WorldWideScience

Sample records for denver sewage disposal

  1. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on soil, streambed sediment, and ground- and surface-water quality at a site near Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes the effects of burial and land application of municipal sewage sludge on soil and streambed sediment and water quality in the underlying aquifers and surface water within and around the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. The existing ground-water observation-well network at the disposal area was expanded for the study. Surface-water-sampling sites were selected so that runoff could be sampled from intense rainstorms or snowmelt. The sampling frequency for ground-water and surface-water runoff was changed from yearly to quarterly, and soil samples were collected. Four years of data were collected from 1984 to 1987 during the expanded monitoring program at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area. These data, in addition to the data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1981 to 1983, were used to determine effects of sewage-sludge-disposal on soil and streambed sediment and surface- and ground-water quality at the disposal area.

  2. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  3. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  4. Comprehensive disposal organic sewage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zuohuan

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry, the constituents of sewage have been becoming complicated, and the treating effect of ordinary methods on standard sewage treatment have decreased evidently. Effective application of radiation in the disposal of sewage with some examples is presented, especially the better effect when radiation combined with ordinary methods. (author)

  5. Where to dispose of the sewage sludge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)

  6. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  7. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  8. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  9. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  10. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  11. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...

  12. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini; Daniele Goi

    2014-01-01

    Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a s...

  13. Environmentally compatible sewage sludge disposal; Umweltgerechte Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water is done by means of biological processes: micro-organisms degrade pollutants. The resulting products are, besides cleaned waste water, sewage sludge and surplus sludge. Their disposal involves ecological and economic problems. One approach to their partial disposal is their degradation in a digester. Approximately one half of the organic substance is converted by anaerobic bacteria into energy-rich biogas. Optimization of this digestion process accelerates the anaerobic degradation process, increases the accruing amount of digester gas and reduces the volume of digested sludge to be disposed of. With these objectives, the Institute fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik is conducting research into the mechanical treatment of micro-organisms remaining in surplus sludge by means of different treatment devices. The project is sponsored under the programme of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG ``Biological processes with dispersive solids``. Mechanical treatment renders the cell constituents exploitable to anaerobic bacteria; the resulting sludge degradation is more rapid and more complete. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Zur Reinigung haeuslicher und industrieller Abwaesser werden biologische Prozesse eingesetzt. Dabei sorgen Mikroorganismen fuer den Abbau der Verunreinigungen. Neben dem gereinigten Abwasser fallen Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm an, deren Entsorgung oekologische und oekonomische Probleme verursacht. Ein Weg zur partiellen Beseitigung dieser Klaerschlaemme ist ihr Abbau in einem Faulbehaelter. Dabei wird etwa die Haelfe der organischen Substanz durch anaerobe Bakterien zu einem energiereichen Biogas umgewandelt. Eine Optimierung dieses Faulprozesses beinhaltet: 1. Beschleunigung des anaeroben Abbauprozesses, 2. Erhoehung der anfallenden Faulgasmenge und 3. Reduzierung der zu entsorgenden Faulschlammenge. Mit diesen Zielsetzungen wird am Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik im Rahmen der DFG

  14. Sewage sludge treatment, utilisation and disposal; Schlammbehandlung, -verwertung und -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)

  15. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  16. [Analysis on relationship between regional economic development and sewage disposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Zhu, Ji-Ye; Li, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Chao

    2008-03-01

    Based on the relationship between district GDP and sewage disposal, the water environment protection effect in 3 cities, Suzhou, Nanjing and Xuzhou, with different economic development degrees in Jiangsu Province was dynamically analyzed. The economy in Suzhou was well developed, where the foreign capital proportion was in a high level. Its GDP per capita was 53,800 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal grew linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. Nanjing was less developed than Suzhou, and the state-owned enterprises in large and medium sizes were in a high percentage. Its GDP per capita was 37,100 yuan in 2005, while the sewage disposal reduced linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. The economy in Xuzhou is under-developed, where coal-based heavy industry was the most important one. The GDP per capita in this city was 13,200 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal fluctuated when its GDP increased in the study time period. According to the relationship between economic development and sewage disposal in different cities, we suggested that the water environment protection in Suzhou should focus on the control of both water pollutant total emission and emission concentration, the major work in Nanjing should focus on adjusting the industrial structure and meanwhile controlling the total emission of water pollutants, while in Xuzhou the water pollutant emission concentration should be firstly controlled.

  17. Reasonable management plan of sludge in sewage disposal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Kyu Jin; Koo, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The compost method, which is widely used as a sewage disposal recycling in Korea, is now basically impossible to recycle sludge to compost by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announcement. Therefore, the disposal of sludge will be much harder with reducing the amount of sludge used as compost. The amount of sludge other than using as compost is very small, so the development of various sludge recycling and use will be needed with regulations. This study was implemented to help the establishment of sewage sludge recycling policy in Korea. 30 refs., 17 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  19. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

    1996-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perf...

  20. Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of sewage disposal in Abattoir community of Jos South LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: Despite the commendable findings in this community, the community is still at risk due to the poor practices of a few that were persisting in the community. Both government and community efforts are ...

  1. Distribution of sewage indicated by Clostridium perfringens at a deep-water disposal site after cessation of sewage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R T; Straube, W L; Palmisano, A C; Gibson, S L; Colwell, R R

    1996-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a marker of domestic sewage contamination, was enumerated in sediment samples obtained from the vicinity of the 106-Mile Site 1 month and 1 year after cessation of sewage disposal at this site. C. perfringens counts in sediments collected at the disposal site and from stations 26 nautical miles (ca. 48 km) and 50 nautical miles (ca. 92 km) to the southwest of the site were, in general, more than 10-fold higher than counts from an uncontaminated reference site. C. perfringens counts at the disposal site were not significantly different between 1992 and 1993, suggesting that sewage sludge had remained in the benthic environment at this site. At stations where C. perfringens counts were elevated (i.e., stations other than the reference station), counts were generally higher in the top 1 cm and decreased down to 5 cm. In some cases, C. perfringens counts in the bottom 4 or 5 cm showed a trend of higher counts in 1993 than in 1992, suggesting bioturbation. We conclude that widespread sludge contamination of the benthic environment has persisted for at least 1 year after cessation of ocean sewage disposal at the 106-Mile Site.

  2. Macrobenthic succession following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Frid, Chris L. J.

    2009-11-01

    Half a million tonnes of sewage sludge was disposed annually over an 18-yr period at a licensed area off the Northumberland coast, UK. The disposal operation ceased in December 1998, providing the ecological opportunity to study macrobenthic changes in relation to theoretical succession models. A transect from the centre of the disposal site to a control station was monitored three times a year (i.e. March, August and December). This study provides a description of the changes in the macrobenthos and physical environment in the initial '3 years' (i.e. 1999 - 2001). During the period of sewage sludge disposal there were indications of an impact on the macrobenthic community with a high total abundance of individuals ( N) and high total number of species ( S) at the stations located in the centre of the disposal ground. During the immediate post-disposal phase the site continued to show a localised increased of individuals and species in the disposal area. Over time the communities showed signs of successional changes when the reduction of organic matter source was eliminated from the natural system. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a clear gradient of change in the community composition between impacted and control stations. While most benthic studies assess re-colonisation and succession stages of macrobenthos by using manipulative field experiments, this study provides an in situ long-term assessment in the offshore environment. This study contributes with information on: i) initial colonization and succession of macrobenthic communities over a large scale and real world data; ii) macrobenthic data into existing successional models and iii) resilience of benthic communities following the cessation of sewage sludge disposal. This information has the potential to contribute to an effective management of the marine communities in the North Sea.

  3. Borehole drilling for sewage disposal at Asuka Station, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizawa,Kenji; Takahashi,Akiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    A borehole for sewage disposal was drilled at Asuka Station (71°31′34″S, 24°08′17″E, 930m a. s. l.) in January 1987. The borehole, 400mm in diameter and 27.5m in depth, was drilled 50m distant from the main hut using a steam drilling system. The drilling speed was 4m/h between the snow surface and 20m depth. The total amount of kerosene used for melting snow and steam generation was 110/. Sewage stored in the tank was directed to the borehole through a heated pipe. The cumulative amount of se...

  4. Future of sewage sludge in disposal; Klaerschlammentsorgung. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, Benjamin [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany). Fachgebiet III 2.4 - Abfalltechnik, Abfalltechniktransfer

    2013-06-01

    The thermal treatment of sewage sludge is changing continuously. In the future, the disposal of sewage sludge is framed and will be adjust by the idea of resource saving. Simultaneously due the amendment of the 17th BImSchV emission control will be encouraged. Although, more than a quarter of the upcoming sludge is incinerated in mono-incineration plants, this amount should be increased. Therefore, it is necessary to build up new capacities of mono-incineration plants. The legal and strategic framework which has an influence on the combustion of sludge will be examined in this paper. (orig.)

  5. Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.; Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Pelczarski, S.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

  6. Sewage sludge treatment and disposal. Experiences and perspectives; Klaerschlammbehandlung und -entsorgung. Erfahrungen und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichtl, N.; Mueller, J. [comps.] [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    1997-09-01

    Topics of the proceedings are: sewage sludge treatment and sewage sludge disposal by means of: thermal treatment, fermentation, composting, wet oxidation, hydrolysis, disposal in agriculture, economical aspects of sewage sludge treatment. This book deals with theoretical aspects and practical examples. (SR)

  7. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  8. Sewage sludge - arisings, composition, disposal capacities; Klaerschlamm - Mengen, Zusammensetzung, Entsorgungskapazitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Rabus, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Urban, A.I.; Friedel, M. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    One of the main disposal paths for sewage sludge in the past was landfilling. This option was severely restricted by the issue of the Technical Code on Household Waste in 1993. In its agricultural applications sewage sludge serves as a fertiliser and a soil improvement agent. Estimates on potential thermal treatment capacities have shown that there are enough public power plants to accommodate and provide thermal treatment for the total of sewage sludge arisings in Germany. As can be seen from the estimates presented in this paper, it would not even be necessary to restrict oneself to public power plant capacities. The paper points out possibilities of using plant capacities already existing in industrial firing plants and certain production sectors. It uses a comparison to show that sewage sludge would have to be dried in order to permit its thermal treatment in these private facilities. Aside from this, there are a number of new techniques entering the market which from the technical viewpoint also appear to be well suited for thermal sewage sludge treatment. [Deutsch] Ein wesentlicher Entsorgungsweg von Klaerschlamm war in der Vergangenheit die Verbringung auf eine Deponie. Diese Moeglichkeit ist durch die TA Siedlungsabfall von 1993 stark eingeschraenkt. Bei der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung wird durch den Klaerschlamm eine Duengewirkung sowie eine Bodenverbesserung erreicht. Eine Abschaetzung der potentiellen thermischen Behandlungskapazitaeten zeigt, dass die gesamte bundesdeutsche Klaerschlammenge in oeffentlichen Kraftwerken unterzubringen und thermisch zu behandeln waere. Wie die hier dargestellten Abschaetzungen gezeigt haben, ist man durchaus nicht allein auf die Nutzung oeffentlicher Kraftwerkskapazitaeten angewiesen. Es wurden Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung vorhandener Anlagenkapazitaeten in industriellen Feuerungsanlagen und in Produktionsbereichen aufgezeigt. Wie aus einem Vergleich erkennbar wird, ist allerdings eine Trocknung der Klaerschlaemme

  9. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  10. Handbook supplement to the Alberta private sewage treatment and disposal regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This manual was prepared to assist in the selection and installation of private sewage treatment and disposal systems which are best suited to location, water and soil conditions in a safe and efficient manner. The manual covers piping, frost protection, pumps, septic tanks and sewage holding tanks, soil tests and water softeners, disposal fields, treatment mounds, open discharge, and lagoons.

  11. The legacy of sewage sludge disposal in New York bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholtz ten Brink, M.; Casso, M.A. [Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Allison, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., Galveston, TX (United States); Schleel, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    From 1924 until 1987, New York City disposed of sewage sludge by dumping at the 12-mile dumpsite in 20 m of water off the New York-New Jersey coast. Approximately 125 {times} 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} was deposited, peaking in the early 1980`s. The dumpsite is at the head of the Hudson Shelf Valley, a submerged river channel crossing the continental shelf, in a region of sandy sediments that are regularly reworked by wave action. The introduction of the chemically and texturally distinct `sludge` sediment provides a tracer to study how accumulated anthropogenic deposits are dispersed throughout the region or transferred off the shelf. This work, begun in 1992, focuses on the fate of the material in the valley, ``downstream`` from the dumpsite. Geophysical, chemical, and radiological tools were used to delineate the sedimentary processes, the extent of contaminant dispersal, and the longterm fate of the dump spoils. Sediment derived from the sewage sludge has preferentially deposited on the valley floor relative to the surrounding shelf, resulting in unnaturally high accumulation rates in the upper valley. Dark, sludge-derived sediment is being covered by cleaner deposits from 0 to 26 km downvalley from the dumpsite, but ongoing resuspension and transport of the sediment results in a sewage signal in the uppermost sediments up to 80 km from the dumpsite. Both buried and surface ``sludge`` is subject to biological mixing. The patchy occurrence of the black sediment and interbedded sand layers observed downvalley suggest that resuspension and transport occur episodically, probably during major storm events.

  12. Soil cadmium mobility as a consequence of sewage sludge disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, I. [Station de Science du Sol, Versailles (France); Bourgeois, S.; Bermond, A. [Institut National Agronomique, Paris (France)

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobically digested liquid sewage sludge was applied as a single treatment to a loamy hydromorphic drained soil, characteristic of agricultural soils in the North of France, at a rate of 11 Mg of dry solids ha{sup -1}. Total Cd concentrations of drainage waters for both amended and unamended plots were monitored at selected times to follow the mobility of Cd after sludge disposal. The drained ground-water of the plot that exhibited the highest discharge of sludge soluble organic matter (SSOM) exhibited about twice the Cd levels of the control plot during the first few weeks following sludge disposal (average of 3 and 1.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} respectively). Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide estimates of the relative binding strength of Cd-soil interactions as well as Cd-SSOM interactions. The behavior of Cd in a mixed sludge-soil system showed that the addition of sludge soluble organic matter to the soil led to a decrease in the sorption of this cation across the pH range between 5 and 7. The laboratory studies highlighted the role of soluble organic matter in soil Cd speciation, and can be used to speculate on the perturbations induced by high levels of sludge soluble organic matter introduced into a soil.

  13. 25 CFR 171.420 - Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.420 Can I dispose of sewage, trash, or other refuse on a BIA irrigation project? No. Sewage, trash, or other refuse are considered...

  14. Local Commune Administration as a Regulator of the Local Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Services Market

    OpenAIRE

    Małysko, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses problems related to the regulation of water and sewage disposal services market. In the beginning he describes the processes of water supply and sewage disposal taken by the local commune administration as a natural monopoly. Next he characterizes the structure of this market in Poland. Then he presents the role of local commune administration as a regulator. The author concludes by evaluating the existing Polish system of regulating wate...

  15. Radionuclides in sewage sludge and problems of use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Technical support document for the surface disposal of sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the surface disposal of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in sewage sludge placed on surface disposal sites. The management practices associated with surface disposal are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through surface disposal are discussed

  17. Technical support document for the surface disposal of sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the surface disposal of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in sewage sludge placed on surface disposal sites. The management practices associated with surface disposal are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through surface disposal are discussed.

  18. Predicting Nitrogen Transport From Individual Sewage Disposal Systems for a Proposed Development in Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, K. K.; McCray, J.; Lowe, K.

    2005-12-01

    Individual sewage disposal systems (ISDS) have demonstrated the capability to be an effective method of treatment for domestic wastewater. They also are advantageous from a water resources standpoint because there is little water leaving the local hydrologic system. However, if unfavorable settings exist, ISDS can have a detrimental effect on local water-quality. This presentation will focus on assessing the potential impacts of a large housing development to area water quality. The residential development plans to utilize ISDS to accommodate all domestic wastewater generated within the development. The area of interest is located just west of Brighton, Colorado, on the northwestern margin of the Denver Basin. Efforts of this research will focus on impacts of ISDS to local groundwater and surface water systems. The Arapahoe Aquifer, which exists at relatively shallow depths in the area of proposed development, is suspected to be vulnerable to contamination from ISDS. Additionally, the local water quality of the Arapahoe Aquifer was not well known at the start of the study. As a result, nitrate was selected as a fo-cus water quality parameter because it is easily produced through nitrification of septic tank effluent and because of the previous agricultural practices that could be another potential source of nitrate. Several different predictive tools were used to attempt to predict the potential impacts of ISDS to water quality in the Arapahoe Aquifer. The objectives of these tools were to 1) assess the vulnerability of the Arapahoe Aquifer to ni-trate contamination, 2) predict the nitrate load to the aquifer, and 3) determine the sensitivity of different parameter inputs and the overall prediction uncertainty. These predictive tools began with very simple mass-loading calcula-tions and progressed to more complex, vadose-zone numerical contaminant transport modeling.

  19. Wekiva Basin onsite sewage treatment and disposal system study

    OpenAIRE

    Booher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Existing onsite systems and aquifer vulnerability in the Wekiva Basin. Recommendations from the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health. (11 slides)

  20. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Life cycle assessment of alternative sewage sludge disposal methods; Oekobilanz von Klaerschlammentsorgungsalternativen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H. [Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung (ifeu), Heidelberg (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    At present there are three principal options for sewage sludge disposal in use or under discussion: agricultural utilisation - landfilling - cold pretreatment prior to disposal or utilisation (e.g., composting or fermentation) - thermal pretreatment prior to disposal or utilisation (e.g., monocombustion, co-combustion, pyrolysis, gasification). 10% of sewage sludge is currently combusted, 60% is landfilled, and 30% is used for agriculture. The ifeu Institute has carried out several studies which examine and compare the environmental impact of sewage sludge disposal options. [Deutsch] Zur Entsorgung bzw. Verwertung von Klaerschlamm stehen derzeit drei grundsaetzliche Optionen in Anwendung oder werden diskutiert: - Landwirtschaftliche Verwertung - Deponierung - kalte Vorbehandlung vor Deponierung oder Verwertung (z.B. Kompostierung oder Vergaerung) - thermische Vorbehandlung vorn Deponierung oder Verwertung (z.B. Mono- oder Mitverbrennung, Pyrolyse, Vergasung). Verbrannt werden gegenwaertig etwa 10%, 60% deponiert und 30% landwirschaftlich verwertet. Das ifeu-Institut hat in verschiedenen Arbeiten die Umweltauswirkungen von Klaerschlammentsorgungsoptionen untersucht und gegenuebergestellt. (orig./SR)

  2. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Estrogenic compounds in Tunisian urban sewage treatment plant: occurrence, removal and ecotoxicological impact of sewage discharge and sludge disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Athmouni, Khaled; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Kallel, Monem; Ayadi, Habib; Zhou, John L

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of selected estrogenic compounds were investigated at Tunisian urban sewage treatment plant. The influents, effluents, as well as primary, secondary and dehydrated sludge, were sampled and analyzed for the target estrogens to evaluate their fate. All target compounds were detected in both sewage and sludge with mean concentrations from 0.062 to 0.993 μg L -1 and from 11.8 to 792.9 μg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment processes were observed, from 6.3 % for estrone to 76.8 % for estriol. Ecotoxicological risk assessment revealed that the highest ecotoxicological risk in sewage effluent and dehydrated sludge was due to 17β-estradiol with a risk quotient (RQ) of 4.6 and 181.9, respectively, and 17α-ethinylestradiol with RQ of 9.8 and 14.85, respectively. Ecotoxicological risk after sewage discharge and sludge disposal was limited to the presence of 17β-estradiol in dehydrated-sludge amended soil with RQ of 1.38. Further control of estrogenic hormones in sewage effluent and sludge is essential before their discharge and application in order to prevent their introduction into the natural environment.

  4. The key to sewage sludge disposal. Wohin mit dem Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin, G. (Sulzer-Escher Wyss GmbH, Fliessbett-Technik, Ravensburg (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    At the sewage treatment plant in Dornbirn (Austria), the quality of the treated effluent is so good that trout can be seen swimming in the outfall. Nevertheless, the quantity of removed polluting matter has posed a real problem for the persons responsible. In their efforts to find a means for reducing the volume of sewage sludge, they came across the so-called fluidbed drying process. (orig.)

  5. Emission reduction in thermal processes for sewage sludge disposal; Emissionsreduzierung bei thermischen Verfahren zur Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nethe, L.P. [Maerker Umwelttechnik GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Owing to the intensification of treatment processes and the construction of new sewage plants sewage arisings are due to rise considerably. The thermal treatment of sewage sludge which it has not been possible to avoid or utilise is an important and indispensable part of any sewage sludge disposal concept. If equipped with a state-of-the-art flue gas purification process that uses carbonaceous adsorbents (Sorbalit trademark), thermal treatment of sewage sludge can be regarded as an environmentally safe process technique. [Deutsch] Die anfallenden Klaerschlammengen werden durch die Intensivierung der Klaerprozesse und der Bau neuer Klaeranlagen deutlich zunehmen. Die thermische Behandlung nicht vermiedener oder verwerteter Klaerschlaemme stellt einen bedeutenden und unverzichtbaren Teil der Klaerschlamm-Entsorgungskonzepte dar. Bei Installation einer - dem Stand der Technik - entsprechenden Rauchgasreinigung mit dem Einsatz kohlenstoffhaltiger Adsorbentien (Sorbalit {sup trademark}) ist die thermische Behandlung von Klaerschlamm eine umweltsichere Verfahrenstechnik. (orig.)

  6. Sewage sludge disposal-requirements, expense and acceptance; Klaerschlammentsorgung zwischen Anspruch, Aufwand und Akzeptanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenebaum, T. [Ruhrverband, Essen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Production of sewage sludges is unavoidable at wastewater treatment. Sewage sludges shall be used in agriculture. Although the content of hazardous substances in sewage sludges has obviously been minimized, the use of those sludges is limited because of the low acceptance in agriculture and food industry. Therefore it is necessary to build up methods of disposal which make possible and ensure a medium- or even longtime disposal. Incineration seems to be the solution since the requirements for landfill of sewage sludges have been renewed. The currently valid transitional regulation lead to remarkable reactions of the disposal market. The plans for sewage sludge disposal have to agree with the principles of environmental protection, safety, economic efficiency, good realization and operational handling. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Abwasserreinigung faellt Klaerschlamm an. Dieser ist moeglichst in der Landwirtschaft zu verwerten. Obwohl die Schadstoffgehalte der Klaerschlaemme in den letzten 15 Jahren sehr deutlich gesunken sind, ist der Einsatz durch Akzeptanzprobleme in der Landwirtschaft und bei der Nahrungsmittelindustrie limitiert. Es gilt deshalb, Entsorgungspfade aufzubauen, die eine mittel- und langfristige Sicherung der Entsorgung ermoeglichen. Nach den neueren Anforderungen an eine Deponierung ist demnach immer eine Verbrennung vorzusehen. Die z.Z. noch geltende Uebergangsregelung hat zu massiven Reaktionen des Entsorgungsmarktes gefuehrt. Die Planungen zur Klaerschlammentsorgung muessen sich an den Grundsaetzen der Umsetzbarkeit und betrieblichen Handhabbarkeit ausrichten. (orig.)

  7. Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

  8. Modern disposal techniques for sewage sludge and municipal waste; Moderne Entsorgungsverfahren fuer Klaerschlamm und Hausmuell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlipp, G. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Maczek, K. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinkamp, H. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    Since the passing of the technical code on municipal waste, the issue of the disposal of sewage sludge and municipal waste has become more and more important in Germany. Increasingly, the possibility is made use of to burn industrial and municipal sewage sludge and municipal waste. For such thermal disposal, a great number of techniques are nowadays available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Seit der Verabschiedung der TA Siedlungsabfall gewinnt die Problematik der Entsorgung von Klaerschlamm und Hausmuell in Deutschland zunehmend an Bedeutung. Von der Moeglichkeit, industrielle und kommunale Klaerschlaemme und Hausmuell zu verbrennen, wird in zunehmendem Masse Gebrauch gemacht. Zur thermischen Entsorgung von Klaerschlaemmen und Hausmuell stehen heute eine Vielzahl von Verfahren zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  9. Sewage sludge management strategies, volumes and disposal cost - a Europe-wide comparison; Entsorgungswege, Klaerschlammmengen und Entsorgungskosten im europaeischen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft / Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    About 60 percent of the sewage sludge produced in the EU are used in agriculture or landscaping, at significantly lower cost than thermal disposal. If the EU were to banish the use of sewage sludge for these purposes, the cost of sewage sludge disposal would increase by about 40 percent. The same would apply in case of a hygienisation law. In this case, thermal utilisation would be preferable. (orig.)

  10. Future-oriented sewage sludge utilization/disposal; Zukunftsorientierte Klaerschlammverwertung/-entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, U.; Obid, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Although the technical code on municipal waste (TASi) with its requirements regarding material to be deposited at landfills and its composition (annealing loss < 5 % for landfill disposal class II and < 3 % for landfill disposal class I) has been known for a long time, it is still not clear how the disposal of sewage sludge via alternative pathways can be implemented. To be economically effective, sewage sludge disposal concepts must cover the short, medium, and long term. (orig.) [Deutsch] Obwohl die Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall (TASi) mit den Forderungen fuer die abzulagernden Stoffe in Bezug auf deren Zusammensetzungen (Gluehverlust <5% fuer Deponieklasse II und <3% fuer Deponieklasse I) seit langem bekannt ist, fehlt fuer den Bereich Klaerschlamm die Umsetzung im Zusammenhang mit anderen moeglichen Entsorgungspfaden. Die Entsorgung soll die kurz-, mittel- und langfristigen Massnahmen beinhalten, um moeglichst oekonomisch wirksam zu werden. (orig.)

  11. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  12. Ensured waste disposal without thermal treatment of sewage sludge?; Entsorgungssicherheit ohne thermische Klaerschlammbehandlung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melsa, A.K. [Niersverband, Viersen (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Technical Rule on Domestic Waste Management (TASi) specifies that from 2005, sewage sludge containing more than 5% of organic dry matter must no longer be dumped. This means that sewage sludge combustion will be the only means of disposal, apart from using sewage sludge as a fertilizer. The author's employer ('Niersverband' utility) was among the first to develop a future-oriented sewage sludge disposal strategy, and a drying plant was construct which is to reduce the weight and volume of sewage sludge in order to obtain a fuel of high calorific value. Further, a contract was closed for combustion of sewage sludge as fuel in a combustion system. [German] Unter Beruecksichtigung der TASi, die verlangt, dass spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 Klaerschlaemme mit einem hoeheren organischen Feststoffgehalt als 5% nicht mehr abgelagert werden duerfen, verbleibt uns neben der stofflichen Verwertung in der Landwirtschaft als massgeblicher Entsorgungsweg die Verbrennung, und zwar nicht - und das ist zu unterstreichen - um die Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm zu beseitigen, sondern um den Klaerschlamm zu entsorgen. Eine betriebssichere Klaerschlammverbrennung stellt dabei die hoechste erreichbare Stufe der Entsorgungssicherheit dar. Der Niersverband hat sich fruehzeitig mit der Aufstellung einer zukunftsfaehigen Klaerschlammentsorgungsstrategie befasst und eine Trocknungsanlage geplant, die eine weitgehende Gewichts- und Volumenreduktion des Klaerschlamms sowie die Erzeugung eines heizwertreichen Brennstoffs gewaehrleistet und damit die Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten deutlich verbessert. Des weiteren wurde ein erster Vertrag zur energetischen Klaerschlammverwertung in einer Verbrennungsanlage abgeschlossen. (orig.)

  13. Future disposal of sewage sludge in Saxony; Zukuenftige Klaerschlammentsorgung im Freistaat Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, H.D, [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landesentwicklung, Dresden (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Early in 1994, the Saxonian ministry of environment and regional development (SMU) commissioned an expertise with the preliminary title ``Concept for long-term strategies for sewage sludge disposal from municipal sewage treatment plants in Saxony``. The objective was to develop and evaluate scenarios and submit proposals for securing sewage sludge disposal in the long-term, making use of existing, planned or envisaged plants. The article presents some of the results of this expertise. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Saechsische Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landesentwicklung (SMU) hat Anfang 1994 unter dem Arbeitstitel `Konzeption fuer die Langfriststrategie zur Klaerschlammentsorgung aus kommunalen Abwasserreinigungsanlagen im Freistaat Sachsen` die Ausarbeitung eines Gutachtens veranlasst. Die Zielstellung bestand darin, unter Nutzung vorhandener, bereits geplanter oder neu zu plandender Anlagen Szenarien zu entwickeln und zu bewerten und Vorschlaege fuer Massnahmen zu unterbreiten, welche es ermoeglichen, langfristig eine Entsorgungssicherheit des Klaerschlammes zu gewaehrleisten. Einige Ergebnisse aus diesem Gutachten sollen im Folgenden vorgestellt werden. (orig./SR)

  14. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  15. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  16. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, H.C. [Emscher Genossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany). Technischer Vorstand

    2001-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion - either in an incinerator or for heat or power generation - has always been important and is getting ever more so. From the cost aspect, it makes quite a difference whether sewage sludge is just incinerated or utilised. The author makes it clear that this cost aspect - and what it means to communities and citizens - tends to be neglected by those who favour sewage sludge combustion and utilisation. [German] Die Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm - sei es als Schlammveraschung oder als thermische oder energetische Verwertung - hat schon immer fuer grosse Klaeranlagen einen bedeutenden Stellenwert gehabt. Die Bedeutung der Verbrennung scheint in letzter Zeit sogar zuzunehmen. Unter Kostengesichtspunkten ist es ein grosser Unterschied, ob ein Klaerschlamm nur verascht oder energetisch verwertet wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen Diskussion um die leeren Kassen der Kommunen, um die sogenannte dritte Miete fuer den Buerger und damit die Zumutbarkeit fuer weitere Steigerungen der Abwassergebuehren stoert mich die Bagatellisierung der Kostengesichtspunkte vor allem auf Seiten derer, die die Verbrennung der Klaerschlaemme fordern. (orig.)

  17. Survey of the home sewage disposal systems in northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumeo, Mark A; Newland, Juliet

    2009-09-01

    This article reports on failure rates in onsite sewage treatment systems (STS) that were found as part of a comprehensive seven-county survey that was performed under the auspices of the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) during the summer of 2000. The goal was to determine the percentage of onsite, individual home wastewater systems that were "failing." A system was identified as "failing" if, upon inspection, it had observable surfacing of effluent from the treatment system. A certified soil scientist conducted each on-site investigation to ensure consistency in methodology and to provide verification of soil types for each installation. The survey revealed that between 12.7% and 19.7% of the onsite wastewater treatment systems are allowing wastewater to surface as opposed to infiltrate (at the 95% confidence interval). The rate of failure does not vary significantly between aerobic and septic systems or between systems with or without filters.

  18. Perspectives of sewage sludge disposal. Technical meeting; Perspektiven der Klaerschlammentsorgung. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilderer, P.A. [ed.; Faulstich, M. [ed.; Rothemund, C. [ed.; Angerhoefer, R. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    Sewage sludge is a material requiring utilization and disposal. A profound change is due with the prohibition from the year 2005 to deposit untreated sewage sludge at landfills. As it will hardly be possible to use all sewage sludge in farming, thermal disposal will be indispensable. A major problem consists in forecasting the quantities of sewage sludge requiring processing and determining the corresponding plant capacities. If the problem is varied, so are the solutions offered. Therefore, a final panel discussion was held where representatives of science, the ministries and the interest groups concerned had the possibility to voice their opinions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es gilt Klaerschlaemme zu verwerten und zu entsorgen. Hier ist eine nachhaltige Veraenderung vor allem deshalb zu erwarten, da ab dem Jahr 2005 die Ablagerung nicht vorbehandelter Klaerschlaemme untersagt ist. Da aber kaum saemtliche Klaerschlaemme landwirtschaftlich zu verwerten sind, ist das Standbein thermische Behandlung unverzichtbar. Ein grundsaetzliches Problem ist hier die Prognose der zukuenftig zu behandelnden Mengen und des sich daraus ergebenden Anlagenbedarfs. So vielfaeltig wie das Problem, so vielfaeltig sind die Auffassungen zur Loesung desselben. In einer abschliessenden Podiumsdiskussion hatten daher Vertreter der Wissenschaft, der Ministerien sowie der einschlaegigen Interessenverbaende die Moeglichkeit, ihre Positionen zu verdeutlichen. (orig.)

