progenies. The genetic variability remaining in the selected progenies of some crosses suggests that further genetic gains for grain yield and OY might be possible with advanced selection cycles.

  18. Freezing resistance of first grade soybean oil%一级大豆油抗冻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化林; 马传国; 殷俊俊; 裴梦雪

    2014-01-01

    该文研究了市售4种一级大豆油的部分理化指标、脂肪酸组成、甘三酯组成、甘一酯、甘二酯以及甾醇含量对其低温下抗冻性的影响。通过自制实验装置对大豆油进行冷冻试验和对大豆油固体脂肪含量的测定结果表明,脂肪酸组成、甘三酯组成、酸值、碘值、过氧化值、甘一酯含量对4种一级大豆油的抗冻性没有直接影响,而甘二酯的含量对一级大豆油抗冻性有一定影响。%The influence of the composition of fatty acids and triglycerides,part of the chemical indictors and the content of monoglycerides,diglycerides and sterols of the first grade soybean oils to their freezing resistance were evaluated here. According to the freezing experiments carried by the self-made experimental facility and the determination of the solid fat content of soybean oils,the results indicated that,the composition of fatty acids and triglycerides,iodine value,acid value,peroxide value,and the content of monoglycerides,and sterols had no direct influence on the freezing resistance, whereas the content of diglycerides had a certain influence on the freezing resistance of the first grade soybean oil.

  19. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously dia...

  20. Deodorants: an experimental provocation study with cinnamic aldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary dermatitis is common and overrepresented in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorants to be the incriminating products. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the significance of cinnamic aldehyde in deodorants for the development...... cinnamic aldehyde had been applied (P skin, can elicit axillary dermatitis within a few weeks....

  1. Application of Li2SiO3 as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xun Wang; Kung Tung Chen; Shiuh Tsuen Huang; Chiing Chang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel was synthesized from soybean oil by transesterification over Li2SiO3 catalyst. The Li2SiO3 can be used for biodiesel production directly without further drying or thermal pretreatment, no obvious difference in the FAME conversion (92.4-96.7%) between the air-exposed catalyst (24-72 h) and the fresh one (94.2%). This leads to important benefits when considering industrial applications of Li2SiO3 as a solid catalyst for storing and handling catalyst without taking special actions.

  2. Assessment of oxidative deterioration of soybean oil at ambient and sunlight storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Hussain, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to probe the extent of oxidative alterations in soybean oil (SBO, subjected to ambient and sunlight storage, over a period of 180 days. The magnitude of oxidative changes was monitored by the periodical measurement of peroxide value (PV, color, free fatty acid (FFA contents, refractive index (RI, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, conjugated trienes-, and iodine- values. At the end of storage period (180 days, the initial contents of FFA (0.02 % as oleic acid and PV (0.02 meq/kg of oil of the SBO samples subjected to ambient and sunlight storage reached the level of 1.77, 2.90 % and 20.52, 41.89 meq/kg of oil, respectively. The initial values of RI (40°C (1.4630, panisidine (1.10, conjugated dienes (0.08 and conjugated trienes (0.04 rose to the point of 1.4647, 1.4659; 36.13, 50.40; 23.97, 41.49 and 13.81, 19.35, respectively. Whereas, the iodine value (g of I /100 g of oil decreased from 138.00 to 126.18 and 118.04, respectively. At the end of storage period, the overall order, indicative of the oxidative changes in RI, FFA, IV, color (red + yellow, PV, P-anisidine, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes of the SBO subjected to ambient and sunlight storage was as follows: 1.001:1.002, 1.00:1.65, 0.91:0.86, 0.80:0.60 + 0.75:0.50, 1.00:2.04, 1.00:1.39, 1.00:1.73 and 1.00:1.40, respectively. The results of various parameters investigated in the present study demonstrated the magnitude of oxidative deterioration of the SBO samples exposed to sunlight to be significantly (P Se lleva a cabo un estudio para conocer las diferencias en la oxidación del aceite de soja conservado a temperatura ambiente y a la luz solar durante un periodo de 180 días. Los cambios en la oxidación fueron evaluados mediante medidas periódicas del índice de peroxidos, color, acidez libre, índice de refracción (RI, índice de p-anisidina, dienos conjugados e índice de yodo. Al final del periodo de almacenamiento, los niveles de

  3. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  4. Surface Film Adsorption and Lubricity of Soybean Oil In-Water Emulsion and Triblock Copolymer Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Taheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the surface film adsorption and lubricity of two different types of potential environmentally friendly cold metal forming lubricants: soybean vegetable oil in water VO/W emulsions and triblock copolymer aqueous solutions. The lubricants have different visual appearance, surface film adsorption characteristic, lubricity and surface cleaning behaviour. The effects of concentration, temperature and emulsification ultrasonic energy (for VO/W emulsion are studied. The result shows that the soybean VO/W emulsions have stronger adsorption, superior lubricity and anti-wear property compared to the copolymer solutions. The effect of temperature is investigated at 30 °C and 65 °C which are below and above cloud point of the aqueous copolymer solutions. Both lubricants show improved friction and anti-wear property at 65 °C. However, tenacious residual film remained on the discs surface after surface cleaning indicates lower cleanability of the soybean VO/W emulsions compared to the copolymer solutions, postulating the need for extra post-processing cleaning operations after cold forming process with VO/W emulsion lubricant.

  5. Carbon source pulsed feeding to attain high yield and high productivity in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production from soybean oil using Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Ienczak, Jaciane Lutz; Delgado, Cecília Romero; Taciro, Marilda Keico

    2012-06-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) biosynthesis from soybean oil by Cupriavidus necator was studied using a bench scale bioreactor. The highest cell concentration (83 g l(-1)) was achieved using soybean oil at 40 g l(-1) and a pulse of the same concentration. The PHB content was 81% (w/w), PHB productivity was 2.5 g l(-1) h(-1), and the calculated Y(p/s) value was 0.85 g g(-1). Growth limitation and the onset of PHB biosynthesis took place due to exhaustion of P, and probably also Cu, Ca, and Fe.

  6. Studies of the Kaneda Reaction in the Synthesis of Oocydin A/Haterumalide NA and Polyurethanes from Renewable Resources: Polyols from Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Amanda L.

    This thesis is broken down into two main projects. First, studies of the Kaneda reaction in the synthesis of oocydin A/haterumalide NA and, second, polyurethanes from renewable resources: polyols from soybean oil. In Chapter I, the stereoselectivity of the Kaneda reaction was studied. The driving interest stemmed from the hypothesis that one epimer of an acyclic precursor could give the desired bicyclic core of oocydin A/haterumalide NA. In Chapter II, the work toward new polyols from soybean oil is discussed. Renewable content in polyurethanes on the market is still low because of economics and performance. Our ideas for new polyol systems are presented.

  7. Study on Garl ic Deodorization Method%大蒜脱臭方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郁松; 窦金社; 李龙刚

    2014-01-01

    对大蒜脱臭的不同方法进行了比较,分别采用了烫漂法、酸液漂烫法、植物油法、β-环糊精包埋法、微波法及超临界法,对不同方法的工艺条件、脱臭效果、产品感官性状、有效成分的保留等加以对比。结果表明:微波法和超临界法是两种比较理想的脱臭方法。%The comparison of different methods for garlic deodorization,such as blanching method, acid blanching method,vegetable oil method,β-cyclodextrin imbedding method,microwave method and supercritical method are adopted respectively,the process conditions,effect of deodorization, sensory properties,and efficient ingredients are compared.The results show that microwave extrac-tion and supercritical methods are two kinds of ideal deodorant methods.

  8. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  9. Method for the validation and uncertainty estimation of tocopherol analysis applied to soybean oil with addition of spices and TBHQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva, M. G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tocopherol contents of refined soybean oil with the addition of rosemary, oregano, garlic, annatto seeds and TBHQ was evaluated during storage at 25 °C and 35 °C for twelve months, in comparison with a control soybean oil without the antioxidant addition. The method proposed to assess the tocopherol content was validated and the uncertainty estimation was determined. The method presented adequate linearity and precision, accuracy between 93% and 103% and expanded uncertainty of 2%. The contents of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols of all the tested soybean oils remained constant during the storage at 25 °C and 35 °C regardless of antioxidant addition, while β-tocopherol content decreased. The addition of a mixture of rosemary, oregano, garlic and annatto seeds increased the concentration of γ- and δ-tocopherol. The oil with spices presented a similar behavior to that of the oil with the addition of TBHQ.La concentración de tocoferoles en aceite de soja refinado (muestra control, aceite de soja adicionado de romero, orégano, ajo, semilla de achiote y TBHQ fueron cuantificados durante el almacenamiento durante 12 meses a 25°C y 35°C. El método propuesto para medir tocoferoles fue validado y determinada la incertidumbre. Este método presentó linealidad y precisión adecuadas, exactitud entre 93% y 103% además de una incertidumbre expandida de 2%. Las cantidades de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol en el aceite de soja refinado, aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos y aceite de soja adicionado con TBHQ se mantuvieron constantes durante el almacenamiento a 25°C y 35°C con excepción del β-tocoferol el cual disminuyó. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos (romero, orégano, ajo, y semilla de achiote presentó mayores concentraciones de γ- y δ-tocoferol en comparación con el aceite de soja refinado utilizado como control. El aceite de soja adicionado de condimentos presentó un comportamiento semejante al aceite de soja adicionado

  10. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  11. Enzymatic production of trans fatty acid free fat from partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO)--theory, strategy and practicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Development of an advanced process/production technology for healthful fats constitutes a major interest of plant oil refinery industry. In this work, a strategy to produce trans fatty acid (TFA) free (or low TFA) products from partially hydrogenated soybean oil by lipase-catalysed selective hydrolysis was proposed, where a physically founded mathematic model to delineate the multi-responses of the reaction as a function of selectivity factor was defined for the first time. The practicability of this strategy was assessed with commercial trans-selective Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) as a model biocatalyst based on a parameter study and fitting to the model. CAL-A was found to have a selectivity factor 4.26 and to maximally remove 73.3% of total TFAs at 46.5% hydrolysis degree.

  12. Comparison of Piascledine (Avocado and Soybean Oil) and Hormone Replacement Therapy in Menopausal-Induced Hot Flashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; dadjo, yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone. PMID:24250433

  13. 大豆油在储存过程中的变化%Change of soybean oil during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左青; 申晓刚; 陈元平

    2012-01-01

    The acid value and peroxide value of the crude soybean oil in oil tank were determined and the change law of the crude oil during storage was analyzed. The results showed that the change law of the acid value and peroxide value of crude soybean oil was the same, the acid value increased with the increase of the storage time and 0. 2 -0.4 mg/g was increased every year, but the peroxide value slowly increased as the storage time increased, and changed more by environment temperature change. The peroxide value increased rapidly when the temperature and oxygen concentration increased suddenly, but when the peroxide value reached a certain degree, it would decreased.%收集储备大豆原油在储存过程中酸值和过氧化值的数据,分析其在储存过程中的变化规律.结果表明:大豆原油的酸值和过氧化值变化规律相同,酸值随着储存时间的延长呈缓慢线性增长,年变化值在0.2~0.4 mg/g,过氧化值随着储存时间延长呈平稳慢慢上升趋势,其变化值受环境温度影响较大,在外部温度和氧气突然增加时过氧化值迅速上升,当达到一定值后分解下降.

  14. Soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions: effects of polyol functionality and hard segment content on properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2008-11-01

    The environmentally friendly vegetable-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions with very promising properties have been successfully synthesized without difficulty from a series of methoxylated soybean oil polyols (MSOLs) with different hydroxyl functionalities ranging from 2.4 to as high as 4.0. The resulting soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane (SPU) dispersions exhibit a uniform particle size, which increases from about 12 to 130 nm diameter with an increase in the OH functionality of the MSOL from 2.4 to 4.0 and decreases with increasing content of the hard segments. The structure and thermophysical and mechanical properties of the resulting SPU films, which contain 50-60 wt % MSOL as renewable resources, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. The experimental results reveal that the functionality of the MSOLs and the hard segment content play a key role in controlling the structure and the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the SPU films. These novel films exhibit tensile stress-strain behavior ranging from elastomeric polymers to rigid plastics and possess Young's moduli ranging from 8 to 720 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 4.2 to 21.5 MPa, and percent elongation at break values ranging from 16 to 280%. This work has addressed concerns regarding gelation and higher cross-linking caused by the high functionality of vegetable-oil-based polyols. This article reports novel environmentally friendly biobased SPU materials with promising applications as decorative and protective coatings.

  15. Soybean oil transesterification: Study of using Nb2O5.xH2O as catalyst in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic and environmental reasons show a trend towards replacing fossil fuels with biofuels such as those from triglycerides. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils and animal fat through several processes such as transesterification, esterification, usually with methanol, ethanol or through pyrolysis, all of them in the presence of an acid or basis catalyst. The use of solid catalysts in biodiesel production has the following advantages: easy recovery and reuse, thus decreasing process costs and amount of waste generated.1 Some of the problems in the use of solid catalysts are: low concentration of active sites, microporosity, and leaching of active sites.2 Studies aiming at developing methodologies involving hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in biodiesel production have been carried out by our research group.3,4 Parameters such as the use of assistant solvent to increase the boiling point of the mixture (toluene, ethylene glycol, and DMSO, pre-thermal treatment (calcinations and catalyst molar concentration were initially assessed in esterification, oleic acid, and methanol reactions.  From these studies we could observe that high temperatures and excessive alcohol favor esterification reactions.  The best reaction conditions were then used as models and employed in transesterification reactions of soybean oil.  DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide was the solvent used to increase the reaction medium temperature without evaporating all the methanol. Transesterification reactions were carried out with soybean oil (0.5 g, methanol (0.85 g, DMSO (2.50 ml, and hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in ratios of 20% and 100% (in relation to oil mass.  Catalyst was employed without pretreatment and after pretreatment at 115 °C, 300 °C, and 500 °C. The reactions occurred at 170 °C, under reflux for 48 hours.  A reaction without a catalyst was also carried out. All the reactions have shown conversion using CCD and they have been determined by 1H NMR

  16. Stimulating the biosynthesis of antroquinonol by addition of effectors and soybean oil in submerged fermentation of Antrodia camphorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong-Dan; Lu, Rui-Qiu; Liao, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2016-05-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a precious medicinal mushroom that has attracted increasing attentions. Antroquinonol has been considered as being among the most biologically active components of A. camphorata. However, it was hardly biosynthesized via conventional submerged fermentation. Two approaches were applied to stimulate the biosynthesis of antroquinonol in submerged fermentation. On one hand, different kinds of effectors that may involve in the antroquinonol biosynthesis were investigated. Among the tested effectors, camphorwood leach liquor was the most effective for stimulating the antroquinonol production. On the other hand, because of the hydrophobic characteristics of antroquinonol, soybean oil was added to establish an extractive fermentation system for alleviating the product inhibition and resulting in enhanced productivity. The highest antroquinonol concentration could be achieved at 89.06 ± 0.14 mg/L when 10% (v/v) soybean oil was added at the beginning of the fermentation. This study will be of great significance for the study of A. camphorata and the bioprocess regulation of antroquinonol production.

  17. Sn-1,3-specific Interesterification of Soybean Oil with Medium-chain Triacylglycerol Catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli Yang; Ying Mu; Hongtao Chen; Chunyang Su; Tiankui Yang; Zhilong Xiu

    2014-01-01

    abstract The structured lipids are produced through sn-1,3-specific interesterification of soybean oil with medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in continuous reactions catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginose lipase (Lipozyme TL IM). Cheap Lipozyme TL IM presents similar interesterification degree (ID), sn-1,3-specificity and residual activity as expensive Rhizomucor miehei in batch reactions. In packed-bed interesterification of soybean oil with MCT cat-alyzed by Lipozyme TL IM, the residence time has a significant effect on ID, while temperature has a smal effect at 45-70 °C. The sn-1,3-specificity of Lipozyme TL IM is not satisfactory when reaction temperature is higher than 60 °C. The optimal residence time and temperature are 30-40 min and 55 °C, respectively. Among the solvents, including acetone, isopropanol, tert-butanol, and isobutanol, used to recover the activity of the used Lipozyme TL IM, acetone is the most suitable one than the other solvents.

  18. Glymes as benign co-solvents for CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaokun; Zhao, Hua; Song, Zhiyan; Olubajo, Olarongbe

    2013-07-01

    The base (such as CaO)-catalyzed heterogeneous preparation of biodiesel encounters a number of obstacles including the need for CaO pretreatment and the reactions being incomplete (typically 90-95% yields). In this study, a number of glymes were investigated as benign solvents for the CaO-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel with a high substrate loading (typically soybean oil >50% v/v). The triglyceride-dissolving capability of glymes led to a much faster reaction rate (>98% conversions in 4h) than in methanol alone (typically 24h) and minimized the saponification reaction when catalyzed by anhydrous CaO or commercial lime without pre-activation. The use of glyme (e.g. P2) as co-solvent also activates commercial lime to become an effective catalyst without calcination pretreatment. The SEM images suggest a dissolution-agglomeration process of CaO surface in the presence of P2, which could remove the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 layer coated on the surface of lime.

  19. Effects of temperature and moisture during semi-hermetic storage on the quality evaluation parameters of soybean grain and oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor Ziegler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill is the most cultivated oilseed in the world, being of major importance in food, feed and biodiesel production. The quality of the product being marketed is directly influenced by storage techniques, and the grain moisture, temperature and storage time are primarily responsible for most of the amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and humidity during the semi-hermetic storage on chemical and technological parameters for assessing the quality of soybean. The kernels were stored for 12 months in semi-hermetic system with two combinations temperature (15 to 25 °C and humidity (12 and 16% and then evaluated for the occurrence of plagues, variations in humidity, levels of lipids and proteins, protein solubility, oil quality, carotenoids, color, enthalpy and thousand grain weight. The results showed that the increase in storage time leads to changes in chemical and technological parameters. The preservation of the parameters of acid oil and thousand grain weight was dependent reductions in moisture, while the incidence of pests, protein solubility, enthalpy, carotenoid levels and parameters of color preservation were preserved by reducing temperature.

  20. 不同环境条件下大豆籽粒蛋白质和油分含量与指数的遗传效应分析%Analysis of Genetic Effects on Contents and Indexed of Protein and Oil in Soybean Seeds in Different Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁海龙; 李文霞; 李文滨; 王继安

    2005-01-01

    Protein and oil are two of the important quantitative traits closely related to the nutrient quality in soybean(Glycine max [L. ] Merry). The content and yield of protein and oil have become one of the main goals in soybean breeding. For soybean breeding programs, understanding the inheritance is of importance. Genetic analyses of protein and oil content in soybean seed have been reported. Most of the studies showed that protein and oil content are quantitatively inherited. Genetic effects, heritability and correlation of protein and oil content in soybean seeds have been estimated.

  1. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C.

  2. Cold Storage Stability of Blend Oil from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Different Melting Points%大豆油调和不同熔点棕榈液油的冷藏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏喜; 刘立萍; 李慧; Ooi Cheng KEAT

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide references for preparing blend oil from soybean oil and palm oil with different melting points, the effects of different types and amounts of anti-crystallization agent and soybean oil-to-palm oil ratio on the cold storage stability of blend oil were studied. The best anti-crystallization agent was hydroxyl stearin at a dose of 0.025%. The blend oil A composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 10 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 16 hours at 0 ℃ and more than 72 h at 5℃. The blend oil B composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 30 h at 10℃. The blend oil C composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 20 h at 15℃. The blend oil D composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% μm olein with melting point of 24℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 10 h.%为了制备适应不同储存温度的豆油.棕榈液油调和油,以大豆油与不同熔点棕榈液油为原料,采用冷藏试验方法优化抑晶剂种类、用量和调和油配方。结果表明,羟基硬脂精是效果最佳的抑晶剂,其最佳添加量为0.025%;调和油1(豆油70%+10℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在0℃环境下储存可保持16h以上澄清透亮,在5℃条件可保持72h以上澄清透亮;调和油2(豆油70%+18℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在10℃环境下可保持30h以上澄清透亮;调和油3(豆油60%+18℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在15℃环境下可保持20h以上澄清透亮;调和油4(豆油60%+24℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在20℃环境下可保持10h以上澄清透亮。

  3. Effect of Furan Fatty Acids and 3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione on Light-Induced Off-Odor in Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Takashi; Okabe, Ryo; Iwahashi, Maiko; Imagi, Jun; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2017-02-28

    Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed vegetable oils. However, under photooxidative conditions, this oil develops a beany and green off-odor through a mechanism that has not yet been elucidated. Upon photooxidation, 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (3-MND) produces a strong aroma. In this study, the effect of furan fatty acids and 3-MND on odor reversion in soybean oil was investigated. Our findings suggest that the observed light-induced off-odor was likely attributable to the furan fatty acids present in the oil through the generation of 3-MND. While 3-MND may not be directly responsible for the development of light-induced off-odor, this compound appears to be involved because off-odor was detected in canola oil samples containing added 3-MND. In addition, in the present work, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, which is derived from 3-MND, was identified for the first time in light-exposed soybean oil and shown to be one of the compounds responsible for odor reversion.

  4. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasan, M.; Gecgel, U.; Demirci, M.

    2011-07-01

    Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 {+-} 0.41, 0.51 {+-} 0.24, 1.27 {+-} 0.57, and 0.26 {+-} 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used. (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Comparison of broiler meat quality when fed diets supplemented with neutralized sunflower soapstock or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekel, A Y; Demirel, G; Midilli, M; Yalcintan, H; Ekiz, B; Alp, M

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat type and level on broiler meat quality. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 types of fat including neutralized sunflower soapstock (NSS) and soybean oil (SO) at 3 levels of fat inclusion (2, 4, and 6%) was used with 5 replicates per treatment using 750 one-day-old broiler chicks in a completely randomized design. At the end of the study (d 36), 10 broilers from each replication were processed at a commercial slaughtering facility. Six carcasses from each replicate were used for meat quality evaluation. With the exception of 3 responses [breast meat lightness (L*) at 1 and 2 d, and redness (a*) at 5 d], there were no interactions between fat source and level. Breast meat pH at 15 min was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. However, breast meat pH at 24 h postmortem was decreased (P < 0.01) in broilers fed the NSS. Breast meat cooking loss, shear force, and color did not differ between fat sources. Breast meat cooking loss decreased (P < 0.05) when the dietary levels of fat increased. Thigh meat TBA reactive substances were not different due to dietary fat source and level. Breast meat and skin L* value significantly decreased when the dietary levels of fat increased. Breast meat a* value was highest for the 6% fat fed birds on d 2 (P < 0.05) and d 5 (P < 0.01). Higher dietary fat levels decreased the b* values of breast meat except d 5. Breast skin yellowness (b*) value was higher (P < 0.01) for the SO-fed birds compared with NSS-fed birds. Thigh meat of the birds fed the NSS was lighter (P < 0.05) than that of the birds fed SO diets except d 5. Overall, data suggest that NSS can be used as an alternative fat source to SO with little effect on meat quality.

  6. Fluoroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O) catalysis: The ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) catalyzed by a super acid, fluroantimonic acid hexahydrate (HSbF6-6H2O), in ethyl acetate was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymerized ESO (SA-RPESO) were characterized by using infrared (IR...

  7. Control of powdery mildew on glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurms, K.V.; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very serious disease affecting glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands. Control is limited because of resistance to existing fungicides. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and soybean oil (SBO) emulsions were evaluated for control of PM in roses and tomatoes. Both AM

  8. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  9. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  10. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelda Dantas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m²g- 1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m²g- 1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion.

  11. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenhria de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 Degree-Sign C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 {sup m2}g{sup -1} and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  12. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi; Mustafa Ghanadian; Ali Farzan; Niloufar Shiri; Dariush Shokri; Syed Ali Fatemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer′s disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobia...

  13. Antioxidant Properties and Composition of Deodorized Extracts of Tussilago farfara L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dobravalskytė

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Residues obtained after isolating essential oil very often constitute more than 99% of the total raw material. Such residues are poorly exploited although they may represent a potential sustainable source for valuable natural products. This study investigated antioxidant properties and the composition of bioactive compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols present in the deodorized extracts of Tussilago farfara flowers and stems collected in Lithuania and South of France, which were isolated with acetone, methanol or ethanol. Online HPLC/UV/DPPH scavenging assay showed that among 8 identified by HPLC/MS compounds, di caffeoylquinic acids and quercetin pentoside were the major radical scavengers in the T. farfara extracts .

  14. Influence of ruminal or duodenal soybean oil infusion on intake, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Bohman, V R

    1991-06-01

    Six heifers (two Hereford X Jersey, four Hereford X Longhorn; average BW 278 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and fed a grass hay (fescue/orchardgrass) diet were used in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin square. Treatments were either no infusion (C), 150 ml of duodenally infused soybean oil (DI), or 150 ml of ruminally infused soybean oil (RI)/heifer twice daily for a total daily infusion of 300 ml of soybean oil. Periods of the Latin square included 18 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection. Forage OM, ADF, NDF, and N intakes were not affected (P greater than .10) by soybean oil infusion. Ruminal (P = .11) and total tract (P less than .10) OM digestibilities were decreased by RI compared with C or DI, but ADF and NDF digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Duodenal N (P less than .05) and microbial N flows were increased (P less than .10) for C and RI compared with DI. Microbial efficiency (g of N/kg of OM truly fermented) was improved (P less than .10) by RI compared with DI but did not differ (P greater than .10) from C. Ruminal pH was lower (P less than .05) with RI than with either C or DI. Ruminal NH3 N, total VFA, and acetate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Propionate (mol/100 mol) was greater (P less than .05) with RI than with DI and C, but the proportion of butyrate did not differ among treatments. These data indicate minimal direct benefits for improving forage usage as a result of soybean oil infusion with a 100% grass diet; however, animals should realize benefits from additional dietary energy provided by infused lipid.

  15. Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and 4-Vinylcatechol on the Stabilities of Oil-in-Water Emulsions of Stripped Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cai-Hua; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2015-12-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) were prepared for studying their antioxidative activities in emulsion. Oil-in-water emulsions of stripped soybean oil containing 200 ppm of CAPE, 4-VC, or α-tocopherol were stored at 40 °C in the dark for 50 days, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) was used to identify and quantify the oxidation products. Emulsion droplet sizes, peroxide values, and levels of primary oxidation products (i.e., hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (i.e., aldehydes) were determined. The results showed that CAPE (200 ppm) and 4-VC (200 ppm) had significantly greater antioxidant activities on the oxidation of stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions than α-tocopherol (200 ppm). The peroxide values of CAPE (8.4 mequiv/L emulsion) and 4-VC (15.0 mequiv/L emulsion) were significantly lower than that of α-tocopherol (33.4 mequiv/L emulsion) (p < 0.05) on 36 days. In addition, the combinations of CAPE + α-tocopherol (100 + 100 ppm) or 4-VC + α-tocopherol (100 + 100 ppm) had better antioxidant activities than α-tocopherol (200 ppm). For CAPE + α-tocopherol, 4-VC + α-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol, the amounts of conjugated diene forms were 16.67, 13.72, and 16.32 mmol/L emulsion, and the concentrations of aldehydes were 2.15, 1.13, and 4.26 mmol/L emulsion, respectively, after 50 days of storage.

  16. Simultaneous determination of isoflavones and resveratrols for adulteration detection of soybean and peanut oils by mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ma, Fei; Li, Peiwu; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liangxiao; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Xiupin

    2015-06-01

    To ensure authenticity of vegetable oils, isoflavones (genistein, genistin, daidzein and daidzin) and resveratrols (cis-resveratrol and trans-resveratrol) were selected as the putative markers for adulteration of soybean and peanut oils. Firstly, mixed mode solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS) method was developed to analyze isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils. The concentration of marker compounds in vegetable oils were 0.08-1.47mgkg(-1) for daidzein, ND-78.9μgkg(-1) for daidzin, 0.40-5.89mgkg(-1) for genistein, 1.2-114.9μgkg(-1) for genistin, 3.1-85.0μgkg(-1) for trans-resveratrol and 1.9-51.0μgkg(-1) for cis-resveratrol, which are compatible with the raw materials for oil press. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully tested in thirteen vegetable oils from the market. Mixed-mode SPE LC-MS/MS method can simultaneously detect isoflavones and resveratrols in vegetable oils and assess adulteration and quality of soybean and peanut oils.

  17. Migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist closures into food and enforcement of the overall migration limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G A; Jensen, L K; Fankhauser, A; Biedermann, S; Petersen, J H; Fabech, B

    2008-04-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di-iso-nonylphthalates (DINP), were found in seven samples at 6-173 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations (99-173 mg kg(-1)) were in products of garlic and tomatoes in oil and in fatty food products such as sauce béarnaise and peanut butter. For five of the samples the overall migration from unused lids to the official fatty food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market.

  18. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  19. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  20. Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oil against Pomegranate Seed as Antioxidant on the in vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is an inevitable consequence of intensive production due to mismatched balance between free radical production and natural antioxidant capacity of animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS refers to a group of free radicals produced by oxidative energy cycle and also recently demonstrated to be as a weapon for macrophage cells. Moreover, feed processing phenomena such as extruding and pelleting is one of the major sources of ROS production in feed due to lipid peroxidation and notably oxidation cascades in unstable organic matters of feed. Although ROS could be a source of adverse effect on fiber degradation in the gut of ruminant by reducing microbial population counts and diversity, because rumen bacterial, protozoal and fungal community as well as eukaryotes are susceptible to oxidative damages. Therefore, using plant or feed base antioxidant in the diet of dairy animals would be necessary in further feeding strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of pomegranate seed against the adverse effect of peroxide content of feed that induced by supplementation of oxidized soybean oil as energy and fiber source in preparturient dairy goats. Materials and Methods The gas production experiment and batch culture degradability test were carried out to investigate the effects of fresh soybean oil (FSO, oxidized soybean oil (OSO and biologically active constituents of pomegranate seed (PS on microbial fermentation characteristics, kinetics of gas production, methane and carbon dioxide production, in vitro dry matter degradation (DMD, t 0.5, and lag time. Also, the calculated parameters e.g. microbial protein, molar proportion of volatile fatty acids, metabolizable energy (ME, and organic matter digestibility (OMD % were evaluated for different treatments. The parameters were analyzed through the completely randomized design with repeated measurements. The treatments were 1 base diet and FSO (4% of dry

  1. Optimization and modeling for the synthesis of sterol esters from deodorizer distillate by lipase-catalyzed esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Jiang; Zeng, Aiwu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, cotton seed oil deodorizer distillate (CSODD), was recovered to obtain fatty acid sterol ester (FASE), which is one of the biological activated substances added as human therapeutic to lower cholesterol. Esterification reactions were carried out using Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst, and the conversion of phytosterol was optimized using response surface methodology. The highest conversion (90.8 ± 0.4%) was reached at 0.84 wt% enzyme load, 1:25 solvent/CSODD mass ratio, and 44.2 °C after 12 H reaction. A kinetic model based on the reaction rate equation was developed to describe the reaction process. The activation energy of the reaction was calculated to be 56.9 kJ/mol and the derived kinetic parameters provided indispensable basics for further study. The optimization and kinetic research of synthesizing FASE from deodorizer distillate provided necessary information for the industrial applications in the near future. Experimental results showed that the proposed process is a promising alternative to recycle sterol esters from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates in a mild, efficient, and environmental friendly method. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Study on cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis & expression of cyclooxygenase-2 & peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women; dietary fat is the one of the factors that influences its incidence. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in rat and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in mammary gland. Two groups of 21 day old female rats (30 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30 mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 wk feeding. Another two groups (8 each) fed similarly but not given DMBA served as control for the gene expression study. In DMBA treated groups, the animal fed soybean oil had higher tumour incidence (65.4%), tumour weight (6.18 g) and tumour volume (6285 mm3) compared to those fed cow ghee (26.6%, 1.67 g, 1925 mm3, respectively). Tumour latency period was 23 wk on soybean oil compared to 27 wk on cow ghee. Histological analysis of tumours showed that the progression of carcinogenesis was more rapid on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was observed only in DMBA treated rats and it was significantly less on cow ghee than on soybean oil. The expression of PPAR-γ was significantly more on cow ghee than on soybean oil. Our results show that dietary cow ghee opposed to soybean oil attenuates mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA; and the effect is mediated by decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of PPAR-γ in the former group.

  3. Dietary ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid but not soybean oil reverses central interleukin-1-induced changes in behavior, corticosterone and immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Leonard, Brian E; Horrobin, David F

    2004-03-01

    Omega (n)-3 and n-6 fatty acids are important membrane components of neurons and immune cells, and related to psychiatric and inflammatory diseases. Increased ratio of n-6/n-3 in the blood has been reported in depressed patients and in students following stress exposure. The n-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA) suppresses inflammation and has antidepressant properties. Interleukin (IL)-1beta can stimulate corticosterone secretion, induce anxiety and stress-like behavior and inflammatory responses. This study was to evaluate the effect of diets enriched with coconut oil, ethyl-EPA and soybean oil on central IL-1beta induced stress and anxiety-like behavior, induced changes in the concentration of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and corticosterone and the release of IL-10. Groups of rats were fed with either 5% coconut oil (as control diet), 0.2% EPA with 4.8% coconut oil or 1% EPA with 4% coconut oil and 5% soybean oil for 7 weeks. The central administration of IL-1beta induced sickness, stress and anxiety-like behavior as indicated by a reduction in body weight, decreased time spent, and the number of entries, into the open arms of the elevated plus maze and decreased exploration and entry into the central zone of the "open field" apparatus. IL-1beta also increased PGE2 and corticosterone concentrations and decreased the release of IL-10 from leucocytes. Food enriched with ethyl-EPA but not soybean oil, significantly attenuated most of these changes. These results demonstrate that ethyl-EPA has anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and anti-anxiety effects in rats.

  4. Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masato Kouzu; Takekazu Kasuno; Masahiko Tajika; Yoshikazu Sugimoto; Shinya Yamanaka; Jusuke Hidaka [Keihanna Interaction Plaza Inc., Kyoto (Japan). JST-KFPT Core Research Center

    2008-09-15

    In order to study solid base catalyst for biodiesel production with environmental benignity, transesterification of edible soybean oil with refluxing methanol was carried out in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO), -hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}), or -carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). At 1 h of reaction time, yield of FAME was 93% for CaO, 12% for Ca(OH){sub 2}, and 0% for CaCO{sub 3}. Under the same reacting condition, sodium hydroxide with the homogeneous catalysis brought about the complete conversion into FAME. Also, CaO was used for the further tests transesterifying waste cooking oil (WCO) with acid value of 5.1 mg-KOH/g. The yield of FAME was above 99% at 2 h of reaction time, but a portion of catalyst changed into calcium soap by reacting with free fatty acids included in WCO at initial stage of the transesterification. Owing to the neutralizing reaction of the catalyst, concentration of calcium in FAME increased from 187 ppm to 3065 ppm. By processing WCO at reflux of methanol in the presence of cation-exchange resin, only the free fatty acids could be converted into FAME. The transesterification of the processed WCO with acid value of 0.3 mg-KOH/g resulted in the production of FAME including calcium of 565 ppm. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  6. Effects of Chlorinated Paraffin and ZDDP Concentrations on Boundary Lubrication Properties of Mineral and Soybean Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chlorinated paraffin (CP) and zinc di-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) concentration in polar and non-polar base fluids on boundary lubrication properties was investigated. The non-polar fluid was a solvent refined low sulfur heavy paraffinic mineral oil (150N oil); and the polar fl...