  19. Sewage disposal using anaerobic membrane reactor. Kenkiseimaku reactor ni yoru gesui shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y. (Dic-Degremont Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Discussions were given on a small-scale sewage disposal of about bod 200 mg/l, for which no many examples of use have been hitherto available, using a system combining an anaerobic reactor and membrane modules. Experiments had been carried out from 1988 through 1990 as a part of the Aqua-Renaissance Project. The test equipment wza installed in the premises of the Chigasaki Coastal Research Facilities operated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which used sewage flowing from the adjoining sewage treatment plant for the southern area of the Fujisawa City. The test facility consisted of a system comprising a pretreatment facility, SS decomposing reactor, fluid-bed reactor, separation membrane modules, nitrogen removing facility and micro-organism activity measurement. The test facility was constucted assuming a treatment of 10 m{sup 3} a day. The system was divided into a composite system, A system and B system to operate the system in simplified flows. As a result of comparing the composite system, A system and B system, it was found that B system can deal with wider range of disposal for a small-scale sewage treatment of about 1000 m{sup 3} a day. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calace, N.; Maggi, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Petronio, B. M.; Pietroletti, M.

    1998-01-01

    A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metal has been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing heavy metal mobility. Sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by zinc and lead can modify their speciation, immobilizing a portion of metal present in mobile forms. In this way environmental hazards due to heavy metal presence can be reduced, because these derive essentially from the amount of metal present in mobile chemical forms. The results obtained show that sludge addition increases the fraction of metal sorbed from the soil; the characterization of the sludge before and after the treatment with the soil point out that this behaviour can be ascribed both to organic substances present in the sludge with the creation of new adsorbing sites, and to an increase of the ph value of the soil, due to the organic and inorganic compounds in the sludge [it

  1. Study on algorithm of process neural network for soft sensing in sewage disposal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaiwen; Xue, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Lu, Siying

    2006-11-01

    A new method of soft sensing based on process neural network (PNN) for sewage disposal system is represented in the paper. PNN is an extension of traditional neural network, in which the inputs and outputs are time-variation. An aggregation operator is introduced to process neuron, and it makes the neuron network has the ability to deal with the information of space-time two dimensions at the same time, so the data processing enginery of biological neuron is imitated better than traditional neuron. Process neural network with the structure of three layers in which hidden layer is process neuron and input and output are common neurons for soft sensing is discussed. The intelligent soft sensing based on PNN may be used to fulfill measurement of the effluent BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) from sewage disposal system, and a good training result of soft sensing was obtained by the method.

  2. A Study on the Scheme for Expanding Automation of a Large-Scale Sewage-End Disposal Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Kuk [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In Korea, 150 sewage-end disposal plants has been operating on the basis of the end of 1999 year, the number of which will increase to 350. As the emission standard of the nutrition bases like Nitrogen and Phosphorus is enhanced afterward, new demand to dispose them will be created and the higher technology of sewage disposal will be required. Sewage disposal plant also has been making many-sided efforts, enhancing the productivity and curtailing the employees to secure the competitiveness and making most disposing process automatic and unmanned. It is generally considered the curtailment of employees followed after automation, but actually, working burdens of operators has been increasing due to the curtailment of employees before the automation. The utilization of the equipment related to automation has been increasing to reduce the working burdens and heighten the disposal technology, but the survey on the actual condition is insufficient in Korea. Therefore, this study examines the actual condition of automatic equipment based on the domestic large-scale sewage disposal plants, compares it to the foreign technology trends, and suggests the schemes to enhance the utilization of automatic equipment in the sewage disposal plants. The history of the domestic sewage disposal equipment is not long, and the recognition on the necessity of automation is not good. Hence, the domestic data of the research and the basic condition are very scarce. Anyhow, we hope that this study will the starting point to enhance the utilization of automatic equipment for the efficient operation of sewage disposal equipment in future. 14 refs., 10 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. The future of sewage sludge disposal in Germany; Wohin entwickelt sich die Klaerschlammentsorgung in Deutschland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loll, U. [Abwasser-Abfall-Aquatechnik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The contribution attempts an outline of future trends in sewage sludge disposal in Germany. [German] Zum Zeitpunkt der vorliegenden Manuskripterstellung (Mitte Februar 2002) war aus der amtlichen Diskussion keine realitaetsnahe Tendenz zur anstehenden Novellierung der Klaerschlammverordnung ableitbar. Im Nachfolgenden werden auf der Basis der aktuelisten Publikationen sowie zugehoeriger Meinungsaeusserungen aus dem Bereich des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) sowie des Umweltbundesamtes (UBA) die moeglichen Entwicklungen und deren Folgen fuer die zukuenftige Duengepraxis abgeleitet. (orig.)

  4. Sewage Sludge Disposal with Energy Recovery by Fluidized Bed Gasification and CHP-Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, J.; Gross, B.; Kimmerle, K. [Inst. fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme, Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, C. [Christian Eder Technology e.K., Neunkirchen (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Sewage sludge is a composition of by-products collected during the different stages of the waste water cleaning process of communal and industrial treatment plants. Because of its harmful impacts on environment as well as animals - and mankind - health sewage sludge has become a problem. Therefore disposal of sludge is today on a crossroad depending on the discussion about soil contamination by using the sludge as fertiliser. Some countries are now abandoning disposal to agriculture and are entering into thermal treatment with the argument: 'Harmful substances already separated with high financial effort should definitely be removed from the food cycle and should not return indirectly via the fields to food and water'. The SEDIS project - a project funded by the European Commission under the specific research and technological development programme 'Promotion of innovation and encouragement of SME participation' - is aimed at eliminating the rising disposal problem of sewage sludge by an energy-related use of the raw sludge directly on site of wastewater treatment plants. SEDIS is developing an innovative, self-sustaining system to process liquid and pasty waste such as sewage sludge and solid biomass to utilise product-gas for power-generation direct on site. This process is called ETVS-process and is patented by Christian Eder Technology e.K. Today, where each company has to look for sustainable savings, the SEDIS concept offers a decentralised process, self-sustaining from other energy sources and able to provide the whole treatment plant with energy. Furthermore the treatment plant would be independent of price policy of sludge disposers.

  5. Wastes disposal on board a ship. Disposal of sewage and waste water; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. Osui oyobi haisui no shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-25

    This paper describes technologies and devices suitable for disposing of sewage and waste water produced in a ship. Methods for disposing of sewage in a ship include such physico-chemical disposition methods as disinfection and sterilization, and such biological disposition methods as activated sludge sewage disposition and catalytic oxidation (biological membrane treatment). Sewage treatment devices include a storage tank type sewage treatment device often used in inner sea liners such as ferry boats, and a biological treatment device (aeration device) used as a mainstream in merchant ships, large passenger liners, and governmental ships. With the storage tank type sewage treatment device, sewage is stored in a storage tank provisionally while a ship is cruising in a discharge prohibited sea area, and discharged in a sea area allowing the discharge or when the ship enters a port. The method is simple, but limited in storage volume. An activated sludge sewage treatment device consists of a tank divided into an aeration chamber, a sedimentation chamber and a disinfection chamber, an air compressor, a chlorine dissolving apparatus, and a screen. Sewage is digested and decomposed by activated sludge, and the top clear water is disinfected by chlorine, and then discharged. 1 tab.

  6. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400-800°C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

    1995-06-01

    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

  8. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  9. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Xiaomin [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Dai, Xiaohu [National Engineering Research Centre for Urban Pollution Control, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  10. Sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. Results of the DWA Sewage Sludge Study of 2003; Stand der Klaerschlammbehandlung und -entsorgung in Deutschland. Ergebnisse der DWA-Klaerschlammerhebung 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    In 2003, DWA carried out a nation-wide enquiry on sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany among operators of communal sewage treatment plant. Information was obtained on sewage sludge volumes and qualities as well as on methods of treatment and disposal pathways. Data were also compiled on the volumes and disposal of filtered-out material. This publication also includes results of other studies, e.g. by the Federal Office of Statistics (StBA) and Federal Environmental Office (UBA). The studies were initiated by the DWA Waste and Sewage Sludge Section. (orig.)

  11. Life cycle assessment of different disposal routes of sewage sludge; Oekobilanz verschiedener Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten fuer Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassot, G.M.; Candinas, T. [Eidgenoessische Forschungsanstalt fuer Agraroekologie und Landbau (FAL), Inst. fuer Umweltschutz und Landwirtschaft IUL Liebefeld, Bern (Switzerland)

    1998-11-01

    The ecological impact of six different disposal routes for sewage sludge of a major sewage treatment plant (three options for agricultural use in liquid, dried and limetreated form, and three options of incineration in a mono-sewage sludge incineration plant, a cement factory and a `Schwel-Brenn` type incinerator for municipal solid waste) has been studied with an comprehensive inventory and five impact assessment methods. Three methods show the important role of soil pollution. Existing methods are not yet able to consider all the factors necessary. The inventories should be completed concerning natural phosphorus resources and organic micropollutants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Sechs Entsorgungsvarianten (drei betreffen die landwirtschaftliche Verwendung in fluessiger, thermisch getrockneter und gekalkter Form und drei die Verbrennung in einer Schlammverbrennungsanlage, einem Zementofen und einer Schwel-Brenn-Anlage fuer Kehricht) fuer den Klaerschlamm einer grossen ARA werden mittels Inventarisierung der verursachten Umweltbelastung und fuenf Bewertungsmethoden untersucht. Drei Methoden zeigen die wichtige Rolle der Bodenbelastung. Die verfuegbaren Methoden koennen aber wichtige Einflussgroessen noch nicht beruecksichtigen. Ferner sollten die Inventare bezueglich P-Ressourcen und organischen Schadstoffen vervollstaendigt werden. (orig.)

  12. Migration and transformation of sulfur in the municipal sewage sludge during disposal in cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuyan; Li, Haoxin; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Xiaojie; Chen, Qing

    2018-05-07

    The aim of this work was to investigate the migration and transformation of sulfur in the municipal sewage sludge during disposal in cement kiln, and better understand the emission of the sulfur related pollutants in this process. In consideration of the temperature conditions in the practical operation, municipal sewage sludge was pre-dried at 105 °C, and then dried at 210, 260 and 310 °C, co-combusted with cement raw mill at 800, 900 and 1000 °C, and 1350, 1400 and 1450 °C respectively in the laboratory. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the S2p spectral lines of the municipal sewage sludge treated in the different process. Besides, The Thermal Analysis-Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), Back Scattered Electron (BSE) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) were also employed to explore the mechanism of sulfur subsistence at 1450 °C. The results indicate that sulfide, thiophene, sulfone and sulfate are mainly sulfur compound in the municipal sewage sludge dried at 105 °C. Sulfoxide, a new sulfur compound, appears after it is further dried at 210 °C. The relative contents of sulfide and thiophene are continuously declined as the drying temperature increases due to their evaporation, decomposition and transformation in this process. The transformation of sulfide and thiophene makes the relative contents of sulfoxide and sulfate accordingly increased. However, the relative content of sulfone experiences an elevating-lowering process while the dry temperature elevated from 210 to 310 °C. This case is related to its evaporation and decomposition, as well as its production for the transformation of sulfide and thiophene. In the co-combustion process, sulfide, thiophene and sulfone are entirely vanished for their evaporation, decomposition and transformation. Sulfone is still contained at 800 °C, but when the temperature unceasingly rises, it is completely decomposed or evaporated and sulfate is the only sulfur compound. The

  13. Co-disposal of sewage sludge and solid wastes-it works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, D B

    1977-10-01

    The problem of sludge disposal is one of more sludge than ever before, few suitable land disposal or land application sites, the ocean dumping option being phased out, and energy cost so high or supplies so few as to make incineration a questionable endeavor. The energy required to run a wastewater treatment plant and the heat needed to incinerate the sludge may be available in the same community in the form of municipal solid waste. Municipal sludge has a heat value of about 10,000 Btu/lb of dry solids; it is autogenous at>30% solids. Codisposal techniques are discussed which use the energy produced by the combustion of solid waste to dewater the sludge to its autogenous point. One approach is to use sewage sludge incinerators, in many cases already installed at the wastewater treatment plant, and to use the organic portion of solid waste as a fuel to dry, burn, and reduce the volume of the sludge that must ultimately be disposed. A second approach would use a solid waste incinerator, solid waste-fired steam generator, or waterwall combustion unit to burn dewatered sludge. Both approaches are being demonstrated or used. Thermal sludge disposal at wastewater treatment plants normally is carried out in multiple-hearth or fluidized-bed incinerators. The experiences of such plants in the US and Europe are summarized.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  15. Disposal of sewage sludge. Rotary kiln plants and energetic utilization of sewage sludge; Klaerschlammentsorgung. Drehrohranlagen in der Trocknung und energetischen Nutzung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormes, Franz [Visser und Smit Hanab GmbH, Kaarst (Germany). Rotary Kilns

    2013-03-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on rotary kiln plants in the disposal of sewage sludge. The examples give an insight into the systems engineering for the thermal treatment of sewage sludge, for the minimization or full thermal utilization. The examples show that there exists any specific solution. The process selection depends on the legal requirements and the framework conditions in dependence from the site and infrastructure. Generally, the following statements are valid: (a) The co-combustion is cheaper than every mono-combustion; (b) The costs for the transport of wet sludge often are more favourable than the costs of drying; (c) Plants for low capacities are specifically expensive. The following criteria become more important: (a) energy costs, recycling of energy; (b) recycling of phosphorus from sewage sludge; (c) Reduction of the input of heavy metals in order to comply with the fertilizer ordinance.

  16. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of Proposed Code Changes Regarding Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems in Suffolk County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of proposed code changes regarding residential onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDS) in Suffolk County, New York. Of the approximately 569,000 housing units in Suffolk County, 365,000 are no...

  17. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  18. A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calace, N.; Maggi, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Petronio, B. M.; Pietroletti, M. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metal has been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing heavy metal mobility. Sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by zinc and lead can modify their speciation, immobilizing a portion of metal present in mobile forms. In this way environmental hazards due to heavy metal presence can be reduced, because these derive essentially from the amount of metal present in mobile chemical forms. The results obtained show that sludge addition increases the fraction of metal sorbed from the soil; the characterization of the sludge before and after the treatment with the soil point out that this behaviour can be ascribed both to organic substances present in the sludge with the creation of new adsorbing sites, and to an increase of the ph value of the soil, due to the organic and inorganic compounds in the sludge. [Italiano] E` stato condotto uno studio preliminare sugli effetti derivanti dallo spargimento di un fango urbano su un suolo inquinato da metalli pesanti, in modo da valutare la possibilita` di ridurre la mobilita` dei metalli stessi. Il trattamento di un suolo inquinato da zinco e piombo con un fango urbano potrebbe produrre modificazioni sulla speciazione dei metalli immobilizzando una porzione del metallo presente in forma mobile. In tal modo i rischi ambientali dovuti alla presenza dei metalli possono essere ridotti. I risultati ottenuti hanno sottolineato la capacita` del fango di incrementare la frazione di metallo assorbita dal suolo; la caratterizzazione del fango prima e dopo il trattamento con il terreno ha messo in evidenza come tale proprieta` del fango sia imputabile sia alla sostanza organica presente, che assorbendosi sul suolo e` in grado di generare nuovi siti assorbenti, che all`aumento del pH del terreno.

  19. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. January 1980-February 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Feb 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 181 citations with title list and subject index.)

  20. A sewage disposal failure as a cause of ascariasis and giardiasis epidemic in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totkova, A; Klobusicky, M; Holkova, R; Valent, M; Stojkovicova, H

    2004-01-01

    In monitoring the incidence of intestinal parasites in children and employees of a nursery the authors examined 31 children with 8 (25.81%) and 16 employees with 3 (18.75%) positive results. The authors wanted to examine also the family members of 8 positive children and 3 positive employees but except from the cleaner's family, (Ascaris lumburicoides, Enterobius vermicularis and Entamoeba coli) nobody accepted the offer. All 8 members of a large family except for Patient 1 (a cleaner) and her grandson were without clinical and laboratory findings. They constitute 3 independent families who lived in 1st category flats. On August 31 there was an extensive sewage disposal failure in the ground floor flat of Family II and the flat was flooded by sewage. All family members worked solidarily on cleaning and also the members of Family IV who are friends of Family II. As shown by clinical symptoms of 'virosis', during the pre-patent period and after an outbreak within 73-78 days, laboratory findings of the family members demonstrated a severe family infection equal to a epidemic of intestinal parasitosis. Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed in 8 family members (61.54%) and Giardia intestinalis in 7 family members (53.85%) involved in cleaning. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 2 and Etamoeba coli in 1 family member. In monitored persons, in extreme hygienic conditions during the failure and later, a mass contraction arose on the basis of infection. The fact, that family epidemic arose subsequently, proved, in contrast to sporadic findings in children and adults, a 6.4 and 3.3 times higher incidence of Ascaris lumbricoides and a 5.6 and 8.6 times higher incidence of Giardia intestinalis. The authors discus the reasons of incidence and also preventive measures in population. (Tab. 3, Ref. 29.).

  1. An environmental LCA of alternative scenarios of urban sewage sludge treatment and disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarantini Mario

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of pollutants that affect wastewater are concentrated by treatment processes in sludge; it is therefore critical to have a suitable evaluation methodology of sludge management options to analyze if pollution is redirected from water to other media, such as air and soil. Life cycle assessment is one of the most widely known and internationally accepted methodologies to compare environmental impacts of processes and systems and to evaluate their sustainability in the entire life cycle. In this study the methodology was applied to assess and compare three scenarios of urban sewage sludge treatment and disposal: sludge anaerobic digestion followed by dedicated incineration, sludge incineration without previous digestion, and sludge anaerobic digestion followed by composting. The potential benefits of spreading the compost to soil were not included in the system boundaries even if, due to its nutrients contents and soil improving features, compost could partially replace the use of commercial products. The study was aimed at finding out the environmental critical points of the treatment alternatives selected and at providing a technical and scientific contribution for further debates with national and local authorities on the environmental optimization of sewage sludge management. Life cycle assessment results confirmed the major contribution of electricity and methane consumption on several environmental impact categories. Incineration contributes more than sludge composting to almost all categories, although the heavy metals content of urban wastewater sludge raises substantial concerns when composted sludge is spread to soil. In this paper the models adopted, the hypotheses assumed and the main findings of the study are presented and discussed. .

  2. Preparation of sewage sludges for the thermal disposal in lignite power stations. Aufbereitung von Klaerschlaemmen zur thermischen Entsorgung in Braunkohlenkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krone, C.; Koch, J.; Leidel, H.; Scheel, W. (VEAG Vereinigte Energiewerke AG, Ingenieurunternehmen fuer Kraftwerks-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Vetschau (Germany))

    1992-10-01

    The thermal disposal of communal sewage sludges as well as the additional combustion of such substances in furnaces of power station boilers are really no technical solutions. New are the consideration concerning the sludge preparation with the aid of the steam fluidized bed drying process and the additional combustion of the dried products in raw-brown-coal-fired large-scale steam generators. - The investigation proves the technical feasibility and points to problems which still have to be tackled. (orig.).

  3. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  4. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Beibei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wei, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: Zhangb@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%.

  5. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%

  6. Estimating the burden of illness in an Ontario community with untreated drinking water and sewage disposal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L W; Shimoda, F; Walter, S D; Pickard, L; Hunter, B; Ford, J; Deivanayagam, N; Cunningham, I

    1989-01-01

    The Hamilton-Wentworth regional health department was asked by one of its municipalities to determine whether the present water supply and sewage disposal methods used in a community without piped water and regional sewage disposal posed a threat to the health of its residents. Three approaches were used: assessments by public health inspectors of all households; bacteriological and chemical analyses of water samples; and completion of a specially designed questionnaire by residents in the target community and a control community. 89% of the 227 residences in the target community were found to have a drinking water supply that, according to the Ministry of Environment guidelines, was unsafe and/or unsatisfactory. According to on-site inspections, 32% of households had sewage disposal problems. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that the target community residents reported more symptoms associated with enteric infections due to the water supply. Two of these symptoms, diarrhea and stomach cramps, had a relative risk of 2.2 when compared to the control community (p less than 0.05). The study was successfully used by the municipality to argue for provincial funding of piped water.

  7. Dried sewage sludge as a raw material for utilization and disposal; Klaerschlammtrocknung als Ausgangspunkt fuer Verwertung und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofacker, K. [Mannesmann Demag AG, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Duesseldorf (Germany). Vertriebsabteilung; Mattes, R.R. [Mannesmann Demag AG, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Duesseldorf (Germany). Produktbereich Schlammbehandlung

    1998-01-01

    Whereas so far, more than 50 per cent of municipal sewage sludge was disposed of as wet sludge at landfills or used in farming or revegetation, the demands of the technical code on municipal waste, `TASi`, are now biting, whose transition period will expire in 2005. One of the aims defined in TASi is to safeguard disposal without further increasing the organic pollutant burden of sanitary landfills. By subjecting sewage sludge to thermal drying, the operators of sewage treatment plants, who are the ones obliged by law to take care of disposal, open up a broad range of possibilities for making use of the material and avoiding environmental pollution. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Waehrend kommunaler Klaerschlamm bisher zu ueber 50% in nasser Form auf Deponien entsorgt, in der Landwirtschaft und der Rekultivierung verwertet wurde, so greifen in Deutschland jetzt bereits die Anforderungen der TASi (Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall), deren Uebergangsfrist im Jahre 2005 ablaeuft. Zu deren vorgegebenen Zielen gehoert die Entsorgungssicherheit, ohne die Deponien weiter mit organischen Stoffen zu belasten. Der Weg ueber die thermische Trocknung erschliesst dem entsorgungspflichtigen Klaeranlagenbetreiber ein breites Spektrum von Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten mit wirtschaftlichen und die Umwelt nicht belastenden Pfaden. (orig.)

  8. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  9. Fate of individual sewage disposal system wastewater within regolith in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dano, Kathleen; Poeter, Eileen; Thyne, Geoff

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve understanding of the fate of septic tank or individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent in regolith overlying fractured-rock aquifers, effluent from an ISDS in such a setting was tracked via geophysical, hydrological, and geochemical methods. Under typical precipitation conditions, the effluent entered the fractured bedrock within 5 m of the boundary of the constructed infiltration area. During a period of unusually high spring recharge, the plume migrated between 50 and 100 m within the regolith before infiltrating the fractured bedrock. The chemical signature of the effluent is similar to that required to account for the decline in water quality, suggesting a causative relationship (as estimated from mass-balance models of the surface-water chemistry near the mouth of the basin). The elevated salt content of the effluent during periods of high natural recharge to the infiltration area correlates with elevated salt concentrations in surface and groundwater at the basin scale, suggesting that some of the effluent salt load may be stored in the unsaturated zone during dry periods and flushed during periods of elevated natural recharge.

  10. An assessment study of septic tank based sewage disposal system on quality of underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.A.; Lisa, M.; Boustani, M.; Jaffar, M.; Masud, K.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of septic tank based sewage disposal system made on the basis of quality of underground water is presented. Machrala village is selected as the case study area where an ever-increasing number of septic tanks are posing great health threat to the inhabitants. Both hand pump and tube well water samples are analyzed for toxic trace metals (Mn, Fe, Cd and Co), physico-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductance, total dissolved salts, Ca, Mg, Cl/sup-/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/) and micro-organism population in terms of total viable count, coliform count, MPN coliform. The metals were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption method using standard procedure. The study shows that the local underground water of the village is being adversely affected by toxic metals and coliform bacteria. In most cases, the latter parameter exceeds 240 counts/ml. Besides, tube well water were found to have higher Pb concentration (0.200 mg/ml) and the overall assessment renders more than 50% of the water samples as unsatisfactory for human consumption. (author)

  11. Sewage sludge: arisings, environmental impact, utilisation, disposal. Private wastewater disposal companies present memorandum; Klaerschlamm: Aufkommen, Belastung, Verwertung und Entsorgung. Private Abwasserentsorger legen Memorandum vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-05-01

    The more wastewater is cleaned to a high level of purity, the more sewage sludge arises. Problems of quantity and quality are closely intertwined with technical developments and changes in the legal framework. This applies as much to wastewater purification as it does to the utilisation or disposal of sewage sludge. Early this year the Association of Private Wastewater Disposal Companies (Verband der privaten Abwasserentsorger e.V., VpA) presented a memorandum on sewage sludge management which is intended to lead to greater transparency in this market segment of environmental protection. [Deutsch] Je mehr Abwasser auf hohem Niveau gereinigt wird, umso groesser ist die Menge des anfallenden Klaerschlamms. Mengen- und Qualitaetsprobleme sind eingebunden in sich wandelnde Techniken und veraenderte gesetzliche Grundlagen - in der Abwasserreinigung wie in der Verwertung oder Beseitigung der Klaerschlaemme. Der Verband der privaten Abwasserentsorger e.V. (VpA) hat Anfang des Jahres ein Memorandum zur Klaerschlammwirtschaft herausgegeben, das fuer groessere Transparenz in diesem Marktsegment des Umweltschutzes sorgen soll. (orig.)

  12. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  13. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS

  14. Land application of sewage sludge: A guide for land appliers on the requirements of the federal standards for the use or disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a regulation at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 to ensure that sewage sludge is used or disposed of in a way that protects human health and the environment. Part 503 imposes requirements for the land application, surface disposal, and incineration of sewage sludge. The manual focuses on land application, providing guidance to land appliers of sewage sludge. The purpose of the document is to provide the land applier with sufficient guidance to comply fully with all applicable Part 503 requirements. The guidance is structured to first provide a general understanding of the Rule and its underlying principles, including definitions of sewage sludge, land application, and an explanation of who under the Rule is considered a land applier.

  15. Pseudoclavibacter caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-04-01

    A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterial strain, designated MJ28T, was isolated from a sludge sample from the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ28T. Strain MJ28T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pseudoclavibacter soli KP02T (95.2 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of other Pseudoclavibacter species were less than 94.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ28T belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Pseudoclavibacter in the family Microbacteriaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ28T was 65.8 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MJ28T showed features typical of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, with MK-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, 2,4-diaminobutryic acid as the diamino acid in the peptidoglycan, and anteiso-C17:0 (44.6 %), anteiso-C15:0 (35.7 %) and C16:0 (9.5 %) as the major fatty acids. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ28T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, for which the name Pseudoclavibacter caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ28T (=KCTC 19773T=JCM 16921T).

  16. Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from sludge in a sewage-disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Yang, Jihoon; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-05-01

    Strain MJ31(T), a gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from a sludge sample collected at the Daejeon sewage-disposal plant, in South Korea, and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MJ31(T) belonged to the genus Nocardioides, appearing most closely related to Nocardioides dubius KSL-104(T) (98.6 % sequence similarity), Nocardioides jensenii DSM 20641(T) (97.6 %), Nocardioides daedukensis MDN22(T) (97.2 %) and Nocardioides mesophilus MSL-22(T) (97.0 %). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain MJ31(T) were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides: MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone, iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and C(18 : 1)ω9c were the predominant cellular fatty acids, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was based on LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain MJ31(T) was 71.2 mol%. Some differential phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values (<28 %) with the type strains of closely related species indicated that strain MJ31(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ31(T) ( = KCTC 19772(T) = JCM 16922(T)).

  17. Rhodanobacter caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge from a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-12-01

    Two Gram-reaction-negative, motile bacteria, designated strains MJ01(T) and MJ14, were isolated from sludge collected from the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. The taxonomic positions of both strains were determined using a polyphasic approach. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strains MJ01(T) and MJ14 appeared indistinguishable and to be most closely related to members of the genus Rhodanobacter in the family Xanthomonadaceae of the Gammaproteobacteria (96.4-98.8% sequence similarity). Strain MJ01(T) exhibited a relatively high level of DNA-DNA relatedness with strain MJ14 (89.3 %) but relatively low DNA-DNA relatedness values with established species in the genus Rhodanobacter (<60 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains MJ01(T) and MJ14 were 65.3 and 64.8 mol%, respectively. The major respiratory quinone of both novel strains was the ubiquinone Q-8. The major fatty acids of both strains were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17:0) and iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c, and the polar lipid profiles of the two strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and minor amounts of unidentified aminophospholipids and phospholipids. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic evidence, strains MJ01(T) and MJ14 represent a single novel species in the genus Rhodanobacter, for which the name Rhodanobacter caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ01(T) ( = KCTC 22449(T) = JCM 16242(T)), with MJ14 ( = KCTC 22460 = JCM 16243) as a reference strain.

  18. Gordonia caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Park, Giho; Yang, Hyejin; Hwang, Supyong; Bae, Yoonjung; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, short-rod-shaped, non-motile strain (designated MJ32(T)) was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ32(T). Strain MJ32(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gordonia hirsuta DSM 44140(T) (98.1%) and Gordonia hydrophobica DSM 44015(T) (97.0%); levels of sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Gordonia species were less than 97.0%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ32(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Gordonia in the family Gordoniaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ32(T) was 69.2 mol%. Chemotaxonomically, strain MJ32(T) showed features typical of the genus Gordonia. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H(2)), the mycolic acids present had C(56)-C(60) carbon atoms, and the major fatty acids were C(16:0) (34.6%), tuberculostearic acid (21.8%), C(16:1)ω7c (19.5%) and C(18:1)ω9c (12.7%). The peptidoglycan type was based on meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid with glycolated sugars. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ32(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ32(T) (=KCTC 19771(T)=JCM 16923(T)).

  19. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung und -Beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dichtl, N. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft

    2004-07-01

    In view of the increasing difficulty of getting rid of sewage sludge under the new legal specifications, thermal methods of sewage sludge treatment will become more important. While sewage sludge contains useful material such as carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus, there are also harmful constituents like heavy metals and organic compounds. Thermal processes will handle these critical constituents, provided that they are really eliminated in the process and not emitted again with the flue gases. Even if thermal processes meet the rigid emission criteria, it should be kept in mind that other useful constituents, especially phosphorus, will remain unused. (orig.)

  20. Shigellosis on Indian reserves in Manitoba, Canada: its relationship to crowded housing, lack of running water, and inadequate sewage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, T; Kendall, O; Blanchard, J; Martel, S; Wakelin, C; Fast, M

    1997-09-01

    This study compares incidence and hospitalization rates for shigellosis between Indians and the rest of the population in Manitoba, Canada. It examines the relationship between shigellosis and environmental conditions on reserves. Rates were calculated with surveillance data and a survey of environmental infrastructure was done. Indians had shigellosis incidence and hospitalization rates that were 29 and 12 times as high, respectively, as those of the rest of the population. Household crowding, lack of piped water, and inadequate sewage disposal were significantly associated with an increased incidence of shigellosis on reserves. Many cases of shigellosis may be prevented by improving living conditions on Indian reserves.