  7. 一级大豆油抗冻性影响因素的研究%Influencing factors of frost resistance of first grade soybean oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱军

    2013-01-01

    从原料大豆和加工工艺两个角度系统地分析了一级大豆油抗冻性的主要影响因素.结果表明:脂肪酸组成的分布情况对一级大豆油抗冻性影响很大,在一定程度上,饱和脂肪酸含量与凝固时间有较好的相关性;不同原料产地的大豆生产出来的大豆油因脂肪酸组成的分布不同,导致其抗冻性有一定的差异;加工工艺的影响是通过加工过程中改变脂肪酸组成的分布情况进而改变成品油的抗冻性,指标相近的大豆毛油经过不同的加工工艺精炼,得到的一级大豆油的抗冻性有时会有很大的差异.%The main influencing factors of frost resistance of first grade soybean oil were analyzed from the raw soybean and processing. The results showed that the distribution of fatty acid composition had great effect on frost resistance. To some extent, the content of saturated fatty acid and solidification time had good correlation. Due to the differences of fatty acid composition distributions of soybean oils produced by raw soybeans of different sources, the frost resistance was different. It was the change of the distribution of fatty acid composition during the refining process that affected the frost resistance of product oil. Produced by different refining processes, though indexes of the crude soybean oils were similar, the frost resistance of first grade soybean oils sometimes had great differences.

  8. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Ptallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; Ptallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  9. Utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost for Improvement of Acid Mineral Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermadani Ermadani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluent from a palm oil mill contains organic matters and nutrients. It can result in water pollution when it is discharged into river without treatment. One way to manage this effluent is through composting that has potential to allow the recycling of effluent nutrients in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner so that it can be used as organic fertilizer. This study wasintended to evaluate the benefit of effluent compost application to improve soil chemical properties and soybean yield. Effluent wascomposted with chicken manure and lime for eight weeks. A pot experiment of which each pot was filled with 10 kg of soil (Ultisolwas conducted in a screen house from April to November 2012 at the Experimental Farm, University of Jambi, Muaro JambiResidency. The treatments were without compost (adding 0,25 g Urea, 0,75 g SP-36 and 0,50 g KCl and compost application with amounts of 12,5 ml, 25 ml, 37,5 ml, 50 ml, 62,5 ml, and 75 ml. The indicator plant was soybean. The treatments were arranged in acompletely randomized design and replicated four times. Results of study showed a significant improvement of soil chemicalproperties with compost application in which application of 75 ml compost resulted in the highest increase of pH, organic C, cationexchange capacity, total N, available P, exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg. Furthermore, the dry weight of shoot, pod number and dryweight of seed increased significantly with compost application. The highest dry weight of seed was 28 g (equivalent to 2, 82 t ha-1obtained by compost application of 75 ml (equivalent to 15 t ha -1.

  10. 21 CFR 884.5460 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual tampon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scented or scented deodorized menstrual tampon... Therapeutic Devices § 884.5460 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual tampon. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual tampon is a device that is a plug made of cellulosic or...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5425 - Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. 884... Therapeutic Devices § 884.5425 Scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad. (a) Identification. A scented or scented deodorized menstrual pad is a device that is a pad made of cellulosic or synthetic material...

  12. Isolation of soybean protein P34 from oil bodies using hydrophobic interaction chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidel-Morgenstern Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybeans play a prominent role in allergologic research due to the high incidence of allergic reactions. For detailed studies on specific proteins it is necessary to have access to a large amount of pure substance. Results In this contribution, a method for purifying soybean (Glycine max protein P34 (also called Gly m Bd 30 K or Gly m 1 using hydrophobic interaction chromatography is presented. After screening experiments using 1 mL HiTrap columns, Butyl Sepharose 4 FF was selected for further systematic investigations. With this stationary phase, suitable operation conditions for two-step gradient elution using ammonium sulphate were determined experimentally. The separation conditions obtained in a small column could be scaled up successfully to column volumes of 7.5 and 75 mL, allowing for high product purities of almost 100% with a yield of 27% for the chromatographic separation step. Conditions could be simplified further using a onestep gradient, which gave comparable purification in a shorter process time. The identity of the purified protein was verified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometry as well as immunological techniques. Conclusion With the technique presented it is possible to produce, within a short timeframe, pure P34, suitable for further studies where an example antigen is needed.

  13. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M M

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2-3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7-1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  14. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Phansak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca. 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating. A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%, and for oil in 25 (52%, of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg–1 and R2 values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed.

  15. Application of the Diatomite in Soap Removal of the Soybean Oil without Water%硅藻土在豆油脱皂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝育忠; 李星; 徐远明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study application of the diatomite in soap removal of the soybean oil without water.[Method] Centrifugal soap-removal oil as test sample,diatomite as adsorbent,the optimal condition of soap removal of the soybean oil without water was studied.[Result] Under 0.5% of diatomite dosage,110 ℃ of adsorption temperature and 25 min of adsorption time,residual soap amount in obtained oil sample was 68.5 mg/kg,and residual phosphorus amount was 1.317 mg/kg,which was better than oil quality after soap removal by washing in industry.[Conclusion] It was feasible to use diatomite in soap removal of the soybean oil.%[目的]研究硅藻土在豆油脱皂中的应用.[方法]以离心脱皂油为试样,硅藻土为吸附剂,研究豆油无水脱皂的最佳条件.[结果]硅藻土用量为0.5%,吸附温度为110℃,吸附时间为25 min时,所得的油样残皂为68.5 mg/kg,残磷为1.317 mg/kg,均优于工业上水洗脱皂后的油品质量.[结论]硅藻土在豆油脱皂中的应用是可行的.

  16. Performance of phytochemical antioxidant systems in refined-bleached-deodorized palm olein during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Che Man, Yaacob B; Hassan, Torla H

    2005-01-01

    Antioxidants are important inhibitory compounds against the oxidative deterioration of food. This study investigated the effects of various phytochemical antioxidant systems [oleoresin rosemary (OR), oleoresin sage (OS) and citric acid (CA)] on the physico-chemical characteristics of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during the frying of potato chips. The effects of various mixtures of the antioxidants on the oil was also studied in repeated deep frying. The response surface methodology was used to optimize the composition of mixed antioxidants used. A comparative study was carried out with synthetic antioxidants. Samples of the oil after frying were analyzed for different physical and chemical properties. OR and OS were found to be effective phytochemical antioxidants protecting RBD palm olein against oxidative deterioration during frying.

  17. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  18. Effect of processed oils and fats on cholesterol metabolism. III. ; Comparison of the effects of palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. Kako yushi no cholesterol taisha ni oyobosu eikyo. (3). ; Palm yu to koka daizuyu oyobi cacao abura tono eikyo no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.; Chimi, K.; Kanematsu, H.; Niiya, I. (Japan Institute of Oils and Fats, Other Foods Inspection, Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Shimura, M. (Japan Margaruibe, Shortening and Lard Industries Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizutani, H. (Ueda Oils and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Hirai, C. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology)

    1991-09-20

    Effects on cholesterol contained in serum lipids, levers and feces of rats and the metabolism were compared between palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. In addition, the relations to the physical and chemical properties of these oils were also studied. In the case of cacao butter, saturated triglyceride of high fusing point was not contained at all and the main component is 2-oleo-1,3-disaturated glycerides. This component was the main cause for cacao butter to show the unique behavior. Concerning the cholesterol concentrations in lever, the hardened soybean oil group tended to be lower than other 3 groups and this tendency agreed approximately with that in serum. Cholesterol in the feces was also analyzed. Cholesteol content in the case of cacao butter was higher than those for the hardened soybean oil group and palm oil group, and much higher than that of the soybean oil group. But the lathosterol content did not show any significant difference compared with that of palm oil group, and the coprostanol content showed the lower value, which had the significant difference. 14 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica lindl.) skin and the feasibility of their application to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Kenari, Reza Esmaeilzadeh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    The effects of ultrasound-assisted, supercritical CO2 and solvent extraction techniques on antioxidant activity of loqua (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin extract in oxidation stability of soybean oil was evaluated. The antioxidant efficacy of extracts was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene/linoleic acid, and Rancimat test system. Results showed that solvent extract of loquat fruit skin at 400 ppm had the highest antioxidant activity compared to ultrasound-assisted and supercritical CO2 extracts. Further, solvent extraction was the most effective method for extraction of phenolic compounds. Protective effects of extracts in stabilization of soybean oil during both frying and storage conditions were tested and compared to tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) by measuring their peroxide value, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes and trienes value. During frying process solvent extract of skin at 400 ppm (SOEA) exhibited stronger antioxidant activity in oil compared to other oil samples, but this antioxidant potential was lower than TBHQ in storage conditions. Present study showed that loquat fruit skin is a good source of natural antioxidant compounds, and has the potential to be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants in vegetable oils.

  20. The reactivity of linseed and soybean oil with different epoxidation degree towards vinyl acetate and impact of the resulting copolymer on the wood durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jebrane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (LO and soybean oil (SO were in–situ epoxidized with peracetic acid to produce different degree of epoxidized LO and epoxidized SO. For comparison purpose, commercial epoxidized linseed oil (ELO® and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO® were also included in the study. The effect of epoxidation degree on the copolymerization reaction between epoxidized oils and vinyl acetate (VAc was investigated. Results showed that a copolymer can be formed between VAc and epoxidized LO with high epoxy content, while no reaction occurred between VAc and SO or its epoxidized derivatives. As the most reactive monomer among the studied oils, the epoxidized LO with highest epoxy content (i.e. ELO® was mixed with VAc and then impregnated into the wood using three different ELO®/VAc formulations either as solution or as emulsions. After curing, the impact of the resulting copolymer issued from the three tested formulations on the wood durability was evaluated. Results showed that the formulation comprising VAc, ELO®, H2O, K2S2O8 and alkaline emulsifier (Formulation 3 can significantly improve wood’s durability against white rot- (Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana. Treated wood of 8% weight percentage gain (WPG was sufficient to ensure decay resistance against the test fungi with less than 5% mass loss.

  1. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuede; ZhangBaichun; LiuYulan; LiuGuoqin; ZhouZikuan; LuoShenming; XuZhaoyong; WangDeyuan; WangXuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding and exacting have obvious superiority in the oil process compared with soybean extracting directly.Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%,the steam consumption reduces by 15%,refinery rate by 0.5%,the urea enzyme activity of soybean meal is steady.Oil and soybean quality can be improved.The market latent capacity is hopeful.

  2. Composition and biological activity of essential oils from Labiatae against Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) soybean pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge O; Gutiérrez, María M; Murray, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2011-08-01

    Plant essential oils have been recognised as an important natural source of insecticide. This study analysed the chemical constituents and bioactivity of essential oils that were isolated via hydrodistillation from Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) against eggs, second instar and adults of Nezara viridula (L.). The major component of oregano was p-cymene, and, for thyme, thymol. The ovicidal activity was tested by topical application; the essential oil from thyme was more effective. The fumigant activity was evaluated in an enclosed chamber; the LC50 values for oregano were 26.8 and 285.6 µg mL(-1) for nymphs and adults respectively; for thyme they were 8.9 µg mL(-1) for nymphs and 219.2 µg mL(-1) for adults. To evaluate contact activity, a glass vial bioassay was used; the LC50 values for oregano were 1.7 and 169.2 µg cm(-2) for nymphs and adults respectively; for thyme they were 3.5 and 48.8 µg cm(-2) respectively. The LT50 analyses for contact and fumigant bioassays indicated that thyme was more toxic for nymphs and adults than oregano. Both oils produced repellency on nymphs and adults. These results showed that the essential oils from O. vulgare and T. vulgaris could be applicable to the management of N. viridula. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Evaluation of a diesel engine running with stationary mixtures of soybean oil and reused oil diesel; Avaliacao de um motor diesel estacionario funcionando com misturas de oleo de soja reutilizado e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maronhas, Maite E.S.; Fernandes, Haroldo C.; Siqueira, Wagner C.; Figueiredo, Augusto C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: maronhas@gmail.com, haroldo@ufv.br, augusto.figueiredo@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The tests were conducted at the Laboratory of Agricultural Mechanization Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa using a stationary diesel engine Yanmar brand NS{sub B} 75, with nominal power of 5.8 kw at 2400 rpm, direct injection, and water cooled. This work aimed to examine the reuse of soybean oil to drive the engine stationary. Were used as fuel five mixtures of diesel oil (DO) and soybean oil (OS) re-used in the kitchen of the restaurant of the university in the proportions of 0-100%, 25-75%, 50-50%, 75-25 % and 100-0% respectively. The power and torque of the engine is higher for the mixture showed a 75% OD and 25% OS and 25% lower for DO and 75% OS. The lowest hourly consumption was with a mixture of 25% and 75% OD and OS was 15% lower than for the pure diesel. The values found justifying the use of mixtures of diesel and soybean oil reused, but the technical aspects, especially regarding the wear of the engine, must be evaluated to indicate the use after a long period of engine operation. (author)

  4. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  5. Study on the low temperature behavior of first-level soybean oil%一级大豆油低温表现影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱军

    2012-01-01

    从化学组成角度探讨了一级大豆油的化学组分对其低温表现的影响,重点分析了脂肪酸组成与低温表现的相关性,考察了不同工段的油品以及不同白土添加量所得油品的低温表现情况.结果表明:在相同工艺条件下,油脂的饱和脂肪酸含量与凝固时间呈明显的负相关;随着加工工序的进行,从毛油到成品油,油品的低温表现逐渐下降;随着白土添加量的增大,所得油品越易凝固.%The influence on the low temperature behaviors of chemical composition of first -level soybean oil was investigated from the aspect of chemical constitution. During the experiment, the relationship of fatty acid composition and low temperature behaviors were analyzed selectively. In addition,the low temperature behaviors of the oils from different working section and the oils bleached with different amount of activated clay were discussed. The results showed that the negative correlation was observed between the content of saturated fatty acid of oils and the freezing time completely at 0℃ water bath. The low temperature behaviors of the oils were gradual declined from crude soybean oil to oil product in the progress of refining. For bleached oils, the more amount of activated clay was, the easier of clotting was.

  6. 转基因大豆对我国食用油产业链的影响%Impact of Genetically Modified Soybeans on China's Edible Oil Industry Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方刚; 唐宁; 张边江

    2012-01-01

    中国是食用油消费大国,又是食用油缺乏的大国,每年需从国外进口食用油约占总量的2/3.评述了转基因大豆的优缺点和我国转基因大豆油的生产消费情况,以及转基因大豆对我国食用油产业链的影响,分析了我国大豆生产与加工的出路,为我国转基因大豆食用油的生产、加工和消费提供了参考.%China is a big nation in terms of edible oil consumption, which lack of edible oil, and imported edible oil account for about two-thirds of the total each year. The advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified soybean , the production and consumption of soybeans oil, as well as impact of genetically modified soybeans on China's edible oil industry chain were reviewed. The production and processing of genetically modified soybeans were also analyzed. Then the references for genetically modified soybean oil production, processing, and consumption in China were provided.

  7. Discrimination of soybean oil adulterated frying oil by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance%煎炸老油掺伪大豆油的高场核磁检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉邯; 陈宇飞; 杨柳; 王维坚

    2016-01-01

    通过高场核磁共振仪检测了纯大豆油和掺伪了煎炸老油的大豆油并对谱图进行积分。通过谱图对比发现了三个鉴别指标,第一个鉴别指标是在δ=1.58处,纯大豆油有明显特征峰,而煎炸老油在该处无特征峰;第二个鉴别指标是在δ=2.77~2.84处,纯大豆油特征峰的积分面积高于掺伪了煎炸老油的大豆油(添加50%煎炸老油积分面积为1.51,纯大豆油积分面积为2.04),并且随着煎炸老油添加量的增加积分面积逐渐减小;第三个鉴别指标是在δ=5.25~5.42处,纯大豆油特征峰的积分面积明显高于掺伪了煎炸老油的大豆油(添加50%煎炸老油积分面积为3.98,纯大豆油积分面积为4.87),而且也随着煎炸老油添加量的增加积分面积逐渐减小。%The pure soybean oil and frying soybean oil were detected by high–field nuclear magnetic resonance instrument and the spectrograms were integrated. There were three identification methods. The first one was characteristic peak atδ=1.58 which could be detected obviously in the pure oil and couldn’t be detected in frying soybean oil. The second was atδ=2.77~2.84,where the integral area of pure soybean was higher than the frying oil (the integral area of add 50%frying oil was 1.51,and the integral area of pure soybean oil was 2.04). The third was atδ=5.25~5.42,where the integral area of pure soybean was also significantly higher than the frying oil(the integral area of add 50%frying oil was 3.98,the integral area of pure soybean oil was 4.87). And with the addition of frying oil,the integral area decreased.

  8. Assessing the potential additionality of certification by the Round table on Responsible Soybeans and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Rueda, Ximena; Noojipady, Praveen

    2016-04-01

    Multi-stakeholder roundtables offering certification programs are promising voluntary governance mechanisms to address sustainability issues associated with international agricultural supply chains. Yet, little is known about whether roundtable certifications confer additionality, the benefits of certification beyond what would be expected from policies and practices currently in place. Here, we examine the potential additionality of the Round table on Responsible Soybeans (RTRS) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in mitigating conversion of native vegetation to cropland. We develop a metric of additionality based on business as usual land cover change dynamics and roundtable standard stringency relative to existing policies. We apply this metric to all countries with RTRS (n = 8) and RSPO (n = 12) certified production in 2013-2014, as well as countries that have no certified production but are among the top ten global producers in terms of soy (n = 2) and oil palm (n = 2). We find RSPO and RTRS both have substantially higher levels of stringency than existing national policies except in Brazil and Uruguay. In regions where these certification standards are adopted, the mean estimated rate of tree cover conversion to the target crop is similar for both standards. RTRS has higher mean relative stringency than the RSPO, yet RSPO countries have slightly higher enforcement levels. Therefore, mean potential additionality of RTRS and RSPO is similar across regions. Notably, countries with the highest levels of additionality have some adoption. However, with extremely low adoption rates (0.41% of 2014 global harvested area), RTRS likely has lower impact than RSPO (14%). Like most certification programs, neither roundtable is effectively targeting smallholder producers. To improve natural ecosystem protection, roundtables could target adoption to regions with low levels of environmental governance and high rates of forest-to-cropland conversion.

  9. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas.

  10. Study of Soybean Oil Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase and Its Application to Biodiesel Production via Hydroesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa d'Avila Cavalcanti-Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of biodiesel production by the hydroesterification route that is proposed here involves a first step consisting of triacylglyceride hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL 100L to generate free fatty acids (FFAs. This step is followed by esterification of the FFAs with alcohol, catalyzed by niobic acid in pellets or without a catalyst. The best result for the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was obtained under reaction conditions of 50% (v/v soybean oil and 2.3% (v/v lipase (25 U/mL of reaction medium in distilled water and at 60∘C; an 89% conversion rate to FFAs was obtained after 48 hours of reaction. For the esterification reaction, the best result was with an FFA/methanol molar ratio of 1:3, niobic acid catalyst at a concentration of 20% (w/w FFA, and 200∘C, which yielded 92% conversion of FFAs to soy methyl esters after 1 hour of reaction. This study is exceptional because both the hydrolysis and the esterification use a simple reaction medium with high substrate concentrations.

  11. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  12. Enhanced selective extraction of hexane from hexane/soybean oil mixture using binary gas mixtures of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Fred J; Taylor, S L; Palmquist, Debra E

    2007-04-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) can effectively separate hexane from a mixture of soybean oil (SBO) and hexane with a slight coextraction of SBO. Previous research demonstrated that CO2 entrained with helium significantly reduced SBO solubility in CO2. In this study, CO2 was mixed with three gases (He, N2, or Ar) (0.5-30 vol %) to decrease SBO solubility while attempting to maintain hexane solubility. The binary gas mixtures (at 25 degrees C and 9.31 MPa) were passed through a 25 wt % hexane/SBO mixture inside a 2.5 m fractionation column. Coextracted SBO was inversely proportional to binary gas concentration, whereas residual hexane in the raffinate was proportional to binary gas concentration. The 10% binary mixture of N2 or Ar was the best compromise to obtain both low residual hexane levels (i.e., 26 ppm) and low SBO coextraction (i.e., only 40 mg). This carry-over of SBO represents a 95% reduction in SBO carry-over compared to neat CO2.

  13. Transfer of the epoxidation of soybean oil from batch to flow chemistry guided by cost and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralisch, Dana; Streckmann, Ina; Ott, Denise; Krtschil, Ulich; Santacesaria, Elio; Di Serio, Martino; Russo, Vincenzo; De Carlo, Lucrezia; Linhart, Walter; Christian, Engelbert; Cortese, Bruno; de Croon, Mart H J M; Hessel, Volker

    2012-02-13

    The simple transfer of established chemical production processes from batch to flow chemistry does not automatically result in more sustainable ones. Detailed process understanding and the motivation to scrutinize known process conditions are necessary factors for success. Although the focus is usually "only" on intensifying transport phenomena to operate under intrinsic kinetics, there is also a large intensification potential in chemistry under harsh conditions and in the specific design of flow processes. Such an understanding and proposed processes are required at an early stage of process design because decisions on the best-suited tools and parameters required to convert green engineering concepts into practice-typically with little chance of substantial changes later-are made during this period. Herein, we present a holistic and interdisciplinary process design approach that combines the concept of novel process windows with process modeling, simulation, and simplified cost and lifecycle assessment for the deliberate development of a cost-competitive and environmentally sustainable alternative to an existing production process for epoxidized soybean oil. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Exhaust emissions and fuel properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters blended with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N University St, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Williams, Aaron; McCormick, Robert L. [United States Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, ReFUEL Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Haas, Michael J. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 E Mermaid Ln, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Important fuel properties and emission characteristics of blends (20 vol.%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes were observed for B20 blends of SME and PHSME versus neat ULSD: improved lubricity, higher kinematic viscosity and cetane number, lower sulfur content, and inferior low-temperature properties and oxidative stability. With respect to exhaust emissions, B20 blends of PHSME and SME exhibited lower PM and CO emissions in comparison to those of neat ULSD. The PHSME blend also showed a significant reduction in THC emissions. Both SME and PHSME B20 blends yielded small increases in NO{sub x} emissions. The reduction in double bond content of PHSME did not result in a statistically significant difference in NO{sub x} emissions versus SME at the B20 blend level. The test engine consumed a greater amount of fuel operating on the SME and PHSME blends than on neat ULSD, but the increase was smaller for the PHSME blend. (author)

  15. The producing technology of douchi and fermented soybean oil%豆豉及豉油的生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学贵

    2011-01-01

    The raw materials,ingredients,technological process,operating points and product features of mucorale-type douchi,aspergillus-type douchi and bacteria douchi are introduced.And the production of fermented soybean oil with aspergillus-type douchi,including its recipe,technological process,operating points and products features are also discussed as well.%为了更好地传承我国传统发酵食品豆豉的生产技术,介绍了毛霉型豆豉、曲霉型豆豉和细菌型豆豉等3种豆豉的原料、配方、工艺流程、操作要点和产品特点,同时还介绍了利用曲霉型豆豉生产豉油的配方、工艺流程、操作要点和产品特点。

  16. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Winkler-Moser, Jill K

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180°C, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra amine group such as arginine, cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan had the strongest antioxidant activities. At 5.5mM, these amino acids had stronger antioxidant activities than 0.02% (1.1mM) tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). A functional group such as an amide, carboxylic acid, imidazole, or phenol appeared to negatively affect amino acid antioxidant activity. Synergism between amino acids and tocopherols was demonstrated, and we found that this synergistic interaction may be mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity that was observed. In a frying study with potato cubes, 5.5mM l-methionine had significantly stronger antioxidant activity than 0.02% TBHQ.

  17. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  18. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  19. Effect of applying soybean and linseed oil and different forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katarzyna

    2014-10-29

    Oct 29, 2014 ... The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, ... The active components of linseed oil, owing to its high content of omega-3 fatty acids, ..... of the antioxidative status of the body is the balance or ratio between.

  20. Identification of the molecular genetic basis of the low palmitic acid seed oil trait in soybean mutant line RG3 and association analysis of molecular markers with elevated seed stearic acid and reduced seed palmitic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid composition of vegetable oil is becoming increasingly critical for the ultimate functionality and utilization in foods and industrial products. Partial chemical hydrogenation of soybean oil increases oxidative stability and shelf life but also results in the introduction of trans fats...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nonisocyanate soy-bean oil-polyurethane%大豆油型非异氰酸酯聚氨酯的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 阮家声; 张宏元

    2012-01-01

    Nonisocyanate soy-bean oil-polyurcthane (E-NIPU) was synthesized with aliphatic primary diamines and soy-bean oil-cyclocarbonates.As the intermediate of E-NIPU,Soy-bean oil-cyclocarbonates were prepared by epoxidized soybean oil and carbon dioxid.The structure of E-NIPU was characteristized by FT-IR,GPC and element analysis.%以环氧大豆油为原料合成了大豆油环碳酸酯(CSBO),并进一步与脂肪族伯胺反应合成了大豆油型非异氰酸酯聚氨酯(E-NIPU).利用FT-IR、GPC、元素分析等分析手段对产物的结构进行了表征.

  2. OPTIMASI RENDEMEN EKSTRAKSI LESITIN DARI MINYAK KEDELAI VARIETAS ANJASMORO DENGAN WATER DEGUMMING [Yield Optimization of Lecithin Extraction of Anjasmoro Variety Soybean Oil by Water Degumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1*

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lecithin is one of natural emulsifiers widely used in food industries. The main source of lecithin is soybean and it is obtained during water degumming in soybean oil purification. This research was aimed to optimize the yield of lecithin during water degumming of Anjasmoro variety soybean oil by response surface methodology. The factors optimized were added water (%, temperature (ºC, and extraction time (minute. The relationship between lecithin yield and the parameters was quadratic. The response increased up to a certain point, and then decreased. Optimum water degumming was obtained at water additon of 2.95%, temperature of 61.96C, and extraction time of 30.02 minutes. At optimum condition, the lecithin yield was 1.55% and the phosphor content was 3865.30 ppm suggesting lecithin purity of 56.24%. Verification showed that the yield was close to the prediction value of 1.49%. The purification process resulted in lecithin purity of 83.96% which was in compliance with the legal purity specification of food grade lecithin.

  3. Adsorption of paraquat on the physically activated bleaching earth waste from soybean oil processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W T; Chen, C H; Yang, J M

    2002-09-01

    A series of regeneration experiments with physical activation were carried out on bleaching earth waste from the soybean refining process in a rotary reactor. The influence of activation parameters on the spent clay by varying the holding time of 1 to approximately 4 hours and temperature of 700 to approximately 900 degrees C was determined. The variations of pore properties as well as the change of chemical characteristics in the resulting solids were also studied. Results showed that the resulting samples were type IV with hysteresis loops corresponding to type H3 from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, indicating slit-shaped mesoporous characteristics. However, the regenerated clays had smaller surface areas (70 to approximately 117 m2/g) than that (245 m2/g) of fresh bleaching earth. Under the physical activation conditions investigated, the holding time of 1 hour and temperature of 700 degrees C were found to be optimal conditions for producing mesoporous clay with physical activation. The adsorption of paraquat on regenerated sample was also evaluated. The isotherm showed that the regenerated sample still had a high affinity for this herbicide. Thus, the regeneration of this agro-industrial waste is one option for utilizing the clay resource, and it may be used for water treatment applications to remove organic contaminants.

  4. Enzymatic production of trans-free hard fat stock from fractionated rice bran oil, fully hydrogenated soybean oil, and conjugated linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P; Shin, J-A; Lee, J-H; Hu, J-N; Hwang, K T; Lee, K-T

    2009-03-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) was fractionated into 2 phases, solid (S-RBO) and liquid (L-RBO), using acetone at -18 degrees C and the weight yield of each S-RBO and L-RBO was 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Then, trans-free hard fat was synthesized from trans-free substrate of S-RBO and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different molar ratios (S-RBO : FHSBO; 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) with Lipozyme TL IM lipase (10% of total substrate). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 20% of total substrate) was used as functional fatty acids for the production of trans-free hard fat. After fatty acid analysis, CLA (12.2% to 14.2%) was found on the triacylglycerol (TAG) backbone of the interesterified products along with stearic (37.6% to 49%), palmitic (15% to 17.9%), and oleic acids (13.3% to 19.2%). The interesterified product contained higher level of saturated fatty acid (62.6% to 70.1%) at sn-2 position. Total tocopherols (alpha-, gamma-, and delta-; 1.4 to 2.6 mg/100 g) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol; 220.5 to 362.7 mg/100 g) were found in the interesterified products. From DSC results, solid fat contents of the interesterified products (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5, 1 : 2, and 1 : 3) at 25 degrees C were 23.1%, 27%, 30.1%, and 44.9%. The interesterified products consisted mostly of beta' form crystal with a small portion of beta form. The interesterified product (S-RBO : FHSBO 1 : 1.5) was softer than the physical blend but slightly harder than commercial shortenings as measured by texture analyzer. Thus, trans-free hard fat stock, which may have a potential functionality could be produced with various physical properties.

  5. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  6. 大豆润滑油抗氧化性的研究%Study on anti-oxidation activity of Soybean-lubricant oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐颖; 邵弘; 孙博; 周晓丹; 于殿宇

    2011-01-01

    利用氢化后的大豆油作为食品加工行业中的绿色润滑油基油,研究其在不同条件下的抗氧化性.实验结果表明:化学改性后的大豆润滑油在25℃、避光下保存较为适宜;其在使用过程中的抗氧化性明显要比大豆油好,随着温度的升高,过氧化值和酸值都升高.在60℃下添加6%的TBHQ作为润滑油添加剂,效果最佳,抗氧化性显著增强,保证了无毒性,使用周期预计为六个月.%Hydrogenated soybean oil was used as the green lubricant base oil in food processing industry,the oxidation resistance under different conditions was researched, Results showed that: it was more appropriate to save the hydrogenated soybean-lubricant oil at 25℃ and dark. And it was more obvious than soybean oil on antioxidation activity in the process of using. POV and AV were elevated with the temprature increased The optimum conditions were obtained that adding 6% TBHO as the lubricant additive at 60℃,and the anti- oxidation activity enhanced obviously,it assured of non-toxic. The cycle time was expected within six months.

  7. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totosaus, A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and α-cellulose on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and α-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications.Recientemente, ha sido propuesto el uso de oleogeles (definido como aceites comestibles atrapados en una red tridimensional que ocupa un agente estructurante de auto-ensamblado como substituto de grasa saturada o grasas trans en alimentos. En este trabajo el efecto de mezclas de diferentes derivados celulósicos (Avicel, etil celulosa y α-celulosa sobre la estabilidad de lípidos, temperaturas de transición térmica y textura de oleogeles de aceite de soja fueron determinados utilizando un diseño de mezclas. Avicel afectó la estabilidad de lípidos, aumentando la rancidez oxidativa y valores de peróxido en los oleogeles. Oleogeles con mayores proporciones de Avicel también presentaron temperaturas de transición térmica más altas. Porcentajes más altos de etil celulosa y α-celulosa resultaron en un sistema más estable con menor rancidez oxidativa y menores temperaturas de transición térmica. Sin embargo, Avicel resultó en una textura más suave y menos pegajosa, una característica importante a

  8. Image analysis for composition monitoring. Commercial blends of olive and soybean oil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.15216

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Kehrig Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil represents an important component of a healthy and balanced dietary. Due to commercial features, characterization of pure olive oil and commercial mixtures represents an important challenge. Reported techniques can successfully quantify components in concentrations lower than 1%, but may present long delays, too many purification steps or use expensive equipment. Image analysis represents an important characterization technique for food science and technology. By coupling image and UV-VIS spectroscopy analysis, models with linear dependence on parameters were developed and could successfully describe the mixture concentration in the range of 0-100% in mass of olive oil content. A validation sample, containing 25% in mass of olive oil, not used for parameter estimation, was also used for testing the proposed procedure, leading to a prediction of 24.8 ± 0.6. Due to image analysis results,  3-parameter-based models considering only R and G components were developed for olive oil content prediction in mixtures with up to 70% in mass of olive oil, the same test sample was used and its concentration was predicted as 24.5 ± 1.2. These results show that image analysis represents a promising technique for on-line/in-line monitoring of blending process of olive soybean oil for commercial mixtures.  

  9. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrogenated fish oil is further processed by alkali refining, bleaching, and deodorization by steam stripping... saturated fatty acids, 40 to 55 percent monoenoic fatty acids, 7 to 15 percent dienoic fatty acids, 3 to...

  10. Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005, AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007, allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs. Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.Métodos por cromatografía gas-líquido, AOAC 966.06 (2005, AOCS Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007 permiten determinar ácidos grasos (AG en matrices grasas usando columnas capilares altamente polares y distintos programas de temperatura. No obstante, aún existen dificultades para separar ácido butírico del solvente, pares críticos de AG con polaridades similares, isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, AG de cadena larga poliinsaturados (LC-PUFAs. El objetivo fue mejorar el Método AOCS Ce 1j-07 aplicándolo a la composición en AG de mezcla de aceite soja/girasol, aceite de pescado, mantequilla, usando un programa de temperatura modificado, entre cinco laboratorios. El programa de temperatura elegido, si bien emplea más tiempo, permite separar completamente ácido butírico del solvente, trans-18:1 de cis-18:1, isómeros 20:1 de 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 de 20:4 n-6

  11. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  12. An Induced Chromosomal Translocation in Soybean Disrupts a KASI Ortholog and Is Associated with a High-Sucrose and Low-Oil Seed Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbels, Austin A.; Michno, Jean-Michel; Campbell, Benjamin W.; Virdi, Kamaldeep S.; Stec, Adrian O.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Naeve, Seth L.; Stupar, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a useful tool in many crop species to induce heritable genetic variability for trait improvement and gene discovery. In this study, forward screening of a soybean fast neutron (FN) mutant population identified an individual that produced seed with nearly twice the amount of sucrose (8.1% on dry matter basis) and less than half the amount of oil (8.5% on dry matter basis) as compared to wild type. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA), comparative genomic hybridization, and genome resequencing were used to associate the seed composition phenotype with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 13. In a backcross population, the translocation perfectly cosegregated with the seed composition phenotype and exhibited non-Mendelian segregation patterns. We hypothesize that the translocation is responsible for the altered seed composition by disrupting a β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase 1 (KASI) ortholog. KASI is a core fatty acid synthesis enzyme that is involved in the conversion of sucrose into oil in developing seeds. This finding may lead to new research directions for developing soybean cultivars with modified carbohydrate and oil seed composition. PMID:28235823

  13. An Induced Chromosomal Translocation in Soybean Disrupts a KASI Ortholog and Is Associated with a High-Sucrose and Low-Oil Seed Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin A. Dobbels

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis is a useful tool in many crop species to induce heritable genetic variability for trait improvement and gene discovery. In this study, forward screening of a soybean fast neutron (FN mutant population identified an individual that produced seed with nearly twice the amount of sucrose (8.1% on dry matter basis and less than half the amount of oil (8.5% on dry matter basis as compared to wild type. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA, comparative genomic hybridization, and genome resequencing were used to associate the seed composition phenotype with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 13. In a backcross population, the translocation perfectly cosegregated with the seed composition phenotype and exhibited non-Mendelian segregation patterns. We hypothesize that the translocation is responsible for the altered seed composition by disrupting a β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase 1 (KASI ortholog. KASI is a core fatty acid synthesis enzyme that is involved in the conversion of sucrose into oil in developing seeds. This finding may lead to new research directions for developing soybean cultivars with modified carbohydrate and oil seed composition.

  14. EFFECT OF SOYBEAN OIL BIOFUEL BLENDING ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE USING DIESEL-RK SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Al-Dawody,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the technology is to provide utility and comfort with no damage to the user or to the surroundings. For many years now, petroleum products and other fossil fuels have given us utility andcomfort in a variety of areas, but causes environmental problems which threaten wild and human life. In this study, the performance and emissions of single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine operating on diesel oil and different Soybean Methyl Ester (SME blends have been investigated theoretically using thesimulation software Diesel-RK. Based on the computed modeling results it’s found that 41.3 %, 53.2 % & 62.6 % reduction in the Bosch smoke number obtained with B20% SME, B40 % SME and B100% SME respectively, compared to pure diesel operation. In addition a reduction in PM emissions is observed 47.2%, 60 % & 68% for the B20 % SME, B40 % SME, and B 100% SME respectively. On the average basis there is a reduction in the thermal efficiency, power, and SFC, for all SME blends by 2%, 3%, and 12% respectively compared to pure diesel fuel. All blending of SME produce higher NOx emissions more than 28% compared with pure diesel fuel. A parametric study of retarding injection timing, varying engine speed and compression ratio effects has been performed. Its observed that retarding the injection timing can reduce the increase in the NOx emissions to great extent. Among all tested fuels its noticed that B20% SME was the best tested fuel which gave the same performance results with good reduction in emissions as compared to pure diesel operation. A very good agreement was obtained between the results and the available theoretical and experimental results of other researchers.