  1. Sewage sludge disposal in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Current situation and outlook; Klaerschlammentsorgung in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Aktuelle Situation und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasse, H.; Karl, U.; Lonjaret, J.P.; Rentz, O. [Deutsch-Franzoesisches Inst. fuer Umweltforschung (DFIU), Univ. Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The deposition of sewage sludge at landfills will be subject to more stringent regulations from 2005 at the latest. Acceptance of its use in farming is also low. Nor can its shipping to other federal states be considered to be secure in the long term. Hence, alternative methods of disposal are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Deponie von Klaerschlamm wird spaetestens ab 2005 erschwert werden. Auch die landwirtschaftliche Verwertung stoesst auf Akzeptanzprobleme. Auch die Verbringung aus Baden-Wuerttemberg heraus kann nicht als langfristig sicher betrachtet werden. Es werden deshalb alternative Beseitigungsmoeglichkeiten diskutiert. (orig.)

  2. Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov., isolated from sludge in a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-06-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, spherical, non-motile red-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MJ27(T), was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ27(T). Strain MJ27(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (98.8 %), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (97.5 %) and Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (96.6 %.); levels of sequence similarity with the type strains of other Deinococcus species were less than 96.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ27(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Deinococcus in the family Deinococcaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ27(T) was 67.6 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MJ27(T) were typical of members of the genus Deinococcus, with MK-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C(16:1)ω7c, C(15:1)ω6c, C(16:0) and C(15:0) as major fatty acids (>12 %), ornithine as the diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and resistance to gamma radiation [D(10) (dose required to reduce the bacterial population by tenfold) >9 kGy]. The low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness reported here (5.3±1.5-29.2±2.3 %) indicate that strain MJ27(T) represents a species that is separate from its closest relatives in the genus Deinococcus. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ27(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ27(T) ( = KCTC 13751(T) = JCM 16918(T)).

  3. Disposal of sewage sludge - problems and options; Klaerschlammentsorgung - Probleme und Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobelt, G.

    2000-06-01

    Sewage sludge production cannot be avoided. In consequence, the sewage sludge produced must either be utilised or combusted for heat and power generation. [German] Da Klaerschlaemme bei der Abwasserreinigung zwangsmaessig anfallen, ist ihre Vermeidung im Sinne des Paragraphen 4 (1), 1 des KrW/AbfG nicht moeglich. Deshalb muss es das Ziel einer vernuenftigen und geordneten Klaerschlammwirtschaft sein, den groesstmoeglichen Anteil des gesamten Schlammaufkommens, wie es das Gesetz ebenfalls vorschreibt, stofflich zu verwerten oder zur Gewinnung von Energie zu nutzen (energetische Verwertung). (orig.)

  4. Present situation and objective of sewage sludge treatment and disposal; Ausgangssituation und Zielstellung der Klaerschlammbehandlung und -entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, F. [BC Berlin-Consult GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Pueschel, M. [BC Berlin-Consult GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Sewage sludge is a solid-liquid mixture produced in each treatment step of a waste water treatment plant. The suitable manner of sludge treatment and disposal depends on the characteristics of the sludge such as its content of heavy metals and nutrient composition. To assess the different sludge treatment and disposal options besides the economical aspects effects on the environment must be considered. The emission of CO{sub 2} can serve as a possible approach for assessment. The dewatering and thermal drying approach for assessment. The dewatering and thermal drying causes the biggest part of CO{sub 2} emissions. They are at the same level as the CO{sub 2} which would be generated directly by total oxidation of the carbon contained in the sludge. The best way of sewage sludge disposal in accordance with the legal frame work, environmental impact and financial aspects is the co-combustion of sludge in cole power plants. The agricultural use of sludge with low heavy metal concentrations, however, is cheaper. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Fest-Fluessig-Gemisch Klaerschlamm entsteht in jeder Reinigungsstufe einer Klaeranlage und muss anschliessend einer Behandlung zugefuehrt werden. Der Entsorgungsweg ist abhaengig von den Eigenschaften des Schlammes, wie z.B. seiner Schwermetallbelastung. Den Rahmen fuer die Klaerschlammentsorgung bilden die Regelungen des Abfallgesetzes, der Klaerschlammverordnung, der Duengemittelanwendungsverordnung, der TA Siedlungsabfall, des LAGA Merkblattes 10 (Kompost) und weiterer Verordnungen des Immissionsschutz- und Abfallrechts. Zur Bewertung der verschiedenen Entsorgungswege wurden neben den oekonomischen Aspekten auch die Auswirkungen der jeweiligen Verfahren auf die Umwelt beruecksichtigt. Es wurde fuer die oekologische Bewertung die CO{sub 2}-Emission des einzelnen Verfahrens herangezogen. Das Resultat des Vergleichs zeigt, dass der Co-Verbrennung der Vorzug zu geben ist. Bei geringen Schwermetallbelastungen bietet die landwirtschaftliche

  5. Thermal disposal of sewage sludge: Status and trends; Stand und Entwicklung der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Wiebusch, B. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    1997-04-01

    In West Germany, 2.5 - 2.75 million t/a of dehydrated sewage sludge from municipal sewage systems must be managed every year. About 30% of this volume is used in agriculture, 14% is combusted,and 56% is dumped. Medium-term forecasts envisage a further increase of the sewage sludge volume to about 3 million t/a for East Germany and West Germany together. According to the specifications of the TA Siedlungsabfall (Technical Guide for Management of Domestic Waste), dumping of untreated sewage sludge will be prohibited from 2005 at the latest. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den alten Bundeslaendern sind derzeit 2,5-2,75 Mio. t/a Klaerschlammtrockensubstanz (TS) aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung zu entsorgen, von denen z.Zt. ca. 30% landwirtschaftlich verwertet, ca. 14% verbrannt und 56% auf Deponien abgelagert werden. Die mittelfristigen Erwartungen gehen von einem weiteren Anstieg der Klaerschlamm-Mengen aus, so dass in den alten und neuen Bundeslaendern mit mehr als 3 Mio. t/a Klaerschlammtrockensubstanz (TS) zu rechnen ist, die einer Entsorgung zugefuehrt werden muessen (Quelle: H. Kaiser Unternehmensberatung Tuebingen 1996). Aufgrund der Anforderungen der TA Siedlungsabfall wird spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 eine direkte Ablagerung von unbehandelten Klaerschlaemmen auf Deponien wegen des zu hohen organischen Anteils nicht mehr zulaessig sein. (orig.)

  6. [ECOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AS FERTILIZER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasbieva, M T

    2015-01-01

    In the article there is considered the question of the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants as a result of prolonged use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. There have been calculated coefficients of concentrations of elements and the total pollution index. There was performed the comparison of the data obtained with accepted sanitary-hygienic standards.

  7. Sewage sludge disposal and recycling; Klaerschlammverwertung mit dem Ziel der Schadstoff-Wertstofftrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, J. [Umweltbundesamt, Abt. III 3 - Abfall- und Awasserwirtschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The potential land pollution from sewage sludge used as agricultural fertilizer was investigated. It was found that sewage sludge contains high levels of heavy metals which will accumulate in the soil to an unacceptable level. Further, it is to be expected that sewage sludge will contain problematic organic pollutants discharged from private households and industrial processes which are not completely removed or filtered out in the sewage plant. Recovery of phosphates is necessary because the supply of phosphate worldwide is limited, and there is no substitute for phosphates as fertilizers. The measures outlined in this contribution should become part of national and EU regulations. [German] Es wurde untersucht, welche Schadstoffeintraege in den Boden durch die Verwendung von Klaerschlaemmen entsprechend den Vorgaben der geltenden deutschen Klaerschlammverordnung in der Praxis zu erwarten und welche Austraege gleichzeitig durch Auswaschung und Erntevorgang in Rechnung zu stellen sind: Danach fuehrt die Klaerschlammduengung zu erhoehten Eintraegen von Schwermetallen und somit ueber die Jahre zu einer Anreicherung im Boden, die auf Dauer nicht akzeptabel ist. Ausserdem ist davon auszugehen, dass Klaerschlaemme aufgrund von Abwassereinleitungen aus privaten Haushalten und Gewerbe eine Vielzahl von problematischen organischen Schadstoffen enthalten, die in den Klaeranlagen nicht abgebaut oder abgetrennt werden und die sich deshalb im Klaerschlamm wiederfinden. Die Rueckgewinnung von Phosphat aus Klaerschlamm und Abwasser ist notwendig, weil die Phosphatvorkommen weltweit begrenzt und Phosphate als Duengemittel nicht ersetzbar sind. Die dargestellten Massnahmen sollen sowohl in die nationalen als auch die EU-Regelungen eingebracht werden. (orig.)

  8. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations

  9. Sewage sludge volumes and disposal strategies in Germany and Europe today; Aktuelle Klaerschlammmengen und Ihre Entsorgung in Deutschland und Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, B.; Loll, U.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the latest data published by the Federal Statistical Authority on the quantities of sewage sludges in Germany and their disposal. It also shows the quantities and their relation to the population. In addition to the quantities of sewage sludge, their qualities are also shown. The report is completed by data from the European Union. With brief explanations and clear graphics, the statistical key data can help anybody to achieve an extensive overview of the subject. The report also gives ideas for in-debth studies. [German] In vorliegendem Bericht werden die aktuellsten Daten des Statistischen Bundesamtes zum Anfall und Entsorgung der Klaerschlaemme in Deutschland vorgestellt. Es wird weiterhin dargestellt, wie sich die Mengen im Verhaeltnis zwischen Einwohner und Einwohnergleichwerten verhalten. Neben den Klaerschlammmengen werden auch die Klaerschlammqualitaeten dargestellt. Ergaenzt wird dieser Bericht durch Daten aus der Europaeischen Union. Mit kurzen Erlaeuterungen und anschaulichen Grafiken koennen die Eckdaten der Statistik jedem zu einem umfassenden Ueberblick verhelfen. Fuer vertiefende Studien werden Anhaltspunkte und Anregungen gegeben. (orig.)

  10. Transferring of components and energy output in industrial sewage sludge disposal by thermal pretreatment and two-phase anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei

    2010-04-01

    For a better sewage sludge disposal and more efficient energy reclamation, transforming of components and energy in sludge by thermal and WAO pretreatment followed by two-phase anaerobic UASB process were studied in the pilot scale. Biogas outputs and the qualities and quantities of the effluent and solid residue were compared with a traditional anaerobic sludge digestion. Sludge components, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, were observed and mass balances were discussed throughout the process. The input and output energy balance was also studied. Results showed different trait to compare with biogas outputs in terms of COD added and raw sludge added. Pretreatment improved the transformation of carbon substances into biogas production with higher carbon removal and higher VSS removal. Comparing the energy obtained from biogas production with energy inputs required for pretreatment, energy output in the whole process decreased with higher pretreatment temperature. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combustion plans. Nordrhein-Westfalen opts for environment-friendly disposal of sewage sludge; Aktion Ofen. NRW plant umweltvertraegliche Klaerschlammverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H.; Giegrich, J.; Knappe, F. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    According to the plans of the Nordrhein-Westfalen minister of the environment, sewage sludge will be banned as a fertiliser. Instead, it is to be disposed in accordance with the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management and the requirements of the recycling industry. This is the result of a study carried out on behalf of the Ministry which is summarised here. Combustion capacities will be required. [German] Auf die Verbrennungskapazitaeten in NRW rollt eine Klaerschlammlawine zu. Nach den Plaenen des Duesseldorfer Umweltministeriums soll die sogenannte landwirtschaftliche Verwertung kuenftig eingeschraenkt werden. Die Verwertung soll den gesetzlichen Vorgaben des Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes und den Anforderungen der Kreislaufwirtschaft entsprechen. Dies ergibt sich aus einer Studie des Ministeriums, die hier zusammengefasst ist. (orig.)

  12. A water-budget approach to estimating potential groundwater recharge from two domestic sewage disposal fields in eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Dianna M.; Collison, Jake W.

    2015-08-04

    Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico, is a historically rural area that in recent years has experienced an increase in population and in the construction of new housing units, most of which are not connected to a centralized wastewater treatment system. Increasing water use has raised concerns about the effect of development on the available groundwater resources in the area. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bernalillo County Public Works Natural Resource Services, used a water-budget approach to quantify the amount of potential groundwater recharge occurring from the domestic sewage (effluent) dosed to the sewage disposal field at two locations—sites A and B—in eastern Bernalillo County, N. Mex. The amount of effluent that is potentially available for groundwater recharge was determined as the mean daily volume of effluent dosed to the disposal field in excess of the mean daily volume of effluent loss from evapotranspiration from the disposal field.

  13. Experimental Study on the Treatment of low C/N ratio disposal of sewage with BAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. J.; Ma, T.; Cheng, W.

    2010-03-01

    The Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) is a simple, high-efficient, low-consumptive for new biological membrane method correspond to the situation of china, will be one of the main technical measures to solve the progressive deterioration of water environment problem faced china especially medium and small towns. This paper focuses on the experimental study and mechanism analysis in which the up flow, cocurrent gas-water, single-stage BAF was adopted on treatment domestic wastewater, the results showed that BAF has good performance in treating domestic sewage, and it had steady treatment effect with different pollution loads.

  14. Sewage sludge disposal in Europe: Status and perspectives; Stand und Perspektiven der Klaerschlammentsorgung in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, U. [Eko-Plant Betriebsgesellschaft fuer oekologische Anlagen mbH, Neu-Eichenberg (Germany); Peitzmeier, M. [Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Umweltplanung mbH, Neu-Eichenberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Against the background of national developments, the European Commission in 1999 decided an amendment of the EU sewage sludge regulation. A discussion paper was developed in a cooperative effort of government officials and associations and was published in April 2000. The key element of the new EU sewage sludge regulation is a three-stage reduction of limiting values for heavy metal concentrations. Limiting values were also proposed for organic pollutants like AOX, PCB, PAH and dioxins/furans as well as for hitherto little regarded substances like LAS, DEHP and NPE. (orig.) [German] Vor dem Hintergrund verschiedener nationaler Entwicklungen beschloss die Europaeische Kommission 1999, eine Novellierung der EU-Klaerschlammrichtlinie durchzufuehren. Aus der Zusammenarbeit von Regierungsvertretern und Verbaenden entstand im April 2000 das 3. Arbeitspapier zur Ueberarbeitung der Richtlinie, das bis heute als Diskussionsgrundlage dient. Zentrales Element einer neuen EU-Klaerschlammrichtlinie sind neue Schwermetallgrenzen, die in drei Stufen auf ein niedrigeres Niveau reduziert wuerden. Des Weiteren werden Grenzwerte fuer organische Schadstoffe wie AOX, PCB, PAK und Dioxine/Furane sowie fuer bislang wenig beachtete Stoffe wie LAS, DEHP und NPE vorgeschlagen. (orig.)

  15. Eventual disposal of sewage sludges: a challenge for XXI century; Destino de los lodos de depuradoras: un reto ante el siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, P.; Alonso, N.; Polo, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sewage sludge is waste for which the most positive outlet outlet must be sought whilst, at the same time, making use of its qualities like organic matter and other nutrients contents. Recycling sewage sludge on agricultural land is a way for improves soil properties and a solution to reduce the increasing problem of organic waste disposal. reaching this social. Reaching this social benefit depends on the promotion of quality products such as compost and the adoption of best operational practices, according to research works and previous experiences. (Author) 28 refs.

  16. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal alternatives and their comparison; Puhdistamolietteiden hyoedyntaemis- ja loppusijoitusvaihtoehdot sekae niiden vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, P.

    2001-07-01

    Sludge production will presumably not decrease in future. At present agricultural use of sludge is unstable and landfilling will most probably be restricted in the following years. The objective of this thesis is to gather information on options for sludge treatment and utilisation and to compare these options in order to find the best possible solution for future alternatives of sludge utilisation. Finnish and international literature as well as Finnish and EU legislation have been reviewed. Furthermore the mentoring group of this thesis as well as other experts in Finland have been used as a source of information. Sludge contains not only plant nutrients and organic matter but also varying quantities of a number of more or less hazardous substances. The quality and quantity of sewage sludge are described and possible health and environmental risks caused by sewage sludge are pointed out. The legislation linked to sludge utilisation and its demands are also presented. The sludge processing methods reviewed are: thickening, lime stabilisation, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting and mechanical and thermal drying. In addition, the positive and negative sides of the stabilisation processes are looked at in greater detail. Agricultural use, landscaping, forestry, landfill, incineration, sludge derived products and newer processing technologies are reviewed as sludge utilisation options. Their environmental impacts, positive and negative sides and practical feasibility are evaluated. Various treatment utilisation combinations are also compared. Furthermore a rough cost assessment is presented. The optimal utilisation alternative has to be chosen case by case. The best use of plant nutrients and valuable organic matter is obtained in agricultural use or in landscaping. In the present situation it is difficult to enhance the portion of agricultural use, and landscaping is restricted by a low demand on the market. Incineration is an expensive option and can

  17. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal in Switzerland; Loesungen zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Klaerschlamm in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, C. [TBF Toscano-Bernardi-Frey AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Pelloni, L.; Vollmeier, T. [TBF Toscano-Bernardi-Frey AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Sewage sludge can be dumped in Switzerland only during a period of transition which will end by 2000. The amount of sewage sludge utilized in agriculture is limited. For these reasons, sewage sludge combustion is an important option. The available methods for sludge combustion are described and compared.

  18. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  19. The optimization of sewage sludge and effluent disposal on energy crops of short rotation hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, A.J.; Armstrong, A.T. [Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom); Ockleston, J. [Thames Water Utilities Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    An experiment was set up to test the effect of sewage sludge application and waste water irrigation on the biomass production of two poplar varieties, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides ''Beaupre'', and Populus trichocarpa ''Trichobel''. Three sludge applications were examined factorially with two irrigation regimes (with and without), over the two final years of a three-year rotation. The effects of treatment on soil and soil water were monitored, and the amount of heavy metals removed in the biomass was quantified. Irrigation had a significant effect on biomass of both poplar varieties, with Beaupre yielding more than Trichobel. Sludge application was not effective in increasing biomass yield, but the experiment was valuable in identifying that modest amounts of sludge (approximately 100 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) were acceptable environmentally and did not compromise biomass production. Cadmium uptake was detected in the poplar biomass, but the amounts were small and insufficient for poplar to be used in phytoremediation of metal-contaminated land. (author)

  20. The Noell Conversion Process - a gasification process for the pollutant-free disposal of sewage sludge and the recovery of energy and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, M. [Preussag Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany); Mayer, M. [Noell-KRC Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The Noell Conversion Process was developed to guarantee the safe disposal of sewage sludge and other waste materials by means of thermal treatment, even with every strict emission standards. The center piece of this process is a pressurised entrained flow gasifier. The reacting conditions in this gasifier does not only suppresses the formation of dioxins and furans, but also completely destroys and dioxins and furans contained in the waste materials. Another advantage of the Noell Conversion Process referring the thermal treatment of sewage sludge is the recovery of marketable substances such as synthesis gas, sulphur and vitrified slag. To demonstrate this advanced technology in the field of sewage sludge treatment, Noell-KRC has built a pilot plant in Freiberg/Germany. This plant was designed for a throughput of 0.5 Mg/h (dry base) of sewage sludge. During the operation of the plant from 1996 until 1998, it was possible to demonstrate that there are no problems with emissions of heavy metals like Mercury or organic components like Dioxins and Furans. The H2 rich gas produced in the process can be utilised as a power source. The vitrified slag produced in the process is of a quality suitable for use as a construction material with a wide range of applications. (Author)

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  2. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  3. Studies for the disposal system of the sewers of Santos and Sao Vicente (Brazil). Measurement of the sewage flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, V.; Ohara, T.; Sanches, W.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the sewage flow rate is a difficult problem in the field of sanitary engineering. A channel cross section calibration at a CHLORINE TREATMENT STATION was performed, in order to simplify the subsequent measurement of sewage flow, at a permanent stream-gauging station. The total count method was chosen because of its advantages over both the current instrument meter and the dilution technique of a radioactive or non-radioactive tracer (rodhamine and fluoresceine); the sewage transport materials might damage the current meter instruments and could also degrade chemical dyes because of the reduction properties of sewage. NH 4 Br labeled with 82 Br was used as radioactive tracer. The irradiated NH 4 Br was dissolved in a sodium thiosulphate solution. In spite of the presence of suspended materials in the sewage and the subsequent delicate operation of pumping out the flowing sewage through a by-pass where the measuring system was installed, accurate and reproducible field measurements were obtained [pt

  4. Dewatering and drying - prerequisites for a safe sewage sludge disposal; Entwaesserung und Trocknung - Voraussetzung fuer eine sichere Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, J. [Stadtentwaesserung Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Today, besides the agricultural utilization of liquid and drained sludge and the composting, there are the following different disposal ways which come into consideration: - sludge combustion in an independent plant or with garbage together; - utilization as a combustible both in cement and asphalt industry as well as in thermal power stations; - additives in commercial fertilizer or direct utilization as a dry fertilizer in agriculture (phosphorus fertilizer). All these ways demand a sludge product, with a dry content of 55 up to approximately 90 percent. During specification of an as flexible as possible plant in the waste water treatment plant Zurich-Werdhoelzli therefore, was demanded a double stage drying, for the production of both products, one with about 55 percent of dry matter (for combustion without supplementary combustibles) and one of these with 85-95 percent of dry matter. An indirect thin film contact extrusion gear was chosen in order to hold the odour and dust problems as small as possible, a high drying degree, in order to allow the desired corrected piling up and a better handling. This in turn should bring a further flexibility for trading of the sewage sludge product what has again favorable influence on the costs. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Zeit kommen neben der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung von fluessigem und entwaessertem Schlamm sowie dem Kompostieren folgende Entsorgungswege in Frage: - Schlammverbrennung in einer eigenstaendigen Anlage oder zusammen mit Muell; - Einsatz als Brennstoff sowohl in der Zement- und Asphaltindustrie wie auch in thermischen Kraftwerken; - Zuschlagstoff in Handelsduenger oder direkter Einsatz als Trockenduenger (Phosphorduenger) in der Landwirtschaft. Alle diese Wege verlangen ein Schlammprodukt, das einen Trockengehalt von 55 resp. rund 90 Prozent aufweisen muss. Bei der Spezifikation einer moeglichst flexiblen Anlage in der Klaeranlage Zuerich-Werdhoelzli wurde deshalb eine zweistufige Trocknung verlangt, die

  5. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  6. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  7. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  8. New trends in processing and disposal of municipal and industrial sewage sludges. 8. Joint seminar `waste water technology` with exhibitor`s forum; Neue Trends bei der Behandlung und Entsorgung kommunaler und industrieller Klaerschlaemme. Achtes gemeinsames Seminar `Abwassertechnik` mit Ausstellerforum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The present conference proceedings handle all aspects of sewage sludge disposal: agricultural use of sewage sludge, processing in anaerobic reactors, composting, drain, drying, gasification, combustion, economical aspects, ecological aspects, building, design and operation of modern sludge treatment plants. (SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Tagungsband behandelt alle Aspekte der Klaerschlammentsorgung: landwirtschaftliche Nutzung von Klaerschlamm, Behandlung in Anaerobreaktoren, Kompostierung, Entwaesserung, Trocknung, Vergasung, Verbrennung, wirtschaftliche Aspekte, oekologische Aspekte, Bau, Ausruestung und Betrieb von modernen Schlammbehandlungsanlagen. (SR)

  9. Twenty two years of sewage sludge marine disposal monitoring in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Impact on sediment quality and infauna and the response to load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, N; Shoham-Frider, E; Galil, B S

    2016-09-15

    Effects of sewage sludge disposal on sediments and infauna are presented in a unique long-term (22years) data set from the Eastern Mediterranean. While organic carbon (Corg) and metals affected sediment quality in an area which size varied seasonally, the infauna exhibited seasonal "boom and bust" cycle. Metal concentrations declined following load reduction. However, Corg did not decrease and infaunal abundance, closely related to Corg, varied with changes in environmental forcing. Mild winters affected the infaunal populations at the heavily impacted stations, due to anoxic conditions. Planned cessation of disposal is estimated to reduce Corg and metal concentrations to pre-discharge levels. Yet the resettling biota is expected to differ significantly from the pre-discharge one and consist in large part of Erythraean non indigenous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Baoling; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Qiang; Bu, Yushan

    2017-07-21

    Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84). Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (I geo ), heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI) suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow's synthetic pollution index (PN), sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri) revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI), station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a low risk. The

  11. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoling Duan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84. Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo, heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow’s synthetic pollution index (PN, sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI, station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a

  12. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact

  13. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of partially acidified sewage sludge: a pilot plant study for safe sludge disposal in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passio, Luca; Rizzoa, Luigi; Fuchs, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    The unsafe disposal of wastewater and sludge in different areas of developing countries results in significant environmental pollution, particularly for groundwater, thus increasing the risk of waterborne diseases spreading. In this work, a two-phase anaerobic digestion process for post-treatment of partially acidified sewage sludge was investigated to evaluate its feasibility as a safe sludge disposal system. Pilot tests showed that an effective sludge stabilization can be achieved (total volatile solids content <65%, organic acid concentration <200 mg/L at flow rate = 50 L/d and hydraulic residence time = 18 d) as well as a relative low faecal coliform density (<1000 most probable number per g total solids), showing that land application of the sludge without restrictions is possible according to US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for safe sludge disposal. A biogas production as high as 390 L/d with a 60% methane content by volume was achieved, showing that energy production from biogas may be achieved as well.

  14. The long-term and the short-term at a cropping municipal sewage sludge disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welby, C.W. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The City of Raleigh, NC, chose land application of municipal sewage sludge as a means of reducing pollution to the Neuse River. The Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) is located in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina. The soils at the facility are derived largely from the Rolesville Granite. Sewage sludge is applied to over 640 acres of cropland, owned in fee or leased. In making the policy decision for use of the sludge land application method 20 or so years ago, the City had to evaluate the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soils and plants as well as the potential for ground-water contamination from the nitrate-nitrogen. The city also had to make a policy decision about limiting the discharge of heavy metals to the sewer system. Study of data from monitoring wells demonstrate that well position is a key in determining whether or not nitrate-nitrogen contamination is detected. Data from a three-year study suggest that nitrate-nitrogen moves fairly rapidly t the water table, although significant buildup in nitrogen-nitrogen may take a number of years. Evidence exists suggesting that the time between application of sewage sludge and an increase of nitrate-nitrogen at the water table may be on the order of nine months to a year. It is apparent that in the case of municipal sewage sludge application one can anticipate some nitrate-nitrogen buildup and that the public policy on drinking water standards must recognize this fact.

  15. The long-term and the short-term at a cropping municipal sewage sludge disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welby, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The City of Raleigh, NC, chose land application of municipal sewage sludge as a means of reducing pollution to the Neuse River. The Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) is located in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina. The soils at the facility are derived largely from the Rolesville Granite. Sewage sludge is applied to over 640 acres of cropland, owned in fee or leased. In making the policy decision for use of the sludge land application method 20 or so years ago, the City had to evaluate the potential for heavy metal accumulation in the soils and plants as well as the potential for ground-water contamination from the nitrate-nitrogen. The city also had to make a policy decision about limiting the discharge of heavy metals to the sewer system. Study of data from monitoring wells demonstrate that well position is a key in determining whether or not nitrate-nitrogen contamination is detected. Data from a three-year study suggest that nitrate-nitrogen moves fairly rapidly t the water table, although significant buildup in nitrogen-nitrogen may take a number of years. Evidence exists suggesting that the time between application of sewage sludge and an increase of nitrate-nitrogen at the water table may be on the order of nine months to a year. It is apparent that in the case of municipal sewage sludge application one can anticipate some nitrate-nitrogen buildup and that the public policy on drinking water standards must recognize this fact

  16. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  17. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit[CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C

  18. TYPES AND QUANTITIES OF LEFTOVER DRUGS ENTERING THE ENVIRONMENT VIA DISPOSAL TO SEWAGE - REVEALED BY CORONERS' RECORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals designed for humans and animals often remain unused. Leftover and accumulated drugs represent suboptimal delivery of health care and environmentally unsound disposal, which can pose exposure risks for humans and wildlife.OBJECTIVES: A major unk...

  19. Sewage sludge disposal after 2005 - thermal utilisation and uses in agriculture; Klaerschlammentsorgung ab 2005 - thermische Entsorgung und landwirtschaftliche Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnekamp, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    2000-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion and its use as an agricultural fertilizer should not be viewed as yes-or-no alternatives. The contribution reviews some aspects of sewage sludge and attempts a forecast beyond 2005. [German] Was ist Klaerschlamm? Ein humus- und naehrstoffreiches Produkt, dessen moeglichst weitgehende Nutzung Ressourcen schont und dem Gebot der Nachhaltigkeit entspricht? Oder das Sammelbecken fuer all' die vielen Schadstoffe, die in Haushalten und Industrie mit Wasser in Beruehrung kommen und ueber die Kanalisation zur Klaeranlage gelangen? Sicher ist Klaerschlamm weder das eine noch das andere und daher ist auch eine eindeutige Bevorzugung oder ein vehementes Ablehnen der Verbrennung von Klaerschlaemmen oder der Aufbringung in der Landwirtschaft nicht angebracht. Dennoch ist in der gesamten Siedlungswasserwirtschaft kein Thema derart stark von Emotionen und haeufig wechselnden umweltpolitischen Rahmenbedingungen beeinflusst, wie die Frage der Klaerschlammentsorgung. Eine einigermassen gesicherte Prognose ueber die Klaerschlammentsorgung nach 2005 abzugeben, ist sicherlich nicht moeglich. Es sollen daher im folgenden einige Aspekte angesprochen werden, um das Thema aus verschiedenen Seiten zu beleuchten. (orig.)

  20. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. V. Street

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility

  1. Utilization and disposal of sewage sludge. DM 1. 5 to 2. 0 billion annual cost of sludge treatment accruing to the national economy without investments. Klaerschlamm verwerten und entsorgen. Jaehrliche volkswirtschaftliche Kosten der Schlammbehandlung ohne Investitionen von 1,5-2,0 Mrd. DM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, D.O.

    1993-05-01

    In recent years the accruing amounts of sewage sludge and associated costs have risen dramatically. They will continue to go up when the new federal states will improve their waste water cleaning techniques. The article describes technical trends in, and the costs of, sewage sludge disposal in Germany. (orig./BBR)

  2. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interim Control Strategy for the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond - Two-year Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho Cleanup Project has prepared this interim control strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office pursuant to DOE Order 5400.5, Chapter 11.3e (1) to support continued discharges to the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility Sewage Treatment Facility Disposal Pond. In compliance with DOE Order 5400.5, a 2-year review of the Interim Control Strategy document has been completed. This submittal documents the required review of the April 2005 Interim Control Strategy. The Idaho Cleanup Project's recommendation is unchanged from the original recommendation. The Interim Control Strategy evaluates three alternatives: (1) re-route the discharge outlet to an uncontaminated area of the TSF-07; (2) construct a new discharge pond; or (3) no action based on justification for continued use. Evaluation of Alternatives 1 and 2 are based on the estimated cost and implementation timeframe weighed against either alternative's minimal increase in protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of Alternative 3, continued use of the TSF-07 Disposal Pond under current effluent controls, is based on an analysis of four points: - Record of Decision controls will protect workers and the public - Risk of increased contamination is low - Discharge water will be eliminated in the foreseeable future - Risk of contamination spread is acceptable. The Idaho Cleanup Project recommends Alternative 3, no action other than continued implementation of existing controls and continued deactivation, decontamination, and dismantlement efforts at the Test Area North/Technical Support Facility.

  4. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    estuaries, Goa, India are described in this chapter. Raw sewage disposal into the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries has been a common practice in the history of the estuaries. With increasing population, the amount of sewage dumped in the estuary has also...