  15. One-Pot Conversion of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO into Soy-Based Polyurethanes by MoCl2O2 Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Pantone

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative and eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes is proposed via the epoxy-ring opening of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO with methanol, followed by the reaction of methoxy bio-polyols intermediates with 2,6-tolyl-diisocyanate (TDI. Both synthetic steps, methanolysis and polyurethane linkage formation, are promoted by a unique catalyst, molybdenum(VI dichloride dioxide (MoCl2O2, which makes this procedure an efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safer method amenable to industrial scale-up.

  16. The effect of epoxidized soybean oil on mechanical and rheological properties of poly(butylene succinate)/lignin via vane extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanyu; Huang, Zhaoxia; Qu, Jinping; Meng, Cong

    2016-03-01

    Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESO) have been used as the compatilizer in the Poly (butylene succinate)/lignin (PBS/lignin) composites. Compatibilized composites were fabricated by a novel vane extruder (VE) which can generate global and dynamic elongational flow. The effects of ESO on the mechanical, rheological properties and morphology of PBS/lignin were studied. The results indicated that the use of ESO had plasticizing effect on the matrix PBS while the addition reduced tensile strength. From SEM micrographs it could be clearly observed that there was a better interfacial adhesion between lignin and matrix. Meanwhile, rheological tests showed the incorporation of ESO improved its Newtonian behavior and can enhance PBS's flexibility.

  17. Synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil catalyzed by calcium glyceroxide%甘油钙固体碱催化大豆油制备生物柴油

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑龙; 郭琳琳; 高文艺; 任立国

    2013-01-01

    利用甘油和高温焙烧(900℃)废弃鸡蛋壳制得的氧化钙制备了固体碱催化剂甘油钙,研究了甘油钙在大豆油与甲醇的酯交换反应制备生物柴油中的催化性能,考察了催化剂的焙烧温度、甲醇与大豆油物质的量比、催化剂用量、反应时间对生物柴油收率的影响.经元素分析仪分析结果确定催化剂为二甘油钙(Ca(C3H7O3)2).在催化剂焙烧温度为250℃、催化剂用量为大豆油质量的5%、甲醇与大豆油物质的量比为8∶1、反应时间为5h的条件下,生物柴油收率在86%以上.%Solid base catalyst calcium glyceroxide was prepared by glycerol and calcium oxide from waste egg shell calcined at 900 ℃.The catalytic performance of calcium glyceroxide was investigated in biodiesel preparation by transesterification of soybean oil with methanol.The effects of calcination temperature,molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil,reaction time and catalyst dosage on biodiesel yield were discussed.The results of elemental analysis showed that the catalyst was Ca(C3H7O3)2 and 86% of the biodiesel yield was obtained under the optimal preparation conditions of calcination temperature 250 ℃,molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil 8∶ 1,reaction time 5 h and catalyst dosage 5 % (based on the mass of soybean oil).

  18. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  19. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  20. Air cleaning efficiency of deodorant materials under dynamic conditions: effect of air flow rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizutani, Chiyomi; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    was evaluated as deodorant materials neutralising ammonia in air. The deodorant material efficiency was tested in a special experimental set-up consisting of a straight pipe section, an ammonia gas generator, a fan and a textile frame. The deodorant materials, placed in the pipe, were exposed to a flow of air...... mixed with ammonia gas at a concentration of 20 ppm and velocities of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.2 m/s. The activated carbon fibers treated with acid had a high deodorizing effect for ammonia (0.8) at a velocity of 0.05 m/s. The deodorizing effect of this material decreased with the increase in the velocity....... The porous activated carbon fiber fabric did not have a deodorant effect....

  1. Continuous production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil at supercritical conditions - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i2.11255

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using different reactor configurations. Experiments were performed in a tubular reactor in one-step reaction and experimentally simulating two reactors, one operated in series and the other a recycle reactor. The reaction products were analyzed for their content of residual triglycerides, glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters and decomposition. Results show that the configurations studied with intermediate separation of glycerol afford higher conversions of vegetable oil to their fatty acid ethyl esters derivatives when compared to the one-step reaction, with relatively low decomposition of fatty acids (< 5.0 wt%.

  2. Reactivity of the biphasic trichloroacetonitrile-CH2Cl2/H2O2 system in the epoxidation of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli, Márcia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the epoxidation of soybean oil by the trichloroacetonitrile -CH2Cl2/H2O2 byphasic system. The reaction was carried out at room temperature and, most importantly, in non acid conditions which prevent the opening of the oxirane ring. The epoxidized soybean oil was characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR. A maximum conversion of 81 % was achieved in two hours with 86% of selectivity in epoxy groupsEn el presente trabajo informamos sobre la epoxidación de aceite de soja mediante el sistema bifásico tricloroacetonitrilo-CH2Cl2/H2O2. La reacción fue realizada bajo condiciones de temperatura ambiente y, lo más importante, en condición no ácida, lo que evita la apertura del anillo oxirano. El aceite de soja fue caracterizado por infrarrojo y RMN de 1H and 13C. En dos horas se alcanzó una conversión máxima del 81 % obteniéndose una selectividad del 86 % en grupos epóxidos

  3. Synthesis of SrO.SiO2 Catalyst and Its Application in the Transesterification Reactions of Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Widiarti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of SrO.SiO2 were carried out. The rice hull ash was utilized as a source for SiO2. The SrO.SiO2 was prepared by sol-gel technique, and the ratios of SrO:SiO2 were      varied as 0:1, 1:0, 3:2, 2:4, and 2:7. The sol-gel was calcined at 800 oC for 4 hours. The result was    characterized using XRD and FTIR. The diffraction pattern shows that the diffraction angle was shifted, and the intensity of the main peaks was increased. This research indicated that the            crystallinity of SrO was improved at the higher SiO content. Further, a new peak was observed in the IR spectra at a wavenumber of 900 cm-1 indicating the appearance of new functional groups of the SrO.SiO2. The catalytic activity of SrO.SiO2 on transesterification reaction was optimized. The optimum condition was obtained at SrO.SiO2 of 2:7, reaction time of 30 minutes, reaction temperature of 65 oC, the amount of catalyst of 1 % w/v of reactants, and the biodiesel yield of 96.66 %. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 11st November 2016; Revised: 28th February 2017; Accepted: 28th February 2017 How to Cite: Widiarti, N., Suryana, L.A., Wijayati, N., Rahayu, E.F., Harjito, H., Wardhana, S.B., Prasetyoko, D., Suprapto, S. (2017. Synthesis of SrO.SiO2 Catalyst and Its Application in the Transesterification Reactions of Soybean Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 299-305 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.804.299-305 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.804.299-305

  4. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  5. Varying Response of the Concentration and Yield of Soybean Seed Mineral Elements, Carbohydrates, Organic Acids, Amino Acids, Protein, and Oil to Phosphorus Starvation and CO2 Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Sicher, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (e.g., mg g(-1) seed) and total yield (e.g., g plant(-1)) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at either sufficient (0.50 mM P, control) or deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM, P-stress) levels of P under aCO2 and eCO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1), respectively). Both the concentration and yield of 36 out of 38 seed components responded to P treatment and on average 25 and 11 components increased and decreased, respectively, in response to P starvation. Concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, sugar alcohols), organic acids (e.g., succinate, glycerate) and amino acids increased while oil, and several minerals declined under P deficiency. However, the yield of the majority of seed components declined except several amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, serine) under P deficiency. The concentration-based relationship between seed protein and oil was negative (r(2) = 0.96), whereas yield-based relationship was positive (r(2) = 0.99) across treatments. The CO2 treatment also altered the concentration of 28 out of 38 seed components, of which 23 showed decreasing (e.g., sucrose, glucose, citrate, aconitate, several minerals, and amino acids) while C, iron, Mn, glycerate, and oil showed increasing trends at eCO2. Despite a decreased concentration, yields of the majority of seed components were increased in response to eCO2, which was attributable to the increased seed production especially near sufficient P nutrition. The P × CO2 interactions for the concentration of amino acids and the yield of several components were due to the lack of their response to eCO2 under control or the severe P starvation, respectively. Thus, P deficiency primarily reduced the concentration of oil and mineral elements but enhanced a majority of other components. However, seed

  6. Varying Response of the Concentration and Yield of Soybean Seed Mineral Elements, Carbohydrates, Organic Acids, Amino Acids, Protein, and Oil to Phosphorus Starvation and CO2 Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shardendu K.; Barnaby, Jinyoung Y.; Reddy, Vangimalla R.; Sicher, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (e.g., mg g-1 seed) and total yield (e.g., g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at either sufficient (0.50 mM P, control) or deficient (0.10 and 0.01 mM, P-stress) levels of P under aCO2 and eCO2 (400 and 800 μmol mol-1, respectively). Both the concentration and yield of 36 out of 38 seed components responded to P treatment and on average 25 and 11 components increased and decreased, respectively, in response to P starvation. Concentrations of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, sugar alcohols), organic acids (e.g., succinate, glycerate) and amino acids increased while oil, and several minerals declined under P deficiency. However, the yield of the majority of seed components declined except several amino acids (e.g., phenylalanine, serine) under P deficiency. The concentration-based relationship between seed protein and oil was negative (r2 = 0.96), whereas yield-based relationship was positive (r2 = 0.99) across treatments. The CO2 treatment also altered the concentration of 28 out of 38 seed components, of which 23 showed decreasing (e.g., sucrose, glucose, citrate, aconitate, several minerals, and amino acids) while C, iron, Mn, glycerate, and oil showed increasing trends at eCO2. Despite a decreased concentration, yields of the majority of seed components were increased in response to eCO2, which was attributable to the increased seed production especially near sufficient P nutrition. The P × CO2 interactions for the concentration of amino acids and the yield of several components were due to the lack of their response to eCO2 under control or the severe P starvation, respectively. Thus, P deficiency primarily reduced the concentration of oil and mineral elements but enhanced a majority of other components. However, seed components yield

  7. Effects of different storage technologies on soybean oil%大豆油不同储藏技术的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若兰; 徐卫星; 李守星; 侣丽莎; 贾素贤

    2012-01-01

    The effects of four different storage methods, filling nitrogen, deoxidation, negative pressure and adding TBHQ,and sealed storage under conventional conditions at 15 ,25 ,40℃ on the colour,acid value, peroxide value, iodine value and p -anisidine value of soybean oil storaged for 240 d were studied. The five indicators of soybean oil were tested every 30 d. The results showed that under the same storage condition , the lower the temperature was, the better the storage effect was; the effect of adding TBHQ was the best, deoxidation was a little better than negative pressure and filling nitrogen was the worst at 40℃; the air condition methods of filling nitrogen, deoxidation and negative pressure couldn't radically solve the problem of oil oxidative rancidity at high temperature. The quality deterioration of soybean oil could be greatly postponed by adding TBHQ.%通过在高温40℃条件下对大豆油进行充N2加脱氧剂、负压、添加TBHQ方式储藏,同时研究15、25、40℃常规储藏条件下的密闭储藏,经过储藏240 d,每隔30 d取样测定,研究了储藏期间大豆油的色泽、酸值、过氧化值、碘值及p-茴香胺值的变化规律.结果表明:同样的储藏条件下,温度越低储藏效果越好;在40℃条件下,添加TBHQ效果最好,脱氧效果稍优于负压,充N2效果最差;充N2、加脱氧剂、负压等气调方式并不能从根本上解决高温下油脂氧化酸败问题,而添加TBHQ可以极大地减缓大豆油品质劣变.

  8. Evolution of oxidation in soybean oil and its biodiesel under the conditions of the oxidation stability test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know the evolution of the oxidation of soybean oil and biodiesel under the conditions of the oxidation stability test (110 °C using the Rancimat apparatus. Samples were analyzed at different periods of time until the end of the induction period. The analytical determinations related to the changes in oxidation include peroxide value, anisidine value, natural tocopherols and polar compounds. Acid value, kinematic viscosity, polymers and ester content were also analyzed because of their relevance in the evaluation of biodiesel quality. Results showed that only peroxide value and the group of polar compounds including hydroperoxides, i.e. oxidized monomeric TAG in the oil and oxidized monomeric FAME in the biodiesel increased significantly during the early oxidation stage. The end of the induction period was marked by a rapid increase in polymerization compounds and the exhaustion of tocopherols. Significant changes in acid value, viscosity and ester content were only observed after the end of the induction period.El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la evolución de la oxidación del aceite de soja y de su biodiesel a 110 °C en las condiciones del método estándar para la determinación de la estabilidad oxidativa, usando el aparato Rancimat. Las muestras se analizaron en diferentes períodos de tiempo hasta que el período de inducción fue sobrepasado. Se determinaron los índices de peróxidos y anisidina, los tocoferoles y los compuestos polares cuyos cambios están relacionados con el desarrollo de la alteración oxidativa. Además, fueron determinados el índice de acidez, la viscosidad y el contenido en ésteres, de interés en el análisis de la calidad del biodiesel. Los resultados indicaron que sólo el índice de peróxidos y el grupo de compuestos polares que incluye los hidroperóxidos (triglicéridos oxidados monómeros en el aceite y ésteres metílicos oxidados monómeros en el biodiesel

  9. Persistency of the effect of long-term administration of a whey protein gel composite of soybean and linseed oils on performance and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Riel, van J.W.; Klop, A.; Bastiaans, J.A.H.P.

    2010-01-01

    To study the persistency of the effect of supplementing a whey protein emulsion gel (WPEG) of a mixture of linseed and soybean oil on milk fatty acids, a 10-wk experiment was carried out with 32 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows. During the first 5wk, all cows were managed on a restricted grazi

  10. Optimization of bio-diesel production from soybean and wastes of cooked oil: combining dielectric microwave irradiation and a SrO catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koberg, Miri; Abu-Much, Riam; Gedanken, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    This work offers an optimized method in the transesterification of pristine (soybean) oil and cooked oil to bio-diesel, based on microwave dielectric irradiation as a driving force for the transesterification reaction and SrO as a catalyst. This combination has demonstrated excellent catalytic activity and stability. The transesterification was carried out with and without stirring. According to 1H NMR spectroscopy and TLC results, this combination accelerates the reaction (to less than 60 s), maintaining a very high conversion (99%) and high efficiency. The catalytic activity of SrO under atmospheric pressure in the presence of air and under the argon atmosphere is demonstrated. The optimum conversion of cooked oil (99.8%) is achieved under MW irradiation of 1100 W output with magnetic stirring after only 10 s. The optimum method decreases the cost of bio-diesel production and has the potential for industrial application in the transesterification of cooked oil to bio-diesel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conduction Mechanism Between Soybean Oil Futures Market and Spot Market at DCE and CBOT%DCE与 CBOT豆油期货市场与现货市场动态关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王火根; 熊伟宏

    2014-01-01

    国外期货价格与国内期货价格之间的动态关系反映了期货市场的运行效率。基于Johansen协整分析、因果关系检验以及脉冲响应等计量方法对国际CBOT豆类期货市场与国内DCE豆类期货市场的传导关系、传导路径、传导效率等进行了深入的分析。结果发现:国际豆类期货价格对国内豆油期现货传导作用比国内豆类期货价格更强;DCE豆油现货价格与CBOT豆油期货,DCE大豆1号期货价格与DCE豆油现货价格之间存在长期协整关系,而与CBOT大豆期货、CBOT豆粕期货、DCE大豆2号期货以及DCE豆粕期货价格之间并不存在长期协整关系。%The conduction relations between foreign futures price and the domestic futures price reflects efficiency of the futures market .This paper examines the conduction relations ,conduction path ,transmission ef-ficiency between the international and domestic beans futures market beans futures market based on the Johan -sen cointegration analysis , granger causality test and impulse response .The results showed that:international beans futures prices had greater effect on domestic soybean oil phase spot conduction than on domestic beans futures price;the long-term co-integration exists between domestic soybean oil spot price and CBOT soybean oil futures,and between domestic soybean 1 the futures price and spot price of domestic soybean oil while such relation is not found among the prices of CBOT soybean futures ,CBOT soybean meal futures ,domestic soybean 2 futures and domestic soybean meal futures .

  12. Reusability and Stability Tests of Calcium Oxide Based Catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was purposed for testing reusability and stability of calcium oxide-based catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO over transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst was synthesized by co-precipitation method of calcium and zinc nitrates followed by impregnation of potassium nitrate. The fresh and used catalysts were tested after regeneration. The catalysts were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and BET Surface Area in order to compare the catalyst structure between the fresh and used catalysts. The catalyst testing in transesterification proses was carried out at following operating conditions, i.e. catalyst weight of 6 wt.%, oil to methanol mole ratio of 1:15, and temperature of 60 oC. In addition, metal oxide leaching of K2O/CaO-ZnO catalyst during reaction was also tested. From the results, the catalysts exhibited high catalytic activity (80% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield after three-cycles of usage and acceptable reusability after regeneration. The catalyst also showed acceptable stability of catalytic activity, even after three-cycles of usage. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 16th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016 How to Cite: Istadi, I., Mabruro, U., Kalimantini, B.A.,  Buchori, L., Anggoro, D.D. (2016. Reusability and Stability Tests of Calcium Oxide Based Catalyst (K2O/CaO-ZnO for Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 34-39. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.413.34-39 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.413.34-39

  13. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  14. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Linnaeus: An Alternative Against Microorganisms Responsible for Bad Perspiration Odor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Érika Y, Suzuki; Pedro P, Soldati; Graças A M, Chaves Maria das; Nádia R B, Raposo

    ... epidermidis ATCC 12228) and to develop the formulation of a deodorant containing the essential oil as antimicrobial agent. Method: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by means of the turbi...