  5. The spatial variability of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in a sand aquifer influenced by onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems: a case study on St. George Island, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, D Reide; Dillon, Kevin; Burnett, William; Schaefer, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater from a shallow freshwater lens on St. George Island, a barrier island located in the Panhandle of Florida, eventually discharges into Apalachicola Bay or the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient concentrations in groundwaters were monitored downfield from three onsite sewage treatment and disposal systems (OSTDS) on the island. Estimates of natural groundwater nutrient concentrations were obtained from an adjacent uninhabited island. Silicate, which was significantly higher in the imported drinking water relative to the surficial aquifer on St. George Island (12.2+/-1.9 mg Si l(-1) and 2.9+/-0.2 mg Si l(-1), respectively), was used as a natural conservative tracer. Our observations showed that nitrogen concentrations were attenuated to a greater extent than that of phosphorus relative to the conservative tracer. At the current setback distance (23 m), both nitrogen and phosphate concentrations are still elevated above natural levels by as much as 2 and 7 times, respectively. Increasing the setback distance to 50 m and raising the drainfields 1 m above the ground surface could reduce nutrient levels to natural concentrations (1.1+/-0.1 mg N l(-1), 0.20+/-0.02 mg P l(-1)).

  6. Denver radium site's - Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolski, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    In developing this case history of the Denver radium sites, an attempt is made to establish the Colorado carnotite connection from the point of discovery to early development and its eventual role in the inception of the National Radium Institute and Denver's radium legacy. Early exploitive mining activities and the exportation of the highest grades of uranium ore to Europe greatly disturbed key officials at the U.S. Bureau of Mines. With its proximity to known carnotite deposits and industrial capacity, Denver's destiny as one of America's early radium production centers became a reality by 1914. With African pitchblend discoveries, Belgium competition spelled the beginning of the end of Denver's romance with radium by 1920. The sites where Denver made or used its radium were lost in obscurity for 60 years and rediscovered in 1979. Thirty one sites and a characterization of their radioactive impact are now a part of the Superfund National Priorities listing for eventual cleanup

  7. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Carroll and Dubies Sewage Disposal, Port Jervis, NY, August 24, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The March 31, 1995 first operable unit (OU1) Record of Decision (ROD) (PB95-963802) called for the excavation, treatment and long-term on-site containment of contaminated lagoon materials and soil. Supplemental sampling activities were conducted in March 1997 during the remedial design phase of the remedy. The results of the investigation confirm the findings of the previous investigations regarding the types of wastes and contaminants present in the lagoons. The bioslurry treatment of these wastes was not deemed to be practicable. It was determined that the contingency remedy should be implemented. It was also determined that the waste in and surrounding each lagoon can be readily segregated into specific waste streams based on physical characteristics, making additional off-site treatment more cost-effective. The modified remedy expands the off-site treatment and disposal component of the contingency remedy; more of the waste will be treated off-site. The contaminated materials targeted for remediation remains the same.

  8. Thermal drying of sewage plant sludge and its disposal; El secado termico de fangos de EDAR y su disposicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, X.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal drying is one more link in the sludge treatment chain. The thickeners transfer the wastes water contaminant to the primary sludge, which contains around 5% of dry matter (DM). Mechanical dehydration brings the proportion of DM up to between 20% and 40%. Thermal drying raises the proportion of DM to between 85% and 95%. These are the solutions that have been adopted in most of the European Union. The next step consists in eliminating the organic fraction, which makes up from 40% to 60% of the DM, from the sludge. This can be done by pyrolysis-gasification or incineration. Although incineration provides the energy needed to dry the sludge and also complies with the Directive that limits the disposal of fermentable matter on dumps, it inevitably leaves behind the inorganic waste presents in the sludge. Vitrification is a simple, complementary technology for making the inorganic fraction inert while allowing it to be valorized. It thus closes the cycle and achieves zero dumping. (Author) 28 refs.

  9. Disinfection of sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies at IPEN and SEDAPAL have shown the effectiveness disinfection of sewage by means of ionizing radiations. A dose of 1 Kilo Gray reduces the coliforms and salmonella under the permissible levels. This method should allow to use again the liquids in the agriculture or its disposal like sea nutrient

  10. A brownfield to greenfield success story: Denver Radium Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracani, E.; Bruskin, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of forty-nine separate sites divided into 11 operable units throughout the city of Denver, Colorado. The sites contained radioactive soils and residues (310,000 tons) from processing of radium in the early 1900s. The majority of the radioactive material was removed, transported by rail, and disposed offsite in Utah. During radiologic cleanup at the former Robinson Brick Company Site (ROBCO), (OU No. 4/5), metal contaminated soils from previous smelting operations were encountered. The Denver Radium Site was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), and through cooperation of private parties, the state and federal governments, the land was cleaned up and restored to productive use

  11. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  12. Sewage water-free electroplating: Block heating power plant as part of a waste disposal plant. Abwasserfreie Galvanik: Blockheizkraftwerk als Teil einer Entsorgungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, R.

    1992-04-01

    The way leading to sewage water-free electroplating requires a lot of measures which have to be attuned to each other. At the end of every planning there comes the energy balance which, specifically for sewage water-free electroplating, is far from satisfactory. (orig.).

  13. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the...

  14. Material balance of two sewage sludge incineration systems; Methods and results - disposal of solid residues. Stoffflussanalyse bei zwei Klaerschlammverbrennungsanlagen; Methodik und Ergebnisse - Entsorgung der festen Rueckstaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staeubli, B. (Abt. Abfallwirtschaft des Amtes fuer Gewaesserschutz und Wasserbau des Kantons Zuerich (Switzerland)); Keller, C. (Elektrowatt Ingenieurunternehmung AG, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1993-02-01

    Material balances were analyzed in two Swiss sewage sludge combustion plants. The methodology is described. Aspects of the standards set for waste management in Switzerland are described. The two incinerations are described. The volumes and compositions of the sewage sludges and all gaseous, liquid, and solid products are gone into. The possibilities of recycling and dumping of combustion products are reviewed in consideration of the volumes and compositions of combustion products. The text is supplemented by tables and flowsheets. (orig.)

  15. Development, construction and testing of a transportable experimental plant for the disposal of problematic sewage with the goal of environmental protection. Final report. Entwicklung, Bau und Erprobung einer transportablen Versuchsanlage zur Entsorgung von Problemabwaessern mit dem Ziel der Umweltentlastung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, N.; Richter, J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of stage I of the project was the development of a complete disposal chain for problematic sewage, separating it into pure utility water, emitable gases and concentrated waste sludge. In stage II of the project, for which NUKEM GmbH was responsible, the central goal was calcination of the waste materials, i.e. thermal treatment of the organic and heavy-metal compounds and solidification and containment of the waste substances in solid bodies of any desired form that undergo minimal or no elution. Because of its complex organic/inorganic load and the difficulties inherent in its disposal, garbage water from waste disposal sites was selected as an example of problematic sewage. The scientific goal of stage I was achieved with the development and laboratory testing of a hybrid separation process based on a series of reverse-osmosis and evaporation steps and sludge centrifugation. The construction and field testing of an experimental plant was not carried out. As a result of the premature termination of stage II it was no longer possible to achieve the goal of a complete disposal chain. The funding of the project was not sufficient to cover the increased development costs of stage I required to meet the project goal. An assessment of the expected investment costs and operating costs associated with the technique on a practical scale revealed a poor cost-benefit ratio, so that these appear to be no short-term prospects of commercial exploitation. (orig.) With 43 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  16. 78 FR 45962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology... funerary objects should submit a written request to the University of Denver Museum of Anthropology. If no...

  17. Thermal disposal of sewage sludges by fluidised bed combustion with low emissions of pollutants. Thermische Entsorgung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme durch schadstoffarme Verbrennung in der Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, B. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik, Abt. Umwelttechnik); Lindau, S. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik, Abt. Umwelttechnik); Busse, U. (Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik, Abt. Umwelttechnik)

    1992-04-01

    The volume of sludge from the sewage treatment represents the largest problem in the waste management in Germany recently. The thermal treatment is inevitable for the solution of the problem. The fluidised bed combustion is suitable for a very good usability of sewage sludge. Experimental investigations carried out in a stationary fluidised bed in laboratory scale. The emissions of gaseous air pollutants are influenced by the properties of the sludge and the parameters of the process. The dependence of the formation and the reactions of the pollutants from various parameters are analysed and judged. (orig.)

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Denver Radium Site Streets, Colorado, March 1986. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Denver Radium Site Streets is located in Denver, Colorado. The operable unit is comprised of eight street segments in the Cheesman Park area and one segment in the upper downtown area. The nine contaminated street segments are owned by the City and County of Denver and extend approximately 4.5 miles through largely residential areas. The Denver Radium Site Streets contain a 4- to 6-inch layer of radium-contaminated asphalt. The contaminated layer is underlain by compacted gravel road base and is usually overlain by 4 to 12 inches of uncontaminated asphalt pavement. There is an estimated 38,500 cubic yards of contaminated material covering approximately 832,000 square feet. The selected remedial action for the site includes: leaving the contaminated material in place; improving institutional controls; and removing any contaminated material excavated during routine maintenance, repair, or construction activities in the affected streets to a facility approved for storage or disposal of contaminated material

  19. Reliable disposal without thermal treatment of sewage sludge? An association`s views; Entsorgungssicherheit ohne thermische Klaerschlammbehandlung? Aus der Sicht eines Verbandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melsa, A.K. [Niersverband, Viersen (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Will the present disposal pathways still be valid in the future? Do we need alternative strategies for ensuring reliable disposal? Efficient strategies for the future should be investigated as early as possible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Behalten bisher beschrittene Entsorgungswege auch in Zukunft ihre Bedeutung? Muessen Entsorgungsalternativen zur Gewaehrleistung einer hohen Entsorgungssicherheit gewaehrleistet werden? Es gilt, sich fruehzeitig um zukunftsfaehige Strategien zu bemuehen. (orig.)

  20. Os microrganismos nas atividades de disposição de esgotos no solo: estudo de caso The microrganisms in the sewage disposal in soil: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Cavinatto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da pesquisa de ovos de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e E. coli no esgoto afluente, efluente e no solo da Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos de Populina (SP, cujo método de tratamento é o escoamento superficial no solo. Os resultados mostraram que o sistema de tratamento foi capaz de reduzir o número de ovos de helmintos presentes no esgoto. O número de organismos encontrados a 50 metros de distância do ponto de aplicação foi menor do que a 20 metros e os mesmos são encontrados em maior número na superfície do solo e a 20 m de distância do ponto de aplicação dos esgotos. O sistema não foi eficiente na remoção de Salmonella sp., coliformes totais e E. coli. Cabe salientar que a Estação de Tratamento está operando acima da capacidade para a qual foi projetada, o que justificaria tais resultados.This work shows the results of the research of helminthes eggs, Salmonella sp., total coliforms and E. coli in the sewage affluent and effluent and in the soil at the Sewage Treatment Plant in Populina, SP, which treatment method is the overland flow. The results have shown that the system was capable to reduce the number of helminthes eggs in the final effluent and that they are found in a bigger number on the soil surface and in twenty meters from the point of appliance of sewage. It is likely that the humidity has a certain influence on the viability of Ascaris sp. eggs. The system was not efficient on the removal Salmonella sp., total coliform and E. coli. It is worth pointing out that sewage treatment plant is operating over the capacity it was built to operating at, what would justify such results.

  1. 78 FR 45961 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology... Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the human remains to the Indian...

  2. 78 FR 72710 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ....R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Art Museum, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations, has determined that the cultural items listed in...

  3. 76 FR 58032 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO, that meets the definition of an object of cultural... Cultural Item: Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science, in consultation with the appropriate...

  4. Denver Radium Boom and the Colorado School of Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    The November 7, 1985, Rocky Mountain News, proclaimed Radiation hot spot detected at Mines. This hot spot discovery was the result of investigative reports by a local television station, with follow-up radiation monitoring by the Colorado Department of Health. Not an isolated occurrence of alpha and gamma radiation contamination, the School of Mines discovery is only the latest in a five-year series of discoveries of radioactive waste disposal sites in the Denver metropolitan area. These discoveries have involved not only the Colorado Department of Health, but also the Environmental Protection Agency, at least five consulting firms, and numerous businessmen and homeowners. In 1982, the sites were combined into a single project called the Denver Radium Site and selected for clean-up under the Federal Superfund program. This paper reviews the historical aspects of these hot spots by describing the history of radium processing in Denver; early work of the Colorado School of Mines, National Radium Institute, the Golden Experiment Station, and other institutional research; and the commercial production of radium. 20 references

  5. Eco-balance of sewage sludge disposal: Agricultural uses, monocombustion or co-combustion; Oekobilanz der Klaerschlammentsorgung: Landwirtschaftliche Verwertung, Mono- oder Co-Verbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, H. [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    fhe German state of Nordrhein-Westfalen envisages a state-wide strategy for sewage sludge utilization. The ifeu-Institute, Heidelberg, was commissioned to provide the planning fundamentals. About 530,000 t of dried sewage sludge are produced in NRW every year. Utilization concepts included the use as an agricultural fertilizer, in landscaping, and several variants of incineration. The methodology and results are presented here. [German] Das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen strebt eine landesweite Abfallwirtschaftsplanung fuer Klaerschlamm an, die sich an den genannten Grundsaetzen orientieren soll. Das ifeu-Institut, Heidelberg, wurde vom Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (MUNLV) beauftragt, die abfallwirtschaftlichen und oekobilanziellen Grundlagen fuer die Planung zu erstellen. Fuer die Entsorgung des in NRW mit 530.000 t Trockenmasse im Jahr anfallenden Klaerschlamms wurden dabei die Verwertung in der Landwirtschaft, der Einsatz im Landschaftsbau und die Verbrennung, mit jeweils allen wesentlichen in NRW realisierten technischen Varianten bewertet. Die Vorgehensweise sowie die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der oekobilanziellen Bewertung der Optionen der Klaerschlammentsorgung werden hier zusammengefasst. (orig.)

  6. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  7. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  8. 75 FR 29757 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Final Affirmative Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ..., 4 dispose of wastes to an on-site septic system, 21 dispose to a holding tank and 62 dispose to a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Thus all vessel sewage will be either discharge into State approved and regulated septic tanks or holding tanks for transport to a sewage treatment plant. Online maps are...

  9. Pyrolysis of the mixture of MSWI fly ash and sewage sludge for co-disposal: Effect of ferrous/ferric sulfate additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuyan; Yang, Fan; Chen, Fangfang; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Dezhen; Dai, Xiaohu

    2018-05-01

    Co-pyrolysis with sewage sludge was proved to be an efficient pre-treatment for sanitary landfill of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA). In this study, to improve the stabilization effect of heavy metals, mixed ferrous/ferric sulfate was added into the FA/SS mixture before pyrolysis. To examine the feasibility of the landfill of co-pyrolysis char, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (HJ/T300) was conducted. In addition, physio-chemical characteristics of char were also tested to explain the stability of heavy metals, including the speciation, mineralogical composition and the morphological features of them. The results indicated that within the range that the obtained char could meet the standard for landfill (GB16889-2008), the appropriate addition of mixed ferrous/ferric sulfates benefit to raising the FA ratio in the FA/SS mixture. The maximum ratio of 67 wt% is achieved when the additive was 1.5 wt% of dried SS (based on iron element) and the pyrolysis temperature was 500 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  11. Minimization of costs and fees in municipal sewage disposal. Legal bases, scope for action and reports of experience. PC information system AquaArgument; Kosten- und Abgabenminimierung in der kommunalen Abwasserentsorgung. Rechtliche Grundlagen, Handlungsspielraeume und Erfahrungsberichte. PC-Informationssystem AquaArgument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, R. [Saarberg Hoelter Wassertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany); Knust, M. [Saarberg Hoelter Wassertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany); Wittenberg, D. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Rehr-Zimmermann, M. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Hueting, R. [Kanzlei Zenk Tippenhauer Osmer Schroeter Schmidt-Decker Bergmann, Hamburg (Germany); Vogel, H.J. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1996-05-01

    One of the many tasks of local government is to make provision for sewage disposal. In many towns, necessary investments, the installation of further technical systems, and reconstructions entail a rise in sewage disposal fees. These measures, whose justification can hardly be denied for ecological reasons, and the resulting cost are more and more the object of long-term economic analysis and broad public debate. The brochure points out possibilities for minimizing the costs of, and fees for, municipal sewage disposal. Of course it is up to each municipal administration to decide in favour of or against their implementation (orig.). [Deutsch] Eine von vielen Aufgaben in der Kommune ist die Sicherstellung der Abwasserentsorgung. Die notwendigen Investitionen, technischen Erweiterungen und Rekonstruktionen fuehren vielerorts zu steigenden Abwassergebuehren. Die aus oekologischen Gesichtspunkten kaum in Abrede gestellten Massnahmen und die daraus resultierenden Kosten unterliegen in ihrer Entwicklung immer mehr einer langfristig orientierten wirtschaftlichen Betrachtung und einer damit verbundenen breiten oeffentlichen Diskussion. In dieser Broschuere werden einige Hinweise und Moeglichkeiten zur Kosten- und Abgabenminimierung in der kommunalen Abwasserentsorgung aufgezeigt, deren Umsetzung selbstverstaendlich der Entscheidung der einzelnen Kommune unterliegt. (orig./SR)

  12. Sewage sludge disposal at the city of Duesseldorf - Conception of co-combustion in a coal power plant; Klaerschlammentsorgung der Stadt Duesseldorf - Konzeption der Mitverbrennung im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindert, M. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Hansmann, G. [Stadtwerke Duesseldorf AG (Germany); Mittmann, H. [Kanal- und Wasserbauamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany); Goertz, W. [Umweltamt der Landeshauptstadt Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneously to the enlargement of the biological wastewater treatment plants in Germany the amount of sludges increased. For the reuse or disposal of these sludges different methods - from agricultural use to incineration - are applied. For the city of Duesseldorf it became necessary to outline a new conception for the sludge disposal. A number of methods has been considered, showing that co-incineration in a coal-power-plant appears to be practicable under the circumstances found in Duesseldorf. Hence the effects of such a co-incineration on the emissions and the composition of solid waste materials of the power plant have been investigated in the course of an experimental operation. These experiments show that coincineration of the sludge also has advantages from the ecological point of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit dem Ausbau der biologischen Klaeranlagen in Deutschland stieg in den letzten Jahren auch die Menge des anfallenden Klaerschlamms. Zur Verwertung bzw. Entsorgung dieses Schlammes werden unterschiedliche Verfahren - von der landwirtschaftlichen Verwertung bis zur Verbrennung - herangezogen. Fuer die Stadt Duesseldorf ergab sich die Notwendigkeit, die Klaerschlammentsorgung neu zu konzipieren. Verschiedene Varianten wurden geprueft, wobei die Mitverbrennung in der Schmelzkammerfeuerung eines Steinkohlekraftwerkes unter den in Duesseldorf herrschenden Randbedingungen praktikabel erschien. Daher wurden die Auswirkungen einer solchen Mitverbrennung auf das Emissionsverhalten und die Zusammensetzung der festen Reststoffe des Kraftwerks waehrend eines Probebetriebes untersucht. Die Versuche zeigen, dass die Mitverbrennung auch aus oekologischer Sicht Vorteile aufweist. (orig.)

  13. Sewage sludge - What can be done with it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the disposal of the sewage sludge that is left over after treatment of wastewater. Also, developments over the past ten years both in market structures and in legislation are discussed and future developments are reviewed. On account of legislation and political influences on the market, the thermal exploitation of sewage sludge is looked at in depth. The ecological and economic aspects of sewage sludge disposal are examined and the costs of different methods of sewage sludge treatment are compared. Various methods of disposal including dumping, composting, incineration in cement ovens, coal-fired power stations and waste incineration facilities are discussed, as is burning in special sludge incineration plant. A prognosis is made on the development of sewage sludge quantities for Germany, Switzerland and Austria over the next years

  14. Cost effective disposal of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zall, R R

    1980-01-01

    Means of reducing the problem of whey disposal are dealt with, covering inter alia the pre-treatment of cheese milk e.g., by ultrafiltration to lower the whey output, utilization of whey constituents, use of liquid whey for feeding, fermenting whey to produce methane and alcohol, and disposal of whey by irrigation of land or by purification in sewage treatment plants.

  15. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  16. 75 FR 23807 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of...

  17. 75 FR 55823 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the...

  18. 75 FR 5627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of...

  19. 75 FR 42770 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of...

  20. 75 FR 70027 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an...

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  2. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. IAEA perspectives on geological repositories. Address at the international conference on geological repositories, Denver, 1 November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the International Conference on Geological Repositories (Denver, 1 November 1999), the Director General of the IAEA gave a general presentation of the problem of disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and described the current situation in the countries using nuclear energy including present and future Agency's activities

  4. Analysis of sewage sludge and cover soil by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Lim, J.M.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Korean government reported that in 2005, 4395 tons/day of sewage sludge were generated from sewage disposal facilities in Korea and only 11.03% of it was reused. In addition, as a direct landfill of sewage sludge was forbidden from June 2003, research for a relevant disposal technique has been increasing. In this study, the aims were to analyze the collected sewage sludge samples and to evaluate the possibility for their reuse by a comparison of the elemental contents from a sewage sludge and a cover soil. Sludge samples were collected from a sewage disposal plant in Daejeon city and the cover soil was produced by a dilution of a sewage sludge with quicklime. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the elemental contents in the samples. Twenty seven elements were analyzed and their concentrations were compared. (author)

  5. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  6. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Avera...

  7. 8. European sewage and refuse symposium. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The subject of the 8. European Sewage and Refuse Symposium is covered under the following headings: collection and control in sewers, industrial waste water management, pretreatment, combined treatment, special cases, industrial waste water sludges disposal and the European waste business. (orig./BBR)

  8. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  9. Development of sewage system for mega-city Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talat, B.; Ahsan-Ullah

    2005-01-01

    The growth of mega-cities in recent times has brought to the fore a large number of issues with respect environmental conditions such as development of slum areas, poor localities, solid waste disposal, management of sewage system, lack of open spaces and health facilities. One of the major issues effecting environment proper disposal of sewage and development of sewage system including recycling of sewage water and its use. The heavy pressure of population calls for adequate provision of sewage disposal in the new areas and remodeling of systems in the old areas of the cities to ensure a pollution-free environment. Recycling of sewage and prevention of sewage discharge into natural water channels and the sea has to be undertaken on urgent bases. The paper seeks to outline the present status of sewage system of the city of Karachi, the problems involved and the proposals for management and development of the system compatible with the need and requirement of mega-city population. (author)

  10. 76 FR 9599 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... representing a minimum of one individual from Kohlberg's Antiques and Indian Arts, in Denver, CO. In 1972, the... Kohlberg's Antiques and Indian Arts. The remains were reportedly a part of the George A. Cuneo Collection...

  11. [Effects of sulphur compounds on the volatile characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash from the MSW and sewage sludge co-combustion plant during the disposal process with higher temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu

    2012-11-01

    Fly ash sample was collected from a MSW co-combustion with sewage sludge plant and the volatilization of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was investigated before and after the water washing of fly ash, meanwhile, the influence of adding different sulphur compounds (S, NaS, Na2 SO3, Na2 SO4) on the volatilization of heavy metals was studied. The results showed that the contents of Zn, Pb and Mn were high, the Ni content was low and the Cd content reached 29.4 mg x kg(1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn increased, while that of Cd reduced in the fly ash after water washing. TG-DTG curves of fly ash showed highest weight loss in ranges of 579-732 degrees C and 949-1 200 degrees C, with 690 degrees C and 1 154 degrees C as the inflection point temperatures. The volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, following the order of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Pb was more than 80% and that of Cu was less than 30%. After water washing, the volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, with the order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Zn was more than 20%. With the pretreatment of adding Na2 SO3 and Na2 SO4, the evaporation rates of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) were significantly decreased. After adding S, the evaporation rate of Zn was reduced, whereas the addition of Na2S reduced the evaporation rates of Cd and Zn. The evaporation rates of the four heavy metals were all reduced after adding Na2S in the washed fly ash. The evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were reduced with addition of S and Na2SO3 and the evaporation rate of Cd was reduced by adding the four sulfides. The results can provide a basis for the harmless disposal and maximized resource utilization and recycling of fly ash.

  12. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  13. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  15. Alternatives for sewage sludge disposal. Report by the Waste Management Association of the Federal Laender (LAGA), submitted to the 34th Conference of Environment Ministers. Alternativen der Klaerschlammentsorgung. Bericht der Laenderabfallgemeinschaft Abfall (LAGA) zur 34. Umweltministerkonferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This report points out methods to be used either alternatively or in addition to the application of sewage sludge to farmland. They include the exploitation of existing combustion capacities, for instance black-coal-fired power plants, brown-coal-fired power plants, rotary cement kilns, works producing materials for asphalt mixtures, waste incinerators, semicoking plants and pyrolysis plants. (EF).

  16. 77 FR 23504 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ...The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is a cultural affiliation between the human remains and associated funerary objects and present- day Indian tribes. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary objects may contact the Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward.

  17. Aspects of land application of sewage solids and gamma-irradiated dried sewage solids on calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, B.D.; O'Connor, G.A.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    One of the cheapest and generally most convenient methods of disposing of sewage sludge is by land application. The greatest risks of land application are potential contamination of the environment by heavy metals, other toxicants, and pathogens. Irradiation of sewage sludge has been shown to have little or no effect on sludge elements available to plants, and can remove the potential pathogen problem. Work at New Mexico State University has shown that, with little risk, gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be used to great advantage for crop production, especially on highly calcareous soils low in heavy metals essential for plant growth

  18. Limit values in special agreements between factories and sewage works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Yrjoe

    1987-01-01

    The operation of sewage works is controlled in Finland by the water and health authorities. These authorities set special quality demands for the effluent from sewage treatment plants into the recipient. Also other wastes from treatment plants, mainly sludges, have special regulations and operational target values. Sewage works have to achieve the aim goals and limit values set. In order to fulfill the regulations, sewage works impose such limit values on factory wastewaters that there will be no problems at the treatment plants. Sewage works can act in two ways: - require the factory to operate in such a way that the limit values are not exceeded, - the factory pays a certain sum of money to the sewage works, which takes care of the whole problem. It can be said in general, that it is not possible to get rid of harmful substances by payment to the sewage works if the substances cause treatment problems or problems in sludge disposal. If the factory produces wastewater that contains a higher organic load, more suspended solids or a higher nutrient load than normal sanitary wastewater, the problem is most often solved by paying an extra fee to the sewage works

  19. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    In this article, 35 published studies on life cycle assessment (LCA) of sewage sludge were reviewed for their methodological and technological assumptions. Overall, LCA has been providing a flexible framework to quantify environmental impacts of wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and disposal...... and how they were estimated in the analysis. In order to reduce these choice uncertainties, consolidation of the modelling approach in the following area are recommended: quantification of fugitive gas emissions and modelling of disposal practices. Besides harmonization of the key technical assumptions...

  20. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  1. Elimination of pathogenic microorganisms contained in sewage sludge by different anaerobic digestion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Morales, J. A.; Hernandez Lehmann, A.; Herandez Munoz, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    sewage sludge should be treated to facilitate handling and avoid possible problems like the smell of pathogens. These treatments modify the properties of the sludge making them more suitable for reuse or disposal. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Ocean waste disposal. A bibliography with abstracts. Search period covered 1964--May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The majority of the cited topics discuss the ocean disposal of sewage, sewage sludge, and dredged material, although reports on the disposal of radioactive wastes, brines, and industrial wastes are also covered. The ecological effects are included, as is research on the pollution of the New York Bight. However, studies on the discharge of heated effluents is excluded. Contains 164 abstracts. (auth)

  4. 76 FR 9606 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian Tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any present-day Tribe. Representatives of any Indian Tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward.

  5. 76 FR 9598 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian Tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any present-day Tribe. Representatives of any Indian Tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward.

  6. 76 FR 9597 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian Tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any present-day Tribe. Representatives of any Indian Tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward.

  7. 76 FR 9604 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian Tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any present-day Tribe. Representatives of any Indian Tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward.

  8. Engineering Systems for Waste Disposal to the Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Norman H.

    1981-01-01

    Successful waste-water and sludge disposal in -the ocean depends on designing an appropriate engineering system where the input is the waste and the output is the final water quality which is achieved in the vicinity of the disposal site. The principal variable components of this system are: source control (or pretreatment) of industrial wastes before discharge into municipal sewers; sewage treatment plants, including facilities for processing of sewage solids (sludge); outfall pipes and d...

  9. Sewage sludge: guidelines and its use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and forest substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pessanha Siqueira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge is a residue generated after treatment of sewage, being a growing environmental issue due to the increase in wastewater collection and treatment networks. The disposal of these wastes to agricultural land has been presented as the most appropriate, with positive effects indicated by research. However, there are criteria and procedures to be followed  for the sewage sludge legal management. The main guidelines for sewage sludge use in agriculture are presented, as well as its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and its performance as a forest substrate, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Utilisation of Electrodialytically Treated Sewage Sludge Ash in Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Pares Viader, Raimon; Kowalski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorous is a scarce resource and there is a need to develop methods for recovery of this irreplaceable nutrient from secondary resources, e.g. from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Today SSA is most often disposed of and the resource is lost. In the present study, about 90% phosphorous was recovered...

  11. 77 FR 23502 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ...: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO, has completed an inventory of human [[Page 23503

  12. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  13. Avaliação do comportamento de metais pesados no tratamento de esgotos por disposição no solo Assessment of the behavior of heavy metals in the sewage treatment by disposal in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley da Silva Paganini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os níveis de contaminação do solo por metais pesados, decorrentes de 16 anos de operação da Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos, por escoamento à superfície, localizada no município de Populina (São Paulo. As análises realizadas para esta avaliação envolveram o pH e os seguintes metais pesados cobre, zinco, alumínio, cádmio, mercúrio, molibdênio, níquel e chumbo. Os resultados mostraram que a grande maioria dos metais apresentou comportamento semelhante, com concentrações consideráveis até 30 e 50 m de distância do ponto de lançamento, nos primeiros 20 cm de profundidade. Deverão ser realizadas novas pesquisas devido aos valores elevados de Hg, Ni, Pb e Al registrados a 20 m de distância do ponto de lançamento dos esgotos, pois se isto for confirmado existem grandes riscos de contaminação dos lençóis subterrâneos.This assay presents the soil contamination levels by heavy metals, from 16 years of a sewage plant operation, by overland flow, in Populina City, São Paulo State, Brazil. The analyses carried out for this evaluation were the pH and the following heavy metals: copper, zinc, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and lead. The results showed that the majority of the metals presented similar behavior, with considerable concentration up to 30 and 50m of distance from the launching spot, concentrated on the first 20cm of depth. The dumping from gas stations on the sewage collecting system seems to contribute to the increase of the lead levels. New researches should be carried out due to the high values of Hg, Ni, Pb and Al registered 20m far from the sewage launching spots, because if it is confirmed there will be high contamination risks to the table waters.

  14. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  15. A laundry's reincarnation. Hospital Cooperative Laundry, Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-15

    It started out as an off-site hospital laundry, then was leased to a commercial operator, now it is a cooperative plant that serves several accounts in the Denver area. See what makes Hospital Cooperative Laundry tick.

  16. Leaching of Heavy Metals Using SPLP Method from Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Amira Sarani, Noor; Aqma Izurin Rahmat, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generate from wastewater treatment process. The sewage sludge contains significant trace metal such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb which are toxic to the environment. Sewage sludge is disposed of by landfilling method. However, this option not suitable because of land restriction and environmental control regulations imposed. Therefore, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was incorporated into fired clay brick to produce good quality of brick as well as reducing heavy metals from sludge itself. Sewage sludge with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% of were incorporated into fired clay bricks and fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. The brick sample then crushed and sieved through 9.5 mm sieve for Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). From the results, incorporation up to 20% of sewage sludge has leached less heavy metals and compliance with USEPA standard.

  17. Denver Radium Site -- Operable Unit I closeout report for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of properties in the Denver, Colorado, area having radioactive contamination left from radium processing in the early 1900s. The properties are divided into 11 gaps or operable units to facilitate remedial action of the Site. Operable Unit I is an 8-acre block bounded by Quivas Street to the east, Shoshone Street to the west, West 12th Avenue to the south, and West 13th Avenue to the north. The primary focus of interest concerning investigations of radiological contamination was a radium, vanadium, and uranium processing facility at 1201 Quivas Street owned by the Pittsburgh Radium Company (PRC) from 1925 until 1926. The Radium Ores Company, which was associated with PRC, operated the facility until 1927. A Remedial investigation (RI) of Operable Unit I was prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill on behalf of EPA in April 1986. The draft Feasibility Study (FS), prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill, was issued in July 1987 (the final FS is the Community Relations Responsiveness Summary with an errata to the draft, issued September 1987). The RI focused on radium uranium processing residues discarded in the early 1900s. These residues contained uranium, radium, and thorium. EPA s Community Relations Plan involved the community in the decision-making process relating to the remedy to be implemented at Operable Unit X, and promoted communications among interested parties throughout the course of the project. The remedial action alternative preferred by EPA for Operable Unit I was Off-Site Permanent Disposal. Because a permanent disposal facility was not available at the time the Record of Decision was issued in September 1987, EPA selected the On-Site Temporary Containment (capping) with the Off-Site Permanent Disposal alternative

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Sewage Sludge by Gamma Irradiation with Pasteurization as a Tool for Hygienization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, J.; Roy, P. K.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, management of sewage sludge disposal on agricultural soils is addressed. The increasing amount of sewage sludge and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to recycle sewage sludge efficiently. The research was structured along two main avenues, namely, the efficacy of the irradiation process for removing enteric pathogenic microorganisms and the potential of irradiated sludge as a soil amendment. This study investigated how application of irradiation with heat treatment reduced pathogens in sewage sludge. Raw and pasteurised Sewage sludge was treated at different dose treatment of 1.5, 3 and 5 kilogray (kGy) gamma irradiation individually and for 3 kGy sufficiency was achieved. Decrease in irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy was observed for pasteurised sludge resulting in saving of radiation energy. The presence of heavy metals in untreated sewage sludge has raised concerns, which decreases after irradiation.

  19. 76 FR 14061 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and associated funerary objects and any present-day Indian tribe. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary objects may contact the museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward.

  20. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  1. Effects of sewage sludge fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Elloumi, Nada; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Zouari, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Ayadi, Habib; Kallel, Monem

    2016-10-01

    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture, is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for Helianthus annuus, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductivity, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations of soil. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in shoot and root concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in plant as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Moreover, high metal removal for the harvestable parts of the crops was recorded. Sewage sludge amendment increased root and shoot length, leaves number, biomass, and antioxidant activities of sunflower. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, and soluble sugar content in response to amendment with sewage sludge may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. Graphical abstract Origin, fate and behavior of sewage sludge fertilizer.

  2. Gamma irradiation for sewage treatment at US army facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.J.; Hollis, H.D.; Musselman, H.D.; Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has been sponsoring research for many years on the use of gamma irradiation for disinfection and sterilization of sewage plant effluents. Initial research was directed to laboratory experiments using sterile solutions to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on E. coli, M-pyogenes and M-smegmatis organisms, and on the chemical constituents of sewage such as phenols, surfactants and pesticides. The results of the initial research warranted further study using municipal sewage secondary effluent as test samples. Current research is directed towards investigating the effects of radiation on the constituents of sewage sludge and on the cyst stage of the amoebic protozoa. Consideration has been given by the Corps to the management of waste-waters by disposal on land. Legal and medical reasons dictate that the plant effluents be sterilized before being used as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Gamma radiation from isotopic sources appears to be the best source of sterilizing energy for Army waste-water disposal. The Corps of Engineers is considering the construction of an experimental gamma irradiation pilot facility to validate laboratory experimental work and to establish design criteria for operating plants. The data obtained will provide a basis for performing detailed cost effectiveness studies on gamma irradiation as a method to treat secondary plant effluent. In addition, optimization work will be conducted to determine where in the sewage treatment cycle the use of gamma irradiation will produce the best results in meeting current and anticipated standards. (author)

  3. Ocean waste disposal. Volume 2. 1977-July, 1978 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1977-July 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.

    1978-07-01

    The majority of the cited topics cover the ocean disposal of sewage, sewage sludge, and dredged material, although reports on the disposal of radioactive wastes, brines, and industrial wastes are also included. The ecological affects are given, as is research on the pollution of the New York Bight. However, studies on the discharge of heated effluents are excluded

  4. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book is written about design and management of waste water disposal like settling, floating, aeration and filtration. It explains in detail solo settling, flocculant settling, zone settling, multi-level settling, floating like PPI oil separator, structure of skimming tank and design of skimming tank, water treatment and aeration, aeration device, deaeration like deaeration device for disposal processing of sewage, filtration such as structure and design of Micro-floc filtration, In-line filtration and design of slow sand filter bed.

  5. Uranium deposits: northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reade, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Fox Hills Sandstone and the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous) are the host rocks for uranium deposits in Weld County, northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado. The uranium deposits discovered in the Grover and Sand Creek areas occur in well-defined north--south trending channel sandstones of the Laramie Formation whereas the sandstone channel in the upper part of the Fox Hills Sandstone trends east--west. Mineralization was localized where the lithology was favorable for uranium accumulation. Exploration was guided by log interpretation methods similar to those proposed by Bruce Rubin for the Powder River basin, Wyoming, because alteration could not be readily identified in drilling samples. The uranium host rocks consist of medium- to fine-grained carbonaceous, feldspathic fluvial channel sandstones. The uranium deposits consist of simple to stacked roll fronts. Reserve estimates for the deposits are: (1) Grover 1,007,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.14 percent eU 3 O 8 ,2) Sand Creek 154,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.08 percent eU 3 O 8 , and 3) The Pawnee deposit 1,060,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.07 percent eU 3 O 8 . The configuration of the geochemical cells in the Grover and Sand Creek sandstones indicate that uraniferous fluids moved northward whereas in the Pawnee sandstone of the Fox Hills uraniferous fluids moved southward. Precipitation of uranium in the frontal zone probably was caused by downdip migration of oxygcnated groundwater high in uranium content moving through a favorable highly carbonaceous and pyritic host sandstone

  6. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  7. Astronomy in Denver: Centenary of the 1918 total solar eclipse across Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stencel, Robert E.

    2018-06-01

    Totality during the 2017 August 21 solar eclipse (Saros 145) traveled along a path across the United States similar to that which occurred for the eclipse on 1918 June 8 (Saros 126), but with a less west-northerly track. This placed Denver and its then new Chamberlin Observatory in the path of totality. Denver University astronomy Professor Herbert Howe offered use of the Chamberlin Observatory 20-inch f/15 refractor, with its Clark doublet lens and Saegmueller mounting, in service of eclipse-related research. In preparation for the eclipse, Professor Howe and assistants had spent the last three months of 1917, refurbishing mechanical aspects of the telescope. Edwin Frost, then Director of Yerkes Observatory expressed interest and made a reconnaissance visit to the area in September 1917, reporting results in the Feb. 1918 issue of Popular Astronomy ( http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1918PA.....26R.103F ). Frank Schlesinger, then director of Allegheny Observatory, asked if he might attach a special camera for star photography to the telescope at the eclipse, to test displacement of stars, in order to test a prediction of relativity theory. Among the additional visiting astronomical luminaries present on that June day in 1918 were Annie J. Cannon (Harvard), John Duncan (Wellesley), Herbert R. Morgan (U.S. Naval Observatory) and Robert Trumpler (Berkeley). To learn the results of all this eclipse preparedness, you will need to attend my talk in order to get “the rest of the story” or visit our twitter feed at: https://twitter.com/Chamberlin_Obs .

  8. Characterization study on secondary sewage sludge for replacement in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Aziz, Nurul Sazwana A.; Hamdan, Rafidah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Recently, environmental issues continually increased since expanded in industrial development and grown in population. Regarding to this activity, it will cause lack management of waste such as solid waste from wastewater treatment plant called sewage sludge. This research presents the characteristic study of sewage sludge, regardless of whether it is appropriate or not to be applied as building materials. The sewage sludge samples were collected from secondary treatment at Senggarang and Perwira under Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) treatment plant. Raw materials were tested with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to determine the composition of sewage sludge and heavy metal concentration contains in sewage sludge. From the study, it was found that sewage sludge contained high amount of Silica Oxide (SiO2) with 13.6%, Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) with 12.64% and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) with 8.7% which is similar in clay. In addition, sewage sludge also high in Iron (Fe) with 276.2 mg/L followed by Zinc (Zn) with concentration 45.41 mg/L which sewage sludge cannot be directly disposed to landfill. Results from this study demonstrated that sewage sludge has high possibility to be reused as alternative building materials such as bricks and have compatible chemical composition with clay.

  9. Regulatory impact analysis of the part 503 sewage sludge regulation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, S.

    1992-01-01

    The report evaluates the costs, benefits, and economic impacts of the final 40 CFR Part 503 regulation governing the use of disposal of sewage sludge generated during the treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works and domestic septage. The report begins by describing some relevant characteristics of treatment works and domestic septage haulers. The report focuses on the costs, risks, and benefits of the Part 503 regulation

  10. A laboratory manual for the determination of inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients in sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to a brief discussion on sewage sludge disposal, sludge contaminants, and the potential beneficial and adverse effects of the various inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients commonly present in sewage sludge, this technical guide presents a scheme of analysis for the determination of the major inorganic contaminants and nutrients. Safety and simplicity were the main criteria considered in the selection of the various sample pretreatment procedures and analytical techniques

  11. 78 FR 64007 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology has corrected an inventory of human remains and...

  12. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Culture, Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), 1560 Broadway, Suite 400, Denver, CO 80202...: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... control of the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed...

  13. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  14. POTENTIAL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GRANULAR SEWAGE SLUDGE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of the sewage sludge management in Poland is land disposal. However, since 01/01/2013, this method will be prohibited. Therefore, there is a strong need for development of thermal methods of sludge disposal. In the Polish legal system sewage sludge may be named as a biomass or waste. For purposes of determining the obligations of environmental regulations definition of the Minister of Environment should be used. When disposing of sewage sludge in an amount up to 1% by weight of fuel, emission standards for fuel do not change. At the disposal of sewage in quantities of more than 1%, should be conducted continuous measurement of emissions, including HCl, HF, and continuous measurements of flue gas parameters (as for the installation of waste disposal. For purposes of settlement of the share of energy from renewable sources we use the definition of Minister of Economy. In this case, in accordance with applicable law sewage sludge shall be considered as pure biomass is CO2 neutral. The use of sewage sludge as a fuel requires the determination of fundamental combustible properties. These properties should be in accordance with the requirements put fuels as an energy source. The paper presents results of a detailed physico-chemical analysis of dried sewage sludge produced in the two Polish wastewater treatment plants. The results were compared with five representatives of biomass fuels: straw of wheat, straw of rape, willow, pine and oak sawdust. Ultimate and proximate analysis includes a detailed analysis of fuel and ash. The results clearly indicate that the sludge is a very valuable fuel similar to “traditional” biomass.

  15. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also...... it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  16. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants into Spanish sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero, S.; Prieto, C. A.; Lopez, I.; Berna, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    The sewage Sludge directive 86/278/EEc seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. currently, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals (including linear alkylbenzene sulphonates. LAS, the main synthetic anionic surfactant) is to be implemented. This legal limit is based on monitoring studies carried out in Scandinavian countries, being strongly rejected by most EU countries since the Nordic situations was regarded as not representative. (Author)

  17. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants into Spanish sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarero, S.; Prieto, C. A.; Lopez, I.; Berna, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The sewage Sludge directive 86/278/EEc seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. currently, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals (including linear alkylbenzene sulphonates. LAS, the main synthetic anionic surfactant) is to be implemented. This legal limit is based on monitoring studies carried out in Scandinavian countries, being strongly rejected by most EU countries since the Nordic situations was regarded as not representative. (Author)

  18. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  19. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  20. Experience in Collaboration: McDenver at McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Clarice Sue

    2002-01-01

    The McDenver at McDonald's project provided a nontraditional, community-based teaching and learning environment for faculty and students in a health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) department and a school of nursing. Children and parents come to McDonald's, children received developmental screenings, and parents completed conferences…

  1. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  2. Environment-oriented private house of Mr.K in Kyushu. Self-sufficing concept of the entire house demands for heating and cooling by natural energy, including the sewage disposal; Kyushu ni tatsu kankyo kyoseigata jutaku (K tei). Danbo/ryobo/seikatsu haisui no subete wo teinai deno shizen energy wo mochiite jusoku/shorisuru konseputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-30

    A case study for a natural energy system serving for a private house is reported with the outline of the system and the measurement results of the temperature and heat environments both in summer and winter. A 2-story house with an area of 141m{sup 2} and a total floor area of 186m{sup 2} is introduced including the site where it stands. Then, it is described on a floor heating system by circulating warm water through pipings embedded in the structural bodies, made of reinforced concrete from a solar heat collector consisted of 20 galvanized steel pipes of 100mm in diameter and 7m in length, a wall and ceiling cooling system with well water that gushes out at a rate of about 2 tons/min, and also the use of 20 amorphous solar cell panels as the source of electric power generation of about 17W capacity for these 2 systems, a house sewage disposal after the first stage treatment into the soil of kicken garden and so forth. Upon these system installed, 50 measurement items such as temperatures of outdoor and each room, humidity, quantity of sunshine and so on were measured for 1 year, and the instrumentation data were collected. From various analytical results, it was revealed that the highest temperature of warm water pipings in winter was 32{degree}C, while the lowest temperature of 17{degree}C was recorded in the morning and the surface temperature in the structural bodies of a room located at the south-east corner remained stable in summer more or less at 27{degree}C and so forth. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  4. Disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    International consensus does not seem to be necessary or appropriate for many of the issues concerned with the safety of nuclear waste disposal. International interaction on the technical aspects of disposal has been extensive, and this interaction has contributed greatly to development of a consensus technical infrastructure for disposal. This infrastructure provides a common and firm base for regulatory, political, and social actions in each nation

  5. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  6. Ocean waste disposal (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--Jun 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    The majority of the cited topics discuss the ocean disposal of sewage, sewage sludge, and dredged material, although reports on the disposal of radioactive wastes, brines and industrial wastes are also covered. The ecological affects are included as is research on the pollution of the New York Bight. However, studies on the discharge of heated effluents are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 231 abstracts, 67 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Preparation of lightweight concretes with sewage sludge ash and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Young

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge results from the accumulation of solids from the unit processes of chemical coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation during wastewater treatment. Rapid urbanization in many areas of the world has resulted in a drastic increase of sewage sludge. More than two million tons of sewage sludge resulted from the treatment of urban sewage is produced annually in Korea. The majority of sewage sludge is disposed of conventionally by the landfill or ocean disposal method, both of which create severe environmental pollution. However, increasingly stringent environmental regulations and scarcity of landfill sites have posed disposal problems of sludge. Incineration is a viable alternative providing a means of sludge stabilization resulting in a reduced volume of sterile, odorless and practically inert residue. Accordingly, the development of environment friendly treatment technique of SSA (sewage sludge ash) inevitably produced during incineration of sewage sludge may be urgently required. For this aim, an attempt to manufacture the lightweight concrete has been made using sewage sludge ash and the physical properties have been determined in terms of specific gravity, compressive strength and thermal conductivity. As a result, the density of specimen prepared with SSA was ranged from 0.6 to 1.4g/ cm 3 and the compressive strength was ranged from 20 to 40kg/ cm 2 . As far as the thermal conductivity of specimen was concerned, it was ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 W/ mK depending on material composition which was far less than that of concrete. It was concluded that the lightweight concretes prepared with SSA could be applicable to building or construction materials such as insulation board and sound absorption material. (author)

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY: CONTROL OF PATHOGENS AND VECTOR ATTRACTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE (INCLUDING DOMESTIC SEWAGE) UNDER 40 CFR PART 503

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the federal requirements concerning pathogens in sewage sludge applied to land or placed on a surface disposal site, and it provides guidance concerning those requirements. The document is intended for: (1) Owners and operators of treatment works treati...

  9. Sewage treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  10. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  11. Hydraulic conductivity and soil-sewage sludge interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero de Melo Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems faced by humanity is pollution caused by residues resulting from the production and use of goods, e.g, sewage sludge. Among the various alternatives for its disposal, the agricultural use seems promising. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity and interaction of soil with sandy-silty texture, classified as Spodosols, from the Experimental Station Itapirema - IPA, in Goiana, state of Pernambuco, in mixtures with sewage sludge from the Mangueira Sewage Treatment Station, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco at rates of 25, 50 and 75 Mg ha-1. Tests were conducted to let water percolate the natural saturated soil and soil-sludge mixtures to characterize their physical, chemical, and microstructural properties as well as hydraulic conductivity. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of sewage sludge in soils leads to an increase of the < 0.005 mm fraction, reduction in real specific weight and variation in optimum moisture content from 11.60 to 12.90 % and apparent specific dry weight from 17.10 and 17.50 kN m-3. In the sludge-soil mixture, the quartz grains were covered by sludge and filling of the empty soil macropores between grains. There were changes in the chemical characteristics of soil and effluent due to sewage sludge addition and a small decrease in hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate the possibility that soil acidity influenced the concentrations of the elements found in the leachate, showing higher levels at higher sludge doses. It can be concluded that the leaching degree of potentially toxic elements from the sewage sludge treatments does not harm the environment.

  12. Mechanisms and kinetics of granulated sewage sludge combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Środa, Katarzyna; Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Musiał, Tomasz; Wolski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates sewage sludge disposal methods with particular emphasis on combustion as the priority disposal method. Sewage sludge incineration is an attractive option because it minimizes odour, significantly reduces the volume of the starting material and thermally destroys organic and toxic components of the off pads. Additionally, it is possible that ashes could be used. Currently, as many as 11 plants use sewage sludge as fuel in Poland; thus, this technology must be further developed in Poland while considering the benefits of co-combustion with other fuels. This paper presents the results of experimental studies aimed at determining the mechanisms (defining the fuel combustion region by studying the effects of process parameters, including the size of the fuel sample, temperature in the combustion chamber and air velocity, on combustion) and kinetics (measurement of fuel temperature and mass changes) of fuel combustion in an air stream under different thermal conditions and flow rates. The combustion of the sludge samples during air flow between temperatures of 800 and 900°C is a kinetic-diffusion process. This process determines the sample size, temperature of its environment, and air velocity. The adopted process parameters, the time and ignition temperature of the fuel by volatiles, combustion time of the volatiles, time to reach the maximum temperature of the fuel surface, maximum temperature of the fuel surface, char combustion time, and the total process time, had significant impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  15. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  16. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Szymon; Bartkowska, Izabela

    2018-02-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin), allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE). From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  17. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarżyński Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin, allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE. From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  20. Disposal of sewage and other water-borne wastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imhoff, Karl; Müller, Wilhelm Johann; Thistlethwayte, D. K. B

    1971-01-01

    ... with their advantages and disadvantages. The third section,essentially of a practical nature, describes various treatment processes, whilst the final part deals with particular problems of a small community where economic considerations...

  1. Domestic Sewage Disposal and Quality of Water from Hand Dug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results shows that wells located close to septic tanks and pit latrines were more polluted in terms of acidity, conductivity, CaCO3, NO3, ammonia, Pb and bacteriological quality. These results shows that unless there is proper education of the populace in this area, the continued use of water from these wells could lead to ...

  2. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  3. Chemical and Nuclear Waste Disposal: Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    James P. Murray; Joseph J. Harrington; Richard Wilson

    1982-01-01

    The problems of waste disposal have always been with us. In biblical times, the residents of Jerusalem always burnt their wastes inthehideousValeofGehenna.Thisgavewaytoburialofwasteor sometimes dumping it in shallow oceans. All too often the sewage pipes of the seaside towns did not even take the waste to the low tide mark; and the use of the deep oceans as a disposal site has been almost unknown...

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Denver Radium/Card Corporation Property, Colorado (third remedial action), June 1987. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Denver Radium/Card Corporation property is a 17.2-acre site located in Denver, Colorado. In 1979, the EPA discovered a reference to the National Radium Institute in 1916 U.S. Bureau of Mines report. Subsequent field research revealed the presence of thirty-one radioactive sites in the Denver Metropolitan area, one of these being Card property, the location of the original Pittsburgh Radium Company processing facility. The site consists of five buildings and an oil and waste water pond at the eastern boundary. There is no serious public health risk at present from radium or its decay products, most notable radion gas. However, there is the potential for increased public health risk if the radium contaminated materials are misused or inadvertently spread. Currently, radium has been detected in the soil, sediment, and underneath the True Truss building. EPA's preferred remedial action for the Card property is permanent offsite disposal. However, the alternative can not be implemented until a suitable offsite facility is designated

  5. Denver's Pioneer Astronomer: Herbert Alonso Howe (1858-1926)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, H. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Fisher, S.

    1999-05-01

    Herbert A. Howe arrived at Denver University (DU) to teach autumn 1880 classes, in math, astronomy and surveying. Howe established himself with clever solutions to the Kepler problem for orbit determinations in thesis work at Cincinnati Observatory. Riding the economic expansion of Colorado gold and silver mining in 1888, the University accepted a proposed gift of a major observatory, offered by Denver real estate baron, Humphrey Chamberlin. The result features a 20 inch aperture Alvan Clark refractor, which still ranks among the largest telescopes of the era. With the observatory building ready, the Silver Panic of 1893 -- when the US Congress dropped silver reserves from the currency basis -- burst the Denver economic bubble. Chamberlin was unable to complete payments on the balances due. Clark and G.N.Saegmuller (Fauth and Co.) at personal expense, delivered on the optics and telescope assemblies in 1894, but would wait for repayment. Sadly, this fiscal crisis affected DU for over a decade. Professor Howe, while observatory director, found himself consumed as Dean and Acting Chancellor for a young, struggling university, at the expense of the astronomy future that had looked so bright in 1892. Absent the Silver Panic, Howe would have probably been given an endowed chair in astronomy, as promised by Chamberlin. The complexion of American astronomy at the time of the birth of the American Astronomical Society in 1899 might have been different, in terms of US observing sites, etc. We are fortunate to have extensive Prof.Howe's daily diaries now in the University archives. These describe Howe's view of progress on the observatory, meetings with astronomy notables, plus vignettes of the life and times of Denver and the nation. Grandson, Herbert Julian Howe rediscovered their existence and is summarizing them in the form of a biography entitled: The Pioneer Astronomer. DU archival records contain numerous original letters from late 19th century astronomy luminaries

  6. Phosphate retention by soil in relation to waste disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of domestic sewage water and liquid manure, both containing dissolved phosphates, is often problematic. Discharge of these into (shallow and standing) surface waters is highly undesirable, as phosphate is considered to be one of the prime causes of eutrophication. If,

  7. Computer programs for waste disposal; Rapid detection of damage or accidents and guides to the treatment of wastes, waste water and sewage sludges. Computerprogramme fuer die Entsorgung; Schnelles Erkennen von Schaeden oder Unfaellen und Wegweiser bei der Behandlung von Abfall, Abwasser und Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, A.S.

    1993-09-01

    Those responsible for the disposal of wastes often surrender to the numerous waste disposal laws and ordinances. Computer programs are useful tools which help to manage the required formalities. The present state of user programs is outlined. (orig./BBR)

  8. Bioprocessing of sewage sludge for safe recycling on agricultural land - BIOWASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Angelidaki, Irini; Christensen, Nina; Batstone, Damien John; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Lichtfouse, Eric; Elbisser, Brigitte; Rogers, Kayne; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Dernaix, Laurence; Caria; Giovanni; Metzger, Laure; Borghi, Veronica; Montcada, Eloi

    2003-07-01

    Disposal and handling of sewage sludge are increasing problems in Europe due to the increasing quantities of the sewage sludge produced. A large amount of the sewage sludge contains small fractions of toxic chemicals, which results in problems with safe use of the sewage sludge on agricultural land. From an ecological and economical point of view, it would be essential to establish methodologies, which could allow sewage sludge to be reused as fertilizers on agricultural land. Energy efficient biotreatment processes of organic waste are, therefore, of crucial importance. BIOWASTE will offer an integrated study of this area. The typical composition of sewage sludge will be characterized with regard to key contaminating compounds. The following compounds will be in focus: Emulsifying agents such as nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from incomplete combustion processes and phthalates, which are used as additives in plastics and surfactants such as linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS). Analytical techniques suitable for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the chemical species involved in the processes under investigation will be determined. Bacteria that are able to degrade selected contaminating compounds under anaerobic and aerobic conditions will be isolated, characterized and bioaugmented for decontamination of sewage sludge through bioprocessing. Aerobic, anaerobic and combination of aerobic/anaerobic bioprocessing of sewage sludge will be applied. A mathematical model will be developed to describe the biodegradation processes of the contaminating compounds after establishing the kinetic parameters for degradation of contaminating compounds. The bioprocessed sewage sludge will be used in eco- and plant- toxicology tests to evaluate the impact of the xenobiotics on the environment. Methodologies will be developed and applied to assess the cleanliness of the bioprocessing as a safe method for waste

  9. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  10. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  11. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  12. [Models for intervention in autism spectrum disorders: Denver and SCERTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forment-Dasca, C

    2017-02-24

    Given the increased prevalence of diagnoses of autism in recent years, the growing amount of research on models with which to work with people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has led to the development of different techniques and methods enabling better results to be obtained. As a result, it has become possible to help improve many of the symptoms that prevent people with this diagnosis and their families from leading a normal life. To review two intervention models specifically designed for working with persons with ASD. The review first examines an early intervention model, the Early Start Denver Model, which consists in a checklist for children with ASD aged from 12 to 48 months, based on their progress. The SCERTS model is also reviewed. Unlike the Denver, this model presents goals that must be worked on throughout the entire lifespan of those with ASD. In the absence of further results from scientific evidence-based practice regarding the two models reviewed here, it can be concluded that there is no single standardised model and that children with difficulties in joint attention and imitation need to be referred at an early stage, as well as working together with the families. Thus, to perform a correct intervention it is necessary to take into account evidence-based practice and for the therapist to have a deep knowledge, respect and understanding of children with ASD and of their families.

  13. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial area...

  14. 77 FR 5837 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined... Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that...

  15. 76 FR 5432 - United Western Bank Denver, Colorado; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision United Western Bank Denver, Colorado... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for United Western Bank, Denver, Colorado, (OTS No...

  16. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  17. Effects of Sewage Sludges Contaminated with Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Sludge-Treated Areas (Soils and Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Eljarrat

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques — such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal — was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments. Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments.

  18. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  19. Occurrence of high-tonnage anionic surfactants in Spanish sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Prieto, Carlos A; López, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural application has become the most widespread method of sewage sludge disposal, being the most economical outlet for sludge and also recycling beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter to soil for crop production. As a matter of fact, the European Sewage Sludge Directive 86/278/EEC seeks to encourage the disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture applications and regulate its use to prevent harmful effects on the soil environment. At the present time, the sewage sludge Directive is under revision and a possible cut-off limit for some organic chemicals may be implemented. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the main synthetic anionic surfactant, has been included in the draft list of chemicals to be limited. The present research work deals with the monitoring of LAS and soap in Spanish sewage sludge. The average concentration of LAS found in anaerobic sewage sludge samples was 8.06 g/kg, higher than the average values for European sludge. Besides, it has been also found that more than 55% of Spanish anaerobic sludge would not fulfil the limit proposed by the 3rd European Working paper on sludge. As a consequence, the implementation of the limit for LAS would make the disposal of most Spanish biosolids for agricultural applications almost impossible. Regarding the mechanisms why anionic surfactants are found in sludge, two surfactants are compared: LAS and soap, both readily biodegraded in aerobic conditions. Irrespective of the anaerobic biodegradability of soap, its concentration found in sludge is higher than LAS (only anaerobically biodegradable under particular conditions). The relevance of anaerobic biodegradation to assure environmental protection is discussed for this case. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical and economical feasibility study of a sewage sludge disinfection plants by irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bustos, Gustavo

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a technical and economical evaluation for a disinfection plant of sewage sludge based on irradiation. The process starts after sludge stabilization which is achieved by anaerobic digestion. It includes two stages, plus an optional: the first corresponds to dewatering of sewage sludge up to a solids content between 20 and 25 %, the second stage corresponds to disinfection by gamma or electron beam irradiation, and the third, which is optional, corresponds to the drying of sewage sludge up to a water content of 50%, which allows to diminish significantly the volumes of solids to be transported. If this stage is not accomplished the final product corresponds to a sewage sludge with 25 % of dry solids, which can also be disposed in agricultural land. Process was designed to treat 60 tons per day of sewage sludge (dry matter basis). The report presents the design of process equipment, principal and auxiliary, the investment and operational cost estimations as well as the total cost of treatment per ton of sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis is also included to determine the influence of operational process parameters in operational and investment costs. The results showed that a sewage sludge plant including dewatering and disinfection process through gamma irradiation, achieves a capital investment of about US$ 12.000.000 with a treatment cost per ton of dry sludge of US$140. Including the optional air-drying stage, the total cost of treatment is about US$148 per ton of dry matter. In the case of electron beam irradiation the capital investment achieves a value of US$ 11 millions with a total treatment cost of US$ 136 per ton of dry matter. These values resulted quite similar to the cost of alternative treatment, i.e., disposal in a dedicated landfill. (L.V.)

  1. Patterns of facial trauma before and after legalization of marijuana in Denver, Colorado: A joint study between two Denver hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoya, Mofiyinfolu; Eagles, Justin; Okland, Tyler; Coughlin, Dylan; Dauber, Hannah; Greenlee, Christopher; Winkler, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    The effect of marijuana on human health has been studied extensively. Marijuana intoxication has been shown to affect performance, attention span, and reaction time. The public health relationship between trauma and cannabis use has also been studied, with mixed conclusions. In this report, the effect of marijuana legalization on many aspects of facial trauma at two hospitals in Denver, Colorado is examined. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records was undertaken. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare age of patients before and after legalization, and chi squared analyses were used to compare mechanism of injury, and fracture types before and after recreational marijuana legalization in Denver, Colorado. Geographical location of patients was also considered. No significant increase was found in race before and after marijuana legalization (p=0.19). A significant increase in age was found before (M=39.54,SD=16.37), and after (M=41.38,SD=16.66) legalization (p0.05). Public health efforts should be directed towards educating residents and visitors of Colorado on the effects and toxicology of marijuana. More epidemiologic studies are needed for further assessment of the long-term effects of the legalization of marijuana on the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Frąc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3 were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD, Richness (R and Shannon-Weaver index (H were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications.

  3. Soil microbial functional and fungal diversity as influenced by municipal sewage sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-08-28

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications.

  4. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon-Weaver index (H) were calculated to interpret the results. The fungi isolated from the sewage sludge were identified using comparative rDNA sequencing of the LSU D2 region. The MicroSEQ® ID software was used to assess the raw sequence files, perform sequence matching to the MicroSEQ® ID-validated reference database and create Neighbor-Joining trees. Moreover, the genera of fungi isolated from the soil were identified using microscopic methods. Municipal sewage sludge can serve as a habitat for plant pathogens and as a source of pathogen strains for biotechnological applications. PMID:25170681

  6. 77 FR 23501 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined... University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any...

  7. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  8. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  9. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the Geiselbullach sewage treatment plant near Munich, sewage irradiation by a 60 Co source is being investigated on a technical scale. 145 m 3 of sewage sludge are irradiated per day and then used as field fertilizer. (orig./HBR) [de

  10. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage retention...

  11. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise vessel...