  15. An evaluation of heat on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate or soy protein isolate mixed with soybean oil and its consequences on redox status of broilers at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglun Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat treatment and soybean oil inclusion on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate (SPI and of oxidized protein on redox status of broilers at an early age. Methods SPI mixed with soybean oil (SPIO heated at 100°C for 8 h was used to evaluate protein oxidation of SPI. A total of two hundred and sixteen 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds, receiving basal diet (CON, heat-oxidized SPI diet (HSPI or mixture of SPI and 2% soybean oil diet (HSPIO for 21 d, respectively. Results Increased protein carbonyl, decreased protein sulfhydryl of SPI were observed as heating time increased in all treatments (p<0.05. Addition of 2% soybean oil increased protein carbonyl of SPI at 8 h heating (p<0.05. Dietary HSPI and HSPIO decreased the average daily gain of broilers as compared with the CON (p<0.05. Broilers fed HSPI and HSPIO exhibited decreased glutathione (GSH in serum, catalase activity and total sulfhydryl in liver and increased malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl in serum, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs in liver and protein carbonyl in jejunal mucosa as compared with that of the CON (p<0.05. Additionally, broilers receiving HSPIO showed decreased glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px in serum, GSH and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity in liver, GSH-Px activity in duodenal mucosa, GSH-Px activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity in jejunal mucosa and increased AOPPs in serum, MDA and protein carbonyl in liver, MDA and AOPPs in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion Protein oxidation of SPI can be induced by heat and soybean oil and oxidized protein resulted in redox imbalance in broilers at an early age.

  16. Modification of β-oxidation pathway in Ralstonia eutropha for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomphun, Chayatip; Mifune, Jun; Orita, Izumi; Numata, Keiji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Fukui, Toshiaki

    2014-02-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a useful platform for metabolic engineering aiming at efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanaotes being attracted as practical bioplastics. This study focused on bifunctional (S)-specific 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase/(S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase encoded by fadB to obtain information regarding β-oxidation in this bacterium and to achieve compositional regulation of poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] synthesized from soybean oil. In addition to two FadB homologs (FadB1 and FadB') encoded within the previously identified β-oxidation gene clusters on the chromosome 1, a gene of third homolog (FadB2) was found on chromosome 2 of R. eutropha. The fadB homologs were disrupted in R. eutropha strain NSDG expressing a mutant gene of PHA synthase from Aeromonas caviae. The gene disruptions affected neither growth nor PHA production on fructose. On soybean oil, fadB' deletion led to reduction of PHA quantity attributed to decrease of 3HB unit, while fadB1 deletion slightly increased 3HHx composition without serious negative impact on both cell growth and PHA biosynthesis. Double deletion of fadB1 and fadB' significantly impaired the cell growth and PHA biosynthesis, indicating the major roles of fadB1 and fadB' in β-oxidation. When fadB1 was deleted in several engineered strains of R. eutropha possessing additional (R)-enoyl-CoA hydratase gene(s), the net amounts of 3HHx unit in the PHA fractions showed 6-21% increase probably due to slightly enhanced supply of medium-chain-length 2-enoyl-CoAs through the partially impaired β-oxidation. These results demonstrated that modification of β-oxidation by fadB1 deletion was effective for increasing 3HHx composition in the copolyesters produced from soybean oil.

  17. Soybean, palm kernel, and animal-vegetable oils and vitamin E supplementation effect on lipid oxidation stability of sous vide chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Bailey, C A; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Leyva-Ovalle, O R; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2010-04-01

    There is an increasing demand in precooked chicken meat products for restaurants and catering services. Because cooked chicken meat develops lipid oxidation relatively fast, sous vide chicken meat was studied to assess its shelf-life. Six hundred Cobb x Ross broilers were fed for 6 wk with a basal corn-soybean meal diet including soybean, palm kernel, or animal-vegetable oil, each supplemented with 33 or 200 mg/kg of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Broilers were randomly assigned into 6 treatments and 4 repetitions with 25 birds each. Boneless breast or thigh muscle pieces were dissected into 5 x 5 x 5 cm cubes, vacuum-packed, cooked in water bath (until 74 degrees C internal temperature), chilled, and stored at 4 degrees C for 1, 5, 10, 25, and 40 d. For each storage day, each pouch contained 3 pieces of meat, either breast or thigh. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis, to quantify malonaldehyde (MDA) values, was conducted to estimate the lipid oxidation development. Nonheme iron values of cooked meat were analyzed. Fatty acid methyl esters analysis was performed in chicken muscle to determine its fatty acid composition. There was no interaction between dietary fat and vitamin E level in all of the variables studied except in nonheme iron. Dietary fat significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of the muscle (P sous vide chicken meat has a prolonged shelf-life, which is enhanced by dietary supranutritional supplementation of vitamin E.

  18. Isolation and characterization of deodorizing bacteria for organic sulfide malodor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG An-xi; LIU Bo; ZHAO Yang-guo; LI Zheng; BAI Yu; CHENG Yang-xue

    2004-01-01

    Strain Jll screened out from different odor origins can efficiently degrade methyl mercaptan and ethanethiol whereas has no ability to remove dimethyl sulfide. The results indicated that the strain Jll breaks only the C-SH bond. The optimum temperature and pH of Jll are 20-30℃ and 6.0-8.3 respectively. A systematic identification method-16S rDNA gene sequence comparison, for deodorizing bacteria was carried out. The 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis of strain Jll showed the highest level of 97% homology to Rape rhizosphere.

  19. 反复煎炸大豆油的食品安全性及制备O/W乳化剂的研究%Research on Food Safety of Repeated Fried Soybean Oil and Preparation of O/W Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志明; 张丽媛; 孙清瑞; 类彦波

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exploited the new uses of repeated frying soybean oil and made it depart from food market. Methods: The physical and chemical inspection was underway for the acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, carbonyl value and sensory properties of soybean oil and repeated frying soybean oil. The components and its change of soybean oil and repeated frying soybean oil were analysed by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrum. Saponification of repeated frying soybean oil to produce the 0/W emulsifier. Emulsifier quality was evaluated by determination of saponification rate, surface tension and krafft point of emulsifiers. O/W emulsion was prepared with the emulsifier and repeated frying soybean oil. Emulsifying effect was evaluated by the viscosity and stability of emulsion, application value of 0/W emulsifier and emulsion were judged combined with relevant research. Results: Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, carbonyl value and sensory properties of repeated frying soybean oil were not all in keeping with national standards, that was not suitable for continue using in process food, but it content a large number of fatty acids, has the value of resources. Repeated frying soybean oil saponificated with NaOH can be obtained 0/W emulsifier that have good surface active and good emulsify properties. The emulsifying effect of emulsifier prepared by repeated frying soybean oil under the conditions of 961, mass ratio of oil to NaOH was 7=1, reaction time 130 min was better than emulsifier prepared by soybean oil under same conditions. The properties of O/W emulsion prepared by repeated frying soybean oil was better than emulsion prepared by soybean oil. Conclusion: preparation of 0/W emulsifier and emulsion with repeated frying soybean oil, can eliminated its edible hazards and have application value.%目的:开发反复煎炸大豆油的新用途,将其引离食品市场.方法:对大豆油和反复煎炸大豆油的感官性能、酸价、过

  20. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age.

  1. Pretratamiento Enzimático de Expandido de Soja para la Extracción de Aceite con Solvente Enzymatic Pretreatment of Soybean Collets for Solvent Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia V Grasso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar la utilización de un pretratamiento enzimático sobre expandido de soja para la extracción de aceite con solvente. Se investigaron los efectos de un pretratamiento multi-enzimático sobre el rendimiento de la extracción. Se aplicó la Metodología de Superficies de Respuesta para evaluar el rendimiento en aceite como función del pH, temperatura y tiempo de hidrólisis enzimática empleando técnicas de regresión múltiple. Se probó la adecuación de un modelo de segundo orden y se calculó las condiciones óptimas de hidrólisis enzimática para obtener el máximo rendimiento teórico en aceite. Las condiciones óptimas calculadas fueron: temperatura de 43.5 ºC, pH de 5.4 y tiempo de incubación de 5.8 h. Bajo estas condiciones, el máximo rendimiento en aceite predicho por la función fue de 26.64 % sobre base seca.The objective of this research was to investigate the use of an enzymatic pretreatment of soybean collets for solvent extraction of the oil. The effect of multienzymatic pretreatment on extraction yield was investigated. Response Surface Methodology was applied to evaluate the oil yield as a function of pH, time, and temperature of the enzymatic hydrolysis by employing multiple regression techniques. The adequacy of a second-order model with interaction terms was tested and optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for maximum oil yield were calculated. The optimal conditions calculated were: temperature 43.5 ºC, pH 5.4 and incubation period 5.8 h. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of oil as predicted by the function was 26.64% on a dry weight basis.

  2. Optimization of transesterification reaction conditions for the production of biodiesel from oil blend of castor bean and soybean; Otimizacao das condicoes reacionais de transesterizacao para producao de biodiesel a partir de mistura de oleos de mamona e soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Lima, Milena Gouveia Oliveira de; Pontes, Luiz Antonio M.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Almeida, Daniel Freire; Costa, Tales Santana Martins; Menezes; Mateus Della Cella; Santos, Iran Talis Viana; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to diesel oil, and industrially obtained by the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids from vegetable oils and/or animal fats. Currently, the main raw material used to produce biodiesel in Brazil is soybean oil. The inclusion of other raw materials from different cultures in this sector is important and aims to reduce dependence on a single oilseed, assign specific characteristics to the product and encourage the development of family farming. The use of blends of soybean oil and castor for biodiesel may prove an important strategy to minimize the negative effects and maximize the positives of each oilseed. In this work, we carried out an experimental study using full factorial design 2{sup 4}, to increase the conversion of esters, by conventional transesterification, using as feedstock a blend of oils containing 20% castor and 80% soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of mixing ratio of oil: methanol, KOH concentration, temperature and reaction time in biodiesel production. It was found that the variation of these parameters affected the conversion of esters and quality of biodiesel produced. Conversions above 95% were obtained, and the best conversion was 99.05% at 25 deg C in a reaction time of 20 minutes using 2% KOH as a catalyst and a molar ratio methanol/oil 12:1. In order to reduce the costs of the process with respect to amount of methanol used without affecting the conversion of esters, we identified a second set of process conditions, which used the same conditions of temperature, reaction time and catalyst concentration and a different molar ratio methanol/oil (6:1) which gave a conversion of esters of 98.59%. (author)

  3. Delivering More Nutritious Soybeans After Molecular Genetic Detective Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important, but hidden, component of the American diet. Both positive and negative impacts from the fatty acid components of oils have been demonstrated for human nutrition needs. The objective of this research was to identify soybean genes that underlie important oil quality trai...

  4. Thermal Property and Migration of Polyvinyl Chloride Plasticized with Polyester Based on Soybean Oil%豆油基聚酯塑化聚氯乙烯的热性能和迁移性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The soybean oil based polyester was synthesized by the polycondensation of o-phthalic anhydride and the soybean oil monoglyceride obtained from the transesterification of soybean oil and glycerol at 230 -240 ℃. The soybean oil polyester was characterized by gel permeation chromatography ( GPC) and FT-IR. And the synthesized soybean oil polyester was then blend with polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) to form a plasticized PVC. Thermodynamic properties, plasticizer migration stability and mechanical properties of soybean oil polyester plasticized PVC were investigated. The results showed that relative molecular mass of the polyester was 3 541. The thermal degradation temperature of the plasticized PVC was 256. 1 ℃. And tensile strength and elongation at break for this plasticized PVC could reach 6. 5 MPa and 230. 3%, respectively. In addition, the combination of soybean oil polyester and dioctyl phthalate ( DOP ) using as complex plasticizer to plasticize PVC was also evaluated. The migration ratio of these complex plasticizers in distilled water, acetic acid solution, ethanol solution, petroleum ether and olive oil reduced to 0. 18%,0. 22%,0. 28%,0. 83% and 0. 34%, which was indicative of their excellent migration property. Herein, the thermal and mechanical properties of the soybean oil polyester plasticized PVC could maintain for long time and the potential harm to human caused by plasticizer could be reduced at same time.%使用大豆油经醇解、酯化和缩合反应制备了豆油基聚酯,采用红外光谱( FT-IR)、核磁共振氢谱(1 H NMR)和凝胶渗透色谱( GPC)对该豆油聚酯产品的化学结构进行了表征,将其与邻苯二甲酸二辛酯复配使用增塑聚氯乙烯( PVC),经热塑共混成型制备塑化PVC共混物,对共混物的热性能、耐迁移性能和力学性能进行了测定。研究发现:该豆油基聚酯的相对分子质量为3541、黏度2.7 Pa·s、酸值1.02 mg/g。聚酯产品可将PVC共混

  5. Effect of supplementing different oils: linseed, sunflower and soybean, on animal performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty acid profile of veal from "Rubia Gallega" calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Laura; Moreno, Teresa; Bispo, Esperanza; Dugan, Michael E R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of longisimus dorsi (LD) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) from Rubia Gallega (RG) calves was compared for three dietary oil sources (linseed, LO; sunflower, SFO or soybean, SYO). Oils were added (4.5%) to a commercial concentrate and no differences on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality among diets were noted. Total n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) increased in LD and SCF when feeding LO diet (P<0.001). The trans(t) FA profiles were dominated by t11-18:1, except when feeding SFO diet, where ∑t6- to t10-18:1 exceeded t11-18:1 leading the highest (∑t6-to t10-18:1)/t11-18:11 ratio in LD (P<0.05). The overall changes in n-3 PUFA and t18:1 when feeding LO and SYO could be viewed as positive for human health, but quantitatively it was apparent that most dietary PUFA were completely biohydrogenated. Inhibiting PUFA biohydrogenation will be an important next step to improve the FA composition of RG cattle.

  6. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  7. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  8. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  9. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S, a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intraabdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200% and a lower number (44% of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25% and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11% and length (5%. Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health.

  10. Short communication: Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Fehrmann-Cartes, K; Íñiguez-González, G; Toro-Mujica, P; Garnsworthy, P C

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements can be used to alter fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy products. For Chanco cheese, however, little information is available concerning effects of lipid supplements on sensorial properties. The objective of this study was to examine effects of supplementation of dairy cow diets with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169±24d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n=3) 3×3 Latin square design that included 3 periods of 21d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500g/d per cow). Milk fat yield was lower with HVO compared with control and SO. Cheese chemical composition and sensory profile were not affected by dietary treatment. Vaccenic (C18:1 trans-11) and oleic (C18:1 cis-9) acids were higher for SO than for control and HVO. Compared with control and HVO, SO decreased saturated FA and increased monounsaturated FA. The thrombogenic index of milk and cheese produced when cows were fed SO was lower than when cows were fed on control and HVO. The outcome of this study showed that, compared with control and HVO, supplementing dairy cow diets with SO improves milk and cheese FA profile without detrimental effects on the chemical composition of milk and cheese and the sensory characteristics of cheese.

  11. Estrogenic activity of constituents of underarm deodorants determined by E-Screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Claudia; Kuch, Bertram; Metzger, Jörg W

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether different kinds of underarm deodorants commercially available in Germany might contain substances with estrogenic potential which after use enter the aquatic environment via wastewater. Twenty five deodorants produced by ten different manufacturers in the form of sprays, roll-ons and sticks were investigated using an in vitro-test system (E-Screen assay) for the determination of estrogenic activity based on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Seven out of ten spray deodorant samples showed a quantifiable estrogenic activity. In the case of the sticks and roll-ons it was only one out of six and one out of nine, respectively. The 17β-estradiol equivalent concentrations (EEQs) of the samples ranged from 0.1 ng g(-1) to 9 ng g(-1) deodorant. Spray deodorant samples showed the highest activities in the E-Screen assay compared to the stick and roll-on deodorants. In order to identify substances possibly contributing to the observed biological activity the samples were additionally analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained results of this non-target screening led to the selection of 62 single substances present in the deodorants which for their part were analyzed by E-Screen assay. Eight of these single substances, all of them fragrances, showed estrogenic effects with estradiol equivalence factors (EEFs) similar to parabens, a group of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters commonly used as preservatives in personal care products, which are known to have a slight estrogenic effect. Thus, these fragrances are obviously responsible to a substantial degree for the observed estrogenic activity of the deodorants.

  12. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuede; Zhang Baichun; Liu Yulan; Liu Guoqin; Zhou Zikuan; Luo Shenming; Xu Zhaoyong; Wang Deyuan; Wang Xuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding andexacting have obvious superiority n the oilprocess compared with soybean extractingdirectly. Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%, thesteam consumption reduces by 15%, refineryrate by 0.5%, the urea enzyme activity ofsoybean meal is steady. Oil and soybeanquality can be improved. The market latentcapacity is hopeful.

  13. Improvement of soybean oil extraction by pretreatment using microwave and water vapor%微波及水蒸气辅助预处理对大豆油提取的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程谦伟; 孟陆丽; 黄超义

    2015-01-01

    This article had focused on the effects of the soybean oil extraction rate by assisting leaching with microwave and water vapor. The results showed the best conditions of using microwave and water vapor to assiste soybean oil immersion out were 190 s of microwave time,630W of microwave power and 5 min of water vapor time. Under these conditions,soybean oil extraction rate was 14.3%. Researchs showed microwave and steam treatment could effectively shorten the extraction time and improve the efficiency of extraction.%该文利用微波及水蒸气辅助预处理对大豆油提取率的影响进行研究。研究表明,用微波及水蒸气辅助浸出大豆油的最佳条件为微波时间190 s,微波功率630 W,水蒸气处理时间5 min,在此条件下大豆油的提取率为14.3%。研究表明,利用微波及水蒸气渗透的方法对浸出前的油料进行预处理可以有效缩短浸提的时间,提高浸提的效率。

  14. Bleaching condition optimization of low trans fatty acids content soybean oil%低反式脂肪酸含量大豆油脱色条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈岩峰; 陈晓慧; 刘晶; 王妍; 于殿宇

    2011-01-01

    对大豆油脱色过程中反式脂肪酸含量进行研究,通过单因素试验与响应面分析,对影响脱色的主要工艺参数进行了优化.得到低反式脂肪酸大豆油脱色的最佳工艺参数为:脱色温度97℃,脱色时间30 min,脱色剂用量3.8%.在真空度0.095 MPa、搅拌速度220 r/min条件下,按最佳工艺参数脱色,得到大豆油反式亚油酸含量为1.18%,脱色率达到96.57%.%The change of trans fatty acids content in bleaching process of soybean oil was studied. Based on the results of single - factor experiments and response surface analysis, the major parameters of bleaching were optimized. The best bleaching parameters of obtaining low trans fatty acids content soybean oil were determined as follows: bleaching temperature 97℃, bleaching time 30 min, decolorant quantity 3. 8%. Under the best parameters and vacuum degree 0. 095 Mpa,stirring speed 220 r/min,the trans lin-oleic acid content in bleached soybean oil was 1. 18% ,and the bleaching rate was 96. 57%.