  12. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  13. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  14. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number reaches 10 7 per liter. Neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover, Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. Sanitizing of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. The sanitary effect of pasteurisation and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge was investigated. For this the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants was examined. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and sometimes 500 krad. A linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae was achieved with increasing radiation doses. A dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae. Less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gramm were found in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The effect found in the above mentioned model experiments could be perfectly confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by Enterobacteriaceae reduction, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurisation. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Investigation of Catalytic effect sewage sludge combustion ash in the formation of HAPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullana, A.; Sidhu, S.; Font, R.; Conesa, A.

    2002-07-01

    Incineration is a very important technique in the treatment of sewage sludge. In 1998 approximately 1,5 million and 2,5 million dry tons of sewage sludge were incinerated in the United States and European Union (EU), respectively. In 1985, only 10% of EU sludge was incinerated, but by 2005 approximately 40% of EU sludge is expected to be incinerated. Use of sewage sludge as agricultural fertilizer was considered the best application for sludge until it was discovered that the presence of heavy metals in sludge could contaminate farmland. The limitations facing landfills and recycling plants and the planned ban on sea disposal has led to the expectation that the role of incineration will increase in the future. The expected increase in sludge incineration has also led to increased scrutiny of the main drawback to the incineration of sewage sludge: the formation of hazard air pollutants (HAP). Sewage sludge incineration has been identified as a very important source of HAPs such as chloro benzenes, chloro phenols, and PCDD/Fs. One of the more important characteristics of sewage sludge incineration is the formation of large amounts of ash, which is rich in known HAP formation catalysts such as Cu and Fe. Thus, the sludge incineration ash is expected to play an important role in the formation of HAPs in the post-combustion zone of a sludge incinerator. in this paper, we present results of our investigation of the catalytic effect of sewage sludge ash on the formation of chloro benzenes and chloro phenols. In this study, pyrolytic gas from sewage sludge was used as reaction gas instead of the synthetic organic mix that has been used in most previous HAPs formation studies. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage

  17. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.

  18. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  19. Characterization of sewage sludge generated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and perspectives for agricultural recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2017-08-01

    largest cultivated area in the state, sludge can be used as fertilizer or soil amendment in eight of them. The implementation of a State Sewage Sludge Recycling Program could dispose of this material in a more sustainable way, as well as improve the quality of agricultural soils and reduce costs with chemical fertilizers, bringing positive results for sanitation companies and producers.

  20. Stabilization/solidification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boura, Panagiota; Katsioti, Margarita; Tsakiridis, Petros; Katsiri, Alexandra

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate a viable alternative for the final disposal of sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants by its use as an additive in developing new construction materials. For this purpose, several mixtures of sludge- cement and sludge-cement and jarosite/alunite precipitate were prepared. Jarosite/alunite precipitate is a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process. Two kinds of sludge were used: primary sludge from Psyttalia Wastewater Treatment Plant, which receives a considerable amount of industrial waste, and biological sludge from Metamorphosi Wastewater Treatment Plant. Various percentages of these sludges were stabilized/solidified with Portland cement and Portland cement with jarosite/alunite. The specimens were tested by determination of compressive strength according to the methods described by European Standard EN 196. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) were used to determine the hydration products in 28 days. Furthermore, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test for heavy metals (TCLP), were carried out in order to investigate the environmental compatibility of these new materials. (author)

  1. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  2. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  3. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  4. Combustion of mixed fuels (lignite and sewage sludge) in a pilot model of a circulated fluidized bed - a contribution to the waste disposal and to a combustion with low emissions. Final report; Verbrennung von Mischbrennstoffen (Braunkohle und Klaerschlamm) in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung - ein Beitrag zur Abfallentsorgung und zu einer schadstoffarmen Verbrennung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W.; Brunne, T.; Girndt, H.; Richter, B.; Kaplonek, M.

    1997-04-01

    Mixed fuels based on dried lignite and sewage sludge were burned in a pilot model with circulated fluidized bed technology. The part of sewage sludge has been varied in the fuel, the different reaction and emission conditions were investigated. In the report were laid emphasis on the primary influence of the waste gas components (CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O). The author started first searchs to the ash composition and to where about of the heavy metals. In the report are recommendation for the industriel effective combustion with low emissions with sewage sludge/lignite mixded fuel. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einer Pilotanlage mit zirkulierender Wirbelschichtfeuerung wurden unterschiedliche Brennstoffgemsiche aus Trockenbraunkohle und Klaerschlamm verbrannt. Die Anteile am Klaerschlamm wurden variiert und die sich aendernden Reaktions- und Emissionsverhaeltnisse aufgenommen. Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit war die primaere Beeinflussung der Gasschadstoffe (CO, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O). Erste Untersuchungen zur Aschenzusammensetzung und zum Verbleib der Schwermetalle wurden vorgenommen. Empfehlungen fuer die grosstechnische, effektive, schadstoffarme Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm/Braunkohle-Gemischen wurden erarbeitet. (orig.)

  5. STABILIZATION OF DEWATERED SEWAGE SLUDGE BY AEROBIC COMPOSTING METHOD: USING SAWDUST AS BULKING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A PARVARESH

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sludge production from municipal wastewater treatment plants should have quality standards before disposal in to the environment. Environmental specialists classified sewage sludge as a hazardous waste because of high organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. They belive that sewage should be stabilized before disposal and so composting of sewage sludge is an effective and economical method to stabilize. Sewage sludge compost could be used to improve soil structure and enrich the soil with nutrients. Methods. To evaluate the optimum conditions of aerobic compost, the mixture of dewatered sewage sludge from Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant and sawdust as bulking agent were used. Pilot scale study were performed in Isfahan municipal waste water treatment plant. To perform this research project, the dewatered sewage sludge with humidity between 78 to 82 percent were mixed with sawdust. Turning over method of the piles with one week interval were applied to aerate the mixture. Temperature of the piles were monitored at different depths daily. Other parameters such as N, G, organic matters and pH were determined weekly. Total and fecal coli form, and salmonella were determined at the beginning and end of the composting process, also heavy metals were measured at the same time. Results. The results of this study showed that after days, temperature of the mixture reached up to 55 G, and were stabled for 15 days. Humidity, organic matter, organic carbon and GIN ratio of the mixture decreased over the period of the study, due to increasing the temperature. Also organic matter and humidity mainly decreased in thermofilic phase. The number of total and fecal coliform and also salmonella decreased to A class standards of US.EPA at the end of the operation. Discussion. The results of the study also showed that, this type of composting method is reliable, and simple to schedule, with high flexibility and low odor

  6. 78 FR 50095 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Mountain Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah may proceed. History Colorado is responsible for....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. [[Page 50096

  7. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  8. The Denver region traffic signal system improvement program : planning for management and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) works with over 30 local jurisdictions on the Traffic Signal System Improvement Program (TSSIP), a combination of management and operations strategies designed to time and coordinate traffic signals ...

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank

  10. Disinfection of municipal sewage sludges in installation equipped with electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Kosmal, W.; Kalisz, L.; Kazmierczuk, M.

    1995-01-01

    Growing awareness of environment pollution hazards causes more and more stringent waste disposal regulations in many countries which stimulate searching for new methods of waste disposal, the best of which is recycling them after suitable treatment. Sludges from municipal sewage treatment plants contain organic and inorganic components valuable as soil fertilizer, so if disinfected they can be beneficially recycled in agriculture instead of being burdensome waste. Investigations performed in many countries showed that irradiation with a suitable dose of gamma or electron beam radiation makes sewage sludges sanitary safe and usable as soil fertilizer immediately after treatment. This paper describes some results of investigations performed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology and the Institute of Environmental Protection in Warsaw on the influence of 10 MeV electron beam on bacteria, parasites and parasite eggs present in sewage sludges from different municipal sewage treatment plants in Poland. Basic design parameters of the industrial installation elaborated on the basis of those experiments are presented. (Author)

  11. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes

  12. Elemental transport and distribution in soils amended with incinerated sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, S; Sajwan, K S; Alva, A K; VanClief, D; Hostler, K H

    2003-05-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) is the major solid waste of sewage and wastewater treatment plants in cities around the world. Even though treated effluent water from wastewater treatment plants are utilized for irrigation, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a serious problem. This is due to its high content of certain heavy metals still posing threat of accumulation in plants and groundwater contamination when it is used as soil amendment or disposed in landfills. Water treatment plants incinerate the dewatered activated sewage sludge (ISS) and dissolve the ash in water to store in ash ponds for long-term storage (WISS). A study was undertaken to evaluate the transport and leaching potential of various elements and their distribution within soil columns amended with various rates of ISS. Results of this study indicates that ISS from wastewater treatment plants can be used as soil amendment on agricultural lands at low to medium rates (< or = 100 Mg ha(-1)) without causing potential loading of metals into groundwater.

  13. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla

    2013-01-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  14. Evaluation of potentially inorganic toxic substances in sewage from treatment plants of the metropolitan region of Campinas by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Broleze, Silvana Turolla, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The increased production of sludge is a consequence of the growth of the volume of treated sewage and of the number of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) in Brazil and, it has demanded the search of alternatives for its final disposal. Amongst the some alternatives of disposal, the agricultural use is viable, a time that the sewage is rich in organic substances, macro and micronutrients necessary to the soil fertility. However, the illegal industrial releases at public sewage may contain the presence of elements that cause harm to human health and the environment as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and Se. This work evaluated the potentially inorganic toxic substances in the sewage, previously dried, of the STP Camanducaia in Jaguariuna city; Village Flora in Sumare city; Praia Azul and Carioba in Americana city; Samambaia, Anhumas, Picarrao and Barao Geraldo in Campinas city, SP, employing the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The sewage of Treatment Plants of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas take care of CONAMA 375/06 legislation. However, so that it can be commercialized as fertilizing or conditioning of soils, it must take care of to Normative Instruction 27/06, needing to reduce the contents of Ni and Cr. One of the alternatives would be a bigger supervising in the generating sources, in order to improve the quality of the tributary of the stations, being adjusted the sewage to the Brazilian legislations. (author)

  15. Presence of radioactivity in a sewage system: a proposal for radioactivity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradell, Vicente; Ballesteros, Luisa; Ortiz, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Most hospitals use radioisotopes in diagnostics and to a lesser extent in therapy. The liquid residues thus generated are usually subjected to treatment before being discharged into the sewage system. Nevertheless, a certain amount of these residues escape from the treatment system and are poured directly into the sewer. In addition, other radioactive products used for research and industrial purposes may also be disposed of in the same way. The waste waters in many sewage systems can therefore be expected to be radiologically contaminated and the need for at least a basic control system in such situations seems obvious. When designing a procedure to measure radioactivity, certain conditions should be borne in mind: 1) The control program has to be simple and inexpensive; 2) Samples must be taken from the appropriate places; 3) Short life radionuclides will probably be present in significant amounts, so that specific recipes should be prepared; 4) Iodine is also frequently present. Special precautions should be taken to keep it in solution. In recent years, the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain) has carried out a series of tests on the Valencia city sewage system and sewage treatment plant in order to design a permanent program to control radioactive contamination of the city's sewage system. This paper presents a proposal which we believe can provide the answer to this problem. (author)

  16. Agricultural potential of an industrial sewage sludge in compliance with CONAMA Resolution no. 375/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Rodrigues Dias Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of sewage sludge is one of the best alternatives to disposal because of its potential as a plant fertilizer and soil conditioner. However, to be safe for agricultural use, the sewage sludge must be evaluated according to its physical, chemical, and biological properties and its origin. In Brazil, NBR 10.004/2004 is the standard that determines the classification of solid waste, and CONAMA Resolution 375/2006 defines the criteria for the agricultural use of sewage sludge. This study evaluated the agricultural potential of an aerobically digested industrial sewage sludge from the Serramar Dairy Cooperative in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo. This sludge was classified as Class IIA waste according to NBR 10.004/2004 and displayed potential for agricultural use by falling within the limits in terms for heavy metals and pathogenic organisms established by Resolution 375/2006 as well as containing high levels of nutrients. To establish the sludge doses allowed for application to crops such as maize (annual and Eucalyptus sp. (perennial by the resolution, the amount of nitrogen available in the sludge and the amounts of this nutrient required by these crops were considered. The recommended sewage sludge doses for corn (8 Mg ha- 1 and Eucalyptus sp. forestation (6 Mg ha- 1 can meet the nitrogen and phosphorus needs of these crops but require supplementation with potassium mineral fertilizer.

  17. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  18. Let a sewage plant running smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Jin, Xiao-Man; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Out-dated technical equipment, occlusive information communication, inadequate sanitation, low management level and some irrational distribution structures in the existing sewage plants bring about lower sewage treatment efficiency and poorer water quality, thereby permanently harming human health and severely damaging the environment. With the rapid development of scientific-technological progress and the vigorous support of the entire international community, the existing sewage plants call for more and more intelligent operation and management in the future. This review for the first time proposes the novel concept of the “smart” sewage plant, and gives a through interpretation of its special functions and attributes. We envision that the future smart sewage plant will became an “ambient intelligence” in all aspects in the sewage plants.

  19. Photochemistry in the Atmospheres of Denver and Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The composition of atmospheres in and downwind of urban centers has been the subject of study for decades. While early campaigns involved measurements exclusively from the ground, more recent studies have included airborne-based observations. Improved understanding has hinged critically on the development of instrumentation for better qualitifcation of pollutants, and measurement of previously unobserved species in the gas and particulate phases. Comprehensive, well-planned studies have, over time, led to more detailed understanding of chemical transformations and thus improved model representations and directions for further research. This presentation focuses on findings from two case studies of urban atmospheres, namely the MILAGRO study in the Mexico City metropolitan area and the FRAPPE study in the Denver metropolitan region. Both studies made use of extensive ground-based networks and multiple aircraft platforms. The data collected during these studies have been combined with numerical models to derive assessments of the evolution of atmospheric composition due to photochemistry, mixing, and surface processes. Here, analysis of MILAGRO data focuses on the evolution of outflow downwind of the urban region. In FRAPPE, the focus is the possible role of oil and gas exploration on urban air quality. These findings are used to assess the accuracy of current numerical models to reproduce observations, and to point toward areas possibly needing further study.

  20. Feasibility of Locating Leakages in Sewage Pressure Pipes Using the Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Apperl, Benjamin; Pressl, Alexander; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The cost effective maintenance of underwater pressure pipes for sewage disposal in Austria requires the detection and localization of leakages. Extrusion of wastewater in lakes can heavily influence the water and bathing quality of surrounding waters. The Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology is a widely used technique for oil and gas pipeline leakage detection. While in pipeline leakage detection, fiber optic cables are installed permanently at the outside or within the protective...

  1. A Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of winery residues and sewage sledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, M. D.; Molina, M. J.; Llinares, J.; Pons, V.; Pallares, L.

    2009-07-01

    Organic waste addition to agricultural soils is proposed as a disposal strategy to improve the structural properties and organic matter content of soils. In this work, the results obtained after a vermicomposting process are reported. The process has been performed mixing rabitt crop wastes with increasing addition of either vinasse bio solids or municipal sewage sludges. For this purpose, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which both wastes were inoculated with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) and maintained under controlled conditions for 4 months. (Author)

  2. A Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of winery residues and sewage sledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, M. D.; Molina, M. J.; Llinares, J.; Pons, V.; Pallares, L.

    2009-01-01

    Organic waste addition to agricultural soils is proposed as a disposal strategy to improve the structural properties and organic matter content of soils. In this work, the results obtained after a vermicomposting process are reported. The process has been performed mixing rabitt crop wastes with increasing addition of either vinasse bio solids or municipal sewage sludges. For this purpose, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which both wastes were inoculated with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) and maintained under controlled conditions for 4 months. (Author)

  3. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  4. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Radiotracer study to investigate the dilution and dispersion of sewage off Worli coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelgaonkar, V.N.; Pendharkar, A.S.; Agashe, S.M.; Kumar, U.S.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Mendhekar, G.N.; Navada, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments were carried out off Worli Coast, Mumbai to study the dilution and dispersion of sewage from the proposed out fall at 3000 m and existing out fall at 500 m from the shore. Dilutions observed were 2.3 x 10 7 at 3.3 km from the injection point for the disposal at 3,000 m and 6.9 x 10 5 at 5 km for the disposal at 500 m. Dispersion coefficients obtained from two dimensional advection dispersion model for the experiment off 500 m are Dx 15-18 m 2 /s and Dy = 0.5-2 m 2 /s. (author)

  6. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  7. Public practice regarding disposal of unused medicines in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Akke; Cormican, Sarah; Driscoll, Jacqueline; Furey, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Mai; Cormican, Martin

    2014-04-15

    Over recent years, a global increase in the use of pharmaceutical products has been observed. EU directives state that "Member states shall ensure that appropriate collection systems are in place for medicinal products that are unused or have expired" (Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2004/27/EC). There is no published data on how people in Ireland dispose of unused medicines; therefore the purpose of this study is to establish baseline information on storage and disposal of medicines. Data was collected over two 2-week periods a year apart. People in the streets of Galway and Cork were approached randomly and invited to participate by filling out a questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 398 individuals (207 in Galway and 191 in Cork). Unused medicines were kept in the home by 88% of the respondents. The most cited reason for keeping unused medicines was "in case they are needed later" (68%). Of the respondents who had disposed of medicine in the past, 72% had done so inappropriately. Environmentally inappropriate disposal methods were through general waste disposal and via the sewage system. Interestingly, of the people who had received advice on disposal practices from a healthcare professional, 75% disposed of their medicine appropriately. There is little awareness among members of the public regarding appropriate ways to dispose of unused medicines. Our findings suggest that effective communication and established protocols will promote appropriate disposal practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Denver Reengineers: By Relying More on Vendors and Technology, Jo Sarling Explains How the Denver Public Library Shifted Resources to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarling, Jo

    2005-01-01

    This article gives details of the developments and changes in the Denver Public Library (DPL). Through a review of advancements in technology, vendor capabilities, staffing levels and talent, as well as outsourcing opportunities, DPL reinvented its workflow and processing. The result? The once giant stacks of books, CDs, videos, and DVDs waiting…

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Denver and Greeley NTMS Quadrangles, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Olsen, C.E.

    1978-03-01

    Although this report covers two National Topographic Map Series 2 0 quadrangles, the data for each quadrangle are presented separately. Evaluation of the data by quadrangle resulted in the delineation of areas in which water and/or sediment uranium concentrations are notably higher than surrounding background concentrations. The major clusters of anomalous water samples were found in areas of the Denver Basin underlain by the Pierre, Laramie, Fox Hills, Denver, and Arapahoe formations. Most of the anomalous sediment samples were collected in areas of the Front Range underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks, particularly granites of the Silver Plume-Sherman group. Many of the anomalous sediment samples are from sites located near fault zones. The data in this report are also presented by geologic/physiographic province because background uranium concentrations in Front Range samples differ significantly from those in the Denver Basin. Denver Basin waters have higher mean uranium concentrations (mean 14.4 ppB) than Front Range waters (mean 3.3 ppB). Conversely, Front Range sediments are more uraniferous (mean 14.7 ppM) than those in the Denver Basin (mean 6.1 ppM). These differences in background uranium concentrations between Front Range and Denver Basin samples can be attributed to differences in regional geology, physiography, and (in the case of water) the ratio of surface water to ground water sites sampled. There is a significant northward increase in uranium concentrations in water samples from the Denver Basin. The higher uranium concentrations in water samples from the northern part of the basin are probably due to leaching of uraniferous strata in the Pierre and Laramie formations which crop out in that area

  10. Ecological and Economic Aspects of the Application of Sewage Sludge in Energetic Plant Plantations - A Swot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Marta; Stachowicz, Feliks; Masłoń, Adam

    2017-12-01

    Sewage sludge management in Poland is a relatively new field of waste management called "in statu nascendi", the standards of which have not been recognized yet. It also requires the implementation of new solutions in the field of sewage sludge. So far, the most popular method of sewage sludge utilization has been landfill disposal. In line with the restriction placed on landfill waste with a calorific value above 6 MJ/kg introduced on 1 January 2016, agricultural use and thermal methods are particularly applied. Municipal sewage sludge may be successfully used in the cultivation of energetic plant plantations. The aforementioned waste could be treated as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilizers, which in turn might successfully provide valuable nutrients for plants. This paper illustrates the SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) associated with the use of sewage sludge from Świlcza-Kamyszyn WTTP (Podkarpackie Province, Poland) for agricultural purposes. This analysis could be useful in evaluating the utility of sewage sludge in perennial plant plantations in order to determine the appropriate waste management strategies.

  11. Survey of radiation effect on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'selmi, Nadia Ammar

    2005-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)

  12. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  13. Sanitary effect of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.; Breer, C.

    1975-01-01

    Our investigations prove that sludge contains Salmonellae in more than 90% of samples. The maximum number of organisms was 10 7 per litre. One of our most important findings was the fact that neither aerobic stabilization nor anaerobic digestion significantly reduces contamination with Salmonellae. Moreover we found that Salmonellae in sewage sludge spread on grass may survive up to 72 weeks. Fertilizing with unsanitized sludge may therefore lead to transmission from plant to animal. The increasing number of Salmonella carriers among our herds of cattle and their striking accumulation during the grazing period demonstrate that such transmission represents a growing danger. Sanitation of sludge to be used as fertilizer is therefore urgent. In our investigation of the sanitary effect of pasteurization (70degC for 30 min) and of gamma irradiation on sewage sludge, we examined the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after irradiation in 259 specimens of sludge from 44 different sewage disposal plants. The doses applied were 100, 200, 300, 400 and also 500 krad. We found a linear reduction of Enterobacteriaceae with increasing doses; a dose of 300 krad resulted in a death rate of 10 4 - 10 8 , occasionally 10 9 Enterobacteriaceae; and there were less than 10 Enterobacteriaceae per gram in 97.2% of the samples irradiated with 300 krad. The results of these model experiments could be completely confirmed under practical conditions in the irradiation plant of Geiselbullach. The sanitary effect of gamma irradiation with 300-350 krad, determined by the reduction in Enterobacteriaceae, was equivalent to the effect of heat treatment by pasteurization. (author)

  14. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Castle Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    rendering infectious waste noninfectious and disposable as nonhazardous waste 3-74 Castle AFB Disposal and Reuse FEIS * Discharge to the sewage system if...American Indians Volume 8: California, Robert F. Heizer , ed., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Wedel, W.R., 1941. Arrha 3ological Investigations at...Undeswrable substances rendering something unfit for use Continental Control Area The arspace of the 48 contiguous states, the District of Columb.ia and

  15. Co-combustion of sewage sludge; Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft

    1998-09-01

    Thermal sewage disposal pursues the following aims: destruction of organic pollutants contained in the sludge; concentration and removal or almost complete fixation of inorganic pollutants in the residue matrix; minimisation of the mass solid residue; production of useful products; utilisation of the caloric content. The thermal treatment chain should be as short as possible; intermediate stages in separate reactors such as digestion, drying, degasification or gasification should be avoided if the material is ultimately to be combusted. The present paper examines and assesses the co-combustion of sewage sludge. [Deutsch] Mit der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung werden folgende Ziele verfolgt: - Zerstoerung der im Schlamm enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe, - Konzentration und Ausschleusung oder weitestgehende Fixierung der anorganischen Schadstoffe in die Reststoffmatrix, - Minimierung der Masse an festen Restabfaellen, - Herstellung verwertbarer Produkte, - Nutzung des Waermeeinhalts. Die thermische Behandlungskette sollte moeglichst kurz sein; Zwischenschritte wie Faulung, Trocknung, Ent- oder Vergasung in getrennten Reaktoren sollten vermieden werden, wenn letztendlich doch verbrannt wird. Das Verfahren der Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm wird hier untersucht und bewertet. (orig./SR)

  16. Adsorption of mercury by activated carbon prepared from dried sewage sludge in simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2018-04-25

    Conversion of sewage sludge to activated carbon is attractive as an alternative method to ocean dumping for the disposal of sewage sludge. Injection of activated carbon upstream of particulate matter control devices has been suggested as a method to remove elemental mercury from flue gas. Activated carbon was prepared using various activation temperatures and times and was tested for their mercury adsorption efficiency using lab-scale systems. To understand the effect of the physical property of the activated carbon, its mercury adsorption efficiency was investigated as a function of their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Two simulated flue gas conditions: (1) without hydrogen chloride (HCl) and (2) with 20 ppm HCl, were used to investigate the effect of flue gas composition on the mercury adsorption capacity of activated carbon. Despite very low BET surface area of the prepared sewage sludge activated carbons, their mercury adsorption efficiencies were comparable under both simulated flue gas conditions to those of pinewood and coal activated carbons. After injecting HCl into the simulated flue gas, all sewage sludge activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption efficiencies, i.e., more than 87%, regardless of their BET surface area. IMPLICATIONS We tested activated carbons prepared from dried sewage sludge to investigate the effect of their physical properties on their mercury adsorption efficiency. Using two simulated flue gas conditions, we conducted mercury speciation for the outlet gas. We found that the sewage sludge activated carbon had comparable mercury adsorption efficiency to pinewood and coal activated carbons, and the presence of HCl minimized the effect of physical property of the activated carbon on its mercury adsorption efficiency.

  17. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a) is... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation...

  19. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  20. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  1. 77 FR 5839 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined... of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURAL USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN OLECKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Filkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP 2014 recommended method of utilization of sewage sludge is using it for agricultural purposes or for land reclamation. The sludge is characterized by a high content of organic substances, microelements and biogenic compounds, through which sewage sludge possess high soil formation and fertilization properties. It is assumed that in 2020 approximately 30% of the sludge production will be used for agricultural purposes, while 15% will be used for land reclamation. We have to remember that prior to the introduction of sludge into the ground, security, health and chemical requirements should be met. In order to use the sludge for agricultural purposes, the process of their disposal should be previously carried out e.g. Autoheated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD. It allows for hygienisation of sewage sludge and reducing the heavy metal content. As a result, processed sewage sludge is characterized by the presence of heavy metals in amounts which do not exceed the standards. It is also deprived of microorganisms. The stabilized sludge is characterized by high phosphorus and calcium content. Therefore there is possibility to use the examined sludge in agriculture.

  3. Metagenomics of urban sewage identifies an extensively shared antibiotic resistome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; An, Xin-Li; Li, Bing; Chen, Qing-Lin; Gillings, Michael R; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-07-19

    Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are challenging treatment of infections worldwide. Urban sewage is potentially a major conduit for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes into various environmental compartments. However, the diversity and abundance of such genes in wastewater are not well known. Here, seasonal and geographical distributions of antibiotic resistance genes and their host bacterial communities from Chinese urban sewage were characterized, using metagenomic analyses and 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina sequencing, respectively. In total, 381 different resistance genes were detected, and these genes were extensively shared across China, with no geographical clustering. Seasonal variation in abundance of resistance genes was observed, with average concentrations of 3.27 × 10 11 and 1.79 × 10 12 copies/L in summer and winter, respectively. Bacterial communities did not exhibit geographical clusters, but did show a significant distance-decay relationship (P resistome accounted for 57.7% of the total resistance genes, and was significantly associated with the core microbial community (P resistome, demonstrating the potential contribution of human gut microbiota to the dissemination of resistance elements via sewage disposal. This study provides a baseline for investigating environmental dissemination of resistance elements and raises the possibility of using the abundance of resistance genes in sewage as a tool for antibiotic stewardship.

  4. Leaching of Cs and Sr from sewage sludge ash buried in a landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been found in sewage sludge ash produced in eastern Japan. When such contaminated waste contains less than 8,000 Bq/kg radiocesium, it is being disposed in controlled landfill sites. In order to assess the possible spread of the radionuclides by their leaching from the landfill sites, it is important to know the leaching behavior of the radionuclides from the sewage sludge ash and factors influencing the leaching behavior. In this study, leaching experiments using stable Cs and Sr were conducted for sewage sludge ash under several conditions to investigate effects of chemical composition of leachate, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on Cs and Sr leaching behaviors. In the pH range from 6 to 12, the leaching ratio of Cs or Sr was less than 5.2 or 0.21%, respectively. Additionally, the leaching ratio of Sr decreased with increasing pH of the leachate. In contrast, the higher the pH in the leachate was, the higher the leaching ratio of Cs was. Finally, possible radionuclide leaching from contaminated sewage sludge ash and then radionuclide concentrations in an actual landfill leachate were assessed. It could be suggested that 90 Sr leaching from the landfill site had the least effect on the environment, whereas 134+137 Cs leaching needed to be taken into account for spreading radioactive materials from the landfill site to the environment. (author)

  5. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of mercury compounds in sewage sludge and composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowska, Beata; Szymański, Kazimierz; Sidełko, Robert; Siebielska, Izabela; Walendzik, Bartosz

    2017-07-01

    Content of heavy metals, including mercury, determines the method of management and disposal of sewage sludge. Excessive concentration of mercury in composts used as organic fertilizer may lead to accumulation of this element in soil and plant material. Fractionation of mercury in sewage sludge and composts provides a better understanding of the extent of mobility and bioavailability of the different mercury species and helps in more informed decision making on the application of sludge for agricultural purposes. The experimental setup comprises the composing process of the sewage sludge containing 13.1mgkg -1 of the total mercury, performed in static reactors with forced aeration. In order to evaluate the bioavailability of mercury, its fractionation was performed in sewage sludge and composts during the process. An analytical procedure based on four-stage sequential extraction was applied to determine the mercury content in the ion exchange (water soluble and exchangeable Hg), base soluble (Hg bound to humic and fulvic acid), acid soluble (Hg bound to Fe/Mn oxides and carbonates) and oxidizable (Hg bound to organic matter and sulphide) fractions. The results showed that from 50.09% to 64.55% of the total mercury was strongly bound to organo-sulphur and inorganic sulphide; that during composting, increase of concentrations of mercury compounds strongly bound with organic matter and sulphides; and that mercury content in the base soluble and oxidizable fractions was strongly correlated with concentration of dissolved organic carbon in those fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential harmful effects on agricultural environments of sewage sludge utilization as a fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.

    1997-01-01

    There can be harmful effects of sewage-sludge utilization in agriculture. However, these can be overcome by treatment of the sludge and by appropriate farm-management practices. Sewage sludge is of increasing potential importance to farmers because of its value as a fertilizer. But some compounds in sludge can be harmful for plants, animals and man. Heavy metals may be taken up by plants, and the higher the content in the soil, the greater the uptake. There are substantial differences in heavy-metal accumulation and tolerance among plant species. With respect to pathogens (for example Salmonella) in sludge, recent developments in decontamination processes can provide greater guarantee of preservation of the environment. Gamma-radiation treatment at a dose of 3 kGy has been proven effective. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture is attractive from the economical and environmental points of view. It is therefore important that farmers are provided not only with more information about the nutrient effects, but also about risks, if any, of leaching of heavy metals and microbial condition to groundwater. To achieve this, there must be close co-operation between farmers and the authorities responsible for disposal of sewage sludge. (author)

  7. Bioremediation of domestic sewage: the case of green septic tank in arid rural communities of Alagoas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira Netto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deficit regarding the coverage of collection and treatment of sewage requires systems that combine proper disposal of wastewater and low construction and operating costs. In this context the bioremediation through the green septic tank, sustainable social and low cost technology, presents itself as a viable alternative especially for rural municipalities. This objective social technology contribute to confronting the domestic sewage problem and its consequences for public health and the environment; It is alternative for allocation of domestic sewage, as well as allowing the cultivation of some fruit species. Through partnership with the project Renas-Ser engaged in the management of surface and underground water bodies, three green septic tanks were constructed and are in the initial phase of operation in arid rural communities of Alagoas, contemplating the proper conditioning of domestic sewage. The first results of reduction in organic matter are very encouraging, with a view to removing approximately 38% of COD on the first support layer. The next phase is to define the others parameters to monitor and verify the approval of users of the technology.

  8. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  9. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  10. Chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSTP) Hyderabad for achieving sustainable development in sector of agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Shaikh, N.; Ahmed, R.S.; Nawaz, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A study on the chemical analysis of sewage sludge of southern sewerage treatment plant (SSPP) Hyderabad was studied. Chemical analysis on sludge samples collected form the waste stabilization for different micro-nutrients (essential manures, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) were conducted in year 1999-2000. These nutrients and metal were detected by reliable analytical method i.e. Kjeldahls method and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The analysis showed that sewage sludge contained sufficient quantity of primary and secondary nutrients, hence sewage sludge could be utilized as a natural fertilizer. This will not only solve the disposal problem but it would also be environmentally safer way of providing regulators to the plants. (author)

  11. Impact of urban waste water treatment on sludge utilization and disposal with special emphasis on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammeltoft, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acceptance of the European Communities Directive 9/271/CEE concerning urban waste water treatment by all the EC Member States will result in a sewage sludge production increase of 2 to 3 times the actual amounts (for the year 2000 the forecast is about 30 million tonnes per year). All the traditional sewage sludge treatment methods (agricultural, disposal, compost, thermal treatment) entail costs which are always increasing because of the stricter requirements; in addition EC policy is oriented towards the reduction of the quantity of sludge production. In some situations, drying and subseque incineration may thus be the only practicable method of disposal, particularly, in very large urban agglomerations

  12. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  13. Tests in excess sludge minimization through cell membrane break-up by means of ozone at a municipal sewage treatment plant; Versuche zur Ueberschussschlamm-Minimierung durch Zellaufschluss mit Ozon auf einer kommunalen Klaeranlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ried, A.; Peters, B. [WEDECO Umweltdienstleistungen GmbH, Herford (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Disposing of sewage sludge involves high cost. Therfore, processes to reduce sewage sludge are more and more in demand. One such process is the treatment with ozone. The company WEDESCO GmbH is also concerned with ozonification of sewage sludge and carries out tests on a technical scale at a municipal sewage treatment plant. The objective is to reduce the amount of sewage sludge by approximately 50 %, corresponding, in the present case, to the organic sludge portion. (orig.) [German] Da die Entsorgung dieses Klaerschlamms hohe Kosten verursacht, gewinnen Verfahren zur Klaerschlammreduzierung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Eine Moeglichkeit der Reduzierung des Klaerschlamms besteht in der Behandlung mit Ozon. Auch die WEDECO GmbH befasst sich mit der Ozonung von Klaerschlamm und fuehrt Versuche im grosstechnischen Massstab auf einer kommunalen Klaeranlage durch. Ziel dieser Versuche ist es, den anfallenden Klaerschlamm um ca. 50% zu reduzieren, was in diesem Anwendungsfall dem organischen Anteil des Schlamms entspricht. (orig.)

  14. Toxic effects of domestic sewage on zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    that they are very sensitive to the sewage. Copepods, Lucifer and decapod larvae (20-30% concentration.) were moderately tolerant. Acetes, medusae, ctenophores and mysids were the most resistant groups (42-49% concentration)....

  15. phytoremediation of sewage sludge in soils contaminated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    repeated increase daily or weekly application of sewage ... fertilizers, herbicides, germicides and decomposition and burning of fossil fuels. ... However, organic and inorganic pollutants greatly ... green vegetables for the in-situ or ex-situ.

  16. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  17. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Corresponding ... Key Words: Sewage sludge, Green amaranth, Phytoextraction, Heavy metals. ..... Wastewater-irrigated Areas of Titagarh,.

  18. Sewage reflects the microbiomes of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J; McLellan, Sandra L; Dila, Deborah K; Vineis, Joseph H; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2015-02-24

    Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. The gut microbiota serves important functions in healthy humans. Numerous projects aim to define a healthy gut microbiome and its association with health states. However

  19. 78 FR 19308 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology... Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the... Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural...

  20. Outcome for Children Receiving the Early Start Denver Model before and after 48 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is an intervention program recommended for pre-schoolers with autism ages 12-48 months. The rationale for this recommendation is the potential for intervention to affect developmental trajectories during early sensitive periods. We investigated outcomes of 32 children aged 18-48 months and 28 children aged…

  1. Early Start Denver Model for Young Children with Autism: Promoting Language, Learning, and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sally J.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    From leading authorities, this state-of-the-art manual presents the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), the first comprehensive, empirically tested intervention specifically designed for toddlers and preschoolers with autism. Supported by the principles of developmental psychology and applied behavior analysis, ESDM's intensive teaching interventions…

  2. The Early Start Denver Model: A Case Study of an Innovative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Intervention was implemented with an infant identified at 9 months of age with a behavioral profile consistent with autistic spectrum disorder. The intervention approach, the Early Start Denver model, consisted of a 12-week, 1.5-hr-per-week individualized parent-child education program. Results of this case study demonstrated that the parent…

  3. Evaluating the Social Validity of the Early Start Denver Model: A Convergent Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Emily; McCrudden, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    An intervention has social validity to the extent that it is socially acceptable to participants and stakeholders. This pilot convergent mixed methods study evaluated parents' perceptions of the social validity of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a naturalistic behavioral intervention for children with autism. It focused on whether the parents…

  4. Brief Report: Predictors of Outcomes in the Early Start Denver Model Delivered in a Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Zierhut, Cynthia; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have looked at factors associated with responsiveness to interventions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated learning profiles associated with response to the Early Start Denver Model delivered in a group setting. Our preliminary results from 21 preschool children with an ASD aged…

  5. Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model in an Italian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Costanza; Narzisi, Antonio; Ruta, Liliana; Cigala, Virginia; Gagliano, Antonella; Pioggia, Giovanni; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Rogers, Sally J.; Muratori, Filippo

    2018-01-01

    Identifying effective, community-based specialized interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder is an international clinical and research priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model intervention in a group of young children with autism spectrum disorder living in an Italian community compared to a…

  6. 77 FR 42510 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... associated funerary objects may contact History Colorado. Disposition of the human remains and associated... human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of History Colorado, Denver, CO. One set... detailed assessment of the human remains and associated funerary objects was made by History Colorado...

  7. An Evaluation of the Research Evidence on the Early Start Denver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Erika M.; Humphreys, Betsy P.

    2017-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) has been gaining popularity as a comprehensive treatment model for children ages 12 to 60 months with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This article evaluates the research on the ESDM through an analysis of study design and purpose; child participants; setting, intervention agents, and context; density and…

  8. Bernie's Odyssey: Denver Nuggets' General Manager Bernie Bickerstaff's Basketball Roots in Harlan County, Ky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    Bernie Bickerstaff discusses how growing up as an African-American athlete in rural Kentucky prepared him to become the general manager of the Denver Nuggets. Triumphing over the area's racial segregation, poverty, and mining perils gave him a sense of strength that enabled him to overcome barriers in advancing his career. (LP)

  9. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  10. 77 FR 13627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... History Colorado by the Denver Medical Examiner's Office. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 128. There is no information available as to where or how the remains were recovered. The medical examiner...); Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (Cedar Band of Paiutes, Kanosh Band of Paiutes, Koosharem Band of Paiutes...

  11. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah agreed to accept disposition of the human remains. In 2006, History....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History Colorado, formerly...

  12. 78 FR 72700 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Mexico, were invited to consult but did not participate. History and Description of the Remains In the....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History Colorado has completed...

  13. 77 FR 13629 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho; and the Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico. History and...: History Colorado, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History... human remains may contact History Colorado. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  14. Program and Abstracts: DOE Solar Program Review Meeting 2004, 25--28 October 2004, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-10-01

    This booklet contains the agenda and abstracts for the 2004 U.S. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program Review Meeting. The meeting was held in Denver, Colorado, October 25-28, 2004. More than 240 abstracts are contained in this publication. Topic areas for the research papers include laboratory research, program management, policy analysis, and deployment of solar technologies.

  15. World Renewable Energy Congress - To Be Held In Denver In 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) announced today that they will host the World Renewable Energy Congress IV in Denver from June 15-21, 1996 to be held outside of the United Kingdom. The World Renewable Energy Congress, which meets every two include world leaders in renewable energy, banking and business. The Congress' objectives are to support

  16. Denver's airport of doom; the story behind the world's possibly most controversial airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Big airport projects have often been prone to controversy. Schiphol’s Polderbaan project, Heathrow’s expansion, and the construction of Berlin’s new airport all suffered from political, financial or technical issues. However, Denver International Airport (often referred to as DIA) caused uproar in

  17. Sewage Reflects the Microbiomes of Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Dila, Deborah K.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Eren, A. Murat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular characterizations of the gut microbiome from individual human stool samples have identified community patterns that correlate with age, disease, diet, and other human characteristics, but resources for marker gene studies that consider microbiome trends among human populations scale with the number of individuals sampled from each population. As an alternative strategy for sampling populations, we examined whether sewage accurately reflects the microbial community of a mixture of stool samples. We used oligotyping of high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequence data to compare the bacterial distribution in a stool data set to a sewage influent data set from 71 U.S. cities. On average, only 15% of sewage sample sequence reads were attributed to human fecal origin, but sewage recaptured most (97%) human fecal oligotypes. The most common oligotypes in stool matched the most common and abundant in sewage. After informatically separating sequences of human fecal origin, sewage samples exhibited ~3× greater diversity than stool samples. Comparisons among municipal sewage communities revealed the ubiquitous and abundant occurrence of 27 human fecal oligotypes, representing an apparent core set of organisms in U.S. populations. The fecal community variability among U.S. populations was significantly lower than among individuals. It clustered into three primary community structures distinguished by oligotypes from either: Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, or Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae. These distribution patterns reflected human population variation and predicted whether samples represented lean or obese populations with 81 to 89% accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that sewage represents the fecal microbial community of human populations and captures population-level traits of the human microbiome. PMID:25714718

  18. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  19. Research on Ammonia and Methane Gas Emission from Composting Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Zuokaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge treatment and disposal are related to climate change. Composting is the oldest and most natural form of recycling organic material. Carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (NOx are all by-products of the composting process. These three greenhouse gases contribute to global warming by absorbing radiation emitted by the earth. When the natural breakdown of organic materials is happening under optimum conditions, it produces primarily carbon dioxide, water vapour and heat. When the process is unbalanced in some way, other gases begin to be produced, some of which have objectionable odours (NH3. Odour and greenhouse gases management, then, is one of the primary motivators for optimizing our composting process. The article deals with composting sewage sludge from the experimental results of the investigation of CH4 and NH3.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  1. Evaluation of irradiated sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin C, A.

    1994-01-01

    The residual muds are produced by a separation process in the black waters treatment constituted by a solid phase whose origin is the accumulation of pollutant matter that has been extended to the water for anthropogenic and/or natural activities. The present work has the purpose to carry out a technical evaluation for the irradiation process of residual muds for their possible application like alternative of treatment and final disposal. The results obtained for the Evaluation of the irradiation of residual muds are bounded with the federative entities in the study, on the number of treatment plants of residual waters by diverse methods, discharge types, system location, residual muds production and muds treatment, uses and final disposal. The results show in the several entities,a great variety and versatility of industrial branches with diverse systems for treatment of waters and scarceness in the systems for residual muds treatment. (Author)

  2. Waste disposal in the deep ocean: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, T.P.; Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Duedall, I.W.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration at sea, industrial and sewage waste disposal in the surface mixing zone, and disposal of low-level nuclear wastes, obsolete munitions, and nerve gas onto the seafloor have been the main uses of the deep sea for waste management. In 1981 the wastes disposed of in the deep sea consisted of 48 X 10/sup 4/ t of liquid industrial wastes and 2 X 10/sup 4/ t of sewage sludge by the United States; 1.5 X 10/sup 4/ t (solids) of sewage sludge by the Federal Republic of German; 5300 t of liquid industrial wastes by Denmark; 99 t of solid industrial wastes by the United Kingdom; and 9400 t of low-level radioactive wastes by several European countries. Also in 1981 at-sea incineration of slightly more than 10/sup 5/ t of organic wastes from Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom was carried out in the North Sea. Unique oceanographic features of the deep sea include its large dilution capacity; the long residence time of deep-sea water (on the order of 10/sup 2/ y); low biological productivity in the surface water of the open ocean (≅50 g m/sup -2/ of carbon per year); the existence of an oxygen minimum zone at several hundred meters deep in the mid-latitudes; and the abyssal-clay regions showing sedimentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine-grained clay. Any deep-sea waste disposal strategy must take into account oceanic processes and current scientific knowledge in order to attain a safe solution that will last for centuries

  3. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen

    2017-12-01

    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  4. Evaluation of biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with urban sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotto, Denise; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Sauer, Elisa; Garcia, Solange Cristina; de Melo, Wanderley José; Barbosa, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    The increased production of urban sewage sludge requires alternative methods for final disposal. A very promising choice is the use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer in agriculture, since it is rich in organic matter, macro and micronutrients. However, urban sewage sludge may contain toxic substances that may cause deleterious effects on the biota, water and soil, and consequently on humans. There is a lack of studies evaluating how safe the consumption of food cultivated in soils containing urban sewage sludge is. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate biochemical and redox parameters in rats fed with corn produced in a soil treated with urban sewage sludge for a long term. For these experiments, maize plants were grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (rates of 5, 10 and 20 t/ha) or not (control). Four different diets were prepared with the corn grains produced in the field experiment, and rats were fed with these diets for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Biochemical parameters (glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) as well the redox state biomarkers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were assessed. Our results show no differences in the biomarkers over 1 or 2 weeks. However, at 4 weeks BuChE activity was inhibited in rats fed with corn grown in soil amended with sewage sludge (5, 10 and 20 t/ha), while MDA levels increased. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to corn cultivated in the highest amount per hectare of sewage sludge (8 and 12 weeks) was associated with an increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH levels, respectively. Our findings add new evidence of the risks of consuming food grown with urban sewage sludge. However, considering that the amount and type of toxic substances present in urban sewage sludge varies considerably among different sampling areas, further studies are needed to

  5. Spatial and temporal trends in water quality in a Mediterranean temporary river impacted by sewage effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Tournoud, Marie-George; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Picot, Bernadette

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how changes in hydrological conditions can affect the water quality of a temporary river that receives direct inputs of sewage effluents. Data from 12 spatial surveys of the Vène river were examined. Physico-chemical parameters, major ion, and nutrient concentrations were measured. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analyses were performed. ANOVA revealed significant spatial differences for conductivity and major ion but no significant spatial differences for nutrient concentrations even if higher average concentrations were observed at stations located downstream from sewage effluent discharge points. Significant temporal differences were observed among all the parameters. Karstic springs had a marked dilution effect on the direct disposal of sewage effluents. During high-flow periods, nutrient concentrations were high to moderate whereas nutrient concentrations ranged from moderate to bad at stations located downstream from the direct inputs of sewage effluents during low-flow periods. Principal component analysis showed that water quality parameters that explained the water quality of the Vène river were highly dependent on hydrological conditions. Cluster analysis showed that when the karstic springs were flowing, water quality was homogeneous all along the river, whereas when karstic springs were dry, water quality at the monitoring stations was more fragmented. These results underline the importance of considering hydrological conditions when monitoring the water quality of temporary rivers. In view of the pollution observed in the Vène river, "good water chemical status" can probably only be achieved by improving the management of sewage effluents during low-flow periods.

  6. Use of sewage sludge and coconut coir mix as a peat substitute for potted chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenani, A.B.; Lim, F.Y.; Thohirah, L.A.; Fauziah, C.I.

    2003-07-01

    Recent central processing of domestic wastewater in Malaysia has initiated investigations into the disposal/utilization of the sewage sludge produced. We had conducted an experiment to investigate the feasibility of using dewatered sewage sludge and coconut coir as a peat substitute in a potting medium for chrysanthemum. The experiment involved 9 treatments with sewage sludge (SS) and coconut coir (CC) mixed in different ratios (v/v) to replace peat in the standard potting medium of 3:2:1 (soil: peat: sand).The potting medium contained the following treatments, T1: peat + recommended rates of Agroblend (Ag), a slow release fertilizer, and Grofas (Gf), a foliar fertilizer (commonly used medium and fertilization), T2: [1SS:1CC] + Ag, T3: [1SS:1CC] + half recommended rates of Agroblend and Grofas (1/2Ag + 1/2Gf), T4: [2SS:1CC] + Ag, T5: [2SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T6: [3SS:1CC] + Ag, T7: [3SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf, T8: [4SS:1CC] + Ag, and T9: [4SS:1CC] + 1/2Ag + 1/2Gf; laid-out in a randomized complete block design with 5 replications. Results of the study show that in general the media with sludge and coconut coir mixtures produced better plant growth and higher total number of flowers than peat. However, the higher ratio of SS:CC, (4SS:1CC) produced poorer plant growth and less number of flowers. Increase in sewage sludge in the medium resulted in increase in foliar contents of heavy metals. This study demonstrates that sewage sludge and coconut coir mixture in the ratio of 1:1 may best substitute peat in the potting medium for chrysanthemum with only Agroblend fertilizer application. (author)

  7. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  8. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees' discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for 137 Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem

  9. Chemical investigation of sewage effluents of Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, A.; Chandio, S.N.; Khushawar, M.Y.; Laghari, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples of sewage effluents were collected from sewage collection points located at Latifabad units 9-11, Husainabad and Qasimabad sewage pumping stations. The sewage is pumped towards Southern Sewage treatment plant (SSTP) or is used for agricultural purposes. The water samples from SSTP were also collected and analyzed for pH, conducively, salinity, alkalinity, chlorides, hardness, total, volatile and fixed residues, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorous contents. Variation in the results between sewage water and effluents were noted. (author)

  10. Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homa J.; Demars, Kenneth R.; Chaney, Ronald C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

  11. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  12. Irradiated sewage sludge for application to cropland. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Modern urban societies produce large volumes of sewage, which are transported through a network of underground sewers to wastewater treatment plants, where one or more stages of physical, biological and chemical treatment are imposed. Considerable tonnages of aerobically, and sometimes anaerobically, digested sludge are produced, and treated or untreated effluent is discharged to lagoons, waterways or the ocean. The disposal of sewage sludge is a major issue for municipal authorities. There are increasing legislative restrictions in many countries on disposal methods (e.g. incineration, landfill, composting) including surface application to agricultural land. Sludge can either be viewed as a dangerous waste requiring expensive disposal procedures, or it can be seen as a resource for possible use in agriculture as a soil conditioning agent and a source of plant nutrients. Untreated sewage sludge presents a public-health hazard as it contains human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and other harmful organisms. Although it has been demonstrated that an appropriate dose of gamma-irradiation can eliminate human parasites and bacterial pathogens from sewage sludge, there is still public concern about the presence of viruses, as well as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds from industrial sources that could enter the food chain if sludge is applied to croplands. More information is also needed on the value of sludge as a source of plant nutrients, expressed in terms of fertilizer equivalence. In this regard, isotopic labelling techniques have a unique role to play in estimating the contribution of sewage sludge to crop nutrition. As a result of recommendations formulated at a Consultants Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 5-9 December 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-971, Sewage Sludge and Wastewater for Use in Agriculture) the Joint Division implemented a Co

  13. Preparation of sewage treatment material PVFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling YANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal operating condition of the sewage treatment material PVFM(polyvinyl formal, the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method are adopted. Single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments are conducted to study the factors including the amount of raw materials, reaction time and reaction temperature influencing the preparation of the material PVFM. The material is characterized by SEM. The properties of the material are explored through the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment. The results show that when PVA mass concentration is 9% (50 mL, cellulose content is 0.4 g, sulfuric acid content is 6 mL, formaldehyde content is 6 mL, SDS content is 0.4 g, carbonate calcium content is 0.8 g, reaction temperature is 30 ℃, the dripping time of sulfuric acid is 9 minutes, the dripping time of formaldehyde is 4 minutes, and the curing time is 8 hours, the material has good physical and chemical property, and the results of the contrastive experiments of sewage treatment show that PVFM has good removal effects on both COD and NH4+-N in simulated sewage. The sewage treatment material PVFM with good properties can be obtained by the mechanical blowing method and the chemical foaming method.

  14. Sanitary and bacteriological aspects of sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    A study into the removal of contamination load and indicator bacteria was carried out in 1992-1996 in the mechanical, biological and chemical waste-water treatment plant WTP in Lezany, in the County of Reszel, in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. The results of chemical analyses found a high efficiency of removal of carbon compounds, COD (90%) and BOD (98%), in the process of purification of household sewage. In addition, a high effectiveness of total nitrogen, on average 71%, and unsatisfactory removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus compounds were found. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed the high efficiency of removal of indicator bacteria in the process of sewage treatment from 94 to 97%. In the sewage after the final phase of purification in stabilization ponds, the following pathogenic bacteria were identified with the use of the EPL 21tests: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter georgoriae, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Ervinia herbicola, Edwardsiella tarda, Serratia odoriefra, Serratia marcescens, Providencia alcalifaciens, Hafnia alvei, Yersina pestis, Yersina pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia fredericksenii, Salmonella spp., Shigella dysenteriae, Aeromons hydrophila, Pseudomonas aerulginosa. The obtained results show that although the sewage purification system is efficient and reduces the contamination load to the level required by the regulations (Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry from 20 September 1991) and removes a great percentage of indicator bacteria, the purified sewage may be a source of pathogenic bacteria in inland waters.

  15. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  16. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation or in industry sector for cooling ... The water samples were collected from sewage water treatment .... to be irrigated, soil conditions and the irrigation system.

  17. Vessel Sewage Discharges: Statutes, Regulations, and Related Laws and Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges can be regulated under multiple statutes, regulations, and laws/treaties, including the Clean Water Act, Title XIV, MARPOL Annex IV and the Vessel General Permit. This page describes how these are applied to vessel sewage.

  18. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  20. Cs-137 for irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1973, the Geiselbullach sewage treatment works have been continuously operating their first system for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge. Within the framework of a German-American agreement, nine Cs-137 sources with a total activity of 56.000 Ci have been made available to the works free of charge in 1983, in order to test in practice and to demonstrate the applicability of these radiation sources in comparison to the Co-60 sources exclusively used up to then. This first study on the applicability of Cs-137 as a radiation source for sewage sludge treatment revealed no findings or effects speaking against Cs-137 as a radiation source for this purpose. (orig./RB) [de

  1. Continuous COD measurement in sewage receipts at sewage treatment plants; Kontinuierliche CSB-Messung im Klaeranlagenzulauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik/Wasserwirtschaft (ATD TD ISA 6), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Neural networks are a new instrument in process automation. Contrary to conventional methods, they can dispense with theoretical models. This independence from mathematical models is one of their most important advantages. The article describes how typical sewage parameters can be measured on-line by means of neural networks. On-line measurement of parameters of pollution, for instance COD in sewage, permits new automatic control strategies for the operation of a sewage treatment plant, aiming at the reduction of pollutant freights with simultaneous minimization of operating cost. (orig./SR)

  2. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test. (a) The device must process human sewage in the manner for which it is designed when tested in accordance...

  3. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  4. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50 Sewage and refuse. Sewage, trash, and other refuse in and from the building and immediate premises shall be...

  5. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  6. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  7. Enantioselective degradation of Bromocyclene in sewage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bester, K [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). FG Siedlungswasser- und Abfallwirtschaft/Inst. fuer Umweltanalytik

    2004-09-15

    Bromocyclene has been utilised as insecticide against ectoparasites, however the production in Germany was stopped around 1995. Until that time it was used in pet care as well as in sheep farming. Due to its high bioaccumulation it was detected not only in sewage systems and sewage treatment plants, but also in fresh water fish. Enatioselective determination at that time was used to obtain results on the biodegradation of Bromocyclene in fish. Considering the long time period since the phase out of Bromocyclene it was surprising it was easily identified in sludge samples from 2002.

  8. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  9. Community-Based Investigation of Radon and Indoor Air Quality in Northeast Denver Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, D.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Ware, G. E.; Collier, A.; Hannigan, M.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a community-based organization based in Northeast Denver, and researchers from the University of Colorado, Boulder jointly piloted a project to investigate indoor air quality within Denver communities. This pilot study was carried out across 2015-2016 and found higher than actionable-levels for radon across a majority of its participants. These results inspired a continued collaboration between the community group and academic researchers from CU Boulder. The partnership went on to conduct a similar project this last year in which the team again employed a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to investigate indoor air pollutants across a broader geographical footprint in Denver's Northeast Neighborhoods. The collaboration sampled 30 participant houses across 5 neighborhoods for radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Although VOC levels were found to be well under thresholds for concern, for the second year of this investigation, radon levels were found on average to be significantly above the EPA's threshold for hazardous levels. Additionally, in collecting survey data on the participants' house characteristics, certain identifiable trends emerged that signal which house types have greater risk of radon intrusion. Having found in two consecutive studies that a majority of homes in these neighborhoods are burdened with dangerous levels of radon, the partnership is now moving towards developing educational and political actions to address the results from these projects and disseminate the information regarding radon levels and threats to these neighborhood communities.

  10. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  11. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  12. Experimental study of hydrodynamic and operation start of a baffled anaerobic reactor treating sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Silveira Perico

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to provide individual sanitation systems for sewage peri-urban communities or rural areas to minimize impacts on the environment and human health caused by sewage discharge in natura into water resources. In this context, the anaerobic digestion of effluent has been one of the main considered technologies due to easy implementation, material minimization and reduction in waste production. The objective of this work was to study a Baffled Anaerobic Reactor (BAR including its hydrodynamic characteristics, percentile of inoculum to be applied and reactor operation start. It was concluded that the flow is dispersed with 3.84% of dead spaces and that 20% of the cow manure provided best results; however, due to the high fiber content of the manure, its use is not recommended as inoculum. The BAR system, composed of four chambers, presented good performance for sewage treatment of a rural community in terms of organic substance removal (COD, turbidity and solids meeting effluent disposal standards of these parameters considering the Federal and Minas Gerais State legislation, in Brazil, even in a transient phase of operation, at temperatures below 20°C. However, the effluents from the BAR can’t be released into water bodies without other parameters such as nitrogen, phosphorus, fecal coliforms, and others are investigated to be conforming to those standards.

  13. Potential of resource recovery in UASB/trickling filter systems treating domestic sewage in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani-Ribeiro, T; Brandt, E M F; Gutierrez, K G; Díaz, C A; Garcia, G B; Chernicharo, C A L

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to present perspectives for energy (thermal and electric) and nutrient (N and S) recovery in domestic sewage treatment systems comprised of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors followed by sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTF) in developing countries. The resource recovery potential was characterized, taking into account 114 countries and a corresponding population of 968.9 million inhabitants living in the tropical world, which were grouped into three desired ranges in terms of cities' size. For each of these clusters, a technological arrangement flow-sheet was proposed, depending on their technical and economic viability from our best experience. Considering the population living in cities over 100, 000 inhabitants, the potential of energy and nutrient recovery via the sewage treatment scheme would be sufficient to generate electricity for approximately 3.2 million residents, as well as thermal energy for drying purposes that could result in a 24% volume reduction of sludge to be transported and disposed of in landfills. The results show that UASB/SBTF systems can play a very important role in the sanitation and environmental sector towards more sustainable sewage treatment plants.

  14. Characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel produced from sewage sludge as a conventional fuel substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bongjin; Nam, Wonjun; Lee, Na-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Safely final disposal of sewage sludge which is being increased every year has already become serious problems. As one of the promising technologies to solve this problem, thermal drying method has been attracting wide attention due to energy recovery from sewage sludge. This paper describes several characteristics of sustainable bio-solid fuel, as a conventional fuel substitute, produced from sewage sludge drying and granulation plant having the treatment capacity of 10 ton/ day. This plant has been successfully operated many times and is now designing for scale-up. Average moisture content of twelve kinds of bio-solid fuels produced from the plant normally less than 10 wt% and average shape of them is mainly composed of granular type having a diameter of 2-8 mm for easy handling and transportation to the final market destinations. Average higher heating value, which is one of the important properties to estimate the possibility of available energy, of bio-solid fuels is about 3800 kcal/ kg as dry basis. So they can be utilized to supply energy in the coal power plant and cement kiln etc. as a conventional fuel substitute for a beneficial reuse. Characteristics including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, contents of heavy metals, wettability etc. of bio-solid fuels have been also analyzed for the environmentally safe re utilization. (author)

  15. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  16. Sewage sludge ash (SSA in high performance concrete: characterization and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Fontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sewage sludge originated from the process of treatment of wastewater has become an environmental issue for three main reasons: contains pathogens, heavy metals and organic compounds that are harmful to the environmental and human health; high volumes are daily generated; and shortage of landfill sites for proper disposal. This research deals with the viability study of sewage sludge utilization, after calcination process, as mineral admixture in the production of concrete. High-performance concretes were produced with replacement content of 5% and 10% by weight of Portland cement with sewage sludge ash (SSA. The influence of this ash was analyzed through physical and mechanical tests. Analysis showed that the mixtures containing SSA have lower values of compressive strength than the reference. The results of absorptivity, porosity and accelerated penetration of chloride ions, presents that mixtures containing ash showed reductions compared to the reference. This indicates that SSA provided refinement of the pore structure, which was confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimetry test.

  17. PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g −1 dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g −1 dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC–NCI–MS, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC soil values compared to the relative PNEC soil for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. - Highlights: ► PBDEs in sewage sludge were determined in eight Italian WWTPs for the first time. ► PBDEs concentrations showed differences between the eight investigated WWTPs. ► Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the dominant congener in all samples. ► The suitability of using ELISA method to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was tested. ► The risk assessment of using sewage sludge for land application was evaluated. - Determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge by GC–NCI–MS and ELISA test and risk assessment when sewage sludge is used for land application.

  18. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  19. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  20. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  1. Tomatoes from the sewage treatment works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In Stendsund a sewage cleaning method was developed in which waste water is subjected to a special treatment in order to regain nutrients which would otherwise aggravate the pollution of the Baltic Sea and to use them as fertilizer and food for food plants and fish. Structure and mode of operation of the method are described. (BWI) [de

  2. In-situ caustic generation from sewage: the impact of caustic strength and sewage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Periodic caustic dosage is a commonly used method by the water industry to elevate pH levels and deactivate sewer biofilms responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation. Caustic (NaOH) can be generated in-situ from sewage using a divided electrochemical cell, which avoids the need for transport, handling and storage of concentrated caustic solutions. In this study, we investigated the impact of caustic strength in the cathode compartment and the impact of sodium concentration in sewage on the Coulombic efficiency (CE) for caustic generation. The CE was found to be independent of the caustic strength produced in the range of up to ~3 wt%. Results showed that a caustic solution of ~3 wt% could be produced directly from sewage at a CE of up to 75 ± 0.5%. The sodium concentration in sewage had a significant impact on the CE for caustic generation as well as on the energy requirements of the system, with a higher sodium concentration leading to a higher CE and lower energy consumption. The proton, calcium, magnesium and ammonium concentrations in sewage affected the CE for caustic generation, especially at low sodium concentrations. Economical assessment based on the experimental results indicated that sulfide control in sewers using electrochemically-generated caustic from sewage is an economically attractive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  4. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8  min -2  K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  6. Subseabed disposal safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplick, C.M.; Kabele, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of work performed by Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) in FY'81 on subseabed disposal safety analysis. Safety analysis for subseabed disposal is divided into two phases: pre-emplacement which includes all transportation, handling, and emplacement activities; and long-term (post-emplacement), which is concerned with the potential hazard after waste is safely emplaced. Details of TASC work in these two areas are provided in two technical reports. The work to date, while preliminary, supports the technical and environmental feasibility of subseabed disposal of HLW

  7. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M; Ingall, Ellery D; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sewage sludge on bio-accumulation of heavy metals in tomato seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elloumi, N.; Belhaj, D.; Jerbi, B.; Zouari, M.; Kallel, M.