  15. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition t

  16. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition t

  17. Mapeamento de QTL para conteúdos de proteína e óleo em soja Mapping QTL for protein and oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar e mapear locos de caracteres quantitativos (QTL que afetam os conteúdos de proteína e óleo em soja (Glycine max L. Merr.. Plantas F2, derivadas do cruzamento entre a linhagem CS3032PTA276 e a variedade UFVS2012, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e forneceram as folhas para extração e análise de DNA. Quarenta e oito marcadores microssatélites (SSR polimórficos foram avaliados na população F2. A avaliação dos fenótipos foi realizada em 207 famílias das progênies F2:3, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, conduzido em Viçosa, MG, em 2006. Foram detectados quatro QTL associados ao conteúdo de proteína, nos grupos de ligação D1a, G, A1, e I, e três QTL associados ao conteúdo de óleo, nos grupos A1, I e O. A variação fenotípica explicada pelos QTL variou de 6,24 a 18,94% e 17,26 a 25,93%, respectivamente, para os conteúdos de proteína e óleo. Foram detectados novos QTL associados aos conteúdos de proteína e óleo, além dos previamente relatados em outros estudos. Regiões distintas das atualmente conhecidas podem estar envolvidas no controle genético do teor de proteína e óleo na soja.The objective of this study was to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. protein and oil contents. F2 plants, derived from the cross between the CS3032PTA276 line and the variety UFVS2012, were grown in a greenhouse and provided the leaves for DNA extraction and analysis. Forty-eight polymorphic microsatelite markers (SSR were evaluated in the F2 population. Evaluation of the phenotype was performed in 207 families from F2:3 progenies, in a complete block design with three replicates, carried out in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in 2006. Four QTL associated with protein content, in linkage groups D1a, G, A1, and I, and three QTL for oil content in groups A1, I and O were identified. Phenotypic variation for protein and oil

  18. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  19. Analysis of the siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Process Targeting Three Homologous Genes Controlling Soybean Seed Oil Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Lu

    Full Text Available In the past decade, RNA silencing has gained significant attention because of its success in genomic scale research and also in the genetic improvement of crop plants. However, little is known about the molecular basis of siRNA processing in association with its target transcript. To reveal this process for improving hpRNA-mediated gene silencing in crop plants, the soybean GmFAD3 gene family was chosen as a test model. We analyzed RNAi mutant soybean lines in which three members of the GmFAD3 gene family were silenced. The silencing levels of FAD3A, FAD3B and FAD3C were correlated with the degrees of sequence homology between the inverted repeat of hpRNA and the GmFAD3 transcripts in the RNAi lines. Strikingly, transgenes in two of the three RNAi lines were heavily methylated, leading to a dramatic reduction of hpRNA-derived siRNAs. Small RNAs corresponding to the loop portion of the hairpin transcript were detected while much lower levels of siRNAs were found outside of the target region. siRNAs generated from the 318-bp inverted repeat were found to be diced much more frequently at stem sequences close to the loop and associated with the inferred cleavage sites on the target transcripts, manifesting "hot spots". The top candidate hpRNA-derived siRNA share certain sequence features with mature miRNA. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study revealing the siRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanism in crop plants using gene family GmFAD3 as a test model.

  20. Analysis of the siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Process Targeting Three Homologous Genes Controlling Soybean Seed Oil Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sha; Yin, Xiaoyan; Spollen, William; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Dong; Schoelz, James; Bilyeu, Kristin; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, RNA silencing has gained significant attention because of its success in genomic scale research and also in the genetic improvement of crop plants. However, little is known about the molecular basis of siRNA processing in association with its target transcript. To reveal this process for improving hpRNA-mediated gene silencing in crop plants, the soybean GmFAD3 gene family was chosen as a test model. We analyzed RNAi mutant soybean lines in which three members of the GmFAD3 gene family were silenced. The silencing levels of FAD3A, FAD3B and FAD3C were correlated with the degrees of sequence homology between the inverted repeat of hpRNA and the GmFAD3 transcripts in the RNAi lines. Strikingly, transgenes in two of the three RNAi lines were heavily methylated, leading to a dramatic reduction of hpRNA-derived siRNAs. Small RNAs corresponding to the loop portion of the hairpin transcript were detected while much lower levels of siRNAs were found outside of the target region. siRNAs generated from the 318-bp inverted repeat were found to be diced much more frequently at stem sequences close to the loop and associated with the inferred cleavage sites on the target transcripts, manifesting "hot spots". The top candidate hpRNA-derived siRNA share certain sequence features with mature miRNA. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study revealing the siRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanism in crop plants using gene family GmFAD3 as a test model.

  1. STUDY ON QUALITY CHANGE OF SOYBEAN OIL UNDER CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE WITH N2%大豆充氮储藏中油脂品质变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素雅; 刘锦; 袁建

    2013-01-01

    研究了充氮气调储藏对大豆油脂品质的影响.在控制氮气体积分数为98%、90%和78%的条件下,比较了水分含量和储藏温度对大豆油脂酸值和过氧化值的影响.结果表明,储藏温度是影响大豆油脂酸值最重要的因素,水分含量是影响大豆油脂过氧化值稳定性的重要因素.在相同氮气含量下,储藏温度、水分含量越高,大豆油脂酸值和过氧化值增加越多.高水分(14.9%)大豆在30 ℃下充氮(98%)储藏180 d后,油脂酸值较对照组低20.2%;低水分(12.2%)大豆在20℃下充氮(98%)储藏180 d后,油脂过氧化值较对照组低26.1%.因此,充氮气调储藏能在一定程度上延缓大豆油脂酸值和过氧化值的增高.%The paper studied the influences of controlled atmosphere storage with N2 on the quality of soybean oil. The effects of moisture content and storage temperature on the acid value and peroxide value of soybean oil were compared under controlled atmosphere storage with N2 concentration of 98%, 90% and 78%. The results showed that the storage temperature was the most important factor influencing the acid value of the soybean oil; and the moisture content was the most important factor influencing the peroxide value stability of the soybean oil. Under the conditions of same N2 content, higher storage temperature and higher moisture content resulted in more increase of the acid value and the peroxide value of the soybean oil. The acid value of high-moisture (14.9% ) soybean stored under controlled atmosphere N2(98%) at 30 ℃ for 180 days was smaller than that of the contrast group by 20.2%; and the peroxide value of low-moisture(12.2%) soybean stored under controlled atmosphere N2 (98%) at 30 ℃ for 180 days was smaller than that of the contrast group by 26.1%. Accordingly, the controlled atmosphere storage with N2 could delay the increase of the acid value and peroxide value of the soybean oil to a certain extent.

  2. Quality Pricing in U.S. Soybean Exports

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines quality-price relationship in U.S. soybean exports. Implicit prices for quality characteristics of U.S. soybean exports were estimated using a hedonic price function from a rich transaction-specific data set to major destination markets to test the efficiency of the market in transmitting preferences for quality. The results of this analysis suggest that the price of soybean export shipments was not affected by the oil and protein content of the soybeans. Moisture content ...

  3. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Mrinal, E-mail: mrinal1854@yahoo.co.i [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Das, Amit K. [Department of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India); Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  4. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-04-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  5. 五河野生大豆油脂肪酸组成的GC/MS分析%Analysis of Fatty Acids Composition in Wuhe Wild Soybean Oil by GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琳; 李孟良; 刘健南

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to study fatty acids composition in Wuhe glycine soja oil, promote developing high quality soybean breeding, research soybean idioplasm resource, and provide the basis for better development and utiliza- tion of wild soybean oil. Oil was extracted from Wuhe glycine soja oil through soxhlet extraction method and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectroscopy( GC/MS). The result showed that 13 fatty acids were detected in this oil. Among them,the content of unsaturated fatty acid was 78.81% with the Iinoleie acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid as the main, the content of linoleie acid, oleic acid and linolenie acid were 47.33%, 15.66% and 115.40%, respectively. While heptadecanoic acid which was detected seldom in other plant oils has anticancer function, the nutrition and health value of Wuhe wild soybean oil was higher and it had better development and utilization prospect.%研究五河野生大豆油的脂肪酸组成,为开展优质大豆育种、研究大豆种质资源和开发利用野生大豆油等提供理论依据。采用索氏抽提法提取豆油中的脂肪,运用气相色谱——质谱联用(GC/MS)技术对其脂肪酸组分进行分析。结果表明,五河野生大豆中共检出12种脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸含量为78.81%,以亚油酸、油酸、亚麻酸为主,其含量分别为47.33%、15.66%,15.40%,该油脂中还含有其它植物中很少见的脂肪酸十七烷酸,该油脂具有抗癌功能。该油脂具有较高的营养保健作用和很好的开发应用前景。

  6. Effect of fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil on the performance of weaning piglets%发酵豆粕和植物精油对断奶仔猪生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如水; 付瑞珍; 魏凤仙

    2014-01-01

    本试验探讨了在日粮中使用发酵豆粕替代普通豆粕并添加植物精油对仔猪生产性能的影响,为发酵豆粕和植物精油在仔猪日粮中的利用提供科学依据。结果表明,日粮中添加发酵豆粕和植物精油,仔猪末重和平均日增重分别提高14.81%和19.51%,提高仔猪平均日采食量6.84%,而降低料重比和单位增重成本分别为10.71%和7.67%;有效降低仔猪腹泻率50.67%。%The experiment investigated the use of fermented soybean meal instead of normal soy-bean meal and the administration of plant essential oils on the growth performance of waning pig-lets, and provided a scientific basis for the use of fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil in the diets of piglets. The results showed that diets supplemented with fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil increased the bodyweight of the piglets and the average daily gain by 14.81% and 19.51% respectively. The average daily feed intake was increased by 6.84%, while the feed conversion ratio and unit weight cost were decreased by 10.71% and 7.67% respectively, mean-while, the rate of 50.67% diarrhea were effectively reduced.

  7. Migration of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) and Phthalates From Twist Closures into Food and Enforcement of the Overall Migration Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Fankhauser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces...... food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market....

  8. Energy utilization of by-products from the soybean oil industry by broiler chickens: acidulated soapstock, lecithin, glycerol and their mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEM Peña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidulated soy soapstock (ASS and lecithin (LEC are by-products from processing soy oil (SO for human consumption, whereas glycerol (GLY can be obtained through the transesterification of vegetable oils during the production of biodiesel. These are valuable by-products for poultry feeds that have been underutilized in many parts of the world. One study was conducted to estimate the AMEn of ASS, LEC, GLY as well as of their mixture (MIX: 85% ASS, 5% LEC and 10% GLY. Two hundred and sixty Cobb 500 female broilers of 20 days of age were housed in steel wire battery cages in a controlled temperature room for broilers. A completely randomized (energy sources x fat inclusion level factorial design was applied, with 4 replicates of three birds per treatment. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal control diet without supplemental fat or with the addition of 2, 4, or 6 % of the four energy sources. Total excreta collection was performed from 26 to 28 days. The AMEn values of by-products were calculated using regression analysis as well as by the difference method. The average AMEn values calculated by regression analysis were: 9,232, 7,502, 5,447 and 8,404, whereas results with the difference method were: 7,951, 6,579, 3,979 and 8,101 kcal/kg for, in both cases for ASS, LEC, GLY and MIX, respectively. It is concluded that these energy sources can be for broilers and that there are significant differences between the methods used to estimate AMEn of fats.

  9. Propylsulfonic and arenesulfonic functionalized SBA-15 silica as an efficient and reusable catalyst for the acidolysis of soybean oil with medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zhang, Chi

    2016-11-15

    The objective of this work was to develop a feasible ecofriendly process to produce medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)-enriched structured lipids (SLs) in heterogeneous manners. For this purpose, the propyl-SO3H or arene-SO3H-modified SBA-15 materials were prepared through a surface functionalization of SBA-15 silica with propyl-SO3H and arene-SO3H groups. The organosulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 materials were characterized by Brönsted acidity determination, elemental analysis, XRD, C(13) MAS NMR, FT-IR, SEM, TG, TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Results showed that the propyl-SO3H and arene-SO3H groups were successfully tethered on the SBA-15 support, and the ordered mesoporous structure of SBA-15 silica was well retained after the organofunctionalization. This organic-inorganic hybrid material displayed high surface acidities and high activities in the acidolysis of soybean oil with caprylic or capric acid to produce SLs containing MCFAs. The influences of processing parameters on the reaction were investigated. The two studied catalysts showed an excellent recyclability for the reaction.

  10. Enzymatic interesterification of soybean oil and methyl stearate blends using lipase immobilized on magnetic Fe3O4/SBA-15 composites as a biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuezhen; Xie, Wenlei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic Fe3O4/SBA-15 composites were prepared, and treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as a carrier material for enzyme immobilization. The immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase onto the amino-functionalized Fe3O4/SBA-15 composite was investigated by using glutaraldehyde as a coupling reagent. The immobilized lipase was then employed as a biocatalyst for the interesterification of soybean oil and methyl stearate in a laboratory-scale operation at 45°C. Various techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), were used for the characterization of the immobilized lipase composite. The immobilized lipase behaved superparamagnetic and showed excellent response at applied magnetic field. The obtained results showed that the immobilized lipase could efficiently catalyze the interesterification reaction. Moreover, the interesterification reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, substrate ratio and reaction time were investigated regarding the stearoyl incorporation into the triacylglycerols. Further, the immobilized lipase proved to be easily separated from the reaction mixture by applying an external magnetic field and to be stable in the repeated use for four cycles.

  11. Immobilized lipase on core-shell structured Fe3O4-MCM-41 nanocomposites as a magnetically recyclable biocatalyst for interesterification of soybean oil and lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zang, Xuezhen

    2016-03-01

    A core-shell structured Fe3O4-MCM-41 nanocomposite was prepared by means of a surfactant-directed sol-gel process. Candida rugosa lipase was then bound to the magnetic core-shell material by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking reagent. The as-prepared Fe3O4-MCM-41 support and the immobilized lipase were characterized in detail using enzyme activity assays, TEM, XRD, FTIR, VSM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. Results showed that the magnetite nanoparticles were coated with the MCM-41 silica with the formation of core-shell structured materials, and the lipase was successfully immobilized on the core-shell structured support. The catalytic performance of the bound lipase was tested in the interesterification of lard and soybean oil. It was shown that the immobilized lipase had a better catalytic activity towards the interesterification reaction. The slip melting point of the final product was lower than that of the original blend, and the interesterification led to an obvious variation in the microstructure of the product.

  12. Efeito do tipo de óleo de soja na composição em ácidos graxos da carcaça de frangos de corte Effect of different soybean oils on fatty acids composition of broiler carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Martins

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de óleo de soja na composição em ácidos graxos da carcaça, foram utilizados 128 frangos (64 machos e 64 fêmeas da linhagem Hubbard. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, e os tratamentos foram constituídos de um fatorial 4 × 2 (quatro dietas e dois sexos. As quatro dietas foram formuladas da seguinte forma: A- sem adição de óleo (controle; B -com óleo de soja refinado; C- com óleo de soja degomado e D- com borra acidulada. As dietas foram isocalóricas e isonutritivas. Aos 45 dias de idade os frangos foram abatidos, eviscerados, congelados e moídos para posterior análise de extrato etéreo e composição em ácidos graxos. Os machos que receberam dietas sem adição de óleo depositaram (POne hundred twenty eight Hubbard breed chicks (64 males and 64 females were used in a completely randomized design with four replicates and eight chicks per experimental unit, to evalatue the effect of different types of soybean oil on fatty acids composition of broiler carcass. The treatments consisted of isocaloric and isonutritive diets formulated with different soybean oils as follows: treatment 1 - control group without oil addition; treatment 2 - refined soybean oil; treatment 3 -degumed soybean oil; and treatment 4 - acid soybean residue. The chickens were slaughtered, eviscerated, frozen and grounded, and a pool of four carcasses per replicate was obtained. Analyses of ether extract and fatty acid composition of carcasses fat were performed. The males fed on control diet accumulated more myristic acid on their carcasses than the females (P<0.05, while broilers fed on refined soybean oil diet deposited more stearic acid on their carcasses than those fed on the other diets (P<0.05. The carcasses of broilers fed on oil added diets had lower palmitoleic fatty acid contents than those fed on control diet. Carcasses of broilers fed on control diet and on acid

  13. Biodiesel de soja: reação de transesterificação para aulas práticas de química orgânica Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Geris

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas.

  14. Biodiesel de soja: reação de transesterificação para aulas práticas de química orgânica Biodiesel from soybean oil: experimental procedure of transesterification for organic chemistry laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Geris; Nádia Alessandra Carmo dos Santos; Bruno Andrade Amaral; Isabelle de Souza Maia; Vinicius Dourado Castro; José Roque Mota Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The transesterification procedure of triacylglycerides from soybean oil (in natura and waste oil) to give biodiesel was adapted to semi-micro laboratory scale as an additional experimental technique of nucleophilic acyl substitution for undergraduate courses in Chemistry and related areas.