    2016-07-01

    The proposal to use sewage sludge (SS) on agricultural fields as a sustainable way to dispose of the waste is based on its high organic and nutrients content. However, the presence of heavy metals (HMs) in sludge can contaminate crops and accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to assess changes in soil fertility, biochemical responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Grande) seedlings and the availability of HMs with increased rate application of SS (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%). Leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, proline, membrane peroxidation, stomatal conductance and HM accumulation were investigated. Results showed that the soil pH decreased, whereas soil salinity, organic carbon, total N, available P and exchangeable Na, Ca, K and HM content increased significantly with increasing application rates of SS. Among the three HMs (Zn, Cu and Cr), Zn had the highest capacity for transferring from soil into plants. Low metal translocation was observed from roots to leaves. The 7.5% SS dose decreased biomass production and caused a decline in chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance. However, lipid peroxidation and proline contents increased. Therefore, the use of 2.5 and 5% doses of sewage sludge in agriculture would be an efficient and cost-effective method to restore the fertility of soil and an environment-friendly solution for disposal problems.

  9. Effects of sewage sludge on bio-accumulation of heavy metals in tomato seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Elloumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to use sewage sludge (SS on agricultural fields as a sustainable way to dispose of the waste is based on its high organic and nutrients content. However, the presence of heavy metals (HMs in sludge can contaminate crops and accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to assess changes in soil fertility, biochemical responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Grande seedlings and the availability of HMs with increased rate application of SS (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5%. Leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, proline, membrane peroxidation, stomatal conductance and HM accumulation were investigated. Results showed that the soil pH decreased, whereas soil salinity, organic carbon, total N, available P and exchangeable Na, Ca, K and HM content increased significantly with increasing application rates of SS. Among the three HMs (Zn, Cu and Cr, Zn had the highest capacity for transferring from soil into plants. Low metal translocation was observed from roots to leaves. The 7.5% SS dose decreased biomass production and caused a decline in chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance. However, lipid peroxidation and proline contents increased. Therefore, the use of 2.5 and 5% doses of sewage sludge in agriculture would be an efficient and cost-effective method to restore the fertility of soil and an environment-friendly solution for disposal problems.

  10. Speciation evolution of zinc and copper during pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization treatments of sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Bei; Saad, Emily M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Tang, Yuanzhi

    2018-04-01

    Thermal and hydrothermal treatments are promising techniques for sewage sludge management that can potentially facilitate safe waste disposal, energy recovery, and nutrient recovery/recycling. Content and speciation of heavy metals in the treatment products affect the potential environmental risks upon sludge disposal and/or application of the treatment products. Therefore, it is important to study the speciation transformation of heavy metals and the effects of treatment conditions. By combining synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy/microscopy analysis and sequential chemical extraction, this study systematically characterized the speciation of Zn and Cu in municipal sewage sludges and their chars derived from pyrolysis (a representative thermal treatment technique) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC; a representative hydrothermal treatment technique). Spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced sulfidation of Zn and Cu by anaerobic digestion and HTC treatments, as compared to desulfidation by pyrolysis. Overall, changes in the chemical speciation and matrix properties led to reduced mobility of Zn and Cu in the treatment products. These results provide insights into the reaction mechanisms during pyrolysis and HTC treatments of sludges and can help evaluate the environmental/health risks associated with the metals in the treatment products.

  11. De minimis applications for alternative disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Existing NRC regulations provide no minimum level of radioactivity in waste from a licensee's facility that may be disposed of in a manner other than as radioactive waste. With one exception, in 10CFRsection20.306, licensees may dispose of certain levels of tritium and carbon-14 in liquid-scintillation and animal-carcass waste without regard to its radioactivity. In the interim, before specific or generic provisions for disposing of very low level radioactive wastes are adopted through rule making, licensees have another alternative for obtaining approval to dispose of large volumes of materials contaminated with very low levels of radioactivity under provision 10CFRsection20.302(a) ''Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.'' This paper provides the experiences of obtaining both NRC and states (North Carolina and South Carolina) approval for disposing of very low-level radioactive wastes from Duke Power Company's nuclear stations. The approved disposal procedures include landfarming of water treatment residues, on-site disposal (burial) of sand and feedwater heaters, and include offsite release for treatment and disposal of sanitary sewage sludge. In summary, users of radioactive materials should not exclude this approach in their quest to reduce the volume of radioactive waste. It is expected that such submittals could provide a data base for further development of generic limits for radioactive wastes

  12. Dynamics of brominated flame retardants removal in contaminated wastewater sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-11-15

    Disposal of solid waste to landfills from waste water sewage treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a potential source of contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Native microbial communities have been found to degrade a variety of xenobiotics, such as PBDEs and HBCDs. This study investigates the potential of autochthonous microflora to remove 11 PBDE congeners and HBCDs in waste water sludge under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory microcosms were constructed with sewage sludge from the WWTPs of Hradec Kralove and Brno. BDE 209 was detected as the prevailing congener in concentrations 685 and 1403 ng/g dw and the total amounts of 10 lower PBDEs (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) were 605 and 205 ng/g dw in sludge from Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The levels of HBCD were detected in both sludge lower than 24 ng/g dw. The experiment was carried out for 15 months. After three months of incubation, HBCD was completely degraded to below detection limits. In sewage from both WWTPs, the higher brominated DEs were removed faster than the lower brominated congeners. One exception was tri-BDE, which was degraded completely within 15 months of cultivation. A significant increase in congener tetra-BDE 49 concentrations was observed over the course of the experiment in all tested sewage. The relative distribution of individual congeners among all PBDEs changed after 15 months of the incubation in favour of lower brominated congeners. This indicates that debromination is the major mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation. Despite of the increase of BDE 49, the overall removal of all 11 PBDEs achieved the levels of 47.4 and 68.7% in samples from WWTPs Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  14. Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  15. The effects of different sewage sludge amendment rates on the heavy metal bioaccumulation, growth and biomass of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ebrahem M; Alrumman, Sulaiman A; El-Bebany, Ahmed F; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Taher, Mostafa A; Fawy, Khaled F

    2017-07-01

    When sewage sludge is incorrectly applied, it may adversely impact agro-system productivity. Thus, this study addresses the reaction of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber) to different amendment rates (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g kg -1 ) of sewage sludge in a greenhouse pot experiment, in which the plant growth, heavy metal uptake and biomass were evaluated. A randomized complete block design with six treatments and six replications was used as the experimental design. The soil electrical conductivity, organic matter and Cr, Fe, Zn and Ni concentrations increased, but the soil pH decreased in response to the sewage sludge applications. As approved by the Council of European Communities, all of the heavy metal concentrations in the sewage sludge were less than the permitted limit for applying sewage sludge to land. Generally, applications of sewage sludge of up to 40 g kg -1 resulted in a considerable increase in all of the morphometric parameters and biomass of cucumbers in contrast to plants grown on the control soil. Nevertheless, the cucumber shoot height; root length; number of leaves, internodes and fruits; leaf area; absolute growth rate and biomass decreased in response to 50 g kg -1 of sewage sludge. All of the heavy metal concentrations (except the Cu, Zn and Ni in the roots, Mn in the fruits and Pb in the stems) in different cucumber tissues increased with increasing sewage sludge application rates. However, all of the heavy metal concentrations (except the Cr and Fe in the roots, Fe in the leaves and Cu in the fruits) were within the normal range and did not reach phytotoxic levels. A characteristic of these cucumbers was that all of the heavy metals had a bioaccumulation factor sewage sludge used in this study could be considered for use as a fertilizer in cucumber production systems in Saudi Arabia and can also serve as a substitute method of sewage sludge disposal. Graphical Abstract The effects of different sewage sludge amendment rates on the heavy

  16. Preliminary study of radioactive concentration in treated sewage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elassaly, F M; Beal, A D.R. [Ministry of Health P.O. Box 1853 Dubai, (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-10-01

    Water from sewage treatment plant is used after processing for irrigation. Two water samples and one consolidated sludge (waste treatment products) were taken each day for period of months. Medical applications and research are the main sources of radioactivity such as Cr-51, Co-57, Ga-67, Se-75, Tc-99 m, In-111, Au-198 and Tl-201. Measurements were carried out using Hp Ge spectrometer with one liter Marinelli breaker. The maximum detected activity was 5.7 Bq.liter with a daily average of 2.4 Bq/liter for water. In the second period maximum activity was found to be 5 Bq/liter with an average daily activity 1.8 Bq/liter. The maximum activity recorded in the sludge during this period was 352 Bq/liter of which 343 Bq/liter was from I-131. The average daily activity was 162 Bq/liter. From these studies the levels of radioactivity concentration were 5 Bq/liter with an average 2 Bq/1 compared level 10 Bq/1 set for drinking water for Gcc countries. Although the sludge show higher activity of 353 Bq/liter it is kept for about year before being disposed. The maximum level for animal fodder is 300 Bq/kg for Gcc countries. These results indicate that radioactive concentration (2 Bq/liter) in the treated waste water present hazard to the public and environment. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency.

  18. Electrokinetic extraction of surfactants and heavy metals from sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, Violetta; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos A.; De Battisti, Achille

    2009-01-01

    Waste management represents a quite serious problem involving aspects of remediation technologies and potential re-utilization in different fields of human activities. Of course, wastes generated in industrial activities deserve more attention because of the nature and amount of xenobiotic components, often difficult to be eliminated. However, also ordinary wastes of urban origin are drawing more and more attention, depending on the concentration of noxious substances like surfactants and some heavy metal, which may eventually require expensive disposal. In the present paper, a research has been carried out on the application of electrokinetic treatments for the abatement of the above xenobiotic components from sewage sludge generated in urban wastewater treatment plants. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory scale, in a 250 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm cell, using 250-300 g of sludge for each test and current densities between 2.4 and 5.7 mA cm -2 . As a general result, quite significant abatements of heavy-metal ions and surfactants were achieved, with relatively low energy consumption

  19. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  20. COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE SEWAGE INCOMING TO AND DISCHARGED FROM THE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT IN KOLBUSZOWA DOLNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Chmielowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the compositional analysis of sewage supplied to and discharged from the wastewater treatment plant in Kolbuszowa Dolna in the Subcarpathian region. The analysis was based on three basic indicators of sewage pollution (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids and two biogenic indicators (total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The composition of sewage was studied in the years 2010–2015. Basic descriptive statistics for the values of the analyzed indicators of sewage pollution were summarized and the obtained results were interpreted. The study showed that the sewage was susceptible to biological treatment. Descriptive statistics for the relationship between the following indicators were presented: CODCr/BOD5, BOD5/Ntot, BOD5/Ptot. The collected results indicate high variability of the composition of sewage entering the studied facility. The coefficients of variation for the values of basic indicators (BOD5, CODCr, total suspended solids in the raw sewage were similar and amounted to Wn = 0.45 while for total nitrogen it was Wn = 0.33 and for total phosphorus Wn = 0.40. The analysis of the collected material showed that sewage entering the treatment plant was readily biodegradable. On the other hand, the treated sewage was characterized by low values of the analyzed indicators, much below the permissible values provided by the water permit. The raw sewage was divided into five groups depending on the concentration of each pollution indicator. The number of raw sewage samples was determined for each group of the analyzed pollution indicator concentrations.

  1. Comparison of the co-gasification of sewage sludge and food wastes and cost-benefit analysis of gasification- and incineration-based waste treatment schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Siming; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    The compositions of food wastes and their co-gasification producer gas were compared with the existing data of sewage sludge. Results showed that food wastes are more favorable than sewage sludge for co-gasification based on residue generation and energy output. Two decentralized gasification-based schemes were proposed to dispose of the sewage sludge and food wastes in Singapore. Monte Carlo simulation-based cost-benefit analysis was conducted to compare the proposed schemes with the existing incineration-based scheme. It was found that the gasification-based schemes are financially superior to the incineration-based scheme based on the data of net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and internal rate of return (IRR). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to suggest effective measures to improve the economics of the schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  3. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  4. Disposal leachates treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, I.; Renaud, P. (SITA, 75 - Paris (France)); Courant, P. (FD Conseil, 78 - Gargenville (France)); Manem, J.; Mandra, V.; Trouve, E. (Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez, 78 - Le Pecq (France))

    1993-12-01

    Disposal leachates are complex and variable effluents. The use of a bioreactor with membranes, coupled with a reverse osmosis unit, gives a new solution to the technical burying centers. Two examples are explained here.

  5. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  6. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  8. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  9. Shallow land disposal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  12. A comparative study on different burning method of sewage sludge ash in mortar brick with eggshell powder as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Doh Shu; Azed, Muhammad Aizat; Chin, Siew Choo

    2017-11-01

    Population growth that increase every year has led to the increasing amount of waste generated annually. The content of heavy metal Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) represent the biggest concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge waste which can be the source of pollution. Furthermore, the excessive disposal of eggshells waste to landfills may attract rats and worms due to the organic protein matrix that may pose health problem to the public. In the last decade, the demand on cement mortar brick has increased has resulted in higher cement production. However, cement plant is one of the major contributors of carbon dioxide emission. Hence, this research focuses on the production of environmental friendly cement with sewage sludge since there is occurrence of pozolonic material in Sewage Sludge Ash (SSA). From the initial finding, the major components of SSA are Silicon Dioxide (SiO2), Calcium oxide (CaO), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Iron (III) Oxide (Fe2O3), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Potassium oxide (K2O), Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Iron (II) Oxide (FeO). Sewage sludge needed to be incinerated to remove the heavy metal before it can be used as cement replacement in mortar brick production. The sewage sludge were treated using two methods namely incineration and microwave. Both types of sewage sludge were then added with eggshell powder as additive. Eggshell powder act as additive in this research due to its high content of calcium carbonate and has nearly same composition of limestone used in the production of cement. Different percentages of Eggshell Powder (ESP) (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%) and 10% fixed of Microwaved Sewage Sludge Ash (MSSA) and Incinerated Sewage Sludge Ash (ISSA) as optimum dosage partially replacing the cement used to test the brick mortar properties in term of compressive strength, flexural strength and also water absorption. Result showed that ISSA with 5% of ESP is the most optimum brick with highest compressive strength and flexural strength

  13. The Denver Federal Courthouse: Energy-efficiency in a new Federal building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.C.; Holtz, M.J.; Digert, N.; Starkweather, S.; Porter, F.; Clevenger, C.

    1999-07-01

    The US Federal Courthouse Expansion in Denver, Colorado is twelve story, 16,112 m{sup 2} project to be constructed adjacent to several existing Courthouse and Federal buildings in downtown Denver. The project has been designated a sustainable design showcase by the General Services Administration, and additional funds were made available to the project for sustainable design features. The design achieves a high level of energy efficiency through a combination of strategies that seek first to reduce building lighting and HVAC loads as low as possible, and then satisfy the remaining, loads through a combination of state-of-the-art, high-efficiency mechanical, electrical, and renewable energy systems. The unique attributes of the Denver climate--sunny skies and low humidity, are utilized throughout the design to minimize energy consumption. The resulting building provides a visible expression of sustainability through the incorporation of a set of features that are designed to work together in an integrated energy-efficient building system. Careful life-cycle assessment of materials and building practices results in minimized use of natural resources as well as a healthier environment for the occupants. The use of local materials is emphasized and the building is designed to have a 100-year life. Issues addressed in material selection include sustainability, recyclability, toxicity, and maintenance. The criteria used to establish the success of the design are contained in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. Although the building is currently entering final design, a LEED gold rating is expected.

  14. The predicted impact of VOCs from Marijuana cultivation operations on ozone concentrations in great Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Ashworth, K.

    2016-12-01

    Colorado is the first the marijuana legal states in the United States since 2014. As a result, thousands of legal Marijuana cultivation operations are at great Denver area now. Those Marijuana cultivation operations could be the potential to release a lot of biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpene(C10H16), alpha-pinene, and D-limonene. Those alkene species could rapidly increase the peroxy radicals and chemical reactions in the atmosphere, especially in the urban area which belong to VOC-limited ozone regime. These emissions will increase the ozone in Denver city, where is ozone non-attainment area. Some previous research explained the marijuana smoke and indoor air quality (Martyny, Serrano, Schaeffer, & Van Dyke, 2013) and the smell of marijuana chemical compounds(Rice & Koziel, 2015). However, there have been no studies discuss on identifying and assessing emission rate from marijuana and how those species impact on atmospheric chemistry and ozone concentration, and the marijuana emissions have been not considered in the national emission inventory, either. This research will use air quality model to identify the possibility of ozone impact by marijuana cultivation emission. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions, CAMx, are applied for this research to identify the impact of ozone concentration. This model is government regulatory model based on the Three-State Air Quality Modeling Study (3SAQS), which developed by UNC-Chapel Hill and ENVIRON in 2012. This model is used for evaluation and regulate the ozone impact in ozone non-attainment area, Denver city. The details of the 3SAQS model setup and protocol can be found in the 3SAQS report(UNC-IE, 2013). For the marijuana emission study scenarios, we assumed the monoterpene (C10H16) is the only emission species in air quality model and identify the ozone change in the model by the different quantity of emission rate from marijuana cultivation operations.

  15. Low-level radioactive wastes: Their treatment, handling, disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P [Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Radiological Health Research Activities, Cincinnati, OH(United States)

    1964-07-01

    The release of low level wastes may result in some radiation exposure to man and his surroundings. This book describes techniques of handling, treatment, and disposal of low-level wastes aimed at keeping radiation exposure to a practicable minimum. In this context, wastes are considered low level if they are released into the environment without subsequent control. This book is concerned with practices relating only to continuous operations and not to accidental releases of radioactive materials. It is written by use for those interested in low level waste disposal problems and particularly for the health physicist concerned with these problems in the field. It should be helpful also to water and sewage works personnel concerned with the efficiency of water and sewage treatment processes for the removal of radioactive materials; the personnel engaged in design, construction, licensing, and operation of treatment facilities; and to student of nuclear technology. After an introduction the following areas are discussed: sources, quantities and composition of radioactive wastes; collection, sampling and measurement; direct discharge to the water, soil and air environment; air cleaning; removal of radioactivity by water-treatment processes and biological processes; treatment on site by chemical precipitation , ion exchange and absorption, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and other methods; treatment on site including evaporation and storage; handling and treatment of solid wastes; public health implications. Appendices include a glossary; standards for protection against radiation; federal radiation council radiation protection guidance for federal agencies; site selection criteria for nuclear energy facilities.

  16. 77 FR 16850 - Notice of Reclassification of One Investigative Field Office to Regional Office: Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...This notice advises the public that the HUD/OIG Office of Investigation plans to reclassify its Denver, Colorado field office as a regional office. The planned reorganization is intended to: 1. Improve the alignment of limited investigative resources, to promote more efficient responses to HUD or Congressional requests involving critical program issues; 2. Redeploy resources to prevent and detect fraud in new program delivery of CPD, FHA and other HUD programs; and 3. Improve management control and effectiveness, and reduce travel costs of management by reducing region size. 4. Return to the traditional Regional alignment of HUD OIG Regional offices and HUD Regional offices.

  17. Summary review of rock mechanics workshop on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.L.; Goodman, R.E.; Merrill, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Presentations, critiques and recommendations for the disposal of commercial radioactive waste based upon an analysis of the information presented at the Rock Mechanics Review/Workshop, Denver, Colorado, December 16-17, 1976 are summarized. The workshop, comprised of both formal and informal sessions, with about 50 participants, was hosted by RE/SPEC Inc. and Dr. Paul F. Gnirk, President and was sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), led by Dr. William C. McClain. The panel of reviewers, responsible for this report, consisted of Neville L. Carter, Richard E. Goodman, and Robert H. Merrill. These panel members were selected not only on the basis of their experience in various aspects of Rock Mechanics and Mining Engineering but also because they have had no previous active participation in problems concerning disposal of radioactive waste. By way of a general comment, the review panel was very favorably impressed with the Rock Mechanics research efforts, supported by OWI, on this problem and with the level of technical competence of those carrying out the research. Despite the rather preliminary nature of the results presented and the youth of the program itself, it is clear that the essential ingredients for a successful program are at hand, especially as regards disposal in natural salt formations. These include laboratory studies of appropriate rock deformation, numerical analyses of thermal and mechanical stresses around openings, and in situ field tests. We shall comment on each of these three major areas in turn. We shall then offer recommendations for their improvement, and, finally, we shall make more general recommendations for future considerations of the OWI radioactive waste disposal program

  18. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  19. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1980-08-01

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.) [de

  20. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  1. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  2. Increased risk of hepatitis E in sewage workers from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Tilekar, Bipin N; Walimbe, Atul M; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2003-11-01

    Considering feco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of the infection was assessed among sewage workers. On the basis of the close contact with sewage, the participants (n = 147) were divided into sewage workers (n = 92) and others (n = 55); none used personal protective equipment (eg, coveralls, boots, gloves) Age-matched individuals from lower socioeconomic status and without any exposure to sewage were used as controls. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P 5 years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take top priority for protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.

  3. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Shanyun; Cao, Shenbin; Miao, Yuanyuan; Jia, Fangxu; Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox is a promising and feasible technology to make sewage treatment energy-neutral or energy-positive. Good retention of anammox bacteria is the premise of achieving sewage treatment via anammox. Therefore the anammox metabolism and its factors were critically reviewed so as to form biofilm/granules for retaining anammox bacteria. A stable supply of nitrite for anammox bacteria is a real bottleneck for applying anammox in sewage treatment. Nitritation and partial-denitrification are two promising methods of offering nitrite. As such, the strategies for achieving nitritation in sewage treatment were summarized by reviewing the factors affecting nitrite oxidation bacteria growth. Meanwhile, the methods of achieving partial-denitrification have been developed through understanding the microorganisms related with nitrite accumulation and their factors. Furthermore, two cases of applying anammox in the mainstream sewage treatment plants were documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  6. Present situation and perspective of China's geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the conference, 'Political and Technical Progress of Geologic Repositories', has drawn world-wide attention and remains a challenging topic facing the nuclear industry. I am delighted to attend this important conference and have the opportunity to state our views. And I would like to express my gratitude to our host Sweden and IAEA. The development of nuclear science and technology and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is one of the greatest achievements of the mankind in the 20. century. The development and progress of nuclear technology, from application of fission energy to the exploration of fusion energy, embodies the mankind's expectation to the future. It will be the major energy of final settlement of the issue of global sustainable development. The safe and effective treatment and disposal of nuclear waste are of vital importance to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and technology. The most dangerous and long-lived waste has to be contained and isolated from the human living environment. Construction of geologic repository in appropriate geological formation for radioactive waste disposal is being accepted as a suitable solution and being studied widely. In the International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver, U.S.A., in November 1999, senior governmental representatives from more than 20 countries stated related policies and decisions of their respective countries, which caught world-wide attention. I am convinced that this conference, an event about geologic repository following the Denver conference, will produce positive results for the safe and effective disposal of nuclear waste. Now I would like to take this opportunity to brief you on China's current situation and perspectives of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  7. Analysis of the concentrations and fate of heavy metals and sewage in municipal sewage treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, A.

    1992-01-01

    The fate of selected substances during sewage treatment was investigated in the Marburg/Cappel sewage plant. The following parameters were measured: Concentrations of the metal ions of Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ca and Zn; pH; conductivity; extinctions at 254 and 436 nm; phosphate, chloride and solids concentrations in the sample. Heavy metals (in solution and in bands) were eliminated in the following order: Cr(97%) > Pb(96%) > Cu(84%) > Zn(80%) > Ni(72%) > Cd(61%). Further, the effects of EDTA on the bonded and dissolved metal ions of iron(III), zinc(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) were investigated in a sewage sample. Resolution of bonded metals was observed only in the case of zinc. (orig.) [de

  8. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  9. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  10. Thermal decomposition of sewage sludge under N2, CO2 and air: Gas characterization and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ana Belén; Okonta, Felix; Freeman, Ntuli

    2017-07-01

    Thermochemical valorisation processes that allow energy to be recovered from sewage sludge, such as pyrolysis and gasification, have demonstrated great potential as convenient alternatives to conventional sewage sludge disposal technologies. Moreover, these processes may benefit from CO 2 recycling. Today, the scaling up of these technologies requires an advanced knowledge of the reactivity of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the products, specific to the thermochemical process. In this study the behaviour of sewage sludge during thermochemical conversion, under different atmospheres (N 2 , CO 2 and air), was studied, using TGA-FTIR, in order to understand the effects of different atmospheric gases on the kinetics of degradation and on the gaseous products. The different steps observed during the solid degradation were related with the production of different gaseous compounds. A higher oxidative degree of the atmosphere surrounding the sample resulted in higher reaction rates and a shift of the degradation mechanisms to lower temperatures, especially for the mechanisms taking place at temperatures above 400 °C. Finally, a multiple first-order reaction model was proposed to compare the kinetic parameters obtained under different atmospheres. Overall, the highest activation energies were obtained for combustion. This work proves that CO 2 , an intermediate oxidative atmosphere between N 2 and air, results in an intermediate behaviour (intermediate peaks in the derivative thermogravimetric curves and intermediate activation energies) during the thermochemical decomposition of sewage sludge. Overall, it can be concluded that the kinetics of these different processes require a different approach for their scaling up and specific consideration of their characteristic reaction temperatures and rates should be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the May 5-6, 1973, storm in the Greater Denver area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1973-01-01

    Rain began falling on the Greater Denver area the evening of Saturday, May 5, 1973, and continued through most of Sunday, May 6. Below about 7,000 feet altitude, the precipitation was mostly rain; above that altitude, it was mostly snow. Although the rate of fall was moderate, at least 4 inches of rain or as much as 4 feet of snow accumulated in some places. Sustained precipitation falling at a moderate rate thoroughly saturated the ground and by midday Sunday sent most of the smaller streams into flood stage. The South Platte River and its major tributaries began to flood by late Sunday evening and early Monday morning. Geologic and hydrologic processes activated by the May 5-6 storm caused extensive damage to lands and to manmade structures in the Greater Denver area. Damage was generally most intense in areas where man had modified the landscape--by channel constrictions, paving, stripping of vegetation and topsoil, and oversteepening of hillslopes. Roads, bridges, culverts, dams, canals, and the like were damaged or destroyed by erosion and sedimentation. Streambanks and structures along them were scoured. Thousands of acres of croplands, pasture, and developed urban lands were coated with mud and sand. Flooding was intensified by inadequate storm sewers, blocked drains, and obstructed drainage courses. Saturation of hillslopes along the Front Range caused rockfalls, landslides, and mudflows as far west as Berthoud Pass. Greater attention to geologic conditions in land-use planning, design, and construction would minimize storm damage in the future.

  12. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  14. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  15. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  16. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  17. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  18. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  19. Oil ''rig'' disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental impacts of disposing of the Brent Spar oil platform on land and at sea is presented, with a view to establishing the best decommissioning option in the light of recent controversy. The document is presented as an aid to comprehension of the scientific and engineering issues involved for Members of Parliament. (UK)

  20. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  1. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  3. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  4. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  5. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  6. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  7. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  8. Early Start Denver Model - intervention for de helt små børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) er en autismespecifik interventionsmetode, som er udviklet til helt små børn med autisme (0-4 år). Metoden fokuserer på at styrke den tidlige kontakt og barnets motivation, og den arbejder målrettet med de socio-kommunikative forløbere for sprog og med den tidlige...

  9. Energy resources of the Denver and Cheyenne Basins, Colorado - resource characteristics, development potential, and environmental problems. Environmental Geology 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, R.M.; Ladwig, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The geological characteristics, development potential, and environmental problems related to the exploration for and development of energy resources in the Denver and Cheyenne Basins of Colorado were investigated. Coal, lignite, uranium, oil and natural gas were evaluated. Emphasis is placed on environmental problems that may develop from the exploration for an extraction of these energy resources

  10. Oil and coal from sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, H

    1981-01-01

    Under the leadership of professor Ernst Bayer a research group of Tuebingen succeeded in producing oil and coal from sewage sludge. The conversion of biomass into fossil fuels which in nature can only be calculated in historical periods of time is here brought about by the use of a catalyst on the basis of silicate and aluminium oxide, dopened with copper. First breakeven evaluations have given a real chance to be able to operate economically in a large scale plant the process being developed in laboratory tests.

  11. The existing state of sewage sludge containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Makoto; Hisaoka, Natsuki

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive substances were discharged over a wide range from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a result, in sewer system, especially in the combined sewer system that jointly collects rainwater and sewage, radioactive substances accumulated on the surface of urban areas were transferred together with rainwater to sewage plants and accumulated there. In the process of further treatment, radioactive substances were transferred to and concentrated in sewage sludge, and a high concentration of radioactive substances were detected in incineration ash. For this reason, some sewage plants still continuously store dewatered sludge, incinerator ash, etc. This paper introduces the current state of waste treatment from the published data from each local government in Tohoku and Kanto districts. As for the sewer, which is essential as a lifeline, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, together with the Japan Sewage Works Association, established 'Investigative Commission on Radioactive Substance Countermeasures in Sewerage System.' This group grasped the damage situation due to radioactive substances, and summarized the measures to be taken by sewage managers, such as the storage method for sewage sludge containing radioactive substances as well as the method for the volume reduction of sewage sludge. (O.A.)

  12. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  13. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Swedish sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP, and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate, PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  14. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  15. Arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Sewage pond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of arthropod fauna of the University of Nigeria Nsukka sewage pond was carried out within May and June 2011. The aim was to determine the various arthropod species and its abundance in the sewage pond. The analysis was carried out by two methods, physico-chemical analysis and arthropod faunal studies.

  16. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of Egyption domestic sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwally, T.A.; Al-Sarawey, A.; El-Sherbiny, M.F.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined in batch experiments. The results showed that the biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The higher biodegradability of the

  17. Fast increases in urban sewage inputs to rivers of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, D.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present estimates for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sewage inputs to 19 Indonesian rivers for 1970–2050. Future trends are based on the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Our results indicate a rapid increase in N and P pollution from sewage over time. In 1970, N and P

  18. Dosimetry report for the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.T.; McFarland, E.W.; Dickson, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Gamma dose measurements were made at the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. Passive plastic, chemical, and thermoluminescent dosimeters were exposed in the facility under conditions designed to simulate typical plant operation. Absolute dose and dose distribution information were obtained in air, water, compost, fruit, and sewage sludge

  19. HLW disposal dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive waste is an inevitable residue from the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine, and from the operation of generating electricity nuclear power stations. The management and disposal of such waste is therefore an issue relevant to almost all countries. Undoubtedly the biggest issue concerning radioactive waste management is that of high level waste. The long-lived nature of some types of radioactive wastes and the associated safety implications of disposal plans have raised concern amongst those who may be affected by such facilities. For these reasons the subject of radioactive waste management has taken on a high profile in many countries. Not one Member State in the European Union can say that their high level waste will be disposed of at a specific site. Nobody can say 'that is where it is going to go'. Now, there is a very broad consensus on the concept of geological disposal. The experts have little, if any doubt that we could safely dispose of the high level wastes. Large sectors of the public continue to oppose to most proposals concerning the siting of repositories. Given this, it is increasingly difficult to get political support, or even political decisions, on such sites. The failure to advance to the next step in the waste management process reinforces the public's initial suspicion and resistance. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. The management of spent fuel from nuclear power plant became a crucial issue, as the cooling pond of the Romanian NPP is reaching saturation. During the autumn of 2000, the plant owner proceeded with an international tendering process for the supply of a dry storage system to be implemented at the Cernavoda station to store the spent fuel from Unit 1 and eventually from Unit 2 for a minimum period of 50 years. The facility is now in operation. As concern the disposal of the spent fuel, the 'wait and see

  20. Development of substance flow based Life Cycle Assessment tool for sewage sludge treatment and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method to quantify environmental impacts of products or systems. It is often done by correlating material and energy demands with certain input characteristics. An attempt was made to evaluate the robustness of the substance flow based LCA for wastewater and sludg...