  15. Intake of farmed Atlantic salmon fed soybean oil increases insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kolden Midtbø

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainable aquaculture, fish derived raw materials are replaced by vegetable ingredients. Fatty acid composition and contaminant status of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. are affected by the use of plant ingredients and a spillover effect on consumers is thus expected. Here we aimed to compare the effects of intake of Atlantic salmon fed fish oil (FO with intake of Atlantic salmon fed a high proportion of vegetable oils (VOs on development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Atlantic salmon were fed diets where FO was partly (80% replaced with three different VOs; rapeseed oil (RO, olive oil (OO or soy bean oil (SO. Fillets from Atlantic salmon were subsequently used to prepare Western diets (WD for a mouse feeding trial. Partial replacement of FO with VOs reduced the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and dichloro-diphenyl-tricloroethanes (DDT with more than 50% in salmon fillets, in WDs containing the fillets, and in white adipose tissue from mice consuming the WDs. Replacement with VOs, SO in particular, lowered the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content and increased n-6 PUFA levels in the salmon fillets, in the prepared WDs, and in red blood cells collected from mice consuming the WDs. Replacing FO with VO did not influence obesity development in the mice, but replacement of FO with RO improved glucose tolerance. Compared with WD-FO fed mice, feeding mice WD-SO containing lower PCB and DDT levels but high levels of linoleic acid (LA, exaggerated insulin resistance and increased accumulation of fat in the liver. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Replacement of FO with VOs in aqua feed for farmed salmon had markedly different spillover effects on metabolism in mice. Our results suggest that the content of LA in VOs may be a matter of concern that warrants further investigation.

  16. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  17. Studies on Phospholipids in Crude Oils from Fresh and Storage-Damaged Soybeans%新大豆及储存受害大豆的毛油中磷脂成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁歧; 张鸣镝; 陶红

    2000-01-01

    The soybean phospholipids are chemically changed significantly when the soybean seeds are stored under high heat and humidity conditions.LC analyses of the phospholipids showed that the contents of unsoponifiables(the main component of these is sterol)and PA are increased significantly,on the other hand,the contents of main phospholipis,PE,PI and PC,are decreased significantly.The difficulty of degumming storage-damaged soybean crude oil and high phosphorous content of degummed oil are apparently related to chemical changes of the phospholipids compositions.%大豆在储运中因湿度和温度过高而受损害后,磷脂组份发生较大的化学变化,色谱分析表明,不可皂化部分(主要是甾醇)和PA含量增加,而主要磷脂成份PE、PI、PC含量减少。受损害大豆毛油水化脱胶困难及脱胶后油中磷含量偏高均与磷脂组份发生化学变化有关。

  18. Rheological properties of soybean protein isolate gels containing emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.H.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Rheological properties of soybean protein gels containing various volume fractions oil droplets have been studied at small and large deformations. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of soybean protein isolate gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction of oil droplets stabilised by the sa

  19. 固定波长UV-VIS光对大豆油品质的影响%Effect of Fixed Wavelength UV-VIS Light on Quality of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于殿宇; 刘鑫; 王玥; 邹小雨; 奚会松; 江连洲

    2013-01-01

    通过设定不同温度、光强度、光波长、时间对大豆油进行脱色试验,对大豆油的过氧化值、酸价及色泽进行了测定,研究分析了大豆油过氧化值、酸价及色泽随温度、光强度、光波长及照射时间变化的基本规律.通过单因素及正交试验,VIS-450光照脱色的最优工艺条件:光通量2400 lm,温度35℃,时间3h,脱色率为53.2%.UV-365光照脱色的最优工艺条件:光通量2 400 lm,温度35℃,时间2h,脱色率为42.4%.结果表明:UV-365比VIS-450对大豆油品质劣变影响较大;VIS-450比UV-365对大豆油脱色率影响较大.%By setting the different temperature,light intensity,light wavelength,time on decolorization of soybean oil,determine peroxide value,acid value and color of soybean,research and analysis of soybean oil peroxide value,acid value and color variation with relationship of temperature,light intensity,light wavelength and exposure time.Through single factor and orthogonal test,the optimum conditions of the VIS-450 light decolorization is:The luminous flux 2 400 lm,temperature of 35 ℃,time of 3 h,The decolorization rate 53.2%.The optimum conditions of the VIS-365 light decolorization is:The luminous flux 2 400 lm,temperature of 35 ℃,time of 2 h,the decolorization rate 42.4%.The results showed that:UV-365 more influential than VIS-450 t on the quality of soybean oil deterioration,VIS-450 more influential than UV-365 on soybean oil decolorization rate influence.

  20. Advances in soybean oil body and its application in food%大豆油体的研究进展及其在食品中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隆坤; 肖志刚

    2015-01-01

    油体是储存种子萌发和生长的营养物质三酰甘油的场所,大豆油体是由单层磷脂分子及其镶嵌的蛋白组成半单位膜包裹液态三酰甘油而形成的球体(粒径是0.2~0.5μm)。大豆油体富含多不饱和脂肪酸和生物活性物质,具有物理化学稳定性,可作为天然的乳化剂提高食品原料的稳定性,比乳化剂更加经济、健康。大豆油体在食品领域中应用主要有以下几个方面:基于大豆油体乳液和奶油性状,乳制品和仿制乳饮料自然是潜在应用的主要领域,还可以以油包水乳液的形式出现在其他液体、半液体或固体食物中,如沙司,蛋黄酱和色拉调味品,大豆油体还可以应用到可食性膜和食品包装当中。对大豆油体的组成、结构、提取过程、物理化学性质及在食品中的潜在应用进行概述。%Oil body is used to store TAGs for germination and postgerminative growth.Soybean oil body is subcellular spherical (0.2~0.5μm in diameter),which consists of a core of triacylglycerol (TAG)surrounded by proteins embedded in a phospholipid monolayer.Soybean oil body contains of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fat-soluble biologically active substance,with physical and chemical stability.Therefore it can be used as natural emulsifiers to enhance the stability of food materials.Additionally,compared with emulsifiers,it is much more economical and healthy.In general,soybean oil body has been applied in the following fields. Firstly, dairy products and imitation milk drinks naturally can be acknowledged as potential applications,based on oil bodies emulsions and creams.Besides,soybean oil body plays a significant role in other oil-in-water emulsions,such as mayonnaise,salad dressings and creams.Furthermore,soybean can be an essential part in the production of edible film and food packaging.This paper briefly states composition, structure of soybean oil body.Meanwhile extraction process

  1. Biological activity of essential oils from Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae) against the soybean pest Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge O; Gutiérrez, Maria M; Murray, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the chemical constituents, ovicidal activity, fumigant, contact toxicity and repellent effects of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora against eggs and second instar nymphs of Nezara viridula. The major components were carvone (83.5%) for A. polystachya, and citronellal (51.3%) and sabinene (22.9%) for A. citriodora. The ovicidal activity of both oils was tested by topical application at different concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 12.5 microg/egg; all concentrations had a toxic effect. Data probit analysis showed that the LC50 value for A. polystachya was 2.3 microg/egg and for A. citriodora 1.9 microg/egg. The fumigant activity was evaluated in an enclosed chamber. The toxicity increased with concentration from 11 to 176 microg/mL air, and with exposure times from 1 to 48 h. The LC50 values for A. polystachya and A. citriodora were 29.9 and 13.5 microg/mL air 24 h after treatment, respectively. To evaluate contact activity a glass-vial bioassay was used. The toxicity increased with concentration from 2.8 to 45 microg/cm2 and with exposure time from 1 to 48 h. The LC50 for A. polystachya was 3.4 microg/cm2 and for A. citriodora 8.1 microg/cm2. The repellency bioassay demonstrated that both oils were active at the highest concentration (2.6 and 5.3 microg/mL air) and neutral at 1.3 microg/mL air. These results show that the essential oils from Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora could be applicable to the management of populations of Nezara viridula.

  2. Development of new active packaging film made from a soluble soybean polysaccharide incorporated Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha pulegium essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Moayyed, Hamid; Khaksar, Ramin; Noghabi, Mostafa Shahidi

    2014-03-01

    An active edible film from soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) incorporated with different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils was developed, and the film's optical, wettability, thermal, total phenol and antioxidant characteristics were investigated, along with their antimicrobial effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. The film's colour became darker and more yellowish and had a lower gloss as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased. Antioxidant activity of the films was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays. DPPH was reduced in the range of 19.84-74.12% depending on the essential oil type and concentration. Film incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50=4188.60±21.73mg/l and EC50=8.86±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared with the control and MEO added film. Films containing ZEO were more effective against the tested bacteria than those containing MEO. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to both ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 387.05mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 21.98 for S. typhimurium and 10.15mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a single glass transition temperature (Tg) between 16 and 31°C. The contact angle increased up to 175% and 38% as 3% (v/v) of ZEO or MEO used: it clearly shows that films with ZEO were more hydrophobic than those with MEO. The results showed that these two essential oils could be incorporated into SSPS films for food packaging.

  3. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  4. Influence of planting date on seed protein oil sugars minerals and nitrogen metabolism in soybean under irrigated and non-irrigated enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, o...

  5. The Effect of Inclusion Level of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil on Their Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content Determined with the Difference and Regression Method When Fed to Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongbo; She, Yue; Huang, Qiang; Shi, Chuanxin; Li, Zhongchao; Huang, Chengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Li, Defa

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of soybean oil (SO) and palm oil (PO) on their digestible and metabolism energy (DE and ME) contents when fed to growing pigs by difference and regression method. Sixty-six crossbred growing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire and weighing 38.1±2.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 2×5 factorial arrangement involving 2 lipid sources (SO and PO), and 5 levels of lipid (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) as well as a basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal. The barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates to facilitate separate collection of feces and urine, and were fed the assigned test diets at 4% of initial body weight per day. A 5-d total collection of feces and urine followed a 7-d diet adaptation period. The results showed that the DE and ME contents of SO and PO determined by the difference method were not affected by inclusion level. The DE and ME determined by the regression method for SO were greater compared with the corresponding respective values for PO (DE: 37.07, ME: 36.79 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.11, ME: 33.84 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). These values were close to the DE and ME values determined by the difference method at the 10% inclusion level (DE: 37.31, ME: 36.83 MJ/kg for SO; DE: 34.62, ME: 33.47 MJ/kg for PO, respectively). A similar response for the apparent total tract digestibility of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in lipids was observed. The true total tract digestibility of AEE in SO was significantly (p<0.05) greater than that for PO (97.5% and 91.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the DE and ME contents of lipid was not affected by its inclusion level. The difference method can substitute the regression method to determine the DE and ME contents in lipids when the inclusion level is 10%.

  6. Deodorants on the European market: quantitative chemical analysis of 21 fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P

    1998-01-01

    allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other commonly used fragrance materials. The deodorants were purchased at retail outlets in 5 European countries. It was found that in general, fragrance mix ingredients were more frequently present in vapo- and aerosol sprays than in roll-on products. The levels...... of the fragrance mix substances ranged from 0.0001-0.2355%. The products investigated contained cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol less frequently (17% and 29% respectively), and eugenol and geraniol most frequently (57% and 76% respectively). The 14 other fragrance materials were found in 40-97% of the deodorants...... could be drawn about the other fragrance mix constituents, as threshold levels in sensitized individuals have not been investigated. Furthermore, all of the fragrance materials investigated were frequently found in deodorants and, apart from the fragrance mix ingredients, the extent of problems...

  7. Deodorants on the European market: quantitative chemical analysis of 21 fragrances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Frosch, P

    1998-01-01

    allergens from the fragrance mix and 14 other commonly used fragrance materials. The deodorants were purchased at retail outlets in 5 European countries. It was found that in general, fragrance mix ingredients were more frequently present in vapo- and aerosol sprays than in roll-on products. The levels...... of the fragrance mix substances ranged from 0.0001-0.2355%. The products investigated contained cinnamic aldehyde and isoeugenol less frequently (17% and 29% respectively), and eugenol and geraniol most frequently (57% and 76% respectively). The 14 other fragrance materials were found in 40-97% of the deodorants...... could be drawn about the other fragrance mix constituents, as threshold levels in sensitized individuals have not been investigated. Furthermore, all of the fragrance materials investigated were frequently found in deodorants and, apart from the fragrance mix ingredients, the extent of problems...

  8. Effect of different concentrations of soybean lecithin and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tarig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of soybean lecithin (SL and virgin coconut oil (VCO in Tris-based extender on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen quality parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 ejaculates were collected from four bulls via an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 2% VCO in Tris-based extender which consists of various concentrations of SL (1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75%. A 20% egg yolk in Tris used as a positive control (C+. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions; one for chilling which were stored at 4°C for 24, 72, and 144 h before evaluated for semen quality parameters. The second fraction used for freezing was chilled for 3 h at 4°C, packed into 0.25 mL straws and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. The samples were then evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Chilled and frozen semen samples were thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology (eosin-nigrosin stain, membrane integrity, and lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reaction test. Results: The results showed that all the quality parameters assessed were significantly (p<0.05 improved at 1.5% SL concentration in chilled semen. Treatment groups of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75% SL were higher in quality parameters than the control group (C+ in chilled semen. However, all the quality parameters in frozen-thawed semen were significantly higher in the C+ than the treated groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, supplementation of 1.5% SL in 2% VCO Tris-based extender enhanced the chilled bull semen. However, there was no marked improvement in the frozen-thawed quality parameters after treatment.

  9. Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality of Bali Cattle Fed a Ration Supplemented with Soybean Oil Calcium Soap and Cashew Fruit Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study to evaluate growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites profile and meat fatty acid of Bali cattle treated with 3 different types of rations were conducted using a completely randomized block design with 4 replications. Ration treatments were R1: 40% native grass (NG + 60% concentrate, R2: 40% NG + 60% concentrate supplemented with 5% soybean oil calcium soap (SOCS, and R3: (40% NG + 60% concentrate supplemented with 5% SOCS + 10% cashew fruit flour (CFF. Variables measured were growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood metabolites, and meat fatty acid profile. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results of the study showed that the 3 different feed treatments did not have any significant effect on dry matter intake and organic matter intake, daily body weight gain, feed efficiency, crude fiber, ADF and NDF digestibilities, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, total fatty acid contents and content of unsaturated and saturated meat fatty  acids of Bali cattle meat. Different treatment rations also did not affect dry matter digestibility, however the treatments significantly affect the organic matter, crude protein, and fat digestibility (P<0.05. Bali cattle fed 5% SOCS (R2 and 5% SOCS + 10% CFF (R3 had higher organic matter and ether extract digestibilities and linoleic acid content of meat (P<0.05 compared with the control (R1. The Bali cattle fed with R1 and R2 had higher crude protein digestibility (P<0.05 compared with that of R3. It is concluded that the supplementation of 5% SOCS and 10% CFF in the ration improved the digestibility of organic matter, ether extract and linoleic fatty acids content in Bali cattle meat.

  10. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017.

  11. 7 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 20 - Commodities Subject to Reports, Units of Measure To Be Used in Reporting, and Beginning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aug. 31. Soybean oil cake and meal ......do Oct. 1 Sept. 30. Soybean oil, including, crude (including degummed), once refined, soybean salad oil (including refined and further processed by bleaching, deodorizing, or winterizing), hydrogenated ......do ......do Do. Flaxseed ......do. June 1 May 31. Linseed oil...

  12. 黄瓜籽油的精炼与分析%Refining and composition analysis of cucumber seed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝莉; 李丽华; 张金生; 郁永清; 周雅兰

    2011-01-01

    Crude cucumber seed oil was extracted by Soxhlet method, and after degumming, deacidifica-tion, decolorization and deodorizing, the refined oil was obtained. The research showed that after laboratory refining,the acid value,peroxide value,color and phospholipids content of the product was nearly up to 2nd level of the soybean oil. After refining,the content of saturated fatty acid increased, while that of un-saturated fatty acids decreased slightly; but great loss of metal elements were caused by refining, especially the content of K, which got a loss of 1 505.0 μg/g.%通过索氏法提取黄瓜籽油,经过脱胶、脱酸、脱色和脱臭后,得到精炼油.考察精炼对油中各组分的影响,结果表明:实验室精炼后,黄瓜籽油的酸值、过氧化值、色泽和磷脂含量基本达到国家二级浸出大豆油的标准;精炼后,饱和脂肪酸含量升高,不饱和脂肪酸含量略有降低;而常量金属元素在精炼过程损耗较大,其中K含量减小幅度显著,达到1 505.0μg/g.

  13. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on occurrence, formation, analysis, and elimination methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the groups of oil-processing contaminants, are mainly formed during the deodorization step of the oil refining process and, thus, found in almost all refined edible oils. GEs have been considered to be potentially carcinogenic because, in the gastrointestinal...

  14. COMPARISON OF USUAL AND IN SIUTE ROUTES FOR SOYBEAN OIL EPOXIDATION VERGLEICH DER ÜBLICHEN UND IN SUITE ROUTES für Sojaöl EPOXIDIERUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Heidarzadeh Rizi , Abolfazl Semnani, Ahmad Reza Momeni and Hamid Shakoori Langeroodi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epoxide is an important intermediate for preparation of chemically modified lubricants from the vegetable oils. Finding simple epoxidation ways, will reduce time and cost of lubricant preparation. In this paper the epoxidation reaction of soybean oil has been followed in two different conditions. In first circumstances, the reaction has been followed by initial preparation of peracid followed by its addition to the oil. In second route, the peracid has been produced in situe. By measurement of concentrations of double bonds and oxirane rings in one gram of the oil, as well as the acid value, the first conditions has been monitored and optimized corresponding to time, temperature and stirring rate. By same measurements, the second setting has been optimized relative to oil: acid: peroxide ratio, temperature, time, and stirring rate. Based on the obtained results, the advantages of in situe method relative to normal route have been proved. FTIR and NMR spectra of obtained epoxy under optimum in situe conditions has been recorded and compared with the corresponding spectra of initial oil.

  15. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  17. Development of Soybean Highly Pure Powdered Lecithin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guihua; Gu Keren; Liang Shaohua

    2002-01-01

    This project makes use ofCondensed Soybean Phospholipids (CSP) toproduce highly pure powdered soybean lecithin.In the production technology, the first step is tode-oil by continuous y delivered mater al, higheffective mixing CSP with acetone and circularextraction. The second step is to centrifugallyseparate the lecithin miscellaneous liquid intomiscellaneous oil and solid-state lecithin withacetone. Then the mixing oil can be separatedinto crude oil and acetone by vaporization andcondensation. If the acetone contains too muchwater, it should be rectified for use circularly.Solid state lecithin with acetone can be madeinto highly pure powdered soybean lecithin(acetone insoluble matter >95% ) under thefollowing conditions: vacuum 750mmHg,temperature 60℃, time 20 minutes. Theproduction not only reaches the domestic andoversea quality index, but also has favorablehydrophilic property, which makes it becomenatural food additive and sanitarian nurture.

  18. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils