WorldWideScience

Sample records for denver metropolitan transportation

  1. The potential effects of Rocky Mountain Arsenal cleanup and Denver metropolitan transportation development on bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Colorado's Barr Lake State Park provide habitats which support wintering and nesting bald eagles near metropolitan Denver,...

  2. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  3. Geohydrology of the shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1996-01-01

    The Denver metropolitan area is underlain by shallow layers of water-bearing sediments (aquifers) consisting of unconsolidated gravel, sand, silt, and clay. The depth to water in these aquifers is less than 20 feet in much of the area, and the aquifers provide a ready source of water to numerous shallow, small-capacity wells. The shallow depth to water also makes the aquifers susceptible to contamination from the land surface. Water percolating downward from residential, commercial, and industrial property, spills of hazardous materials, and leaks from underground storage tanks and pipelines can cause contaminants to enter the shallow aquifers. Wet basements, unstable foundation materials, and waterlogged soils also are common in areas of very shallow ground water.Knowledge of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow aquifers is incomplete. This, coupled with the complexity of development in this large metropolitan area, makes effective use, management, and protection of these aquifers extremely difficult. Mapping of the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of these aquifers would provide the general public and technical users with information needed to better use, manage, and protect this water resource. A study to map the geohydrology of shallow aquifers in the Denver metropolitan area was begun in 1994. The work was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army-Rocky Mountain Arsenal, U.S. Department of Energy-Rocky Flats Field Office, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Department of Natural Resources-State Engineers Office, Denver Water Department, Littleton-Englewood Wastewater Treatment Plant, East Cherry Creek Valley Water and Sanitation District, Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Willows Water District, and the cities of Aurora, Lakewood, and Thornton.This report presents the results of a systematic mapping of the extent, thickness, and water-table altitude of the shallow

  4. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements...

  5. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Programming § 450.306 Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process. (a) The metropolitan transportation planning process shall be continuous, cooperative, and comprehensive, and provide for... shall be reflected, as appropriate, in the metropolitan transportation planning process. The degree of...

  6. Major- and Trace-Element Concentrations in Soils from Two Geochemical Surveys (1972 and 2005) of the Denver, Colorado, Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, James E.; Smith, David B.; Closs, L. Graham; Smith, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected in 1972 and 2005 from the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. A total of 405 sites were sampled in the 1972 study from an area approximately bounded by the suburbs of Golden, Thornton, Aurora, and Littleton to the west, north, east, and south, respectively. This data set included 34 duplicate samples collected in the immediate vicinity of the primary sample. In 2005, a total of 464 sites together with 34 duplicates were sampled from the same approximate localities sampled in 1972 as well as additional sites in east Aurora and the area surrounding the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Sample density for both surveys was on the order of 1 site per square mile. At each site, sample material was collected from a depth of 0-5 inches. Each sample collected was analyzed for near-total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; and (2) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for selenium. The samples collected in 2005 were also analyzed by a cold vapor-atomic absorption method for mercury. This report makes available the analytical results of these studies.

  7. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  8. Movement Technologies, Scale Structure and Metropolitan Life – an Empirical Research on the Effects of the Transportation System on the Metropolitan Process in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a morphological study on Beijing’s metropolitanisation process based on the development of its transportation networks. By extracting the ‘scale structure’ embedded in them, we construct a movement network model for Beijing and use it to analyse changing metropolitan centralities as shopping areas and market places in 1924, 1987 and 2006. Following Taylor’s proposal of Central Flow as a complementary model to Central Place, our study focuses on how the spatial distribution of metropolitan centralities has been affected by the rapid modernisation of transportation networks.

  9. Runoff characteristics and washoff loads from rainfall-simulation experiments on a street surface and a native pasture in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Martha H.; Ellis, Sherman R.; Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall simulation studies were conducted in conjunction with the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program to: (1) Compare runoff quantity and quality from two different intensities of rainfall on impervious plots having identical antecedent conditions, (2) document a first flush of constituent loads in runoff from l,000-square-foot street-surface plots, (3) compare runoff characteristics from a street surface subjected to simulated rainfall with those from a 69-acre urban basin of mixed land use subjected to natural rainfall, (4) perform statistical analysis of constituent loads in the runoff with several independent variables, and (5) compare the quantity and quality of runoff from 400-square-foot plots of native grasses used for pasture and subjected to simulated rainfall with that from a 405-acre basin covered with native grasses used for pasture and subjected to natural rainfall. The rainfall simulations conducted on the street surface showed that higher intensity simulated rainfall produced a higher percentage of runoff than lower intensity rainfall. A first flush of constituent loads occurred for most constituents in the runoff from most rainfall simulations on the street surface; however, a first flush did not occur in the runoff from simulated rainfall on the pasture. The event mean concentrations of constituents in the runoff from simulated storms on the street surface were generally much smaller than the event mean concentrations of constituents in the runoff from an adjacent urban basin. Analysis of the data from the rainfall simulations on a street surface indicates that intensity of rainfall and total rainfall are important variables determining constituent loads. The design of the experiment was such that intensity of rainfall and total rainfall were highly correlated, thus precluding the development of useful regression equations to predict washoff loads. The quality of runoff from the simulated rainfall on the pasture was influenced by the disturbed

  10. Comparison of life-cycle energy and emissions footprints of passenger transportation in metropolitan regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-03-01

    A comparative life-cycle energy and emissions (greenhouse gas, CO, NO X, SO 2, PM 10, and VOCs) inventory is created for three U.S. metropolitan regions (San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City). The inventory captures both vehicle operation (direct fuel or electricity consumption) and non-operation components (e.g., vehicle manufacturing, roadway maintenance, infrastructure operation, and material production among others). While urban transportation inventories have been continually improved, little information exists identifying the particular characteristics of metropolitan passenger transportation and why one region may differ from the next. Using travel surveys and recently developed transportation life-cycle inventories, metropolitan inventories are constructed and compared. Automobiles dominate total regional performance accounting for 86-96% of energy consumption and emissions. Comparing system-wide averages, New York City shows the lowest end-use energy and greenhouse gas footprint compared to San Francisco and Chicago and is influenced by the larger share of transit ridership. While automobile fuel combustion is a large component of emissions, diesel rail, electric rail, and ferry service can also have strong contributions. Additionally, the inclusion of life-cycle processes necessary for any transportation mode results in significant increases (as large as 20 times that of vehicle operation) for the region. In particular, emissions of CO 2 from cement production used in concrete throughout infrastructure, SO 2 from electricity generation in non-operational components (vehicle manufacturing, electricity for infrastructure materials, and fuel refining), PM 10 in fugitive dust releases in roadway construction, and VOCs from asphalt result in significant additional inventory. Private and public transportation are disaggregated as well as off-peak and peak travel times. Furthermore, emissions are joined with healthcare and greenhouse gas monetized

  11. Relationship of Transportation Noise and Annoyance for Two Metropolitan Cities in Korea: Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Lee, Jiho; Park, Sang Jin; Sim, Chang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Transportation noise is known to have negative impact on both public health and life quality. This study evaluated the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance levels, and also the difference of annoyance levels in two metropolitan cities based on epidemiologic surveys. Two thousand adult subjects living in Seoul and Ulsan were enrolled by stratified random sampling on the basis of noise maps from July 2015 to January 2016. Individual annoyance in accordance with transportation noise levels in two metropolitan cities were surveyed using an 11-point visual analog scale questionnaire. The results show that transportation noise level was significantly correlated with annoyance in both cities. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of being 'highly annoyed' increased with noise level (Ldn, day-night average sound level) in both cities. After adjusting for age, residence period, sociodemographic factors (sex, education, marriage, income, alcohol, smoking, and exercise) and noise sensitivity, the risk of being 'highly annoyed' was increased with noise levels in both cities. In comparison to those of areas with noise levels below 55 dBA, the adjusted odds ratios of 'highly annoyed' for areas with 55-65 dBA and over 65 dBA were 2.056 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.225-3.450), 3.519 (95% CI 1.982-6.246) in Seoul and 1.022 (95% CI 0.585-1.785), 1.704 (95% CI 1.005-2.889) in Ulsan, respectively. Based on the results of a population study, we showed that transportation noise levels were significantly associated with annoyance in adults. However, there were some differences between the two cities. In this study, there were differences in transportation noise between the two cities. Seoul has complex noise (traffic and aircraft), compared to single road traffic noise in Ulsan. Therefore, single and complex transportation noise may have different effects on annoyance levels.

  12. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  13. Quantifying the Benefits of Transportation Controls in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Bracho, L.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Zuk, M.; Garibay, V.; Iniestra, R.; Franco, P.

    2004-12-01

    Similar to most large cities, the transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) constitutes the largest source of air pollution emissions, which result in significant impacts on human health. Although the majority of MCMA residents use public transportation, the share of trips in private vehicles is rising and these vehicles have become the largest contributor to mobile emissions. To reduce these emissions, there is an urgent need to improve the current fleet, improve the quality of fuels, and modify the paradigm of private car use, by providing clean, safe, efficient and comfortable public transportation options. Here we present the potential human health benefits of a set of five mobile source control measures that span public and private transportation options: Taxi fleet renovation, Hybrid buses, Metro Expansion, and the introduction of low sulfur gasoline and Tier II vehicles. We also discuss the methodology and preliminary results of the analysis of the implementation of the project for a Bus Rapid Transit system in Mexico City, in terms of its impacts on personal exposures, emissions, and public health.

  14. Exploring relationships between building and transportation energy use of residents in U.S. metropolitan regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pede, Timothy J.

    There is much potential to decrease energy consumption in the U.S. by encouraging compact, centralized development. Although many studies have examined the extent to which built environment and demographic factors are related to household energy use, few have considered both building and transportation energy together. We hypothesized that residents living further from city centers, or urban cores, consume more energy for both purposes than their inner city counterparts, resulting in a direct relationship between building and transportation energy usage. This hypothesis was tested with two case studies. The first focused on New York City. Annual building energy per unit of parcels, or tax lots, containing large multi-family structures was compared to the daily transportation energy use per household of traffic analysis zones (TAZs) (estimated with a regional travel demand model). Transportation energy showed a strong spatial pattern, with distance to urban core explaining 63% of variation in consumption. Building energy use was randomly distributed, resulting in a weak negative correlation with transportation energy. However, both correlation with distance to urban core and transportation energy became significant and positive when portion of detached single-family units for TAZs was used as a proxy for building energy. Structural equation models (SEMs) revealed a direct relationship between log lot depth and both uses of energy, and inverse relationship between portion of attached housing units and transportation energy. This supports the notion that sprawling development increases both the building and transportation energy consumption of households. For the second analysis, annual building and automobile energy use per household were estimated for block groups across the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan regions with Esri Consumer Expenditure Data. Both forms of energy consumption per household were lowest in inner cities and increased at greater distances from

  15. A Comprehensive Worksite Wellness Program in Austin, Texas: Partnership Between Steps to a Healthier Austin and Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn; Loyo, Karina; Schwertfeger, Rick; Glowka, Aerie; Danielson, Lisa; Brea, Cecily; Easton, Alyssa; Griffin-Blake, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2003, Steps to a Healthier Austin was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion activities. We report Steps to a Healthier Austin's partnership with Health & Lifestyles Corporate Wellness, Inc (Health & Lifestyles), to provide a worksite wellness program for Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Capital Metro), Austin's local transit authority. Context Capital Metro employs 1,282 people. In 2003...

  16. Integrating transportation and land use planning at the metropolitan level in North America: multilevel governance in Toronto and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny R. Tremblay-Racicot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the policies and processes by which transportation and land use planning are integra¬ted in metropolitan Toronto, Canada, and Chicago, in the United States. Using twenty-four semi-structured interviews with key informants, it describes the array of interventions undertaken by governmental and non-governmental actors in their respective domains to shed light on how the challenge of integrating trans¬portation and land use planning is addressed on both sides of the border. Evidence concerning the political dynamics in Toronto and Chicago demonstrates that the capacity of metropolitan institutions to adopt and implement plans that integrate transportation with land use fundamentally depends on the leadership of the province or the state government. Although the federal government of each nation can bypass the sub-national level and intervene in local affairs by funding transportation projects that include land use components, its capacity to promote a coherent metropolitan vision is inherently limited. In the absence of leadership at the provincial or state level, the presence of a policy entrepreneur or a strong civic capacity at the regional level can be a key factor in the adoption and implementation of innovative reforms.

  17. A field test of tracer transport and organic contaminant elution in a stratified aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorbjarnarson, Kathryn W.; Mackay, Douglas M.

    1997-01-01

    A tracer-elution experiment was conducted in a 9-m-thick alluvial sand aquifer at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado, within an extensive 1,1,1-trichloroethene and trichloroethene plume. The forced-gradient flow field was controlled by an injection well and an extraction well separated by 8.4 m and aligned in the direction of the natural-gradient flow. Upon extraction, the contaminant-laden water was treated by air stripping and reinjected into the injection well. Iodide tracer was added to the injection flow during the initial 27.5 h of the experiment. Tracer transport and organic contaminant elution were monitored by four 0.15-m-screened drive points and a fully penetrating monitoring well. Relative permeabilities, dispersivities and retardation factors were estimated from tracer breakthrough and contaminant elution curves by the moment method and by curve-fitting with an advection-dispersion model. Tracer transport through the four strata sampled by the drive points indicated a permeability variation of three orders of magnitude. Contaminant elution was not observed in the lowest-permeability stratum monitored during the experiment. In all monitored strata, contaminant elution was controlled primarily by permeability effects on water flow and exhibited minimal retardation or desorption effects. The fully penetrating monitoring well exhibited a tracer response primarily from the more permeable strata with the addition of tracer from the less permeable strata producing an increased breakthrough spreading. This increased spreading or dispersion was reflected in a higher longitudinal dispersivity estimate (1.2 m assuming a homogeneous aquifer) than dispersivity estimates from the drive-point sampler tracer curves (ranging from 5 to 21 cm). Contaminant elution curves from the fully penetrating monitoring well exhibited an initial response primarily from the more permeable strata (rapid elution of contaminants) and provided no insight into the elution

  18. 23 CFR 450.322 - Development and content of the metropolitan transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and trends and to extend the forecast period to at least a 20-year planning horizon. In addition, the... transportation plan with the process for developing transportation control measures (TCMs) in a State...) Operational and management strategies to improve the performance of existing transportation facilities...

  19. Low-carbon scenario analysis on urban transport of one metropolitan in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper discussed possible ways of implementing effective energy conservation and GHG emission reduction measures by providing: the forecasts of mid-to-long term citywide carbon emission rate; and the analysis of potential low-carbon transport solutions.Design/methodology/approach: According to the characteristics of the transport system in China, based on the review and application analysis of existing transport energy and GHG emission calculation models, the comprehensive carbon emission calculation model established. Existing data were utilized with regression analysis to project the prospective traffic data in the baseline scenario at the target year of 2020 to calculate the emission amount. Four low-carbon scenarios were set in accordance with the goal of “low carbon transportation, green trip”, and the effectiveness of each low-carbon scenario was evaluated by comparing them with the baseline scenario in terms of the respective GHG emission rate.Findings: Under the current developing trend in policy environment and technical specifications, the total projected GHG (CO2 emissions from transport sector in 2020 of the city will reach 30.085 million ton CO2; private-vehicles are the major contributor among all transport modes at 16.89 million ton CO2.Practical implications: Limiting the growth in private-vehicle ownership, reducing the frequency of mid-to-long range travel and the average trip distance, and prompting the public transit oriented policies are all possible solutions to reduce carbon emission. The most effective practice involves a shift in public travel behavior.Originality/value: This paper presents a method to forecast the mid-to-long term city-wide carbon emission rate; and provides some potential low-carbon transport solutions

  20. Mind the Gap: Bridging theories and practice for the organisation of metropolitan public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Public transport has to be succesfull to maintain mobility in todays dense urban areas. Many scientific disciplines make contributions on how to achieve that success, with diverse and sometime contradictory recommendations. The thesis shows how policy makers can use the existing recommendations to i

  1. Mind the Gap: Bridging theories and practice for the organisation of metropolitan public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Public transport has to be succesfull to maintain mobility in todays dense urban areas. Many scientific disciplines make contributions on how to achieve that success, with diverse and sometime contradictory recommendations. The thesis shows how policy makers can use the existing recommendations to i

  2. 76 FR 9598 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has... Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2001 Colorado Blvd., Denver, CO 80205, telephone...

  3. 75 FR 23807 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO. The human.... Officials of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science have determined that, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 2001 (9)-(10...

  4. 75 FR 5627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO. The human... of Indians, Oklahoma. Officials of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science have determined that...

  5. 76 FR 9597 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has... Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2001 Colorado Blvd., Denver, CO 80205, telephone...

  6. 76 FR 9603 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has... Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2001 Colorado Blvd., Denver, CO 80205, telephone...

  7. 75 FR 70027 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO. The human... remains are determined to be Native American. Officials of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science have...

  8. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  9. Denver TMA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Kelly; Sanford, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the assessment of the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) conducted at the Denver Center and TRACON, January 11-February 5, 1993. The assessment addressed the effectiveness of TMA for supporting various traffic management activities. At the Center, traffic management coordinators (TMC's) shadowed traffic operations, using TMA to make metering time and internal release decisions. At the TRACON, TMC's accessed TMA in an advisory mode for different planning activities such as staffing, distributing the traffic load, and changing the airport acceptance rate. These different opportunities for assessing TMA provide insight into TMA as a potential communication aid and planning tool. Findings from this assessment indicate that TMA can be used to support traffic management planning and decisions. TMC's at the center were able to use information provided by TMA to determine metering times as well as internal release times. At the TRACON, TMA supported decisions on airport configuration, airport acceptance rate, load distribution, proactive coordination with the center, and staffing. While findings of TMA use are generally positive, it must be kept in mind that this assessment is a snapshot in time. Not all TMA capabilities were assessed, nor were TMC's fully trained and knowledgeable on all features. Feature use will continue to evolve and strategies emerge as the TMC's gain experience with TMA over a variety of traffic situations and their understanding of TMA capabilities broadens with continued training.

  10. New Mexico Metropolitan Planning Organization Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for the 5 districts that comprise the New Mexico Department of Transportation Metropolitan Planning Organizations

  11. 76 FR 43709 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has... may contact the Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Repatriation of the human remains and associated...

  12. 77 FR 23504 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Museum of Nature & Science has... may contact the Denver Museum of Nature & Science. Repatriation of the human remains and associated...

  13. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, W.L.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  14. 75 FR 55823 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO... Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed... Museum of Nature & Science collections. In the Federal Register of July 22, 2010, paragraph number 4...

  15. 78 FR 72710 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Denver Art Museum, in consultation with the... this notice meet the definition of sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony. Lineal...

  16. 78 FR 45961 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate... Denver Museum of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the...

  17. Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscombe, Art

    1977-01-01

    Notes that Denverites are proud that they have accomplished school desegregation with little or no violence. School enrollment statistics, however, indicate that one effect of desegregation has been a movement to the suburbs or to private schools. (Author/AM)

  18. Secondhand smoke in public places: Can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of cigarette and other tobacco products Act, 2003?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The Indian government enacted ′The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003′ (COTPA, which prohibits smoking in public places. Aim : To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. Settings and Design : The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. Methods and Material : The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Statistical Analysis Used : Simple Averages. Results : There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Conclusions : Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  19. Secondhand smoke in public places: can Bangalore metropolitan transport corporation be a role model for effective implementation of Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, N S; Annigeri, V B; Revankar, D R; Kenchaigol, S

    2010-07-01

    The Indian government enacted 'The cigarettes and other tobacco products act, 2003' (COTPA), which prohibits smoking in public places. To validate the efficacy of the Act of 2003, enacted by the Government of India, to prevent secondhand smoking in public places. The study is based on a non-random sample survey of 2,600 bus passengers carried out in the premises of three mega public road transport organizations in Karnataka state, India, in June 2007. The information was gathered through administration of structured schedules. A sample of 1,000 each for the terminus of Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) and Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) in Bangalore and, 600 for North West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NWKRTC) in Hubli-Dharwad city was distributed proportionately according to the number of platforms in each terminus. Simple Averages. There is some reduction in smoking in general as perceived by 69% of the passengers as compared to the scenario a year before the enactment of COTPA. The observed smoking is lower in the bus premises of BMTC where there is strict regulation, and higher in the bus premises of NWKRTC, which has not taken any regulatory measures. Knowing smoking is banned in public places can itself create awareness depending on the coverage extended by media and implementing an agency to reach the public. The implementation of an act depends on the willingness of stakeholders to act upon it. The implementation of COTPA as done by BMTC could well become a role model for replication elsewhere, if BMTC can strive harder to accomplish a 100% smoke-free zone.

  20. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, C; Marks, J.; Jenq, J.; Cluett, Chris; DeBlasio, Allan; Lappin, Jane; Rakha, Hesham A.; Wunderlich, K

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation results of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). The MMDI was a three-year program of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint Program Office of the U.S. Department of Transportation. It focused on aggressive deployment of ITS at four sites across the United States, including the metropolitan areas of San Antonio, Seattle, NY/NJ/Connecticut as well as Phoenix. The focus of the deployments was on integration of exist...

  1. Analysis of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, James N.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to validate the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), the scores were compared with selected demographic, health history, and physical examination variables of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' preschool children in Colorado. (NQ)

  2. Commuters' exposure to PM 2.5, CO, and benzene in public transport in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Perales, J. E.; Colvile, R. N.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Fernández-Bremauntz, A.; Gutiérrez-Avedoy, V. J.; Páramo-Figueroa, V. H.; Blanco-Jiménez, S.; Bueno-López, E.; Mandujano, F.; Bernabé-Cabanillas, R.; Ortiz-Segovia, E.

    A survey was carried out to measure commuters' exposure to PM 2.5, CO, benzene, and the chemical composition of PM 2.5 on different routes and modes of transport in Mexico City. PM 2.5 ( n=62), CO ( n=54) and benzene ( n=22) are presented from morning (6:30-9:30 a.m.) and evening (17:30-20:30) rush hours on minibuses, buses and Metro (underground or subway system). Three routes were selected from a previous commuters' exposure study covering some of the most important thoroughfares of the valley. For PM 2.5, mass concentration was determined for all the samples. Nitrates, sulphates, inorganic elements and carbon fraction were analysed. CO was sampled using electrochemical sensors and 6-l canisters with flow controller devices were used to collect integrated samples for benzene. Minibuses had a slightly higher geometric mean PM 2.5 concentration in the morning than other modes of transport, but the ranking of geometric mean PM 2.5 by mode of transport is opposite in the evening and the variability within modes is approximately double the difference between modes. The highest single measurement was a concentration of 137 μg m -3 on a bus during an evening rush hour. The main component identified in PM 2.5 was carbon. Carbon monoxide levels in this study were approximately 3 times lower than those found in a commuter exposure study conducted in 1991. A strong association was shown between wind speed and PM 2.5 exposure in minibuses ( r2=0.50) and buses ( r2=0.54). The relationship between wind speed and CO exposure was strong only in minibuses ( r2=0.52).

  3. 78 FR 45962 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, Denver... of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in... of Anthropology. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control of the human...

  4. Metropolitan Development Districts, Madison Urban Area Boundary 2013, Published in 2013, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of...

  5. Metropolitan Development Districts, Approved Urban Area Boundary 2004, Published in 2004, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of...

  6. Metropolitan Development Districts, Urban Clusters, Published in 2014, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Madison Area Transportation Planning Board.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of...

  7. 76 FR 9599 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... representing a minimum of one individual from Kohlberg's Antiques and Indian Arts, in Denver, CO. In 1972, the... Kohlberg's Antiques and Indian Arts. The remains were reportedly a part of the George A. Cuneo...

  8. 76 FR 14061 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... accessioned into the collections (AC.8315A (CUI 68) and AC.8315B (CUI 69)). The remains include partial... of Nature & Science (then the Denver Museum of Natural History) (AC.9248A (CUI 70)). No...

  9. Teachers Lead the Way in Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Lori

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teacher-led school "Mathematics and Science Leadership Academy" (MSLA) that is part of the Denver Public Schools. At MSLA, teachers collaborate to make authentic and substantive decisions about how the school operates and seek to meet each student's needs. At teacher-led schools, teachers hire their own…

  10. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  11. Emission Inventory of On-Road Transport in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR Development during 2007 to 2015 Using the GAINS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penwadee Cheewaphongphan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR, including the capital city and five adjacent provinces, constitutes one of the top 10 megacities experiencing serious traffic congestion in the world, leading to air quality problems with significant adverse human health risks. Previously, there have been many operations planned to influence the fuel consumption and emissions from the on-road transport sector in the BMR area. It is necessary to estimate emissions using detailed information in order to thoroughly understand the reason for changes in emission levels and their impact on air quality. This paper aims to determine the successful implementation of energy and air pollution control policies in Thailand through an investigation of the emissions inventory of on-road transport in BMR, including ozone precursors (CO, NOX, Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs , greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, acidic substances (SO2 and NH3, and particulate matters (PM2.5, PM10, Black Carbon (BC, Organic Carbon (OC during the period from 2007 to 2015, using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS model based on the country-specific activity data together with the emission factor from the GAINS-Asia database. This study found that the amount of exhaust emissions over the BMR area in the year 2015 (and the trend during the period from 2007 to 2015 is approximately 139 kt of CO (−7.9%, 103 kt of NOX (−4.1%, 19.9 kt of NMVOC (−6.7%, 15 kt of CO2 (+1.6%, 8.6 kt of CH4 (+6.8%, 0.59 kt of N2O (+1.3%, 0.87 kt of SO2 (−25.8%, 1.1 kt of NH3 (+7.8%, 4.9 kt of PM2.5 (−5.5%, 5.1 kt of PM10 (−7.9%, 3.1 kt of BC (−2.5%, and 1.4 kt of OC (−7.7%. The change in emissions in each pollutant is a result of the more stringent control of fuel and engine standards, the shift in the fuel type used, and the effects of controlling some emissions. Light duty car gasoline fuel is identified as a major contributor of CO, NH3, N2O, and NMVOC, whereas

  12. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  13. 76 FR 80401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO... University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO. The human remains and... transferred to Fallis F. Rees, who donated them to the University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

  14. Investigation of the influence of transport from oil and natural gas regions on elevated ozone levels in the northern Colorado front range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason M; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-02-01

    The Northern Colorado Front Range (NCFR) has been in exceedance of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) since 2004, which has led to much debate over the sources of ozone precursors to the region, as this area is home to both the Denver, CO, metropolitan area and the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which has experienced rapid growth of oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations and associated emissions. Several recent studies have reported elevated levels of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a result of O&NG emissions and the potential for significant ozone production from these emissions, despite implementation of stricter O&NG VOC emissions regulations in 2008. Approximately 88% of 1-hr elevated ozone events (>75 ppbv) occur during June-August, indicating that elevated ozone levels are driven by regional photochemistry. Analyses of surface ozone and wind observations from two sites, namely, South Boulder and the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, both near Boulder, CO, show a preponderance of elevated ozone events associated with east-to-west airflow from regions with O&NG operations in the N-ESE, and a relatively minor contribution of transport from the Denver Metropolitan area to the SE-S. Transport from upwind areas associated with abundant O&NG operations accounts for on the order of 65% (mean for both sites) of 1-hr averaged elevated ozone levels, while the Denver urban corridor accounts for 9%. These correlations contribute to mounting evidence that air transport from areas with O&NG operation has a significant impact on ozone and air quality in the NCFR. This article builds on several previous pieces of research that implied significant contributions from oil and natural gas emissions on ozone production in the Northern Colorado Front Range. By correlating increased ozone events with transport analyses we show that there is a high abundance of transport events with elevated ozone originating from the Denver-Julesburg oil and natural gas

  15. Teacher Performance Management in Denver Public Schools. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Teacher Project, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In the 2008-2009 school year, The New Teacher Project (TNTP) partnered with Denver Public Schools (DPS) and the Denver Classroom Teachers Association (DCTA) to assess the effectiveness of current teacher performance management policies and practices. DPS and the DCTA have been national leaders in their willingness to examine the difficult issues…

  16. American Icons in Metropolitan Grasslands: People, Place and Bison Conservation in Denver, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Visitor Study and Report on the Connections between People, Place and Bison Conservation at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This study makes...

  17. Metropolitan Approaches to Desegregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before the May 1974 public hearings of the New York City Commission on Human Rights by the Director for the Center for National Policy Review, Catholic University Law School, notes that one barrier to the liberation of black people from a legally-sanctioned caste system is the racially segregated structure of metropolitan areas…

  18. [Mortality in metropolitan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Ccds

    1980-01-01

    Data from the 1970 census and a 1974-1975 survey carried out in Brazil by the Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica are used to examine recent mortality trends in urban areas. Specifically, life expectancy in nine metropolitan areas is analyzed in relation to income, diet, and sanitary facilities in the home.

  19. Policing Metropolitan America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  20. Impact of travel mode shift and trip distance on active and non-active transportation in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Transport and urban planning policies to reduce individual motorized trips and the number of long trips might produce important health benefits, both by increasing population levels of active transportation and reducing the non-active and the total time of daily trips.

  1. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  2. Impact of Energetic Management on the Development of LEVS as an Mode Alternative Transport Solutions Mobility to Urban/Metropolitan; Impacto de la Gestion Energetica sobre el Desarrollo de los LEVS como Modo de Transporte Alternativo en las Soluciones de Movilidad Urbana/Metropolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, M.

    2011-05-13

    This work presents the study of the impact of energy and social management on the development of pedal assisted electric bikes as an alternative mode of personal transport in displacement of workers within the workplace and between their homes from/to the work, with the purpose of finding new solutions to urban/metropolitan mobility. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the project, designing a methodology that has focused on the achievement of five tasks covers the basic parameters of continuous improvement strategies, apply them throughout the project in three phases each of them centered in a specific mobility scenario urban/metropolitan setting the necessary interactions between the factors: physical, sociological and technical: Phase 1 (Mobility located in a workplace), Phase 2 (mobility between home and workplace) and Phase 3 (Integration of mobility pedal assisted electric bicycle in the context of public transportation). In addition, we introduce what we think may be two new alternatives to current mobility solutions posed environments: the design of a system of BIPA on demand for the internal displacement of a workplace and the system of mobility BIPA for displacement between a massive public transport node and the workplace. (Author) 32 refs.

  3. 77 FR 23502 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO, has completed...

  4. A laundry's reincarnation. Hospital Cooperative Laundry, Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-15

    It started out as an off-site hospital laundry, then was leased to a commercial operator, now it is a cooperative plant that serves several accounts in the Denver area. See what makes Hospital Cooperative Laundry tick.

  5. Denver Coal Basin boundary from 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the Denver coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  6. SEMANTICS PUBLISH/SUBSCRIBE MODEL ORIENTED TOWARD METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION MANAGEMENT%面向城市交通信息管理的语义发布/订阅模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌; 吴健

    2011-01-01

    为适应复杂大规模的城市交通消息管理,保证效率优势与稳定性优势,将基于语义的发布/订阅通信模型应用于交通系统的可交情报板消息管理;将来自异构数据源的粗糙数据整理成规范的RDF(Resource Description Framework)事件;将基于环境特征的可变情报板请求规范为RDF订阅.在发布订阅引擎的支持下,采用语义匹配算法,实现可交情报板的消息通知与订阅的管理,从而有效地提高了可变情报板消息的管理,保证交通信息快速准确地传递给交通信息接收者.%In order to accommodate complicated large-scale metropolitan transportation information management and ensure the predominance of efficiency and stability, iu this thesis we apply the semantics-based publish/subscribe communication model to information management of variable message signs in transportation system.Raw data derived from heterogeneous data source is packed up to normative RDF ( Resource Description Framework) events; requests of variable message signs based on environment characteristics is normalised to RDF subscription.With the support of publish/subscribe engine and adopting semantics-based matching algorithm, we implement the information publish/subscribe management of variable message signs, therefore the information management of variable message signs is effectively improved,which ensures quick and accurate conveying of transportation information to the information receivers.

  7. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  8. Desempenho de crianças pré-termo com muito baixo peso e extremo baixo peso segundo o teste Denver-II The performance of pre-term children with very and extreme low weight according to the Denver-II test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar o desempenho de crianças da região metropolitana Belo Horizonte/MG nascidas pré-termo com muito e extremo baixo peso nos itens do teste Denver II. MÉTODOS: as crianças foram selecionadas em um programa de acompanhamento do desenvolvimento de crianças de risco. A amostra incluiu 177 crianças, nas quais o Teste de Denver II foi aplicado nas idades corrigidas de 4, 8, 12, 18 e 24 meses. As respostas foram comparadas (χ2 aos dados da amostra normativa do instrumento. RESULTADOS: crianças pré-termo de muito e extremo baixo peso apresentaram desempenho superior no primeiro ano de vida com desvantagem a partir dos 12 meses em relação à amostra normativa do Denver II. O grupo de extremo baixo peso foi o que apresentou pior desempenho. CONCLUSÕES: houve diferenças no padrão de respostas das crianças examinadas em relação à amostra normativa do Denver II, sendo importante fazer mais estudos acerca da validade do teste para a população brasileira.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the performance on the Denver II test of preterm children with very and extreme low weight from the Belo Horizonte/MG metropolitan region. METHODS: the children were selected as part of a program to monitor the development of children at risk. The sample included 177 children, to whom the Denver II Test was applied at corrected ages of 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 months. The responses were compared (χ2 to data from a normative sample. RESULTS: preterm children with very or extremely low weight showed improved performance in the first year of life, although disadvantages began to emerge after twelve months in relation to the normative Denver II sample. The extremely low weight group performed the worst. CONCLUSIONS: there were differences in the pattern of children's responses compared to those of the normative Denver II sample, and it is important to carry out further studies of the validity of this test for the Brazilian population.

  9. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  10. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  11. 77 FR 5837 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... the cultural items may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum...

  12. 78 FR 64007 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology has corrected an inventory of...

  13. 78 FR 19308 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Denver Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that... University of Denver Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it...

  14. Denver Developmental Screening Test: Cultural Variations in Southeast Asian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Tests (DDST) was administered to 25 Southeast Asian children (one to five years old) and scores of 150 other DDSTs performed on Southeast Asian children were reviewed. Findings suggested that scores may reflect differences in social and cultural experiences between these children and the standardization sample.…

  15. Experience in Collaboration: McDenver at McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Clarice Sue

    2002-01-01

    The McDenver at McDonald's project provided a nontraditional, community-based teaching and learning environment for faculty and students in a health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) department and a school of nursing. Children and parents come to McDonald's, children received developmental screenings, and parents completed conferences…

  16. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  17. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  18. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.

  19. 76 FR 58032 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    .... History and Description of the Cultural Item The cultural item is a wooden hat (AC.11506) in the shape of... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Denver Museum of Nature and Science... & Science, in consultation with the appropriate Indian Tribe, has determined that a cultural item meets...

  20. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices.

  1. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  2. Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, John Dean, Ed.

    Two major objectives of the Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study were: (1) to produce a directory of sites around Columbus, Ohio, having fieldtrip potential; and (2) to test the validity of the concept that field trips are a useful method in aiding student educational growth. The first section of this document relates the history…

  3. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  4. Zeolites replacing plant fossils in the Denver formation, Lakewood, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Verbeek, E.R.; Grout, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Well-developed crystals of heulandite and stilbite, within fossil wood, occur in sedimentary rocks in Lakewood, Jefferson County. The rocks belong to the Denver formation, a locally fossiliferous deposit of fluvial claystone, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate, containing some volcanic mudflows (andesitic) of late Cretaceous to Palaeocene age. Altered volcanic glass released Na and Ca into the ground-water and subsequently zeolites were crystallized in the open spaces between grains and within fossil plant structures. Minor pyrite, quartz (jasper), calcite and apatite also occur as replacements of fossil wood. Similar zeolite occurrences in other areas are reviewed.-R.S.M.

  5. Spatial dynamics and metropolitan change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, U; Andersson, A E; Isard, W

    1986-02-01

    "This special issue presents contributions to a collaborative effort to analyze 'the dynamics of metropolitan processes and policies'....[It] contains four papers which focus on industrial change and economic restructuring; two papers deal with population relocation and migration processes; one paper contains a study of economic cycles in space and one paper treats the assessment of urban investment and urban renewal projects." The geographic focus is on the developed countries.

  6. [Models for intervention in autism spectrum disorders: Denver and SCERTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forment-Dasca, C

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. Dado el aumento de prevalencia respecto a los diagnosticos de autismo en los ultimos años, la creciente investigacion sobre modelos para trabajar con las personas con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) hace que se encuentren diversas tecnicas y metodos para obtener mayores resultados y poder asi ayudar a mejorar muchos de los sintomas que impiden llevar una vida plena a personas con dicho diagnostico y a sus familias. Objetivo. Revisar dos modelos de intervencion diseñados especificamente para trabajar con personas con TEA. Desarrollo. Se revisa el modelo de intervencion temprana Early Start Denver Model, que presenta un checklist para niños con TEA de 12 a 48 meses, a partir de la evolucion de estos. Se revisa tambien el modelo SCERTS. A diferencia del Denver, este modelo presenta objetivos a trabajar a lo largo de toda la vida de las personas con TEA. Conclusiones. A falta de mayores resultados de la practica basada en la evidencia cientifica respecto a los dos modelos revisados, se concluye que no existe un modelo unico estandarizado y que se necesita una derivacion precoz en niños con dificultades en atencion conjunta e imitacion y el trabajo junto con las familias. Asi pues, para realizar una correcta intervencion debe tenerse en cuenta tanto la practica basada en la evidencia como un conocimiento, respeto y comprension profunda de los niños con TEA y de sus familias por parte del terapeuta.

  7. Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessle, Tiffany M; Garneau, Nicole L; Sloan, Meghan M; Santorico, Stephanie A

    2015-06-08

    The goal of the Denver Papillae Protocol is to use a dichotomous key to define and prioritize the characteristics of fungiform papillae (FP) to ensure consistent scoring between scorers. This protocol builds off of a need that has arisen from the last two decades of taste research using FP as a proxy for taste pore density. FP density has historically been analyzed using Miller & Reedy's 1990 characterizations of their morphology: round, stained lighter, large, and elevated. In this work, the authors forewarned that stricter definitions of FP morphology needed to be outlined. Despite this call to action, follow up literature has been scarce, with most studies continuing to cite Miller & Reedy's original work. Consequently, FP density reports have been highly variable and, combined with small sample sizes, may contribute to the discrepant conclusions on the role of FP in taste sensitivity. The Genetics of Taste Lab explored this apparent inconsistency in counting and found that scorers were individually prioritizing the importance of these characteristics differently and had no guidance for when a papilla had some, but not all, of the reported qualities of FP. The result of this subjectivity is highly variable FP counts of the same tongue image. The Denver Papillae Protocol has been developed to remedy this consequence through use of a dichotomous key that further defines and prioritizes the importance of the characteristics put forth by Miller & Reedy. The proposed method could help create a standard way to quantify FP for researchers in the field of taste and nutritional studies.

  8. 78 FR 60015 - Proposed Policy Guidance on Metropolitan Planning Organization Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Planning Organization Representation AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and Federal Highway... transportation in each metropolitan planning organization (MPO) that serves a transportation management area (TMA... Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000, at 65 FR 19477. For access to the docket...

  9. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  10. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  11. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque,...

  12. 76 FR 28071 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Canyon de Chelly, AZ. This notice is... Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New...

  13. Metropolitan Governance Reforms: The Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Snyder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seoul is transforming into a global city that is competitive with many of the most notable cities in the world such as Tokyo, New York, and London. Seoul's metropolitan governance structure is uniquely suited to the Korean peninsula and has been able to be dynamic in order to adapt to political changes the country has experienced. This article examines the initiatives behind metropolitan governance reforms in Seoul and the factors that play an important role in influencing the current governance structure. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG is set on improving the lives of citizens and ensuring they are happy with their city through transparency, accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of government among other things. This region has become a strong contributor to the economic growth of the county and helped to create opportunities to attract and retain businesses, implement innovative investment projects and develop a talented workforce. Amongst other reasons, Seoul's solid fiscal system has allowed the city to build the necessary organizational capacity for SMG as well. Additionally, Seoul citizens enjoy a good quality of life because of the educational options, employment opportunities, housing spaces, leisure activities, and cultural experiences found in the city. There are still some challenges ahead but Seoul realizes the importance of civic participation for capacity building and sustainability. One of Seoul's strategies to promoting sustainable living within the city is its ability to engage the public. By promoting citizen participation and feedback, Seoul feels that it will gain new perceptivities during the policy decision-making process. The city's current governance methods continue to succeed because the leaders at SMG understand what is essential to executing successful governance reform: citizens.

  14. Metropolitan Governance Reforms: The Case of Seoul Metropolitan Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Snyder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seoul is transforming into a global city that is competitive with many of the most notable cities in the world such as Tokyo, New York, and London. Seoul’s metropolitan governance structure is uniquely suited to the Korean peninsula and has been able to be dynamic in order to adapt to political changes the country has experienced. This article examines the initiatives behind metropolitan governance reforms in Seoul and the factors that play an important role in influencing the current governance structure. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG is set on improving the lives of citizens and ensuring they are happy with their city through transparency, accountability, efficiency, and effectiveness of government among other things. This region has become a strong contributor to the economic growth of the county and helped to create opportunities to attract and retain businesses, implement innovative investment projects and develop a talented workforce. Amongst other reasons, Seoul’s solid fiscal system has allowed the city to build the necessary organizational capacity for SMG as well. Additionally, Seoul citizens enjoy a good quality of life because of the educational options, employment opportunities, housing spaces, leisure activities, and cultural experiences found in the city. There are still some challenges ahead but Seoul realizes the importance of civic participation for capacity building and sustainability. One of Seoul’s strategies to promoting sustainable living within the city is its ability to engage the public. By promoting citizen participation and feedback, Seoul feels that it will gain new perceptivities during the policy decision-making process. The city’s current governance methods continue to succeed because the leaders at SMG understand what is essential to executing successful governance reform: citizens.

  15. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  16. 77 FR 5839 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology....

  17. 77 FR 23501 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Item: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, in consultation... with the cultural item may contact the University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum...

  18. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  19. Transition strategies for metropolitan food clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.L.; Giesen, E.; Chakravarthy, K.

    2011-01-01

    Metropolitan food clusters entail the development of a new agri logistic system and promises to produce gains for people, planet, and profit. Establishing a transition towards system innovations like metropolitan food clusters needs strategies to overcome the challenges actors face, because

  20. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  1. Latin America's supercity--the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Big and still growing, Mexico City and its environs is soon to be the world's largest metropolitan area. The lure of city amenties--jobs, health care, schooling, and cheap food--and the hope of a better life bring 1000 rural migrants to Mexico City every day. Between 1950 and 1980, Mexico City grew at an annual average rate of 5.4%. Mexico City is typical of Latin American supercities, holding an impressive portion of the nation's population and commanding the lion's share of the country's economic activities. It is primarily due to the rapid growth in the northern periphery of the municipalities that Mexico City is expected to grow into the world's largest metropolitan area by the year 2000. Given the high proportion of youth relative to the total population, it is not suprising that average household sizes in Mexico City are large. About 60% to 70% of all families have no access to the formal housing market; much of the urban expansion has occurred through the emergence of squatter communities. Water may indeed be the most serious of all of Mexico City's infrastructural problems. Other problems include: 1) the government cannot meet the demands for educational buildings and personnel; 2) in 1982, 10.3% of the metropolitan population lived in extreme poverty and an additional 22.6% were unable to satisfy their basic needs; and 3) transport is a central problem. Demographic sources for Mexico are discussed.

  2. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  3. 75 FR 63892 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ..., Vessel Operators, Non-Marine Transportation Providers, Metropolitan Planning Organizations and State DOTs...) positions will be filled. Organizations and companies with experience inone or more of the following...

  4. Evaluating Plan Alternatives for Transportation System Sustainability: Atlanta Metropolitan Region%融合可持续理念的交通规划方案比选方法——以亚特兰大大都市区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christy Mihyeon Jeon; Adjo A.Amekudzi; Randall L.Guensler; 张嵩; 李浩; 黄洪佳

    2011-01-01

    越来越多的机构开始为交通系统的可持续发展定义,并试图将这一概念融入区域交通规划过程.然而,只有极少数的区域规划机构意识到了交通系统和土地利用变化给经济、环境和社会生活质量(这三者通常被认为是可持续交通系统的三个基本方面)带来的广泛影响.首先,论述了使用多个可持续发展指标的多准则决策方法,并应用其评估亚特兰大大都市区的三个交通和土地利用规划方案.然后,介绍了作为交通决策支持工具的可持续发展综合指数,用于减少多指标综合评价方式导致的信息过载.这一评价方法有助于决策者在确定交通规划方案时综合考虑可持续性,并能根据已确定的目标识别最可持续(或最不可持续)的规划方案.%A growing number of agencies have begun to define “sustainability” for transportation systems and are attempting to incorporate the concept into the regional transportation planning process.Still, very few metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) capture the comprehensive impact of transportation system and land use changes on the economy, environment, and social quality of life,which are commonly considered the essential three dimensions of sustainable transportation systems. This paper demonstrates an application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach for evaluating selected transportation and land use plans in the Atlanta region using multiple sustainability parameters. A composite sustainability index is introduced as a decision support tool for transportation policymaking, where the sustainability index considers multidimensional conflicting criteria in the transportation planning process.The proposed framework should help decision-makers with incorporating sustainability considerations into transportation planning as well as identifying the most sustainable (or least unsustainable) plan for predetermined objectives.

  5. A Comment on the Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, James H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test an easily administered measure of four areas of infant and preschool development, was evaluated using an estimate of the base rate of mental retardation in the screening population. (Author/CL)

  6. City and County of Denver Off Post Water Quality Monitoring Station : 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum encloses a letter and drawings from the City and County of Denver showing the design and location of the Off Post Water Quality Monitoring Station on...

  7. Incarceration of umbilical hernia after radiological insertion of a Denver peritoneovenous shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Hashizume, Takuya; Kawai, Tatsuya; Kurosaka, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Kazushi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2013-03-01

    We report a rare complication of incarceration of an umbilical hernia after Denver peritoneovenous shunt placement. A 50-year-old man presented with refractory ascites from liver cirrhosis. He also had an umbilical hernia. Because the ascites became uncontrollable, Denver peritoneovenous shunting was performed. The operation was successful and the ascites decreased. Ten days later, however, incarceration of the umbilical hernia occurred. A surgical repair was performed, but he died 2 days later. The cause of death was considered to be sepsis.

  8. Metropolitanization:China’s Transitioning Urbanization Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amid larger institutional transitions,China has seen rapid urbanization stimulated by the marketization and new industrialization in the country.Now facing a series of new challenges,the traditional mode of urbanization needs to be changed.History has proven that metropolitanization is a necessary stage of urban development;under the circumstances of China’s current industrialization,metropolitanization emerges as the primary direction in China’s transitioning urbanization.This paper suggests certain measures for boosting metropolitanization and urbanization transition in China.

  9. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurements at Denver International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Robert P.; Wang, Frank Y.; Booth, Earl R.; Watts, Michael E.; Fenichel, Neil; D'Errico, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Airport capacity is constrained, in part, by spacing requirements associated with the wake vortex hazard. NASA's Wake Vortex Avoidance Project has a goal to establish the feasibility of reducing this spacing while maintaining safety. Passive acoustic phased array sensors, if shown to have operational potential, may aid in this effort by detecting and tracking the vortices. During August/September 2003, NASA and the USDOT sponsored a wake acoustics test at the Denver International Airport. The central instrument of the test was a large microphone phased array. This paper describes the test in general terms and gives an overview of the array hardware. It outlines one of the analysis techniques that is being applied to the data and gives sample results. The technique is able to clearly resolve the wake vortices of landing aircraft and measure their separation, height, and sinking rate. These observations permit an indirect estimate of the vortex circulation. The array also provides visualization of the vortex evolution, including the Crow instability.

  10. City and County of Denver: Technical comparison between hythane, CNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The City and County of Denver, in cooperation with the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force of Public Technology, Inc. has completed a unique two-year research and development project designed to test and compare the technical merits of three transportation fuels. Comparisons of the tailpipe emissions from Hythane - a new, blended, alternative motor fuel comprised of 85% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15% hydrogen measured by volume - to the emissions from gasoline and 100% CNG were conducted. This project has been one of the first pioneering studies of a hydrogen blended fuel and, through its success, has prompted eight additional Hythane research projects to date. Phase I of the project provided results from the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing of a light duty pick-up truck operating on Hythane. The purpose of this testing was to quantify any decrease in tailpipe emissions and to determine whether Hythane could meet the California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standard (ULEV) for light duty trucks. During Phase I, FTP analyses were conducted in both Colorado (high altitude testing) and California (sea level testing) on a converted Chevrolet S-10, pick-up truck by Hydrogen Consultants (HCl), the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) and the California Air Resource Board (CARB). Currently, the only other non-electric vehicle which is capable of meeting the ULEV standard is Chrysler`s natural gas vehicle. There was additional interest in the role Hythane could play as a transitional fuel in the introduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen, a renewable energy carrier, may soon be categorized as a ZEV fuel by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. This factor may encourage the use of Hythane as a transportation fuel that not only meets the ULEV standard, but may provide the bridge necessary to the eventual widespread use of hydrogen.

  11. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California Reconnaissance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    INTERVAL (YEARS) SACRAMENTO METROPOLITAN ARIA CALIFORNIA STAGE-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP SACRAMENTO RIVER AT FREMONT WEIR/WEST END SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...Wildlife Biologist/ Environmental Planner Karen Amerman Kuhn Civil Engineer/ Water Resources Plnr Patricia Roberson Environmental Studies

  12. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1995 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project.......The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project....

  13. Modeling Methane Leakage from Faulty Wellbores in the Denver-Julesburg Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, G.; Rajaram, H.; Karra, S.; Sherwood, O.; Burke, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Regulations in the state of Colorado mandate that all oil and gas wells be constructed with surface casings that extend 50 feet below the depth of the deepest potable aquifer, and production casings that are cemented to at least 200 feet above the shallowest producing formation. Building wells in accordance with the minimum regulations leaves an uncemented annulus between the production casing and the surrounding rock matrix, extending from the bottom of the surface casing to the top of the production casing cement. In Colorado, this annulus is sealed at the ground surface by the "bradenhead valve". Stray methane can enter the uncemented annulus through faulty cement in the producing formation or an intermediate gas-bearing zone and migrate upwards along the production casing. The gas dissolves into the annular fluid and accumulates below the bradenhead valve building pressure. Data from the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) indicates that 1,492 wells in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin have recorded bradenhead pressures greater than 20 psi since 2007. A leak of this kind creates the potential for both the single-phase transport of dissolved methane and the multiphase transport of methane gas away from the well. The degree to which methane transport occurs depends not only on the size of the leak but also the construction of the wellbore. In Colorado, the definition of potable groundwater has changed with time. To meet increasing demands for water, drinking water wells have been drilled deeper. As a result, there are potentially 4,144 wells in the DJ Basin with surface casings too shallow to protect the deepest potable aquifer. In this work, we investigate how a methane leak into the open annulus of an oil and gas wellbore, could result in the transport of dissolved and gas phase methane into a nearby drinking water aquifer. We construct a multiphase wellbore model that computes the pressure distribution and gas fraction along the uncemented

  14. 国际大都市区最新综合交通规划远景、目标、对策比较研究%A Comparative Study of Visions, Objectives, and Strategies of the Latest Comprehensive Transportation Plans for Metropolitan Areas of Intemational Citis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建; 王雪松

    2011-01-01

    In China, quick motorization in Chinese cities has expedited urban spatial expansion. Construction of regional transportation system influences the land use pattern, housing, as well as employment distribution in a metropolis. And accessibility also produces impacts on the mode of growth and the level of economic activities. This paper reviews the latest comprehensive transportation plans of 35 international metropolitan areas. Based on an analysis of current urban transportation development in China, the paper proposed ways to improve comprehensive transportation plans of big Chinese cities in following aspects: transportation safety planning; environmental protection; establishment of smart traffic congestion management system; integration of transportation planning institutions, and optimization of traffic system management and operation.%我国快速的机动化进程推动了城市空间扩展和新城建设的步伐,区域综合交通运输体系的建设影响了城市土地利用形态、住房和就业分布,交通系统的可达性直接影响大都市区的增长模式和经济活动水平.国外发达地区的大都市区在综合交通规划方面积累了丰富的经验.我国城市交通发展面临的交通拥堵、交通安全、交通环境等问题日益突出,学习和借鉴国外发达地区大都市区综合交通规划经验显得十分必要.在对国际上35个大都市区最新一轮综合交通规划报告系统整理的基础上,统计和总结了35个大都市区综合交通规划的远景、总体目标以及目标实现的对策.针对当前中国城市交通问题,从重视交通安全规划,环境保护,建立完善的交通拥堵管理系统、改善城市机动性,健全交通规划机构、最优化综合交通系统管理和运营几个方面对城市综合交通系统提出了建议.

  15. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Denver and Greeley NTMS Quadrangles, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Olsen, C.E.

    1978-03-01

    Although this report covers two National Topographic Map Series 2/sup 0/ quadrangles, the data for each quadrangle are presented separately. Evaluation of the data by quadrangle resulted in the delineation of areas in which water and/or sediment uranium concentrations are notably higher than surrounding background concentrations. The major clusters of anomalous water samples were found in areas of the Denver Basin underlain by the Pierre, Laramie, Fox Hills, Denver, and Arapahoe formations. Most of the anomalous sediment samples were collected in areas of the Front Range underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks, particularly granites of the Silver Plume-Sherman group. Many of the anomalous sediment samples are from sites located near fault zones. The data in this report are also presented by geologic/physiographic province because background uranium concentrations in Front Range samples differ significantly from those in the Denver Basin. Denver Basin waters have higher mean uranium concentrations (mean 14.4 ppB) than Front Range waters (mean 3.3 ppB). Conversely, Front Range sediments are more uraniferous (mean 14.7 ppM) than those in the Denver Basin (mean 6.1 ppM). These differences in background uranium concentrations between Front Range and Denver Basin samples can be attributed to differences in regional geology, physiography, and (in the case of water) the ratio of surface water to ground water sites sampled. There is a significant northward increase in uranium concentrations in water samples from the Denver Basin. The higher uranium concentrations in water samples from the northern part of the basin are probably due to leaching of uraniferous strata in the Pierre and Laramie formations which crop out in that area.

  16. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London -- but not for New York -- there is ...

  17. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  18. Analysis of Criteria Air Pollutant Trends in Three Mexican Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy-Edith Benítez-García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Data from the annual, seasonal, and hourly behavior of the criteria air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10 in three Mexican metropolitan areas (the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA, Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA, and Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA over the period 2000–2011 were analyzed; and compliance with Mexican air quality standards was evaluated, highlighting causes of specific episodes of high and low concentrations. Data analyzed were collected from automatic air-monitoring networks located in the MCMA (32 stations, GMA (8 stations, and MMA (5 stations. In the MCMA and MMA, correlations between wind direction and concentrations of SO2 suggest that there was a considerable contribution of trans-boundary transport from outside of these areas. Analysis of annual trends revealed large reductions of CO in the MCMA, and SO2 in the three metropolitan areas. However, the annual mean concentration of O3 increased by 47% and 42% in the GMA and MMA, respectively, from 2000 to 2011, but decreased by 13% in the MCMA from 2005 to 2010. The annual mean concentration of PM10 in the MMA was about 58% and 76% higher than that in the MCMA and GMA, respectively, from 2001 to 2010.

  19. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  20. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...... conventions and agreements. A particular feature that metropolitan spatial strategies seem to have in common is the increasingly discretionary planning practices, often, however, within different institutional contexts. It might be assumed, hence, that the regional authorities may adopt different roles...... other themes to be treated at a lower scale, i.e. to the municipal planning authorities. Early observations of the two individual cases suggest that the focus as well as the orientation of these metropolitan plans merge characteristics associated with project-based and strategy-based spatial plans...

  1. Digital data sets describing metropolitan areas in the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes metropolitan areas in the conterminous United States, developed from U.S. Bureau of the Census boundaries of Consolidated Metropolitan...

  2. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  3. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  4. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  5. [The metropolitan area of Guadalajara. The population growth transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo Alejandre, J

    1994-01-01

    The Guadalajara metropolitan area, containing approximately three million inhabitants in the municipios of Guadalajara, Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonala, and El Salto, has high rates of population growth due to in-migration, natural increase, and annexation of localities. The average annual rate of growth declined from 6.8% in the 1950s to 2.6% in the 1980s. Despite the decline, which can be considered an indicator of transition, the increase in absolute numbers resulting from a 2.6% rate of growth amounts to 78,000 new inhabitants each year. A change has occurred in recent decades in the migratory patterns and urban spatial distribution of Western Mexico. In-migration to the Guadalajara metropolitan zone has slowed in both absolute and relative terms. Growth of smaller and intermediate sized cities is now more rapid than is that of the metropolitan zone. Surveys in Guadalajara indicate that the proportion of in-migrants from urban areas has increased substantially. Despite the slowing pace of growth, the Guadalajara metropolitan area faces serious problems of housing, land use, transport, and urban infrastructure and services in general. Because of rapid growth and the preponderance of young people among the migrants, the problems are likely to persist for some time. Population projections suggest that 66,000 new jobs will be needed during 1990-95 and 57,000 during 1995-2000, assuming no significant increases in the proportion of women who work. An average of 2500 hectares of land will be needed every five years, nearly equivalent to the total area of the city in 1940. The number of daily trips on urban transit is projected to increase from 6 million at present to 7 million in 2005. The daily load of solid waste is expected to increase from 4000 to 5000 tons in 2005. The economic structure of the city is also changing. Commerce and small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises have lost their primacy and large national and transnational manufacturing and commercial

  6. 24 CFR 1710.13 - Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA... Requirements § 1710.13 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) exemption. (a) Eligibility requirements. The sale of... since April 28, 1969. (2) The lot is located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as defined...

  7. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  8. Land-Cover and Imperviousness Data for Regional Areas near Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin - 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, James A.; Pearson, Daniel K.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the processing and results of land-cover and impervious surface derivation for parts of three metropolitan areas being studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE). The data were derived primarily from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite imagery from the period 1999-2002, and are provided as 30-meter resolution raster datasets. Data were produced to a standard consistent with data being produced as part of the USGS National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Program, and were derived in cooperation with, and assistance from, NLCD01 personnel. The data were intended as surrogates for NLCD01 data because of the EUSE Program's time-critical need for updated land-cover for parts of the United States that would not be available in time from the NLCD01 Program. Six datasets are described in this report: separate land-cover (15-class categorical data) and imperviousness (0-100 percent continuous data) raster datasets for parts of the general Denver, Colorado area (South Platte River Basin), Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas area (Trinity River Basin), and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin area (Western Lake Michigan Drainages).

  9. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the

  10. PASS-THROUGH FREIGHT MODELING AT THE STATEWIDE AND METROPOLITAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Anderson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine the volumes of freight (specifically trucks passing through a state or metropolitan area is difficult to determine/forecast because transportation professionals have no direct survey mechanism to collect this data. This paper documents various procedures developed to utilize the Freight Analysis Framework Version 2 Database to determine the number of trucks passing through the entire state and an urban area in Alabama. The procedures developed in this research focus on national level pass through data, trips from one state to another that pass through a state only because of that state’s location; pass through from a port of entry to the country where an urbanized area is located on a major corridor; and statewide level through trip data, trips from one part of a state to another that pass through an urbanized area because of its geographic location. The need for, and application of, the pass through freight forecasting is evident in the transportation planning models each metropolitan area and state are expected to develop and maintain for evaluating transportation projects. The ability to accurately forecast the pass through freight movements will benefit transportation planners by identifying freight volumes that must be accommodated by existing and proposed infrastructure, but for which the state or metropolitan area has no direct method to survey.

  11. Teacher Mobility and Financial Incentives: A Descriptive Analysis of Denver's ProComp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbeck, Eleanor S.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive teacher mobility can undermine policy efforts to develop a high-quality workforce. In response, policymakers have increasingly championed financial incentives to retain teachers. In 2006, the Denver Public Schools adopted an alternative teacher compensation reform, the Professional Compensation System for Teachers ("ProComp").…

  12. 77 FR 13627 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Colorado by the Denver Medical Examiner's Office. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 128. There is no information available as to where or how the remains were recovered. The medical examiner determined that the... Anthropology, the remains were transferred to History Colorado. They are identified as OAHP Case Number 175....

  13. The Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test as a Language Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Jennifer; Bernthal, John

    1996-01-01

    The validity of using the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) was investigated by testing 199 preschool children (ages 3-4) and reviewing the results 6 months later. Results indicated that the RDDST was an efficient prognostic tool in predicting formal assessment results for children at risk for language impairments. (CR)

  14. Effectiveness of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test in Identifying Children at Risk for Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1990-01-01

    Findings from a 5-year follow-up study of 78 kindergartners suggest that while the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) accurately predicts academic achievement and standardized test performance, it consistently misclassifies as normal the performance of a significant number of children who require special help in their early…

  15. Improving the Sensitivity of the Language Sector of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances P.; Borowitz, Kathleen C.

    1988-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and an expressive language measure were administered to 114 children (aged 24 to 74 months) suspected of developmental difficulties. The DDST did not identify the majority of children who failed the expressive language screening, even after cutoff scores were made more rigorous. (Author/JDD)

  16. The Use of the Denver Developmental Screening Test in Infant Welfare Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a single Denver Developmental Screening Test performance on 823 infants attending maternal and child health centers were compared with developmental information recorded by public health nurses during routine well baby care of these same infants. Journal Avaliability: J.B. Lippincott Co; E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  17. Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test on Infants from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Hope C.

    1982-01-01

    Standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) on 288 babies raning in age from two to 54 weeks in Yucatan, Mexico, yielded such findings as that subtest scores increased with age, and that the DDST failed to identify a "questionable" 16 or 17 babies with borderline scores on the Bayley Motor Scale. (Author/MC)

  18. Denver's airport of doom; the story behind the world's possibly most controversial airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Big airport projects have often been prone to controversy. Schiphol’s Polderbaan project, Heathrow’s expansion, and the construction of Berlin’s new airport all suffered from political, financial or technical issues. However, Denver International Airport (often referred to as DIA) caused uproar in

  19. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the human remains...: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with the human remains should... of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline...

  20. A Social Marketing Campaign in Denver: Reducing the Risk of Elder Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Judy; Miller, Jacque; Curtis, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Acknowledging the pain and loss senior citizens experience due to fraud, the Denver District Attorney's Office launched a campaign--"Clergy Against Senior Exploitation (CASE)"--to reduce fraud perpetrated on older persons. The thrust of this project was preventing fraud by educating older adults through their religious affiliations in…

  1. Denver's airport of doom; the story behind the world's possibly most controversial airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Big airport projects have often been prone to controversy. Schiphol’s Polderbaan project, Heathrow’s expansion, and the construction of Berlin’s new airport all suffered from political, financial or technical issues. However, Denver International Airport (often referred to as DIA) caused uproar in s

  2. A Downtown Denver Law Firm Leverages Tenant Improvement Funds to Cut Operating Expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Bryan Cave HRO (formerly Holme Roberts & Owen LLP, headquartered in Denver, Colorado), an international law firm, partnered with the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  3. Available Thermal Energy in the Denver Basin Dakota Group: Colorado and Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, A. M.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2012-12-01

    The University of North Dakota, in conjunction with the United States Geological Survey, has begun a geothermal assessment of energy in place for the Denver Basin. We focused on the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstones which are a series of petroleum producing formations in the Denver Basin. The "D" and "J" sands, in particular, are primary sources of petroleum and therefore of interest to the co-produced geothermal energy community. Analysis of bottom-hole temperature data from over 33,000 wells within the Lower Cretaceous Dakota group in the Denver Basin show that the potential available thermal energy in place is 5.23 x 1021 Joules (J). We estimated the following variables: the average thickness of 485 meters (m), the predominant rock is sandstone with a density of 2.3 x 1012 kg/km3 and a heat capacity of 920.48 J/kg °C, an average temperature of 109.4 °C. The interpolation of the bottom-hole temperatures for this group yielded an area of 73,449.20 km2, and a volume of 35,622,862 km3. Sorey et al. (1983) determined a recovery rate of 0.1% to be appropriate for a basin the size of the Denver Basin. Bottom-hole temperature interpolation of the Lower Cretaceous formations.

  4. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report: Denver, Colorado - August 9-11, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  5. Cost-effective optical transponders for deployed metropolitan area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanou, Maki; Politi, Christina (Tanya); Stavdas, Alexandros; Glentis, George-Othon; Georgoulakis, Kristina; Emeretlis, Andreas; Theodoridis, George

    2016-12-01

    Improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic components has enabled the investigation of transmitting optical channels with data rates greater than 40 Gb/s, over infrastructures that were initially supporting 10 Gb/s transport. However, for transporting high capacity channels, over long distances, considerable signal processing is necessary, with current emphasis being on digital techniques. Meanwhile in the context of optical networking where spectrally adjacent channels may cross different routes to interconnect the same source destination nodes, adaptive transmission systems become vital. This paper will suggest, compare and develop the necessary transponder technologies that enable transportation of 40 Gb/s channels over deployed Metropolitan Area optical Networks (MAN) infrastructure with emphasis on the interplay between realistic performance, feasibility and complexity/cost. Specifically it will investigate utilizing deployed optical infrastructure for transporting 40 Gb/s DQPSK channels in conjunction with various high performance, low complexity electronic equalizers that can compensate the corresponding linear impairment enhancement that accompanies this upgrade, namely Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion while they can be implemented in a single FPGA. It is shown that resource constraint performance evaluation is vital and the exact technology choice is related to the deployed infrastructure.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metropolitan Statistical Areas/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 490 Energy... Metropolitan Statistical Areas With 1980 Populations of 250,000 or more Albany-Schenectady-Troy MSA...

  7. METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT, PHASE IN THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINCĂ Dragoş Valentin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan development succeeds chronologically, as well as structurally urban development, this means a new phase in the urban system development through the extension beyond its initial boundaries. Along with the cities’ surrounding areas population growth, especially through emigration from the cities, but as well as through the attraction of population from other localities, the geographical and the administrative boundaries of the cities become inadequate for the definition of the urban agglomerations that emerge. This extension is generated as well by an ample endogenous process of local economic development that is forcing the association of several local communities around an urban center becoming a growth pole in order to develop its level of competitiveness. Metropolitan development represents thus an administrative and economical challenge regarding the management and the coordination of an increased palette of resources.

  8. Approach to Delimiting Metropolitan Regions' Boundary and Grading Urban Hierarchy Within a Metropolitan Region A Case Study of Shanghai Metropolitan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Shougui; Andrew JOHNSTON; CHEN Dongchun

    2008-01-01

    In metropolitan regions,the change in the strength of"flows" between a core city and surrounding cities reflects the range of the core city's influence,while the gravity between core city and other cities reflects the strength of potential relation between them.This article firstly attempts to delimit the boundary of metropolitan regions with the two dimensions measure combining "flows" and gravitation.The former is measured through the flow of people between the core city and surrounding cities,and the latter is measured through both population and gross domestic products (GDP) of the core city and surrounding cities.The hierarchy of the cities within a metropolitan region is classifted in order to emphasize the roles of the cities belonging to the metropolitan regions,different from the general way through population scale and administrative level,and is typical in China.This paper uses the Shanghai metropolitan region as a research case,determining boundary of this metropolitan region clearly and classifying hierarchy of the cities within the region.The final results are significantly different to previous work,even overthrowing the traditional system of urban hierarchy partly.It is helpful to highlight the function of cities in organizing the regional economy,the level structure of metropolitan regions,and each city's relative importance in a metropolitan region,which can be taken as scientific basis for planning integrated regions or urban systems.

  9. Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL) results from the Denver, CO DISCOVER-AQ campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-10-01

    The Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL) is a compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system that was developed at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric air quality campaigns. This lidar is part of the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of six other ozone lidars across the U.S and Canada. This lidar has been deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 for the DISCOVER-AQ air quality campaign. Ozone and aerosol profiles were taken showing the influence of emissions from the Denver region. Results of ozone concentration, aerosol scattering ratio, boundary layer height and clouds will be presented with emphasis on regional air quality.

  10. Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in Metropolitan Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji

    In this study, the detailed horizontal structure, i.e. cliffs and plateaux of the heat island of the Metropolitan Tokyo area is investigated. According to Oke (1977), cliff is steep temperature gradient at the rural/urban boundary and plateau is a steady but weaker horizontal gradient of increasing temperature towards the city center. However, these features are not always evident, e.g. large city like Tokyo. To elucidate such aspects, moving observations of the horizontal distribution of air temperature from electric trains of the transportation network of Metropolitan Tokyo during late evening or early morning were thus conducted. In total, 16 railroad lines were used for the moving observations. The observations were done in two phases for sectional and horizontal distributions. Results show that three cliffs exist in the heat island of Metropolitan Tokyo, although the location of these cliffs should be taken into consideration for urban planning or urban redevelopment.

  11. Qualidade do transporte urbano de passageiros: uma avaliação do nível de serviço do sistema do metropolitano de São Paulo / Quality of the urban passenger transport: an evaluation of the level service system metropolitan of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivanilza Machado Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade do transporte coletivo urbano é a grande questão das cidades contemporâneas. Como reduzir a influência dos automóveis e prover um serviço de transporte de passageiros com conforto e qualidade. Os sistemas de transporte urbano nas cidades brasileiras sofrem pela má qualidade dos serviços que envolvem superlotação, falta de infraestrutura e problemas de investimento. Nesse cenário o sistema de transporte metropolitano sobre trilhos, conhecido como Metrô tem sido utilizado com a finalidade de melhoria da qualidade de transporte. Entretanto, essa melhoria precisa ser medida do ponto de vista dos usuários do sistema. Assim, este artigo desenvolve indicadores para avaliação da qualidade do transporte urbano de passageiros e aplica em uma pesquisa de campo para avaliar os serviços do metropolitano da cidade de São Paulo. Os resultados mostram que a Qualidade do serviço que já fora considerado em excelência hoje é vista como regular e ruim entre os entrevistados.

  12. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  13. Upscaling pollutant dispersion in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Parada, Francisco J.; Varela, Juan R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, José

    2012-02-01

    Pollutant emission is an important problem in megacities such as Mexico City, imposing serious threats to human health and economic activity. Public policies oriented to deal with pollutant management ought to be based upon a close understanding of the transport mechanisms involved in the commonly complex network of streets and buildings. Modeling and simulation tools have proved to be useful for understanding field measurements and developing efficient monitoring strategies. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the (longitudinal and transverse) dispersion coefficients in upscaled models for pollutant transport in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). To this end, we use the method of volume averaging, which allows calculation of the dispersion coefficients by solving the associated closure problems in some representative regions of the MCMA. The results show that local geometry has an important effect upon contaminant dispersion, especially in the direction that is transverse to the pressure gradient. This suggests that, although winds can remove an important amount of atmospheric contaminants, high transversal dispersion can help in a fast spreading of contaminants within the street network.

  14. Engaging with Sustainability Issues in Metropolitan Chennai

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Publication en ligne, City report series (Chance2Sustain) - ISSN 2309-8198; Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the name was officially changed to Chennai. Located on the east coast of India, on the Bay of Bengal, sea trade has been an i...

  15. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  16. The Question of Metropolitan Form: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vernez Moudon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Posing the concept of ‘metropolitan form’ as a question, as in the call for papers for this issue of Footprint, is an absolute necessity at this stage of development of urbanised areas. Many of the papers in this issue begin with the straw-man notion of a formless agglomeration of activities and spaces, the – for lack of a better phrase – postmodern urban experience.[1] There is a persistent theme in the related literatures of architecture, urban design and urban and regional planning that the physical form of the contemporary metropolis is un-describable. Soja’s six metaphors (post-Fordist industrial, cosmopolis, expolis, fractal city, carceral archipelago, simcities are being indicative of the wide range of possible images.[2] The eight papers in this issue of Footprint take an opposite approach. They begin to trace the contours of the debate around how the noun ‘metropolitan form’ might be understood, how it might be studied, and how it might be possible to move from an empirical understanding of its structure to more intuitive design solutions.

  17. The Question of Metropolitan Form: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prosperi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Posing the concept of ‘metropolitan form’ as a question, as in the call for papers for this issue of Footprint, is an absolute necessity at this stage of development of urbanised areas. Many of the papers in this issue begin with the straw-man notion of a formless agglomeration of activities and spaces, the – for lack of a better phrase – postmodern urban experience.[1] There is a persistent theme in the related literatures of architecture, urban design and urban and regional planning that the physical form of the contemporary metropolis is un-describable. Soja’s six metaphors (post-Fordist industrial, cosmopolis, expolis, fractal city, carceral archipelago, simcities are being indicative of the wide range of possible images.[2] The eight papers in this issue of Footprint take an opposite approach. They begin to trace the contours of the debate around how the noun ‘metropolitan form’ might be understood, how it might be studied, and how it might be possible to move from an empirical understanding of its structure to more intuitive design solutions.

  18. LANDFILL SITTING USING MCDM in TEHRAN METROPOLITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abediniangerabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing Municipal Solid Waste in order to control waste materials in Tehran Metropolitan with a population of over 8.5 million persons and daily production of 7500 tons of trash seems an evitable necessity. Daily production of such amount of trash and accumulation of them in the southern part of Tehran (Kahrizak due to lack of proper and standard methods of landfilling have caused severe problems by creating a latex lake of twelve hectares. Among these problems, penetration of infection and contamination to underground waters, causing excessive problems for soil and agricultural lands can be mentioned. In such conditions caused for Tehran, lack of solution finding for the issue would bring heavy outcomes for the Tehran Metropolitan in terms of environmental and economic issues. In this paper, efforts are taken to find a new place as a landfill by applying sustainable development approach. For this, in order to use the criteria propounded in sustainable development, multi-criteria decision making methods has been applied for weighing and spatial analysis has been used to combining them for indicating the most appropriate site. In this way, the new site would be selected by observance of sustainable development would be a place with the least environmental and social damages while being economically affordable.

  19. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 450 - Linking the Transportation Planning and NEPA Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... planning analysis can provide the basis for the assessment of indirect and cumulative impacts required... to explain the linkage between the transportation planning and project development/National... and transit projects must flow from metropolitan and statewide transportation planning...

  1. Changing International Constructs: How Metropolitan Universities Must Engage Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Mitch; Zimpher, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of American metropolitan universities has never before been so relevant, both to the future of institutions themselves and to the United States. The success of the mission requires that we develop a deep understanding of the impact of both urbanization and de-urbanization, as well as the challenges metropolitan universities face with…

  2. Detroit Metropolitan Library Research and Demonstration Project. Background Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Helen

    The Detroit Metropolitan Region, including six countries in southeastern Michigan, is the focus for the Detroit Metropolitan Library Research and Demonstration Project. This document provides background data on the region for the Project. Data included are (1) population, (2) educational facilities, (3) numbers of elementary and secondary pupils…

  3. Metropolitan School Organization: Basic Problems and Patterns. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.

    This anthology describes and discusses the study and development of metropolitan educational delivery systems--the process of bringing education under the control of one system spanning the city and its suburbs. Substantive works focus on the forces presently surrounding the problem of metropolitan educational reform and the present state of…

  4. Metropolitan School Organization: Proposals for Reform. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Troy V., Ed.

    Within the conceptual framewords that surround the development of new structures for the organization of education in metropolitan areas, contributors to this anthology focus on the purpose, conceptualizations, and proposed organizational structures of metropolitan educational reform activities. The book is primarily intended for scholars and…

  5. Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Opportunities for the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report intended for officials responsible for solving metropolitan problems identifies ways that telecommunications could improve the delivery of public services to metropolitan communities during the 1980's. Areas included in this study are delivery of public services to the home, operation of mobile public services, personal security…

  6. University and Local Government in Metropolitan Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffite, Nicolas Baya

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the role of universities in the sustainable management of metropolitan areas, drawing on the outputs from a workshop that brought together academics, professionals and politicians responsible for the urban environmental management of the metropolitan areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Urban…

  7. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education, in

  8. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  9. The predicted impact of VOCs from Marijuana cultivation operations on ozone concentrations in great Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. T.; Vizuete, W.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Ashworth, K.

    2016-12-01

    Colorado is the first the marijuana legal states in the United States since 2014. As a result, thousands of legal Marijuana cultivation operations are at great Denver area now. Those Marijuana cultivation operations could be the potential to release a lot of biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpene(C10H16), alpha-pinene, and D-limonene. Those alkene species could rapidly increase the peroxy radicals and chemical reactions in the atmosphere, especially in the urban area which belong to VOC-limited ozone regime. These emissions will increase the ozone in Denver city, where is ozone non-attainment area. Some previous research explained the marijuana smoke and indoor air quality (Martyny, Serrano, Schaeffer, & Van Dyke, 2013) and the smell of marijuana chemical compounds(Rice & Koziel, 2015). However, there have been no studies discuss on identifying and assessing emission rate from marijuana and how those species impact on atmospheric chemistry and ozone concentration, and the marijuana emissions have been not considered in the national emission inventory, either. This research will use air quality model to identify the possibility of ozone impact by marijuana cultivation emission. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions, CAMx, are applied for this research to identify the impact of ozone concentration. This model is government regulatory model based on the Three-State Air Quality Modeling Study (3SAQS), which developed by UNC-Chapel Hill and ENVIRON in 2012. This model is used for evaluation and regulate the ozone impact in ozone non-attainment area, Denver city. The details of the 3SAQS model setup and protocol can be found in the 3SAQS report(UNC-IE, 2013). For the marijuana emission study scenarios, we assumed the monoterpene (C10H16) is the only emission species in air quality model and identify the ozone change in the model by the different quantity of emission rate from marijuana cultivation operations.

  10. The value of a safety-net hospital case example: Denver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Mori J; Brown, Carrie A; Mehler, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Mergers in the health care are common. The safety nets are being left out, because the operating margins of these hospitals are too thin. The Accountable Care Act (ACA) may increase the financial challenges of safety nets. This is because uncompensated care disbursements such as funding of the disproportionate share hospitals are scheduled to phase down as ACA implementation proceeds. If the safety nets became financially unstable, this would destabilize the local hospital market. Denver Health has gained national recognition for its innovations and excellent quality of care. This article will promote an awareness that safety-net hospitals should be considered for collaborations.

  11. Multilevel Hierarchical Modeling of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Responses to Urbanization in Nine Metropolitan Regions across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuba, Roxolana; Cha, YoonKyung; Alameddine, Ibrahim; Lee, Boknam; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel hierarchical modeling methodology has been developed for use in ecological data analysis. The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was measured across a gradient of basins in each of nine metropolitan regions across the conterminous United States. The hierarchical nature of this dataset was harnessed in a multi-tiered model structure, predicting both invertebrate response at the basin scale and differences in invertebrate response at the region scale. Ordination site scores, total taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness, and richness-weighted mean tolerance of organisms at a site were used to describe invertebrate responses. Percentage of urban land cover was used as a basin-level predictor variable. Regional mean precipitation, air temperature, and antecedent agriculture were used as region-level predictor variables. Multilevel hierarchical models were fit to both levels of data simultaneously, borrowing statistical strength from the complete dataset to reduce uncertainty in regional coefficient estimates. Additionally, whereas non-hierarchical regressions were only able to show differing relations between invertebrate responses and urban intensity separately for each region, the multilevel hierarchical regressions were able to explain and quantify those differences within a single model. In this way, this modeling approach directly establishes the importance of antecedent agricultural conditions in masking the response of invertebrates to urbanization in metropolitan regions such as Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. Also, these models show that regions with high precipitation, such as Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; and Portland, Oregon, start out with better regional background conditions of invertebrates prior to urbanization but experience faster negative rates of change with urbanization. Ultimately, this urbanization

  12. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  13. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  14. Evaluation of a marketing program designed to increase consumer consideration of energy-efficient products in Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    A demonstration marketing program to sensitize Denver homeowners to incorporate the energy cost of ownership orientation in their decision process regarding purchase of energy-efficient products is described. Personal interviews with Denver homeowners were conducted. A first survey established a baseline for consumer awareness and acceptance of energy conservation and conservation-related products and provided information which could be utilized in developing marketing strategies related to energy conservation and the concept of energy cost of ownership. A second survey measured shifts in awareness and attitudes which might have occurred as a result of the marketing demonstration program. The methodology and results of the evaluation are discussed in detail. The Denver Test Market Media Campaign conducted through multi-media advertising and public relations campaigns to sensitize the residents to the positive consideraton of energy-efficient products is described. (MCW)

  15. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Andrés-Beltrán, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; Güeita-Rodríguez, Javier; Lambeck, Johan

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II in a population of Spanish children. Two hundred children ranging from 9 month to 6 years were grouped into two samples (healthy/with psychomotor delay) and screened in order to check whether they suffered from psychomotor delay. Children from three Early Intervention Centres and three schools participated in this study. Criterion validity was calculated by the method of extreme groups, comparing healthy children to those with development delay. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated using Cohen Kappa coefficient, and internal consistency was calculated via the Kuder-Richardson coefficient. The scale demonstrated 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, a positive predicted value of 91% and a negative predicted value of 89%, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratio was 11.12 and 0.12, respectively. Intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.662 to 1, and interobserver reliability ranged from 0.886 to 1. The Kuder-Richardson coefficient values ranged from 87.5 to 97.6%. The Spanish version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test II was found to have a good criterion validity, reliability and internal consistency and is a suitable screening test for use in a population of Spanish children.

  16. Performance of children with phenylketonuria in the Developmental Screening Test--Denver II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Greyce Kelly da; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2010-01-01

    phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the mutation of a gene located in chromosome 12q22-24.1. to describe the performance of children with classic phenylketonuria, who were diagnosed and treated early, in the Development Screening Test Denver - II. participants were 20 children with phenylketonuria, ranging in age from 3 and 6 years, and 10 children with typical language development, paired by gender, age and socioeconomic level to the research group. The plasmatic phenylalanine measure and the neurological, psychological and social information were gathered in the data base of the Neonatal Screening Programs for Metabolic disorder. Assessment consisted on the application of the Development Screening Test Denver II. A descriptive statistical analysis and the Mann Whitney test were used in order to characterize the tested skills. For the measurements of the plasmatic phenylalanine blood levels the values considered for analysis were: below 2 mg/dL, above 4 mg/dL, reference values between 2 and 4 mg/dL, of all exams performed during the participants'lives; maximum and minimum values and values obtained on the day of the screening application. comparison between the groups indicated statistically significant differences for the personal-social and language areas. children who were diagnosed and treated early for phenylketonuria present deficits in the personal-social and language areas. Also, even when receiving follow-up and undergoing treatment, these children presented difficulties in maintaining normal plasmatic phenylalanine levels.

  17. Effects of the May 5-6, 1973, storm in the Greater Denver area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1973-01-01

    Rain began falling on the Greater Denver area the evening of Saturday, May 5, 1973, and continued through most of Sunday, May 6. Below about 7,000 feet altitude, the precipitation was mostly rain; above that altitude, it was mostly snow. Although the rate of fall was moderate, at least 4 inches of rain or as much as 4 feet of snow accumulated in some places. Sustained precipitation falling at a moderate rate thoroughly saturated the ground and by midday Sunday sent most of the smaller streams into flood stage. The South Platte River and its major tributaries began to flood by late Sunday evening and early Monday morning. Geologic and hydrologic processes activated by the May 5-6 storm caused extensive damage to lands and to manmade structures in the Greater Denver area. Damage was generally most intense in areas where man had modified the landscape--by channel constrictions, paving, stripping of vegetation and topsoil, and oversteepening of hillslopes. Roads, bridges, culverts, dams, canals, and the like were damaged or destroyed by erosion and sedimentation. Streambanks and structures along them were scoured. Thousands of acres of croplands, pasture, and developed urban lands were coated with mud and sand. Flooding was intensified by inadequate storm sewers, blocked drains, and obstructed drainage courses. Saturation of hillslopes along the Front Range caused rockfalls, landslides, and mudflows as far west as Berthoud Pass. Greater attention to geologic conditions in land-use planning, design, and construction would minimize storm damage in the future.

  18. Development of in-vehicle noise prediction models for Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Konbattulwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the major sources of noise pollution in metropolitan regions causing various health hazards (e.g., long-term sleep disturbance, increase in blood pressure, physical tension, etc.. In this research, noise prediction models, which can measure the noise level experienced by the commuters while driving or traveling by motorized vehicles in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India, were developed. These models were developed by conducting a comprehensive study of various factors (e.g., vehicle speed, traffic volume and road characteristics, etc. affecting the levels of concentration of noise. A widespread data collection was done by conducting road trips of total length of 403.80 km via different modes of transport, such as air-conditioned (A/C car, non A/C car, bus and intermediate public transport (i.e., traditional 3-wheeler autos. Multiple regression analyses were performed to develop a functional relation between equivalent noise levels experienced by passengers while traveling (which was considered as a dependent variable and explanatory variables such as traffic characteristics, vehicle class, vehicle speed, various other location characteristics, etc. Noise levels are generally higher in the vicinity of intersections and signalized junctions. Independent data sets (for each mode of transport were used to validate the developed models. It was noted that maximum differences between observed and estimated values from the model were within the range of ±7.8% of the observed value.

  19. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  20. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán; Carolina Rojas Quezada

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted reg...

  1. Testing Estimates of Housing Cost Differences among US Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Easton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of six measures of housing cost differences among US metropolitan areas. Using Census data from 177 metropolitan areas, it tests the measures in two ways. First, it tests the ability of changes in the measures to predict changes in the shelter component of the metropolitan CPI from 1990 to 2000. Second, it tests the ability of the measures themselves to predict a proxy in 2000. A measure based on Fair Market Rents calculated by HUD placed second on the first test but did badly on the second. The housing component of the ACCRA index, a living cost measure frequently used by researchers, performed poorly on both tests. The top performer on both tests was a measure based on the average rent per room for a metropolitan area’s dwellings. Researchers wishing to control for living cost differences among places should consider including it in their living cost index.

  2. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  3. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Levinson, David M

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000-2001 and 2010-2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon.

  4. Earthquake foci in metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, J.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, J. (Institut de Physique du Globe, Univ. Paris-6 (France)); Frechet, J. (Universite Scientifique et Medical de Grenoble, Saint Martin d' Heres (France))

    A selection of local mechanism for metropolitan France and the lesser Antilles is presented. The data has been chosen on the basis of its quality and only mechanisms for which the faults planes would be determined with a precision of less than 20/sup 0/ are presented. The data concerns four principal regions: The Jura-Rhein graben, the Alps, the Pyrenees and the lesser Antilles. Finally a brief review of the neotectonic environment of the earthquakes in metropolitan France is presented.

  5. Conceptualizing metropolitan journalism: New approaches, new communicative practices, new perspectives?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chapter introduces a socio-geographical concept of metropolitan journalism, taking into account political, economic and cultural factors. It discusses empirical examples from journalism practice in Germany to identify certain patterns of structure-building, news production, news mediation and audience engagement. In so doing, it uses a figurational approach as a heuristic, depicting current transformations of journalism in metropolitan setting. The chapter argues for a differentiation bet...

  6. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  7. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  8. Air quality modeling in Warsaw Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision support of air quality management needs to connect several categories of the input data with the analytical process of air pollution dispersion. The aim of the respective model of air pollution is to provide a quantitative assessment of environmental impact of emission sources in a form of spatial/temporal maps of pollutants’ concentration or deposition in the domain. These results are in turn used in assessment of environmental risk and supporting respective planning actions. However, due to the complexity of the forecasting system and the required input data, such environmental prognosis and related decisions contain many potential sources of imprecision and uncertainty. The main sources of uncertainty are commonly considered meteorological and emission input data. This paper addresses the problem of emission uncertainty, and impact of this uncertainty on the forecasted air pollution concentrations and adverse health effects. The computational experiment implemented for Warsaw Metropolitan Area, Poland, encompasses one-year forecast with the year 2005 meteorological dataset. The annual mean concentrations of the main urban pollutants are computed. The impact of uncertainty in emission field inventory is also considered. Uncertainty assessment is based on the Monte Carlo technique where the regional scale CALPUFF model is the main forecasting tool used in air quality analysis.

  9. Magnitude M w in metropolitan France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Michel; Denieul, Marylin; Sèbe, Olivier; Delouis, Bertrand; Cansi, Yves; Schlupp, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    The recent seismicity catalogue of metropolitan France Sismicité Instrumentale de l'Hexagone (SI-Hex) covers the period 1962-2009. It is the outcome of a multipartner project conducted between 2010 and 2013. In this catalogue, moment magnitudes (M w) are mainly determined from short-period velocimetric records, the same records as those used by the Laboratoire de Détection Géophysique (LDG) for issuing local magnitudes (M L) since 1962. Two distinct procedures are used, whether M L-LDG is larger or smaller than 4. For M L-LDG >4, M w is computed by fitting the coda-wave amplitude on the raw records. Station corrections and regional properties of coda-wave attenuation are taken into account in the computations. For M L-LDG ≤4, M w is converted from M L-LDG through linear regression rules. In the smallest magnitude range M L-LDG French networks or LDG duration magnitude (M D) are first converted into M L-LDG before applying the conversion rules. This paper shows how the different sources of information and the different magnitude ranges are combined in order to determine an unbiased set of M w for the whole 38,027 events of the catalogue.

  10. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king.

  11. The Usefulness of the Denver Developmental Screening Test to Predict Kindergarten Problems in a General Community Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, David; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) was administered to 2569 children prior to starting kindergarten. At the end of the school year, teachers rated each child. Results suggest that because of its low sensitivity and modest predictive value, the DDST is relatively inefficient for a school entry screening program in a general population.…

  12. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  13. Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status and Denver Developmental Screening Test II in high risk infant and toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Koesnandar

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions. The prevalence of developmental disorder is higher in high risk infant and toddler, who >12 months old, undernourished, premature, and LBW. PEDS instrument are equivalent to Denver II test, shows good agreement, particularly for gross motor and language domain. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:26-30].

  14. Early Start Denver Model - intervention for de helt små børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) er en autismespecifik interventionsmetode, som er udviklet til helt små børn med autisme (0-4 år). Metoden fokuserer på at styrke den tidlige kontakt og barnets motivation, og den arbejder målrettet med de socio-kommunikative forløbere for sprog og med den tidlige...

  15. Vocational Rehabilitation and End Stage Renal Disease. Proceedings of the Workshop (Denver, Colorado, December 11-13, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC. Rehabilitation Research and Training Center.

    This document contains 12 papers presented to medical and vocational rehabilitation professionals on the topic of vocational rehabilitation and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) at a Denver conference in 1979. The following papers are contained in this report: "Rehabilitation and ESRD: Services with a New Thrust" by Kathleen E. Lloyd;…

  16. Journalism and Academic Surgery: The Denver Post and The American Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Don K

    2015-07-01

    Publication in professional journals is where advancements in surgery are reported and verified. Thus academic surgery holds common ground with journalism, where the principles of service, communication, and integrity are the basis of their public trust and standing in society. Writing for the Denver Post the author learned lessons that are relevant to academic surgery. Facts have to be solid. There are important issues to be discussed. Articles have to be interesting and not tiresome to read. And if it's something new--the essence of news--get it out there first. The American Surgeon embodies the same principles. The journal is a place where members of the Southeastern Surgical Congress discuss important matters, like surgical education, and share stories of interest, like a Japanese surgeon trying to treat victims of nuclear war. It is accessible yet disciplined, dedicated to advancing our field and fostering fellowship and communication among its members.

  17. Collective efficacy in Denver, Colorado: Strengthening neighborhoods and health through community gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teig, Ellen; Amulya, Joy; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A; Litt, Jill S

    2009-12-01

    Community gardens are viewed as a potentially useful environmental change strategy to promote active and healthy lifestyles but the scientific evidence base for gardens is limited. As a step towards understanding whether gardens are a viable health promotion strategy for local communities, we set out to examine the social processes that might explain the connection between gardens, garden participation and health. We analyzed data from semi-structured interviews with community gardeners in Denver. The analysis examined social processes described by community gardeners and how those social processes were cultivated by or supportive of activities in community gardens. After presenting results describing these social processes and the activities supporting them, we discuss the potential for the place-based social processes found in community gardens to support collective efficacy, a powerful mechanism for enhancing the role of gardens in promoting health.

  18. The changing face of academic health centers: a path forward for the University of Colorado Denver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M Roy; Krugman, Richard D

    2008-09-01

    This article describes a decade of major changes at an academic health center (AHC) and university. The authors describe two major changes undertaken at the University of Colorado and its AHC during the past 10 years and the effects of these changes on the organization as a whole. First, the AHC's four health professional schools and two partner hospitals were completely relocated from a space-limited urban campus to a closed Army base. The impact of that change and the management of its potential disruption of academic programs are discussed in detail. In the middle of this total relocation, the AHC campus was consolidated with a general academic campus within the University of Colorado system, compounding the challenge. The authors describe the strategies employed to implement this major consolidation, including changing the organizational structure and selecting the new name of the university--the University of Colorado Denver.

  19. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  20. 3D Adaptive Virtual Exhibit for the University of Denver Digital Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea-Tinn Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While the gaming industry has taken the world by storm with its three-dimensional (3D user interfaces, current digital collection exhibits presented by museums, historical societies, and libraries are still limited to a two-dimensional (2D interface display. Why can’t digital collections take advantage of this 3D interface advancement? The prototype discussed in this paper presents to the visitor a 3D virtual exhibit containing a set of digital objects from the University of Denver Libraries’ digital image collections, giving visitors an immersive experience when viewing the collections. In particular, the interface is adaptive to the visitor’s browsing behaviors and alters the selection and display of the objects throughout the exhibit to encourage serendipitous discovery. Social media features were also integrated to allow visitors to share items of interest and to create a sense of virtual community.

  1. Defining multiple organ failure after major trauma: A comparison of the Denver, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Marshall scoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Lynn; Watkinson, Peter; Young, J Duncan; Willett, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Background Postinjury multiple organ failure (MOF) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. A large number of scoring systems have been proposed to define MOF, with no gold-standard. The purpose of this study was to compare three commonly used scores – the Denver PostInjury Multiple Organ Failure Score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Marshall Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score – by descriptive analysis of the populations described by each score, and their predictive ability for mortality. Methods An observational cohort study was performed at a UK trauma center on major trauma patients requiring ICU admission from 2003-2011. A novel trauma database was created, merging national audit data with local electronic monitoring systems. Data were collected on demographics, laboratory results, pharmacy, interventions, and hourly physiological monitoring. The primary outcome measure was mortality within 100 days from injury. Sensitivity analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the predictive ability of MOF scores for mortality. Results In total, 491 patients were included in the trauma database. MOF incidence ranged from 22.8% (Denver) to 40.5% (Marshall) to 58.5% (SOFA). MOF definition did not affect timing of onset, but did alter duration and organ failure patterns. Overall mortality was 10.6%, with Denver MOF associated with the greatest increased risk of death (Hazard Ratio 3.87, 95% CI 2.24-6.66). No significant difference was observed in area under the ROC curve values between scores. Marked differences were seen in relative predictors, with Denver showing highest specificity (81%) and SOFA highest sensitivity (73%) for mortality. Conclusions The choice of MOF scoring system affects incidence, duration, organ dysfunction patterns and mortality prediction. We would recommend use of the Denver score since it is simplest to calculate, identifies a high-risk group of patients and has the

  2. Microtremor array measurement in Metropolitan Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Liu, L.; Chen, Q.; Rohrbach, E.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution near-surface geologic information is essential for seismic hazard reduction in urban areas. Traditionally, a seismic source within the area of study is always desirable for getting the high-resolution information. However, natural earthquake does not usually conveniently occur during periods of seismic observation. Meanwhile, explosive and/or vibrating sources are prohibited to be used in cities. To overcome these limitations for addressing urban seismic hazard reduction, microtremors, the ambient noise of micro-motions in the ground, are becoming valuable sources for extracting the much needed earthquake engineering parameters in urban settings. Using 30 three-component seismometers we have collected microtremor data at more than 1,000 sites in metropolitan Beijing area in the summer of 2007. The data were collected in two ways: 1) along two major roads running roughly orthogonal in NW and NE directions centered in the city center with 200-m seismometer spacing and minimum measurement duration of 1 hour; and 2) seismometer spacing of approximately 1-km that covered the entire area inside Beijing's 5th Beltway. The data are processed with both the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method (H/V) and space correlation method. The delineated shear wave velocity and the bedrock interface mapping are compared with results by other means. Meanwhile, the newly obtained information on ground motion fundamental frequency and amplification factor will provide further constraints on seismic hazard analysis to those critical structures of the 2008 Summer Olympic Game. This project is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  3. THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF ORADEA - DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of Oradea has certain directions of development settled in accordance with the objectives of development assumed by The Local Council of Oradea on 10 March 2015 once with the approval of the strategy for development of Oradea Municipality for the period 2016 – 2020. It is very important for for the Municipality of Oradea to become, by quantifiable arguments in a relatively short period of time a real competitor of the great cities surrounding it or of Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Debrecen. Domains, in which Oradea can excel as a clear differentiator in front of its competitor, are closely related to the local traditional specific and resources. Thus, Oradea proposed to be the capital of Art Nouveau and thermal-ism. The fulfilment of this goal would definitely bring more tourists and obviously additional financial resources to the local budget. At this moment, OMA is prepared in what concerns the hotelier infrastructure and utilities for taking the new tourists. In addition, another important objective regarded at macro level for the entire OMA is the assurance of a security comfort for the citizens of the Municipality of Oradea and implicitly of the neighbouring villages. One of the objectives – Oradea, the safest city – is closely linked to another one which represents the follow-up of some successful beginnings in 2012 with the award Oradea – the green city. In the following period an increase of the surfaces covered with green spaces and recreational areas is being planned for the optimum comfort of the inhabitants and tourists of the OMA. The three main objectives mentioned above must be added to the imperative need of completing the necessary investments for the increase of the quality of life. The infrastructure for the assurance of the quality of health and education is reflected by the completed HURO programme accessed by the executive of OMA.

  4. Potential projects in the metropolitan area of the Valley of Mexico for reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, G. [Universidad nacional autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This presentation describes the environmental characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City, provides a statistical summary of energy consumption and emissions by the transport, industry, residential, and agricultural sectors of the economy, and some of the strategies designed to deal with the unique environmental problems of the area, including plans to extend subway transportation and interurban train lines, conversion of trucks and buses to natural gas, installation of catalytic converters in private vehicles, replacement of old trucks and cars. The role of environmental indicators and CDM in the fight against greenhouse gas emissions and climate change from the Mexican perspective are also reviewed. The scarcity of economic resources is shown to be the greatest barrier to sustained progress towards the realisation of these objectives.

  5. Agreement between the Denver II and Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status tests, with and without the assistance of a table of categorical responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Priambodo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Among standardized developmental screening tools, the Denver II is commonly used by Indonesian pediatricians, but the Parent’s Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS test has gained in popularity. The Denver II test is filled by physicians, while the PEDS test is meant to be filled by parents. From a practical standpoint, however, parents often require assistance from doctors when filling out the PEDS forms. Hence, the advantage of the PEDS test over the Denver II test is not fully realized. Objective To compare the agreement between Denver II and PEDS tests, with and without parental use of a table of categorical responses taken from the PEDS manual. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in children aged 6 months to 5 years in Bandung from November 2015 to March 2016. Subjects were divided into two groups using block randomization. One group of subjects’ parents filled the PEDS questionnaires with the assistance of a table of categorical responses taken from the PEDS manual, while the other group of subjects’ parents filled PEDS forms without this table. All subjects underwent Denver II screening by pediatricans. The agreement between the PEDS and Denver II results were assessed by Kappa score. Results Of 254 children, 239 were analyzed. Kappa scores between the Denver II and PEDS tests were 0.05 (95%CI: -0.10 to 0.20 without the table of categorical responses, and -0.06 (-0.23 to 0.10 with the table of categorical responses. Conclusion Agreement between the Denver II and PEDS tests is poor. The table of categorical responses does not increase the agreement between Denver II and PEDS.

  6. Uranium in Surface Waters and Sediments Affected by Historical Mining in the Denver West 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Wirt, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical sampling of 82 stream waters and 87 stream sediments within mountainous areas immediately west of Denver, Colorado, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in October 1994. The primary purpose was to evaluate regionally the effects of geology and past mining on the concentration and distribution of uranium. The study area contains uranium- and thorium-rich bedrock, numerous noneconomic occurrences of uranium minerals, and several uranium deposits of variable size and production history. During the sampling period, local streams had low discharge and were more susceptible to uranium-bearing acid drainage originating from historical mines of base- and precious-metal sulfides. Results indicated that the spatial distribution of Precambrian granites and metamorphic rocks strongly influences the concentration of uranium in stream sediments. Within-stream transport increases the dispersion of uranium- and thorium rich mineral grains derived primarily from granitic source rocks. Dissolved uranium occurs predominantly as uranyl carbonate complexes, and concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 65 micrograms per liter. Most values were less than 5 micrograms per liter, which is less than the current drinking water standard of 30 micrograms per liter and much less than locally applied aquatic-life toxicity standards of several hundred micrograms per liter. In local streams that are affected by uranium-bearing acid mine drainage, dissolved uranium is moderated by dilution and sorptive uptake by stream sediments. Sorbents include mineral alteration products and chemical precipitates of iron- and aluminum-oxyhydroxides, which form where acid drainage enters streams and is neutralized. Suspended uranium is relatively abundant in some stream segments affected by nearby acid drainage, which likely represents mobilization of these chemical precipitates. The 234U/238U activity ratio of acid drainage (0.95-1.0) is distinct from that of local surface waters (more than 1

  7. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  9. Avaliação de habilidades de linguagem e pessoal-sociais pelo Teste de Denver II em instituições de educação infantil Evaluacion de habilidades de lenguaje y personal-sociales por el Test de Denver II em instituiciones de educacion infantil Evaluation of language and personal social abilities by the Denver Test II in institutions of infantile education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magda Andrade Rezende; Vivian César Beteli; Jair Lício Ferreira dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    ... avaliação do desenvolvimento foi usado o Teste de Triagem de Desenvolvimento de Denver II, empregado em dois momentos distintos no primeiro ano de acompanhamento da coorte, e uma vez no segundo ano. RESULTADOS: Na...

  10. 23 CFR 450.308 - Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding for transportation planning and unified planning... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.308 Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs. (a) Funds...

  11. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... as influential, such as the street pattern in the neighborhood, show no significant effect on car travel when control is made for the location of the dwelling relative to the city center....... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  12. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays.

  13. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  14. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  15. [Costs of air pollution in Brazilian metropolitan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of health events associated with air pollution in Brazilian metropolitan regions. From the estimated mortality attributable to concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in 29 metropolitan areas, with a total of 20,050 deaths, the costs associated with mortality were calculated by means of the use of DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years) methodology. The cost of premature deaths in Brazil resulted in $ 1.7 billion annually. Translating losses in public health to economic values served to compare this data with the expense budget of the Ministry of Health and highlight priorities in decision-making of public policies that minimize the magnitude of these impacts.

  16. Nitrogen Deposition in the Greater Tehran Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salahi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of air pollution in the Tehran metropolitan area between 1992–2000 indicated that there are significant amounts of nitrate ion (NO3–, over 30 kg/ha/year, deposited as wet deposition, compared to 13 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland near the Tehran metropolitan area. The amount of NO3– in warm seasons is twofold that of cold seasons (see Fig. 1, and there was a significant difference between cold and warm seasons (Table 1. Annual wet deposition of ammonia (NH3 was 10 kg/ha/year in the Chitgar Parkland[1].

  17. Printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Fustei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni’s activity. The religious and secular prints made from Chisinau’s Diocesan typography by Metropolitan Gavriil promote the idea of national unity of people from Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Due to the new documents from archives, more evidences and „more light” are being spread over the activity of famous hierarch, whose life is linked with the history of culture of three nations – Romanians, Ukrainians and Russians.

  18. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy: the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New Jersey... Federal Register notice, bringing the total amount of Hurricane Sandy Emergency Relief funds allocated...

  19. Building America Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center, Denver, Colorado (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a 'Power of Zero Energy Center' linked to its model home in the Stapleton community of Denver. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. The case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  20. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management...

  1. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or...

  2. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management...

  3. Simulation of Land Use Changes in Metropolitan Suburban Area: A Case Study of Sholinganallur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanamala, S.; Sekar, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning for a city is a complex activity involving assumptions on likely development. It is also a complex system wherein the planners need to recognize various influencing parameters. Verifying the factors influencing development over a period of time, that too for a vast area of metropolitan city is a herculean task. In order to keep them in control, planners need tools and techniques which may be handy to operate, allowing the planners at the beginning itself to have alternative plans as well as interim evaluation of the achievement of a plan. Absence of such a tool in the hands of the planners forces a plan to be monolithic and left with no interim evaluation. This research has identified four variables which highly influence land use change namely accessibility to transportation network; physical quality and land availability; proximity to work places; and plans and policies. A simulation model is developed to validate these variables for the suburbs of Chennai Metropolitan Area. Land use scenario for residential land use are simulated for the sub urban area-Sholinganallur for the years 1980, 1991, 2006 and 2011. Over 65 % agreement is observed in residential land use between the actual land use and the simulated extents.

  4. Chieti-Pescara Metropolitan Area: International Migrations, Residential Choices and Economic Deconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Montanari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of human mobility – with reference to the migratory component – has taken on specific significance during the last decade, particularly with regard to the concept of place. This paper considers the subject in relation to residential and economic deconcentration. The specific point of reference is the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the central part of Italy’s Adriatic coast. The research was carried out through quantitative analysis of official data from population censuses and register offices. The results highlight the links between movements of residents and those of firms, in which foreign residents show distinctive behaviour. The residential choices made by foreigners in the area are based on economic reasons and are primarily linked to housing and transport costs. Their communities tend to be concentrated in specific zones of the metropolitan area and in specific districts of the cities, as a consequence of a feeling of belonging and solidarity. Although there are no clear signs of segregation phenomena, the native population tends to avoid mingling with foreigners from marginal countries.

  5. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  6. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth,; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  7. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  8. Which score should be used for posttraumatic multiple organ failure? - Comparison of the MODS, Denver- and SOFA- Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Matthias; Wafaisade, Arasch; Mansuri, Anastasios; Koenen, Paola; Probst, Christian; Maegele, Marc; Bouillon, Bertil; Sakka, Samir G

    2016-11-03

    Multiple organ dysfunction and multiple organ failure (MOF) is still a major complication and challenge in the treatment of severely injured patients. The incidence varies decisively in current studies, which complicates the comparability regarding risk factors, treatment recommendations and patients' outcome. Therefore, we analysed how the currently used scoring systems, the MODS, Denver- and SOFA Score, influence the definition and compared the scores' predictive ability. Out of datasets of severely injured patients (ISS ≥ 16, Age ≥ 16) staying more tha 48 h on the ICU, the scores were calculated, respectively. The scores' predictive ability on day three after trauma for resource requiring measurements and patient specific outcomes were compared using receiver-operating characteristics. One hundred seventy-six patients with a mean ISS 28 ± 13 could be included. MODS and SOFA score defined the incidence of MOF consistently (46.5 % vs. 52.3 %), while the Denver score defined MOF in 22.2 %. The MODS outperformed Denver- and SOFA score in predicting mortality (area under the curve/AUC: 0.83 vs. 0.67 vs. 0.72), but was inferior predicting the length of stay (AUC 0.71 vs.0.80 vs.0.82) and a prolonged time on mechanical ventilation (AUC 0.75 vs. 0.81 vs. 0.84). MODS and SOFA score were comparably sensitive and the Denver score more specific in all analyses. All three scores have a comparable ability to predict the outcome in trauma patients including patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Either score could be favored depending weather a higher sensitivity or specificity is targeted. The SOFA score showed the most balanced relation of sensitivity and specificity. The incidence of posttraumatic MOF relies decisively on the score applied. Therefore harmonizing the competing scores and definitions is desirable.

  9. The Characteristics of Earthquake Disasters and Countermeasures for Their Mitigation in Metropolitans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Mengtan

    2003-01-01

    Metropolitans are a result of fast economic development in China. Many metropolitans have emerged in the eastern part of China. Earthquake disasters in metropolitans are more complicated and serious than those in a smaller city, and the impact of earthquake disaster on the economy and society is large. The characteristics of earthquake disasters and countermeasures to protect against and mitigate disaster in the metropolitan, as well as some key research fields in the earthquake disaster protection and mitigation, are discussed.

  10. [Assessment of risk to neuro-psychomotor development: screening using the Test Denver II and identification of maternal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Hilton Luiz; de Melo, Aurea Nogueira

    2005-01-01

    To identify a positive screening test for developmental delay in children by the Denver Test II and their risk factors. A sample of 398 children was studied at 0 the 12 months of age regarding their neurodevelopment. The Denver II Test was used. The children who failed in two or more items of the test were suspected of having neurodevelopment delay. A set of independent variables was: socioeconomic, reproductive and environmental, birth conditions children's care. Analyses were performed using chi-square test and multivariate techinique logistic regression. At of 0 - 12 months of age, 45,73% (182) of the total of 398 children failed in the screening test. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, failure was associated with family lower income children, gestacional age less than 38 weeks, socioeconomic status family, schooling of the mother, mother's age, use of drug. This study demonstrates: 1--The Denver Test permited screening the delays development; 2--Maternal risk factors may interfere in the child's neurodevelopmental.

  11. On-road measurements of vehicle NO2/NOx emission ratios in Denver, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Robert J.; Dubé, William P.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Eilerman, Scott J.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Brown, Steven S.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emitted by on-road combustion engines are important contributors to tropospheric ozone production. The NOx fraction emitted as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is usually presumed to be small but can affect ozone production and distribution, and this fraction is generally not reported in emissions inventories. We have developed an accurate method for determination of this primary NO2 emission and demonstrated it during measurement of on-road vehicle emission plumes from a mobile laboratory during July and August 2014 in the region between Denver and Greeley in Colorado. During a total of approximately 90 h of sampling from an instrumented mobile laboratory, we identified 1867 vehicle emission plumes, which were extracted using an algorithm that looks for rapid and large increases in measured NOx. We find a distribution of NO2/NOx emissions similar to a log-normal profile, with an average emission ratio of 0.053 ± 0.002 per sampled NOx plume. The average is not weighted by the total NOx emissions from sampled vehicles, which is not measured here, and so may not represent the NO2/NOx ratio of the total NOx emission if this ratio is a function of NOx itself. Although our current data set does not distinguish between different engine types (e.g., gasoline, light duty diesel and heavy duty diesel), the ratio is on the low end of recent reports of vehicle fleet NO2 to NOx emission ratios in Europe.

  12. A comparison of the korean-ages and stages questionnaires and denver developmental delay screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ga, Hyo-Yun; Kwon, Jeong Yi

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate concurrent validity between the Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaires (K-ASQ) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST II), and to evaluate the validity of the K-ASQ as a screening tool for detecting developmental delay of Korean children. A retrospective chart review was done to examine concurrent validity of the screening potentials for developmental delay between the K-ASQ and the DDST II (n=226). We examined validity of the K-ASQ compared with Capute scale (n=141) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=69) as a gold standard of developmental delay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests. A fair to good strength relationship (k=0.442, ptest characteristics of the K-ASQ were sensitivity 76.3-90.2%, specificity 62.5-76.5%, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 2.41-3.40, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.16-0.32. Evidence of concurrent validity of the K-ASQ with DDST II was found. K-ASQ can be used for screening of developmental delay.

  13. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  14. New Metropolitan Spaces and Metropolitan Strategies in the Face of Modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Salet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Au début du xxie siècle, les espaces urbains traversent une période de croissance et de transformation radicale. Les villes s’étendent de plus en plus. Leur configuration spatiale devient de plus en plus décentralisée et fragmentée. La dichotomie traditionnelle entre hiérarchie urbaine et périphérie est en train de disparaître. Les nouveaux espaces métropolitains sont caractérisés par des processus de segmentation et de spécialisation à distance ainsi que par des polarisations sociales qui structurent l’espace. Les tentatives de planification des villes-régions essaient de rééquilibrer ces processus qui font éclater la ville. Cet article explore brièvement les transformations métropolitaines actuelles en utilisant une approche générique. Il se focalise également sur les stratégies des métropoles pour affronter ces défis dans le cadre de situations institutionnelles variées, un peu partout en Europe. En troisième lieu, cet article interroge les effets potentiels des projets urbains sur un rééquilibrage des transformations urbaines. Comment les grands projets urbains sont-ils conceptuellement élaborés ? Comment les alliances d’acteurs qui les soutiennent se forgent-elles ? Comment les citoyens et les groupes sociaux sont-ils impliqués de manière à produire de nouveaux espaces plus intégrés ?At the beginning of the 21st century, urban spaces can be said to be in a stage of growth and radical transformation. Cities are highly expansive, both in scale and scope. The spatial configuration of urban spaces is, however, becoming more and more decentralised and fragmentary. The traditional dichotomy between urban hierarchy and periphery is disappearing. New metropolitan spaces are characterised by distance related processes of social and economic specialisation and segmentation, and often also by splitting social polarisation. The planning agendas in city regions are trying to make add more balance to the

  15. Intra-metropolitan inequalities in Rio de Janeiro and the Guanabara Bay cleaning programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Silva, Victor

    2005-01-01

    -metropolitan inequalities of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. It can be affirmed that the GBCP plays an important role in expanding the existing infrastructure (such as sewage, water supply and garbage collection) of low-income areas in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area, but on the other hand several management...

  16. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air...

  17. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  18. Project Wingspread. Education for Metropolitan Living: High School Curriculum Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Lloyd J.

    The curriculum overview, intended for secondary teachers, describes the general objectives, methodology, and units of the Wingspread project. Goals of the project are to prepare individuals to function in a complex society; to promote academic and social development through personal and direct involvement with problems in a metropolitan society;…

  19. Challenges for sustainable food systems in metropolitan landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan landscapes are facing the challenge to find a balance between urban development on the one hand and the preservation of farmland and natural resources on the other. Conventional land use planning approaches are often not up to this complex challenge and many regions are in need for inno

  20. Distribution of HCV genotypes in the metropolitan area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sodano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis C virus is characterized by high genomic variability that leads to the identification of six different genotypes and many subtypes. In this work, we show the prevalence of genotypes in patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples collected in one year, analyzing differences in the distribution depending on sex and age groups.

  1. The Changing Metropolitan Designation Process and Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Randolph, Randy; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) released new county-based designations of Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs), replacing Metropolitan Statistical Area designations that were last revised in 1990. In this article, the new designations are briefly described, and counties that have changed classifications are identified.…

  2. Challenges for sustainable food systems in metropolitan landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carsjens, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Metropolitan landscapes are facing the challenge to find a balance between urban development on the one hand and the preservation of farmland and natural resources on the other. Conventional land use planning approaches are often not up to this complex challenge and many regions are in need for inno

  3. Accessibility and transit-oriented development in European metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papa, E.; Bertolini, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how urban form is related to accessibility. In particular, it explores the relationship between Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and rail-based accessibility in a metropolitan area. The following overarching questions are addressed: Does a TOD-informed urban spatial structu

  4. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  5. Simulation of Optical Packet—Switched Metropolitan Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.

  6. Private School Choice in the Chicago Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of private school choice in the Chicago metropolitan area are examined. Particular attention is given to the effects of race and ethnicity. Results include non-Hispanic White, Blacks, and Hispanics having a higher demand for private schools where there are higher concentrations of Blacks. Non-Hispanic Whites also have a higher…

  7. Incidence of Adult Illiteracy in Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyen, Judith D.

    1976-01-01

    A study to determine the incidence of functional illiteracy in English among adults in the metropolitan area of Sydney is reported, which showed the incidence of illiteracy among Australian/English born adults to be lower than previously reported while that among non-English born is very high. (WL)

  8. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  9. Core IV Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul; And Others

    This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…

  10. Public School Choice and Student Mobility in Metropolitan Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Topper, Amelia M.; Silver, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arizona's interdistrict open enrollment and charter schools laws allow families to send their children to the public schools of their choice. We assessed how public school choice affected elementary school enrollments in 27 metropolitan Phoenix school districts. Student mobility rates varied widely between districts and by location. The higher…

  11. 2010 Library of the Year: Columbus Metropolitan Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article features Columbus Metropolitan Library (CML), winner of the Gale/"Library Journal" Library of the Year Award 2010. CML, comprised of an operations center and 21 branches, serves the 847,376 people who inhabit a large portion of Franklin County in central Ohio. It is an independent library with its own taxing district. CML…

  12. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... transportation planning in a manner that is consistent with metropolitan planning organizations and state... LRTP--This draft plan describes the benefits of and actions for coordinated planning and decision... transportation planning and decision-making processes. Such cooperation is accomplished through developing...

  13. High-Resolution Magnetostratigraphic Analysis of the Denver Basin Kiowa Core; Testing Paleocene Astrochronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. M.; Clyde, W. C.; Bowring, S. A.; Ramezani, J.; Johnson, K. R.

    2009-05-01

    Marine records of orbitally driven climate cycles have been used to create an astronomically calibrated timescale for the Neogene Period (0-23 Ma). Recent studies have attempted to extend this approach to the Paleogene Period (23-65 Ma), despite various uncertainties related to astronomical solutions this far back, climate sensitivity in a greenhouse world, and stratigraphic completeness. We seek to test published Paleocene astrochronologies by comparing the durations of magnetic polarity chrons as determined by cyclostratigraphy to their durations as determined by U/Pb geochronology. To complete this test, the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Kiowa Core of the Denver Basin was analyzed. This core was chosen as it is from a terrestrial basin with high sediment accumulation rates, contains abundant layers of volcanic ash, and records a reliable magnetostratigraphy. Twenty-three paleomagnetic samples were collected from the core to improve the stratigraphic resolution of magnetic reversals that were coarsely constrained by earlier research. Once the depths of the geomagnetic reversals were precisely determined, ash layers that best constrained these reversals were selected for U/Pb geochronology. Durations of periods of normal and reverse magnetization were estimated based on these radiometrically dated ashes. Initial results indicate that the interval between the Chron C28n/C28r reversal and the K/T Boundary is ca 1.27 million years in duration. This is within error of previously published astrochronologically determined durations for the same time interval. Although additional independent comparisons are needed for a more complete test, our initial results indicate a remarkable consistency between these different geochronometers.

  14. The Denver universal microspectroradiometer (DUM). II. Computer configuration and modular programming for radiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, W; Geyer, S B; David, G B

    1975-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses for microscopists and spectroscopists the choice of computer equipment and the design of programs used in the Denver Universal Microspectroradiometer (DUM). This instrument is an accurate computerized photon-counting microspectrophotometer, microspectrofluorimeter and microrefractometer. The computer is used to control the operation of the system, to acquire radiometric data of various kinds, and to reduce, analyse and output the data in a readily usable form. Since the radiometer was designed to carry out many kinds of measurements in a variety of micro- and macroscopic specimens, and since different methods of microscopy or spectroscopy have to be combined in various ways fro the study of any one specimen, no single master-program could fulfill efficiently all foreseeable requirements. Therefore, the programming developed is interactive, modular, hierarchical and hybrid. Modular interactive programming makes it possible for almost any kind of main program, applicable to almost any kind of measurement, to be assembled quickly from a collection of hierarchical subroutines. Main programs are short and composed mainly of Fortran statements calling subroutines; subroutines, in turn, automatically call other subroutines over many levels. The subroutines are independently written and optimized for maximum operational efficiency in the computer system used, or for maximum ease of transfer to other systems. This approach to programming enables someone unfamiliar with computer languages to operate the radiometric system from the console of the CRT terminal. The writing of new main programs, by linking groups of existing subroutines, requires only a minimum acquaintance with Fortran; only the writing and revision of subroutines requires programming experience. Differences and similarities in the method of computer operation between the present system and other computerized radiometers are briefly discussed.

  15. Street Level Hydrology: An Urban Application of the WRF-Hydro Framework in Denver, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Hogue, T. S.; Salas, F. R.; Gochis, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modeling at the watershed scale carries unique challenges in routing complexity, data resolution, social and political issues, and land surface - infrastructure interactions. The ability to accurately trace and predict the flow of water through the urban landscape enables better emergency response management, floodplain mapping, and data for future urban infrastructure planning and development. These services are of growing importance as urban population is expected to continue increasing by 1.84% per year for the next 25 years, increasing the vulnerability of urban regions to damages and loss of life from floods. Although a range of watershed-scale models have been applied in specific urban areas to examine these issues, there is a trend towards national scale hydrologic modeling enabled by supercomputing resources to understand larger system-wide hydrologic impacts and feedbacks. As such it is important to address how urban landscapes can be represented in large scale modeling processes. The current project investigates how coupling terrain and infrastructure routing can improve flow prediction and flooding events over the urban landscape. We utilize the WRF-Hydro modeling framework and a high-resolution terrain routing grid with the goal of compiling standard data needs necessary for fine scale urban modeling and dynamic flood forecasting in the urban setting. The city of Denver is selected as a case study, as it has experienced several large flooding events in the last five years and has an urban annual population growth rate of 1.5%, one of the highest in the U.S. Our work highlights the hydro-informatic challenges associated with linking channel networks and drainage infrastructure in an urban area using the WRF-Hydro modeling framework and high resolution urban models for short-term flood prediction.

  16. What's Different Away from the Rat Race?: Issues for VET in Non-Metropolitan Australia. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena

    A review of research literature relating to vocational education and training (VET) in non-metropolitan Australia identified issues which differentially impact metropolitan and non-metropolitan Australia and research needs. Findings indicated non-metropolitan Australia is diverse in terms of population density, educational experiences of the…

  17. Differences in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Girls in Metropolitan Versus Non-metropolitan Areas: Considering the Moderating Roles of Maternal Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubart, Danielle C.; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is among the first to examine metropolitan status differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion among United States adolescent girls and is unique in its focus on how maternal socioeconomic status and health care access moderate metropolitan status differences in HPV vaccination. Methods Using cross-sectional data from 3573 girls aged 12–17 in the U.S. from the 2008–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimate main and interaction effects from binary logistic regression models to identify subgroups of girls for which there are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan differences in HPV vaccination. Results Overall 34 % of girls initiated vaccination, and 19 % completed all three shots. On average, there were no metropolitan status differences in vaccination odds. However, there were important subgroup differences. Among low-income girls and girls whose mothers did not complete high school, those in non-metropolitan areas had significantly higher probability of vaccine initiation than those in metropolitan areas. Among high-income girls and girls whose mothers completed college, those in metropolitan areas had significantly higher odds of vaccine initiation than those in non-metropolitan areas. Moreover, among girls whose mothers experienced a medical cost barrier, non-metropolitan girls were less likely to initiate vaccination compared to metropolitan girls. Conclusions Mothers remain essential targets for public health efforts to increase HPV vaccination and combat cervical cancer. Public health experts who study barriers to HPV vaccination and physicians who come into contact with mothers should be aware of group-specific barriers to vaccination and employ more tailored efforts to increase vaccination. PMID:26511129

  18. Transport month is a time to tackle issues in the industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-10-09

    Full Text Available October marls National Transport month, giving rise to opportunities to focus on and draw attention to a variety of aspects associated with transport. Everyone in the country is affected by transport in one way or another, with those in metropolitan...

  19. ELECTRICITY DEMAND IN A NORTHERN MEXICO METROPOLITAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using an error correction framework, this study analyzes the long- and short-run dynamics of electricity demand in Ciudad Juarez, a large metropolitan economy on Mexico’s northern border. Demand is decomposed into the total number of electricity accounts and electricity usage per customer, each of which is modeled separately. A two-stage least squares approach is used to estimate the per customer electricity demand equations due to the endogeneity of the average price variable. The results indicate sustained growth in population, employment, and income can be expected to exert substantial upward pressure on regional electric power demand. Furthermore, demand is found to be price-inelastic in this metropolitan area, suggesting that rate increases can help raise the revenues necessary to fund expansion of the electrical grid.

  20. Metropolitan and state economic regions (MASTER) model - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.; Scott, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model is a unique multi-regional economic model designed to forecast regional economic activity and assess the regional economic impacts caused by national and regional economic changes (e.g., interest rate fluctuations, energy price changes, construction and operation of a nuclear waste storage facility, shutdown of major industrial operations). MASTER can be applied to any or all of the 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA rest-of-state-areas (ROSAs) in the continental US. The model can also be applied to any or all of the continental US counties and states. This report is divided into four sections: capabilities and applications of the MASTER model, development of the model, model simulation, and validation testing.

  1. Metropolitan digital library services evaluation: Measures and approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Wei; LOU; Xiangying; ZHANG; Chunjing

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the evaluation model and measurements according to metropolitan digital library activities.Through literature review and historical research,the authors argue that the evaluation of the digital library(DL)is still in a research stage and not yet of value to the real achievement of the DL in operation.Because of the variety of the understandings of the digital library and the complexity of the technical factors,we can put forward a set of reference models,measurements and approaches to combine with the various researches on the evaluation theory and practice in the digital library area.The authors primarily discuss and conclude with a digital library evaluation model and measurement index system according to the requirements of the world metropolitan libraries.

  2. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    , and urban sprawl remains a problem. The recent economic crisis has slowed down urbanisation in the most distant areas of the Copenhagen metropolitan region, which is consolidating. This project was funded by the Centre for Strategic Urban Research (Realdania Research) and the EU-FP6 integrated research......87 % of the Danish population lives in urban areas and thus urbanisation in Denmark may have come to an end, but urban growth has not. We are continuously using more and more urban land per capita, and the pace is increasing. Every year, around 15 km2, the size of the city of Ringsted, become...... transformed from natural to urban land in Denmark. A driving force behind this is the emergence of metropolitan regions, which integrate vast parts of rural areas into the urban system. Peri-urban areas are one of the hot spots of change. Agricultural and nature areas are under significant transformation...

  3. Denver screening protocol for blunt cerebrovascular injury reduces the use of multi-detector computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, Andrei M; Barber, P Alan; Marshall, Roger J; Civil, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) occurs in 0.2-2.7% of blunt trauma patients and has up to 30% mortality. Conventional screening does not recognize up to 20% of BCVI patients. To improve diagnosis of BCVI, both an expanded battery of screening criteria and a multi-detector computed tomography angiography (CTA) have been suggested. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the use of CTA restricted to the Denver protocol screen-positive patients would reduce the unnecessary use of CTA as a pre-emptive screening tool. This is a registry-based study of blunt trauma patients admitted to Auckland City Hospital from 1998 to 2012. The diagnosis of BCVI was confirmed or excluded with CTA, magnetic resonance angiography and, if these imaging were non-conclusive, four-vessel digital subtraction angiography. Thirty (61%) BCVI and 19 (39%) non-BCVI patients met eligibility criteria. The Denver protocol applied to our cohort of patients had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83-100%) and a specificity of 42% (95% CI: 20-67%). With a prevalence of BCVI in blunt trauma patients of 0.2% and 2.7%, post-test odds of a screen-positive test were 0.03 (95% CI: 0.002-0.005) and 0.046 (95% CI: 0.314-0.068), respectively. Application of the CTA to the Denver protocol screen-positive trauma patients can decrease the use of CTA as a pre-emptive screening tool by 95-97% and reduces its hazards. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. The greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention/Control Network. Prevention and research through a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Estevan; Espinoza, Paula; Jacobellis, Jillian; Bakemeier, Richard; Press, Norma

    2006-10-15

    The Latino/a Research & Policy Center (LRPC), at the University of Colorado (UC) at Denver and Health Sciences Center built the Greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention Network, a successful cancer prevention network, in 6 Denver metro area counties. The Network consisted of 23 Latino community-based organizations, health clinics, social service agencies, faith-based groups, and employee-based organizations; 2 migrant health clinics; and 14 scientific partners including the UC Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and the American Cancer Society. The Network focused on 5 significant cancers: breast, cervical, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The Steering Committee initiated a review process for junior researchers that resulted in 5 NCI-funded pilot projects. Pilot projects were conducted with various Latino populations. The Network developed community education and health promotion projects including the bilingual outreach play The Cancer Monologues. The Network's partnership also started and held 2 annual health fairs, Dia de la Mujer Latina/Day of the Latina Woman, and annual health prevention summits. The Special Population Network (SPN) adapted and revised a clinical trials education outreach module that reached Network community partners. SPN partners recruited Latino/a students to cancer research through a6-week NCI training program held yearly at the UCHSC campus. The Network methodology of bringing together the Latino community with the scientific community increased the level of awareness of cancer in the Latino community and increased cancer research and the level of engagement of the scientific partners with the Latino community. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  5. Rapid Flood Evaluation Systems in Taiwan Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dar Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological issues in metropolises in Taiwan have become increasingly important because the storm water sewer systems of metropolises are frequently unable to meet the requirements of the existing and future metropolitan development. Typhoons or torrential rains that cause rainfall intensities that exceed the designed capacity of storm water sewers can result in serious flooding. The losses caused by flooding can be reduced if the areas at risk of flooding can be predicted and warnings can be issued to prompt disaster prevention and allow response units and residents to prepare before disasters occur. The primary purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative precipitation forecasting technologies [1, 2] developed by the Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute to establish a rapid, stable, real-time, and automatic metropolitan area flood estimation system for predictive flooding analysis. The objects of this study are metropolitan areas in Taiwan with storm water sewer systems. The standard capacities of storm water sewer systems throughout Taiwan and the geographic information system (GIS shape files are collected and compiled. Additionally, the potential flooding areas are divided into four levels (high, medium, low, and no flooding and are compared with the rainfall warning values of the Water Resources Agency. The study combines the results of quantitative precipitation forecasts, establishes an information database (MySQL, processes Google Earth KML files, and designs a WEB GIS display interface to construct a system for estimating the flooding possibility (probability in metropolitan areas during typhoons or torrential rains. This study subsequently employs the event of Typhoon Kalmaegi for flooding estimation and display; the estimation results are consistent with the flooding survey data, indicating that the estimations made by the flooding estimation system are correct.

  6. Synchronisation and commonalities in metropolitan housing market cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Akimov, Alexey; Stevenson, Simon; Young, James

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of commonalities present in the cyclical behaviour of the eight largest metropolitan housing markets in Australia. Using two techniques originally in the business cycle literature we consider the degree of synchronisation present and secondly decompose the series’ into their permanent and cyclical components. Both empirical approaches reveal similar results. Sydney and Melbourne are closely related to each other and are relatively segmented from the smaller metr...

  7. Epidemic Process over the Commute Network in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Kenta; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of epidemiological dynamics is important for prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks. However, previous studies tend to focus only on specific areas, indicating that application to another area or intervention strategy requires a similar time-consuming simulation. Here, we study the epidemic dynamics of the disease-spread over a commute network, using the Tokyo metropolitan area as an example, in an attempt to elucidate the general properties of epidemic spread over a commute network that could be used for a prediction in any metropolitan area. The model is formulated on the basis of a metapopulation network in which local populations are interconnected by actual commuter flows in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the spread of infection is simulated by an individual-based model. We find that the probability of a global epidemic as well as the final epidemic sizes in both global and local populations, the timing of the epidemic peak, and the time at which the epidemic reaches a local population are mainly determined by the joint distribution of the local population sizes connected by the commuter flows, but are insensitive to geographical or topological structure of the network. Moreover, there is a strong relation between the population size and the time that the epidemic reaches this local population and we are able to determine the reason for this relation as well as its dependence on the commute network structure and epidemic parameters. This study shows that the model based on the connection between the population size classes is sufficient to predict both global and local epidemic dynamics in metropolitan area. Moreover, the clear relation of the time taken by the epidemic to reach each local population can be used as a novel measure for intervention; this enables efficient intervention strategies in each local population prior to the actual arrival. PMID:24905831

  8. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  9. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: A Production Builder's Passive House - Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    Brookfield Home’s first project is in a community called Midtown in Denver, Colorado, in which the builder took on the challenge of increased energy efficiency by creating a Passive House (PH)-certified model home. Brookfield worked with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team IBACOS to create the home, evaluate advanced building technologies, and use the home as a marketing tool for potential homebuyers. Brookfield also worked with KGA studio architects to create a new floor plan that would be constructed to the PH standard as an upgrade option.

  10. AKSESIBILITAS HOTEL HORISON BEKASI DENGAN MAL METROPOLITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nursintia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Development of accommodation services is growing very fast, the construction of hotels ranging from low to star property confirms that the business is very profitable and promising. Growing hotel development as the presence and development of tourism in a region. Concept of mix used and are now growing in demand by developers. In addition to shorten the land, its facilities are increasingly in demand, because the concept of developing the land into two business buildings comprising the hotel and mall, can provide ease of access for service users to carry out all the activities that support their activities. Accessibility is a very important thing to be considered for the service users to choose the hotel accommodation that will be flown them. Distance, transportation, facilities, road conditions, and ease of location had been the benchmark and consideration to get a suitable hotel for their activities.   Keyword : Accessibility, Hotel   Abstrak - Perkembangan jasa akomodasi saat ini berkembang sangat cepat, dibangunnya hotel mulai dari hotel rendah hingga bintang menegaskan bahwa bisnis properti ini sangat menguntungkan dan menjanjikan. Pembangunan hotel berkembang seiring hadirnya dan berkembangnya pariwisata di suatu daerah. Konsep mix used pun kini semakin berkembang dan diminati oleh para pengembang. Selain karena mempersingkat lahan, fasilitas nya pun semakin diminati, karena konsep mengembangkan satu lahan menjadi dua bangunan usaha yang terdiri dari hotel dan mal, dapat memberikan kemudahan akses untuk para pengguna jasa untuk melakukan segala aktifitas yang mendukung kegiatannya. Aksesbilitas merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang menjadi pertimbangan bagi para pengguna jasa akomodasi untuk memilih hotel yang akan mereka singgahi. Jarak, transportasi, fasilitas, kondisi jalan, dan kemudahan lokasi lah yang menjadi tolak ukur dan pertimbangan untuk mendapatkan hotel yang cocok bagi kegiatan mereka.   Kata Kunci

  11. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints: A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A., E-mail: Marilyn.Brown@pubpolicy.gatech.ed [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources-discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint-provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas.

  12. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  13. Application of Green Net Metropolitan Product to Measure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has been increasingly incorporating the concept of sustainability in its research programs. One facet of this research is the quantitative assessment of the sustainability of urban systems in light of several multidisciplinary sustainability metrics. In this work, we explore the estimation of economic measure of sustainability for Chicago Metropolitan Area (CMA) based on Green Net Metropolitan Product (GNMP), by adapting the economic models of sustainability at the macroeconomic level to regional sustainability. GNMP aims at amending the limitations of Net Domestic Product (NDP), a classical indicator of economic wellbeing, which fails to account for the degradation of environmental and natural resources caused by economic activities. We collect data for computing GNMP from publicly available secondary sources on variables such as gross metropolitan product, net income, emissions, solid waste, etc. In estimating GNMP for CMA, we have accounted for the damage costs associated with pollution emissions based on marginal damage values obtained from the literature using benefit transfers method. In addition, we attempt at accounting for the marginal value of depletion of natural resources in the CMA in terms of water depletion and changes in urban ecosystems such as green spaces. We account for the marginal damage cost associated with solid waste generation. It is expected the preliminary results of this exploration se

  14. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  15. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  16. Water Sources and Quantity for Energy Development in Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskom, R.; Kallenberger, J.; Boone, K.; Plombon, B.; Ryan, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, Colorado has experienced a significant rise in oil and gas development with the greatest concentration of activity occurring in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB) in the Northeast corner of the state. According to the Colorado Oil and Gas Association, as of June 2014, there are approximately 52,200 active oil and gas wells statewide, with over 21,300 located in Weld County, the epicenter of the DJB. In this water-scarce region, much attention is paid to the source and quantity of water being used to produce energy. This information is not readily accessible, but is of great importance to many. In response, our research team is undertaking an evaluation of water quantity impacts and tradeoffs associated with oil and gas development. Technological advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing require additional sources of water - about 2.8 million gallons of per well (Goodwin et al.). The statewide water use for hydraulic fracturing is estimated to be less than 0.1%; however, on a local scale, when water is transferred from agricultural and municipal uses to industrial use, there are economic, environmental and social tradeoffs. Unfortunately, the pathway of a particular water transfer and its associated tradeoffs can be difficult to predict and quantify, further complicating the ability of local and state stakeholders to make sound and informative decisions about energy development. Energy companies are implementing new strategies to ensure reliable water supplies for their operations. These include tapping into non-tributary aquifers to help reduce competition for fully appropriated surface and tributary groundwater sources and recycling and reusing wastewater that results from the drilling and extraction practices. Many conflicting perspectives shape the water-energy discussion in the DJB so non-biased scientific data plays an important role in addressing the questions surrounding water use for energy development. This

  17. Gas/particle partitioning of n-alkanes, PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in urban Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Barsanti, Kelley C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a medium volume sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and a polyurethane foam (PUF)/XAD-4/PUF sandwich (PXP) was used to collect semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in both gaseous and particle (PM2.5) phases. A backup QFF (bQFF) was used to evaluate possible sampling artifact of particulate organics due to vapor-phase adsorption. A series of n-alkanes (molecular weight: 170-562) and PAHs (128-300), and two oxy-PAHs (acenaphthenone, 168; fluorenone, 180) were measured. Breakthrough experiments demonstrated that the PXP could collect all gas-phase target compounds with high efficiency, even the low molecular weight (MW) species (e.g., naphthalene). Comparing species concentrations across different sampling matrices encountered at the Denver, Colorado field site, the light n-alkanes (MW 324) and PAHs (MW > 202) were primarily in the particle phase (Average temperature, 12.5 ± 10.1 °C). Log values of measured gas/particle (G/P) partitioning coefficients (Kmp,OM) of selected SVOCs (docosane, tricosane, fluoranthene, pyrene, acenaphthenone and fluorenone) were linearly regressed to those of theoretically-based partitioning coefficients (Ktp,OM) for comparison. Prior to Kmp,OM calculation, the gas- and particle-phase concentrations of SVOCs were corrected following two different approaches based on bQFF measurements. The first approach assumed that the bQFF associated SVOCs were from the adsorption of gaseous SVOCs (positive artifact); the second approach assumed equal contributions from positive and negative (organics evaporated from top QFF and adsorbed by bQFF) artifacts. Under both corrections, significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between log Kmp,OM and log Ktp,OM for the six selected SVOCs, suggesting that the predicted G/P partitioning can reasonably capture the measured G/P partitioning behavior. The large deviations (1-2 orders of magnitudes) between Kmp,OM and Ktp,OM for acenaphthenone and fluorenone might be caused

  18. Shopper-Based Mall Equity: A Comparative Study of Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to differentiate the role of generation Y on dimensions of shopper-based mall equity (SBME for two different locations in Malaysia. SBME is the differential effect of mall knowledge on shoppers' responses to a mall's marketing activities. We validated the shopper-based mall equity measure using data generated with mall-intercept surveys in two shopping malls in Malaysia located at Kuantan, Pahang (non-metropolitan area, while Petaling Jaya, Selangor represent metropolitan area (N=564. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, descriptive statistics, and t-test. The results from t-test show that the variables i.e. mall awareness, mall environment, mall convenience, mall entertainment, and mall equity have significant difference between two selected malls. However the effect sizes (eta squared were small. Moreover, product/service quality, service quality, and mall loyalty have no significant difference between two malls.

  19. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  20. Importancia y utilidad del test de Denver para la valoración del desarrollo de los niños colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiano Luz Marina C. de

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo se ha escrito teniendo en cuenta la experiencia docente de 17 años en las universidades del Valle, Nacional, Escuela Colombiana de Medicina, y otras universidades de Centroamérica; con estudiantes de enfermería y medicina de pregrado y postgrado, aplicando el  test de Denver para la valoración del niño menor de 6 años. El test de Denver fue elaborado en el año de 1967 por un grupo de investigadores del Centro Médico de la Universidad de Colorado en Denver, Colorado EE.UU., y se basó en la observación de 1.000 niños normales de O a 6 años para ver a qué edades realizaban las actividades correspondientes.

  1. Transportation and the marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeoet, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the Chicago six-county metropolitan area, the number of registered vehicles grew by over 800,000 vehicles in the 1980s; by contrast the population increased by just over 150,000 during the same time. This ratio of growth in automobiles versus population (five to one) has contributed to overall increases in travel, congestion and energy use. The objective of this report is to examine how and why this has occurred and what we might expect in the near future to address the growing traffic problems and energy use. Specifically, the focus is on energy use by household vehicles and other forms of passenger travel. Data on population trends, gasoline prices, commuting and transit use, and transportation energy use are presented and interpreted. Intelligent transportation systems and decreased single vehicle emissions are briefly described as methods to decrease congestion and pollution. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Results of wellness examinations of 28 African hunting dog (Lycaon pictus puppies at the Denver Zoological Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Kenny

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002 the Denver Zoological Foundation has produced 28 African hunting dog (Lycaon Pictus puppies in 3 litters (7, 14 and 7 pups from the same dam and sire. Wellness examinations were performed on each puppy. The wellness examinations spanned the range of 6-14 weeks of age. During the wellness examinations, in addition to physical examinations and vaccinations, blood samples for complete blood counts and sera biochemistry were obtained.Weights, morphometric measurements, rectal cultures for enteric pathogens and dental eruption patterns were recorded. Blood samples from each age group were compared with adult values from the Denver Zoo. It was noted that animals from the 14-pup litter were 63.6 % of the mean weight of the two 7-pup litters, but size differences (in, for example, total bodylength were less apparent. Two organisms were recovered from rectal cultures, namely Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 2 and Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 3. The following deciduous eruption patterns were also noted; at 6 weeks, I1-3, i1-3, C1, c1, P1-2 and p1-2 (n=7 were present, at 9-10 weeks, P3 and p3 (n=21 , and finally at 12-14 weeks, P4 (n = 28.

  3. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Methods Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish t...

  4. The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Policies and interventions involving the built environment have become a promising opportunity for the promotion of walking as a sustainable transportation mode. Among voluminous literature, few studies were found that examined the association between the built environment and walking among the elderly in China. This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and the walking activity of the elderly based on data collected in Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The results suggest that abundant sidewalks, dense bus stops, easily accessible commercial establishments, and ample green land space are potentially effective to enhance walking among the elderly, albeit to varied degrees. The compact urban form, which is considered as walkability in the western context, may not necessarily play a positive role in Zhongshan’s context. The findings provide insights into the policy-making to promote sustainable transportation modes and the design of interventions on health promotion of the elderly in China.

  5. Transnational Metropolitan Development Strategies and Governance in a Post-Socialist Setting: The Case of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tölle Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cities and their regions into transnational networks has become a key municipal strategy, with the creation of a metropolitan governance structure being seen in this context as a fundamental element. The Szczecin Metropolitan Area constitutes an example of meagre results in intercommunal cooperation in post-socialist East-Central Europe. This has its repercussions on the task of creating cross-border metropolitan governance structures including adjacent German counties, a task which, in turn, may help to overcome development barriers. This becomes apparent particularly in the process of defining joint development objectives as well as an image for the cross-border metropolitan region

  6. Spatial patterns of use of health services in the Kingston metropolitan area, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W; Phillips, D R

    1990-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of distance, transport and accessibility on the use of health services in Kingston, Jamaica. It reviews various factors affecting the use of health care with particular reference to Third World cities and presents results from a case study of utilization in the Kingston Metropolitan Area. Three pairs of sites of contrasting social status were selected and 50 respondents questioned in each about spatial patterns of primary health care (PHC) attendance. Types of facility attended, mode of transport, travel times, distance and frequency of utilization were discussed. Some distinctive differences appeared between low and high status site respondents with regard to distances to facilities and travel times, which were almost always higher for the low status respondents. Most respondents were not using their nearest facilities, for varying reasons which included, for poorer respondents, need to attend frequently distant public facilities and, for wealthier respondents, loyalty to old family doctors and use of company-related doctors. The mobility of the higher status respondents afforded them considerable choice of locations used for health care and their attendance was much more convenient than that of lower status respondents. Utilization rates were somewhat higher in the high status sites although not to the extent found by some earlier studies in similar settings.

  7. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH, which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university studies and incomplete, and the woman has a probability of 83,11397% more than men of working part time.

  8. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai : city report

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, Véronique; Dhanalakshmi, D.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K; Shridaran, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the name was officially changed to Chennai. Located on the east coast of India, on the Bay of Bengal, sea trade has been an important aspect of the regional economy since at least the colonial period. ...

  9. Seroprevalence of leptospires in sheep slaughtered at Sokoto metropolitan Abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bashiru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiralantibodies in sheep slaughtered at Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Nigeria, bloodwas collected from 282 sheep made up of both male and female. The serum wascollected and analysed using an antigen coated IgG ELISA, out of which 20 tested positive by the ELISA giving anoverall prevalence of 7.1%. Prevalences recorded for age was 18.48% for ≤ 2yrsand 1.58% for > 2yrs, and sex was 3.09% for male and 12.50% for females.There was a significant (P

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT PROVISION IN SUCEAVA-BOTOȘANI URBAN AREA (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ionuț ISTRATE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Having a major economic and social role, public transport is an important component in the process of sustainable development of a city. The paper aimed to study the public transport at metropolitan and regional scale evidencing how two major urban centers of Romania, Suceava and Botoșani, connect via public transport with the rural settlements in their metropolitan areas. The metropolitan supply of public transport was analysed starting with publicly available data on the routes in 2014 for both Botoșani County and Suceava County, located in the North-Eastern side of Romania. The routes’ spatial disposition and daily frequency is analysed for road and rail public transport. The resulted mappings showed that road public transport is well distributed in the metropolitan territory for both urban centres, but there is still almost 4% of the rural population that does not have direct access to this public utility service. The rail public transport covers only a small amount of the studied area and it has a secondary role in supplying public transport services for the population because of the lack of investments that the entire rail sector suffered in Romania. The share of private cars has increased significantly, but the population’s need for mobility is not completely covered and this paper offers some recommendations for the improvement of the public transportation supply in Suceava-Botoșani Urban Area.

  11. Habitat Metro Denver -- Perfecting Award-Winning Affordable Homes Using Building America's Integrated Design Approach; Building America (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    Habitat for Humanity’s goal is to supply quality housing to poor families while reducing their energy cost burden, especially in light of ever-increasing energy prices. Habitat Metro Denver partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America P

  12. Predicting School Problems from Preschool Developmental Screening: A Four-Year Follow-Up of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Role of Parent Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.

    1987-01-01

    The Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and parental reports of developmental concerns were compared for effectiveness in predicting school problems four years after a preschool screening program. Results suggested the test accurately identified only those children later found to have severe learning problems. (Author/DB)

  13. Utility of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II in Identifying Preschool Children with Cognitive, Language, and Motor Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Michael L.

    1982-01-01

    Scores of 84 referred preschoolers on the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test and the Developmental Profile II were compared with subsequent standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and language ability. Results suggested that both instruments are imperfect yet useful tools. (Author/CL)

  14. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  15. A Case Study of Institutional Visioning, Public Good, and the Renewal of Democracy: The Theory and Practice of Public Good Work at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Eric; Cutforth, Nick; Nicotera, Nicole; Thompson, Sheila Summers

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, the University of Denver included language in its vision statement that committed the institution to becoming "a great private university dedicated to the public good." This essay (1) explains how the development of an institutional visioning statement led to the implementation of a series of campus dialogues and action steps…

  16. Measurements of Criteria Pollutants in Suburban Locations in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanes, O.; Sanchez, A.; Garcia, A.; Martinez, A.

    2004-12-01

    In the town of Santa Ana in the southern part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) at an approximate height of 370 meters above the Valley of Mexico, a series of criteria pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the MCMA-2003 field campaign during April 2003. Santa Ana is considered a border site, agriculture being the predominant activity. The generated data in Santa Ana was compared with those from two representative atmospheric monitoring stations from the southeast zone (CENICA Supersite) and southwest (Revolucion Station) of Mexico City. The carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations measured in Santa Ana are atypical for a rural area. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are characteristic of the local activity. The average obtained during the measurement time for carbon monoxide was 0.86 ppm, the presence of the contaminant was within a 0.3 to 1.5 ppm range, 5 to 95 percentile, and does not follow the observed behavior of the monitoring stations that are located inside the urban area, although during the night (10 pm to 6 am) the carbon monoxide in Santa Ana was preset in levels from 0.4 to 1.5 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles, average 0.92 ppm, above the reported concentrations at Revolucion Station, levels from 0.1 to 1.7 ppm, 5 to 95 percentiles; average 0.72 ppm. The presence of this contaminant can be attributed to transportation and accumulation phenomena. The ozone daytime behavior is similar to the one observed in the CENICA and Revolucion stations, but with a lower magnitude, the daily maximum generally occuring 2 or 3 hours after the urban stations. The one-hour average maximum values were 133 ppb in Santa Ana area and 188 ppb in the city. During the night the average concentrations were 37 ppb in Santa Ana and 17 ppb in the urban area. Nevertheless, the ozone average value in Santa Ana

  17. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose. In order to implement the optimal metropolitan governance model, it is important to understand the conditions under which this or that model is economically effective. There is a need to develop a quantitatively justified methodology for choosing the optimal metropolitan governance model for different types of metropolitan areas. It has been emphasized in some federal documents of Russia, for example, in the “Recommendations for the selection of pilot projects for approbation and improvement of mechanisms for managing the development of metropolitan areas in the Russian Federation”.Materials and methods. Domestic researchers (N. Zubarevich, K. Gonchar, etc. and foreign researchers (Glaeser Edward L., Nakamura, Ciccone A., Hall R., etc. carried out the study of quantitative relationships between the economic growth of cities and the characteristics of cities.However, for metropolitan areas, the analysis of the relationship has not yet been implemented between the outpacing economic growth of the metropolitan area relative to the average country values (labor productivity and GDP per capita, the institutional factor (the type of metropolitan governance model, andthe non-institutional factor (population size. To identify the dependencies we are interested in, we used the OECD statistical database and OECD researches to identify the metropolitan governance model in the sample of metropolitan areas in the world. The sample in this research was 87 metropolitan areas in Europe and was divided into groups, depending on the population and the introduced metropolitan governance model. For each group, a correlation-regression analysis was performed and a weighted average was calculated from the indexes of the economic growth. As the leading index of the economic growth, labor productivity was used, as the final - GDP per capita. Then a comparison was made between the real value of economic growth in each surveyed metropolitan area and

  18. Meteorological and Chemical Urban Scale Modelling for Shanghai Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Amstrup, Bjarne; Yang, Xiaohua; Baklanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious problem in megacities and major industrial agglomerations of China. Therefore, air quality information is important for public. In particular, the Shanghai metropolitan area is well known as megacity having severe air pollution episodes. The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) is applied for on-line integrated meteorology and atmospheric composition forecasting for the Shanghai region of China. The model setup includes the urban Building Effects Parameterization module, describing different types of urban districts with its own morphological and aerodynamical characteristics. The model is running in downscaling chain from regional-to-urban scales for selected periods in summer and winter having both elevated pollution levels as well as unfavorable meteorological conditions. For these periods, the effects of urbanization are analyzed for spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric and chemical/aerosols patterns. The formation and development of meteorological (air and surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, boundary layer height) and chemical/aerosol patterns (concentration and deposition) due to influence of the metropolitan area is evaluated. The impact of Shanghai region on regional-to-urban scales as well as relationship between air pollution and meteorology are estimated.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese metropolitan adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Pei-Chia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of medical disorders that increase one's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Little information exists on the prevalence of MS in a general adult population in Taiwan. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,359 Chinese adults aged 40 years and over who lived in a metropolitan city, Taiwan in 2004–05. MS was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for Asians. Results The prevalence of MetS was 35.32% and 43.23% in men aged 40–64 years and 65 years and over, respectively, and 24.19% and 51.82% in women aged 40–64 years and 65 years and over. Older age, postmenopausal status, higher body mass index, current smoking, low education attainment, low household income, no alcohol consumption, lower level of occupation physical activity, and a family history of diabetes were associated with increased odds of MetS. Conclusion MetS was present in more than 30% of the Taiwan adult population aged 40 years and over in a metropolitan area; there were substantial variations by age and body mass index groups.

  20. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  1. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  2. Metropolitan Development Districts, Emporia-Lyon County Metropolitan Planning Area, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Metropolitan Development Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  3. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center - Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a "Power of Zero Energy Center" linked to its model home in the Stapleton community. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. This case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  4. Community Dissemination of the Early Start Denver Model: Implications for Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of Autism Spectrum Disorder cases exceeds the services available for these children. This increase challenges both researchers and service providers to develop systematic, effective dissemination strategies for transporting university research models to community early intervention (EI) programs. The current study developed an…

  5. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  6. 33 CFR 207.9 - Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission. 207.9 Section 207.9 Navigation and Navigable... Mystic River, Mass.; dam of Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Metropolitan District Commission. (a... the locks. Copies may be obtained without charge from the superintendent; the Commonwealth of...

  7. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of...

  8. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  10. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  11. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area...

  14. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  17. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  19. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  20. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of...

  3. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since t

  4. Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Dirk Michael; Jeurissen, Leonne

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the

  5. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  6. 40 CFR 52.229 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. 52.229 Section 52.229... oxidants (hydrocarbons), Metropolitan Los Angeles Intrastate Region. (a) (b) The following rules are... and approved for the SIP, remain federally enforceable: (1) Los Angeles County APCD, Regulation IV...

  7. Information through Cooperative Action Library Services in Metropolitan Washington. Annual Report, 1975-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn, Ed.

    The Librarians Technical Committee of the Metropolitan Washington D.C. Council of Governments (COG) is responsible for developing cooperative programs among libraries in the Washington metropolitan area (including parts of Maryland and Virginia), among libraries of all types, and between libraries and other agencies. The committee facilitates use…

  8. 75 FR 14465 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Riverside Metropolitan Museum, Riverside, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Riverside Metropolitan Museum, Riverside, CA AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the Riverside Metropolitan Museum... museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native American human remains...

  9. Modeling large Mexican urban metropolitan areas by a Vicsek Szalay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcio, Roberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi

    2011-08-01

    A modified Vicsek-Szalay model is introduced. From this, experiments are performed in order to simulate the spatial morphology of the largest metropolitan area of México: a set of clusters formed by the Valle de México metropolitan area (VMMA), Puebla metropolitan area (PMA) and Toluca metropolitan area (TMA). This case is presented in detail and here is called the Central México metropolitan area (CMMA). To verify the effectiveness of our approach we study two other cases; the set of clusters formed by the Monterrey zone (MZ, formed by the Monterrey metropolitan area and the Saltillo City metropolitan area) and the Chihuahua zone (ChZ, formed by the Chihuahua metropolitan area, Delicias City and Cuauthemoc City ), with acceptable results. Besides we compute three different fractal measures for all our areas of interest (AOI). In this paper, we focus on the global feature of these fractal measures in the description of urban geography and obtained local information which normally comes from inner city structures and small scale human decisions. Finally, we verified that the Zipf law is fulfilled by our simulated urban morphologies, so we know that our model follows it. As is normal for actual city size distributions, the CMMA case is presented in detail. We intend to pave the way in the understanding of population spatial distribution in a geographical space.

  10. Higher Education Marketplaces: A Comparison of Variety, Access, Dependence, and Quality in 15 Metropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluhy, Milan J.; Maidique, Modesto A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of 15 U.S. metropolitan areas illustrates that characteristics of higher education in urban marketplaces are diverse. Metropolitan areas of the west and southwest rank highest when variety, access, dependence, and quality are used to assess the marketplaces. Size, region, and strategic economic location explain some of the variations.…

  11. Petroleum system and production characteristics of the Muddy (J) Sandstone (Lower Cretaceous) Wattenberg continuous gas field, Denver basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, D.K.; Cox, D.O.; Weimer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Wattenberg field is a continuous-type gas accumulation. Estimated ultimate recovery from current wells is 1.27 tcf of gas from the Lower Cretaceous Muddy (J) Sandstone. Mean gas resources that have the potential to be added to these reserves in the next 30 yr are 1.09 tcf; this will be primarily through infill drilling to recover a greater percentage of gas in place and to drain areas that are isolated because of geologic compartmentalization. Greatest gas production from the Muddy (J) Sandstone in Wattenberg field occurs (1) from within the most permeable and thickest intervals of Fort Collins Member delta-front and nearshore-marine sandstones, (2) to a lesser extent from the Horsetooth Member valley-fill channel sandstones, (3) in association with a large thermal anomaly that is delineated by measured temperatures in wells and by vitrinite reflectance contours of 0.9% and greater, (4) in proximity to the bounding Mowry, Graneros, and Skull Creek shales that are the hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoir seals, and (5) between the Lafayette and Longmont right-lateral wrench fault zones (WFZs) with secondary faults that act as conduits in areas of the field. The axis of greatest gas production is north 25 to 35?? northeast, which parallels the basin axis. Recurrent movement along five right-lateral WFZs that crosscut Wattenberg field shifted the Denver basin axis to the northeast and influenced depositional and erosional patterns of the reservoir and seal intervals. Levels of thermal maturity within the Wattenberg field are anomalously high compared to other areas of the Denver basin. The Wattenberg field thermal anomaly may be due to upward movement of fluids along faults associated with probable igneous intrusions. Areas of anomalous high heat flow within the field correlate with an increased and variable gas-oil ratio.

  12. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2016-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  13. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2015-11-30

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  14. Atmospheric benzene observations from oil and gas production in the Denver-Julesburg Basin in July and August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Hannah S.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wisthaler, Armin; Blake, Donald R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Apel, Eric C.; Hills, Alan J.

    2016-09-01

    High time resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected using a proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-QMS) instrument at the Platteville Atmospheric Observatory (PAO) in Colorado to investigate how oil and natural gas (O&NG) development impacts air quality within the Wattenburg Gas Field (WGF) in the Denver-Julesburg Basin. The measurements were carried out in July and August 2014 as part of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaign. The PTR-QMS data were supported by pressurized whole air canister samples and airborne vertical and horizontal surveys of VOCs. Unexpectedly high benzene mixing ratios were observed at PAO at ground level (mean benzene = 0.53 ppbv, maximum benzene = 29.3 ppbv), primarily at night (mean nighttime benzene = 0.73 ppbv). These high benzene levels were associated with southwesterly winds. The airborne measurements indicate that benzene originated from within the WGF, and typical source signatures detected in the canister samples implicate emissions from O&NG activities rather than urban vehicular emissions as primary benzene source. This conclusion is backed by a regional toluene-to-benzene ratio analysis which associated southerly flow with vehicular emissions from the Denver area. Weak benzene-to-CO correlations confirmed that traffic emissions were not responsible for the observed high benzene levels. Previous measurements at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) and our data obtained at PAO allow us to locate the source of benzene enhancements between the two atmospheric observatories. Fugitive emissions of benzene from O&NG operations in the Platteville area are discussed as the most likely causes of enhanced benzene levels at PAO.

  15. A NEW HYBRID DYNAMIC METROPOLITAN TRAIN MODEL UN NUEVO MODELO DINÁMICO HÍBRIDO DE TREN METROPOLITANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Mahla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An integral dynamic model of the metropolitan train type transport system is presented. The interactions between the trajectories of the trains in use and the passenger exchange between the cars and the platforms in the stations along the tracks are described. In contrast with the current traffic engineering models based on passenger flow, this model allows the simulation of passenger accumulation that occurs on the platforms when the train cannot transport the total number of passengers waiting for it. The dynamics of the metropolitan train is modeled with a hybrid system in which the platforms and the trains are considered as continuous modes and train arrival at the stations as discrete events.En este artículo se describe un modelo dinámico integral del sistema de transporte tipo tren metropolitano. En él se describen las interacciones entre las trayectorias de los trenes en circulación y el intercambio de pasajeros entre los coches y los andenes en las estaciones a lo largo de la vía. A diferencia de los actuales modelos de ingeniería de tráfico, basados en flujos de pasajeros, este modelo permite simular las acumulaciones que se producen en los andenes cuando el tren no logra transportar la cantidad total de pasajeros esperando en el andén. La dinámica del tren metropolitano es modelada como un sistema híbrido en el cual los andenes y los trenes son considerados modos continuos y los arribos de los trenes a las estaciones como eventos discretos.

  16. A prospective multicenter evaluation of prehospital airway management performance in a large metropolitan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To determine 1) the success rate of prehospital endotracheal intubation; 2) the unrecognized tube malposition rate; and 3) predictors of tube malposition upon arrival to the emergency department (ED) in the setting of a large metropolitan area that includes 18 hospitals and 34 transporting emergency medical services (EMS) agencies. Prospective data were collected on patients for whom prehospital intubation was attempted between September 1, 2004, and January 31, 2005. Endotracheal tube (ETT) position upon arrival to the ED was verified by emergency medicine attending physicians. Missing cases were identified by matching prospective data with lists of attempted intubations submitted by EMS agencies, and data were obtained for these cases by retrospective chart review. Successful intubation was defined as an "endotracheal tube balloon below the cords" on arrival to the ED. Patients were the unit of analysis; proportions with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Nine hundred twenty-six patients had an attempted intubation. Methods of airway management were determined for 97.5% (825/846) of those transported to a hospital and 33.8% (27/80) of those who died in the field. For transported patients, 74.8% were successfully intubated, 20% had a failed intubation, 5.2% had a malpositioned tube on arrival to the ED, and 0.6% had another method of airway management used. Malpositioned tubes were significantly more common in pediatric patients (13.0%, compared with 4.0% for nonpediatric patients). Overall intubation success was low, and consistent with previously published series. The frequency of malpositioned ETT was unacceptably high, and also consistent with prior studies. Our data support the need for ongoing monitoring of EMS providers' practices of endotracheal intubation.

  17. An Urban Heat Island Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka, Based on Landsat Data (1997–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Ranagalage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at the expense of vegetation cover, surface urban heat island (SUHI forms and becomes more intense. The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA, Sri Lanka, is one of the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan regions in South Asia. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature (LST in the CMA in the context of the SUHI phenomenon using Landsat data. More specifically, we examined the relationship of LST with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI at three time points (1997, 2007 and 2017. In addition, we also identified environmentally critical areas based on LST and NDVI. We found significant correlations of LST with NDVI (negative and NDBI (positive (p < 0.001 across all three time points. Most of the environmentally critical areas are located in the central business district (CBD, near the harbor, across the coastal belt, and along the main transportation network. We recommend that those identified environmentally critical areas be considered in the future urban planning and landscape development of the city. Green spaces can help improve the environmental sustainability of the CMA.

  18. Guidebook of the Western United States: Part E - The Denver & Rio Grande Western Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marius R.

    1922-01-01

    correctly the basis of its development, and above all to appreciate keenly the real value of the country he looks out upon, not as so many square miles of territory represented on the map in a railroad folder by meaningless spaces, but rather as land - real estate, if you please - varying widely in present appearance because differing largely in its history, and characterized by even greater variation in values because possessing diversified natural resources. One region may be such as to afford a livelihood for only a pastoral people; another may present opportunity for intensive agriculture; still another may contain hidden stores of mineral wealth that may attract large industrial development; and, taken together, these varied resources afford, the promise of long-continued prosperity for this or that State. Items of interest in civic development or references to significant epochs in the record of discovery and settlement may be interspersed. with explanations of mountain and valley or statements of geologic history. In a broad way the story of the West is a unit, and every chapter should be told in order to meet fully the needs of the tourist who aims to understand all that he sees. To such a traveler-reader this series of guidebooks is addressed. To this interpretation of our own country the United States Geological Survey brings the accumulated data of decades of pioneering investigation, and the present contribution is only one type of return to the public which has supported this scientific work under the Federal Government - a by-product of research. In the preparation of the description of the country traversed by the Denver & Rio Grande Western Route the geographic and geologic information already published as well as unpublished material in the possession of the Geological Survey has been utilized, but to supplement this material Mr. Campbell made a field examination of the entire route in 1915-1916. Information has been furnished by others,

  19. Identification of Czech Metropolitan Regions: How to improve targeting of innovation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klímová Viktorie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of national and regional innovation systems can serve as an analytical framework forming the empirical base for innovation policy creation. It is possible to distinguish various types of these systems. One of these typologies is based on the assessment of innovation deficiencies. There are three types of regions: metropolitan, peripheral, and old industrial. Metropolitan regions can be characterized by a high level of research, innovation, and patent activity. The aims of this paper are to find relevant indicators that can be used as the basis for defining metropolitan regional innovation systems and using them for the identification of Czech metropolitan regions. The results of the point method combined with the cluster analysis showed that the capital city, Prague, as well as the South Moravian, Pardubice, Central Bohemian, Pilsen, and Liberec Regions can be defined as metropolitan regions.

  20. 23 CFR 450.324 - Development and content of the transportation improvement program (TIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., environment/NEPA, right-of-way, design, or construction), the following: (1) Sufficient descriptive material... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...), 49 U.S.C. 5305(d), and 49 U.S.C. 5339; (3) State planning and research projects funded under 23 U.S.C...

  1. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management process should result in multimodal system performance measures and strategies that can be reflected in the metropolitan transportation plan and the TIP. The level of system performance deemed... effective integrated management and operation of the multimodal transportation system, based on a...

  2. Desenvolvimento de crianças nascidas pré-termo avaliado pelo teste de Denver-II: revisão da produção científica brasileira Development of children born preterm evaluated by the Denver-II test: a review of the Brazilian scientific production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Aparecida de Oliveira Custódio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou analisar a produção científica sobre o desenvolvimento de crianças brasileiras nascidas pré-termo e de muito baixo peso avaliado por meio do Teste de Denver-II, no período de 2000 a 2009. Realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico de estudos empíricos indexados nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e Scielo, por meio da combinação das palavras chave: pré-termo, muito baixo peso, fatores de risco, desenvolvimento, Denver-II. Foram identificados 26 artigos e selecionados oito conforme critérios de inclusão. A maioria dos estudos avaliou crianças pré-termo entre 5 a 24 meses de idade. Os estudos identificaram associação entre as variáveis neonatais e ambientais e o desempenho no Teste de Denver-II. Crianças nascidas pré-termo devem ser acompanhadas ambulatorialmente para prevenir e detectar riscos no desenvolvimento.This article aims to analyze the scientific literature on the development of children born preterm with very low birth weight assessed by the Denver-II test in the period from 2000 to 2009. A survey of empirical literature indexed in Medline, Lilacs and Scielo was carried out through the combination of the keywords: preterm, very low birth weight, risk factors, development, and Denver-II. Twenty six articles were identified and eight were selected following the inclusion criteria. Most studies evaluated preterm children between 5 and 24 months of age. The studies identified a significant association between neonatal and environmental variables and the performance on Denver-II Test. Children born preterm must be followedup at outpatient Units to prevent and detect risks in development.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of using natural gas in vehicles of the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.; Trinidad-Garcia, H.G.; Diaz, L.; Perdomo, V.; Castillo, H.; Schifter, I. [Istituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    According to the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) authorities the transport sector causes 75% of total pollutant emissions to the atmosphere, that is why to mitigate pollution several programs focus on reducing emissions from mobile sources, one of these programs promotes the use of Natural Gas (NG) in vehicles of the MCMA instead of gasoline or diesel. This work shows the cost-benefit analysis results of this program. The analysis considered the period 1999-2014. Projections for the MCMA vehicular fleet, and for the type and number of vehicles that would switch from gasoline or diesel to NG were made. To obtain the change in exhaust emissions, measurements were performed using the U. S. Federal Test Procedure 75 in vehicles consuming gasoline and NG Vehicle conversion, conversion shops, and gas station costs were considered in the analysis The estimated benefits stemmed from fuel price and efficiency differential, vehicle taxes, maintenance costs, and pollutant emission reductions. The Benefit/Cost ratio found was 3.79, and the vehicles suggested for conversion were those of intensive use circulating exclusively in the MCMA. Even though ozone formation simulations were done using the CIT trajectory model, the changes in ozone concentrations observed were smaller than the model resolution, mainly because the change in ozone precursors due to the fuel change in some of the MCMA vehicles, was less than 1% of total emissions. (authors)

  4. The nature and origins of acid summer haze air pollution in metropolitan Toronto, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, G D; Gorczynski, J E; Currie, J H; He, D; Ito, K; Hipfner, J; Waldman, J; Lioy, P J; Lippmann, M

    1994-05-01

    During July and August of 1986, 1987, and 1988, a field study was conducted of ambient acidic aerosol levels in Toronto, Ontario. Fine particle mass (da acidity (H+) and sulfate (SO4 =). Two additional H(+)-monitoring sites were concurrently operated during the summers of 1986 and 1987 to examine the spatial variability of H+ within the metropolitan area. During the summer of 1986, a quasi-continuous total sulfate/sulfuric acid analyzer was also deployed to allow a determination of the chemical form of H+. Results indicate that acid aerosol episodes (H+ > or = 100 nmole/m3) did occur in this city during the summer months, and that H+ peaks were well correlated with sulfate peaks. Virtually all of the H+ was found to be present as ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4). While H+ concentrations were highly correlated among the three monitoring sites (r = 0.9), the highest H+/SO4 = ratios prevailed during SO4 = episode periods and at the least urbanized site. This latter trend was apparently due to greater neutralization of H+ by local ammonia at the more urbanized sites. Comparisons of day vs night H+/SO4 = ratios, an examination of air mass back-trajectories, and contemporaneous H+ measurements at surrounding sites collectively indicated that transported regional haze air pollution from the United States is a major contributor to the H+ events recorded within Toronto.

  5. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  6. IMPACT OF CRITICAL ANION SOIL SOLUTION CONCENTRATION ON ALUMINUM ACTIVITY IN ALPINE TUNDRA SOIL Andrew Evans, Jr.1 , Michael B. Jacobs2, and Jason R. Janke1, (1) Metropolitan State University of Denver, Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, (2) Dept. of Chemistry, Denver, CO, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil solution anionic composition can impact both plant and microbial activity in alpine tundra soils by altering biochemical cycling within the soil, either through base cation leaching, or shifts in aluminum controlling solid phases. Although anions play a critical role in the aqueous speciation of metals, relatively few high altitude field studies have examined their impact on aluminum controlling solid phases and aluminum speciation in soil water. For this study, thirty sampling sites were selected on Trail Ridge Road in Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, CO, and sampled during July, the middle of the growing season. Sampling elevations ranged from approximately 3560 - 3710 m. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 15.24 cm, and the anions were extracted using a 2:1 D.I. water to soil ratio. Filtered extracts were analyzed using IC and ICP-MS. Soil solution NO3- concentrations were significantly higher for sampling locations east of Iceberg Pass (EIBP) (mean = 86.94 ± 119.8 mg/L) compared to locations west of Iceberg Pass (WIBP) (mean 1.481 ± 2.444 mg/L). Both F- and PO43- soil solution concentrations, 0.533 and 0.440 mg/L, respectively, were substantially lower, for sampling sites located EIBP, while locations WIBP averaged 0.773 and 0.829 mg/L respectively, for F- and PO43-. Sulfate concentration averaged 3.869 ± 3.059 mg/L for locations EIBP, and 3.891 ± 3.1970 for locations WIBP. Geochemical modeling of Al3+ in the soil solution indicated that a suite of aluminum hydroxyl sulfate minerals controlled Al3+ activity in the alpine tundra soil, with shifts between controlling solid phases occurring in the presence of elevated F- concentrations.

  7. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  8. Field Experiment on a Robust Hierarchical Metropolitan Quantum Cryptography Network

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Fangxing; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Yun; Zhou, Zheng; Zhao, Yibo; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Dong; Han, Zhengfu; Guo, Guangcan

    2009-01-01

    A hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network upon the inner-city commercial telecom fiber cables is reported in this paper. The seven-user network contains a four-node backbone net with one node acting as the subnet gateway, a two-user subnet and a single-fiber access link, which is realized by the Faraday-Michelson Interferometer set-ups. The techniques of the quantum router, optical switch and trusted relay are assembled here to guarantee the feasibility and expandability of the quantum cryptography network. Five nodes of the network are located in the government departments and the secure keys generated by the quantum key distribution network are utilized to encrypt the instant video, sound, text messages and confidential files transmitting between these bureaus. The whole implementation including the hierarchical quantum cryptographic communication network links and corresponding application software shows a big step toward the practical user-oriented network with high security level.

  9. Urban Seismology in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Review and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region. A substantial number of cities and large towns exist on thick sediments in western Taiwan. Larger-magnitude inland earthquakes, for example the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, can cause serious damage in urban areas. Consequently, urban seismology is of great interest to the local seismological community. The Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. It is situated over a region where the Philippine Sea plate subducts the Eurasian plate. Although seismicity in the TMA is lower than other areas of Taiwan, earthquakes still occur. Seismic risk mitigation is of grave concern in the TMA because of its high population, number of tall buildings, mass rapid transit system, and two nearby nuclear power plants. In this article, procedures for seismic risk mitigation, previous studies, core issues for future research and related topics are described and reviewed.

  10. Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area

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    A. Mahura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulations employing the SUBMESO model with the urban soil layer model SM2-U were performed for the model domain covering the Danish Island of Sealand and including the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Monthly and diurnal cycle variability were studied for the net radiation, sensible and storage heat fluxes, surface's temperatures, and others. These were evaluated for selected urban vs. non urban related types of covers/surfaces and urban districts such as city center, high buildings, industrial, and residential. Results showed strong effects of urban features on temporal and spatial variability. They are useful and applicable for verification of numerical weather prediction models and development of urban canopy parameterizations.

  11. Cancer among Arab Americans in the metropolitan Detroit area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra L; Kulwicki, Anahid; Weiss, Linda K; Fakhouri, Haifa; Sakr, Wael; Kau, Gregory; Severson, Richard K

    2004-01-01

    Detroit is home to one of the largest populations of Arab Americans outside of the Middle East, yet little is known about the cancer distribution in this ethnic group. The authors of this study created an Arab/Chaldean surname list and matched it with the Detroit SEER Registry to identify cancer cases of probable Arabic descent. We then determined proportional incidence ratios (PIR) for specific cancer sites among metropolitan Detroit Arab Americans as compared to non-Arab Whites, and contrasted the results with Middle Eastern data. Arab/Chaldean men had greater proportions of leukemia (29%), multiple myeloma (46%), liver (64%), kidney (33%), and urinary bladder (26%) cancers. Arab/Chaldean women had greater proportions of leukemia (23%), thyroid (57%), and brain (35%) cancers as compared with non-Arab White men and women. The cancers with significantly increased PIRs in the Detroit Arab/Chaldean population also are frequently diagnosed in Middle Eastern countries.

  12. Swine trichinellosis in slaughterhouses of the metropolitan area of Toluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, H; Flores-Trujillo, M; Benitez, E; Arriaga, C

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis infections in abattoirs of the metropolitan area of Toluca where pigs from commercial farms as well as backyard pigs are slaughtered, 539 swine diaphragm tissue samples were collected and examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion. Serum samples from the same animals were analyzed by ELISA using somatic and excretory/secretory antigens, and by Western blot analysis. T. spiralis muscle larvae were not found by trichinoscopy or artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and confirmed by Western blotting in 12.4% of the serum samples examined. Analysis of risk factors showed no association of seropositive results with sex. However, significant higher risk was observed in swine seven to 12 months old and in backyard pigs, compared with pigs from commercial farms.

  13. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  14. Interseismic Strain Accumulation Across Metropolitan Los Angeles: Puente Hills Thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, D.; Liu, Z.; Heflin, M. B.; Moore, A. W.; Owen, S. E.; Lundgren, P.; Drake, V. G.; Rodriguez, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve years of observation of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) are tightly constraining the distribution of shortening across metropolitan Los Angeles, providing information on strain accumulation across blind thrust faults. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and water well records are allowing the effects of water and oil management to be distinguished. The Mojave segment of the San Andreas fault is at a 25° angle to Pacific-North America plate motion. GPS shows that NNE-SSW shortening due to this big restraining bend is fastest not immediately south of the San Andreas fault across the San Gabriel mountains, but rather 50 km south of the fault in northern metropolitan Los Angeles. The GPS results we quote next are for a NNE profile through downtown Los Angeles. Just 2 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up across the San Gabriel mountains, 40 km wide (0.05 micro strain/yr); 4 mm/yr of shortening is being taken up between the Sierra Madre fault, at the southern front of the San Gabriel mountains, and South Central Los Angeles, also 40 km wide (0.10 micro strain/yr). We find shortening to be more evenly distributed across metropolitan Los Angeles than we found before [Argus et al. 2005], though within the 95% confidence limits. An elastic models of interseismic strain accumulation is fit to the GPS observations using the Back Slip model of Savage [1983]. Rheology differences between crystalline basement and sedimentary basin rocks are incorporated using the EDGRN/EDCMP algorithm of Wang et al. [2003]. We attempt to place the Back Slip model into the context of the Elastic Subducting Plate Model of Kanda and Simons [2010]. We find, along the NNE profile through downtown, that: (1) The deep Sierra Madre Thrust cannot be slipping faster than 2 mm/yr, and (2) The Puente Hills Thrust and nearby thrust faults (such as the upper Elysian Park Thrust) are slipping at 9 ±2 mm/yr beneath a locking depth of 12 ±5 km (95% confidence limits

  15. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA, the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR and ordinary least squares (OLS for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed. The explanatory variables investigated are: illiterate population, rural housing, alternative housing, homes with a motorised vehicle, public transport routes, and connectivity. Our results identify that approximately 4.1% of the population have unfavourable or very unfavourable accessibility to public hospitals, which correspond to rural areas located south of CMA. Application of a local GWR model (0.87 R2 adjusted helped to improve the settings over the use of traditional OLS methods (multiple regression (0.67 R2 adjusted and to find the spatial distribution of both coefficients of the explanatory variables, demonstrating the local significance of the model. Thus, accessibility studies have enormous potential to contribute to the development of public health and transport policies in turn to achieve equality in spatial accessibility to specialised health care.

  16. Workload and availability of technology in metropolitan community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrepnek, Grant H; Armstrong, Edward P; Malone, Daniel C; Abarca, Jacob; Murphy, John E; Grizzle, Amy J; Rehfeld, Rick A; Woosley, Raymond L

    2006-01-01

    To assess workload characteristics and the presence of prescription processing technologies within metropolitan community pharmacies in the United States. Cross-sectional postal survey. 18 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. 3000 managers located in community pharmacies processing at least 500 third-party claims per month for four major pharmacy benefits managers. 34-item survey instrument designed to collect data about the pharmacy including demographics, workload issues, handling of drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and pharmacists' attitudes toward computerized DDI alerts. Workload (hours of operation, prescription volume, staffing hours, prescription processing intensity) and prescription processing technologies (telecommunication systems, automated counting/filling or verification devices, number of computer terminals, and computer software vendors). Overall, 736 usable surveys were returned (response rate, 25.3%). On average, respondents reported a volume of approximately 1340 prescriptions per week processed at a rate of almost 17 prescriptions per hour. Independent pharmacies processed approximately 3 prescriptions per hour more than chain pharmacies even though a statistically equal or slightly lower proportion of those pharmacies had automated technologies. The presence of technology was generally high for all pharmacies, particularly countertop tablet/capsule-counting devices and telefacsimile machines. The most common software vendors differed considerably between chain and independent pharmacies. The number of prescriptions processed per hour and number of technologies available increased with the total weekly volume of prescriptions processed in this national survey. A majority of pharmacies had at least one type of automated prescription processing technology and an automated telecommunication system for accepting new or refill prescriptions. Independent pharmacies processed more prescriptions per hour than did chains but did so

  17. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  18. Characteristics of black carbon concentration at a metropolitan city located near land-ocean boundary in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh; Gogoi, Mukunda M.

    2015-02-01

    Near surface aerosol black carbon (BC) concentration data were collected using a seven channel Aethalometer (AE31) during June 2012-May 2013 in Kolkata (22° 34‧E, 88° 22‧N), a metropolitan city located near the land-ocean boundary in Eastern India. BC concentration shows a prominent seasonal and diurnal variation associated with the meteorological parameters. The mean BC concentration varied from 5 μg/m3 to 27 μg/m3 seasonally. The variation of BC mass concentration and its significant association with atmospheric parameters such as temperature profile, relative humidity and wind speed have been studied. Moreover, the influence of the transported air masses on BC concentration at different seasons has also been discussed. An estimation of Angstrom exponent discloses that fossil fuel combustion is a major source of BC at this location.

  19. Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; McLean, Kathleen; Brauer, Michael; Chiarello, Sarah A; Davies, Hugh W

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of dietary calcium intake in south Indian rural, urban and metropolitan city subjects

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    Harinarayan CV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate dietary calcium intake favours bone mineral accrual. Sparse published data are available on dietary calcium intake of metropolitan city population from south India. Methods: We recorded the dietary intake of calcium and phytates of 524 healthy subjects from Bengaluru, a metropolitan city, by recalling the diet consumed in the previous 5 to 7 days and compared it with dietary intake of calcium of 325 healthy subjects from rural areas around Tirupati, and 508 healthy subjects from urban Tirupati. Results: The dietary calcium intake of the Tirupati rural subjects was the least compared to that of the urban and metropolitan city subjects. In the metropolitan and urban groups the diet was high in calories, milk, milk products and vegetables compared to rural subjects. Dietary calcium intake was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in the rural subjects compared to the urban and metropolitan city subjects. The dietary phytate were significantly different in both the rural, urban as well as the metropolitan city groups (p<0.0001. The dietary phytate/calcium ratio was significantly higher in rural subjects compared to urban and metropolitan city group (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Improving the quality of diet by reducing the phytate and enriching/supplementing with calcium will be of benefit for maintaining bone health.

  1. Usage of Social Media in City Marketing: A Research on 30 Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gümüş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.

  2. An Introduction to Rail Service in the New York Metropolitan Region%纽约大都市地区轨道交通介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Lerner-Lam

    2007-01-01

    Regional rail service has played an integral role in the development of the New York metropolitan area over the past century. The multiplicity of jurisdictions and agencies make planning for future growth very complex, and funding shortfalls force implementation timetables to extend far into the future. However, by focusing on high-priority "mega-projects" that tie critical elements of the region s transport networks and economic centers together and by utilizing a strategy of "Transit-Oriented Developments" in suburban growth areas, urban planners and policy makers can leverage existing infrastructure and maximize the economic viability of rail transit and land investments by both public and private sectors.

  3. Water resources outlook for the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvitch, R.F.; Ross, T.G.; Brietkrietz, Alex

    1973-01-01

    The water resources were studied within an area whose natural ground-water flow is largely towards the center of the metropolitan area. This area coincides with the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone aquifer. Thus, the general geohydrology of the area bounded by the extent of the Hinckley Sandstone (about 6,000 square miles) as it relates to the hydrology of the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area is described. Greater emphasis is placed on the area underlain by the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer (about 2,000 square miles), from which approximately 75 percent of the ground-water for the metropolitan area is pumped.

  4. METROPOLISATION AND THE METROPOLITAN SPACE: THE PRACTICE OF HORIZONTAL PARTNERSHIPS AT LOCAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Alupului

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, the development of large cities raises problems to specialists, who must find solutions to the most diverse processes of concentration, to the numerous problems of the communities tightly connected with the metropolitan areas / growth poles. The formation of the metropolitan areas regards not only the most common issues related to the increase of the standard of living, but also the concrete ways of solving the crises and reducing the forms related to the current metropolitan issues. The objective of this article is to present the main favourable aspects of the metropolisation processes, pointing out the advantages of implementing such areas in Romania.

  5. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devescovi R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Raffaella Devescovi,1 Lorenzo Monasta,2 Alice Mancini,3 Maura Bin,1 Valerio Vellante,1 Marco Carrozzi,1 Costanza Colombi4 1Division of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, 2Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health Research Unit, Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM, can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System.Methods: Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20–36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents’ and teachers’ active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months.Results: Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment.Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children

  6. Inter-local government collaboration and perceived transaction costs in Indonesian metropolitan transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miharja, Miming; Woltjer, Johan

    2010-01-01

    The Indonesian reformation of 1998 marked a fundamental turning point of this country's democracy. In the administrative sector, the so-called Decentralisation Act 22/1999 was enacted to reform a formerly centralistic system. A strong central government used to maintain a hierarchical spatial planni

  7. the denver tube Combined with antiviral drugs In the treatment of HBV-related Cirrhosis with Refractory ascites:a Report of three Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jin Wang; Li-qin Shi; Qing-chun Fu; Liu-da Ni; Feng Zhou; Jin-wei Chen; Cheng-wei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of nucleos(t)ide antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis can signiifcantly improve the prognosis. But those patients with refractory ascites possibly deteriorate due to the complications of ascites before any beneift from anti-viral drugs could be observed. Therefore, it is important to ifnd a way to help the patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and refractory ascites to receive the full beneifts from antiviral therapy. Peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) using Denver tube enables ascites to continuously bypass into systemic circulation, thereby reducing ascites and albumin input and improving quality of life. We report herein 3 cases of decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites, PVS using Denver tube was combined with lamivudine for antiviral treatment before and after. Then, ascites was alleviated significantly or disapeared and viral responsed well. All patients achieved a satisfactory long-term survival from 6.7 to 14.7 years. It was suggested that the Denver shunt could be used as an adjuvant method to antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites to help the patients reap the full beneifts and maximize efifcacy of antiviral treatment.

  8. Extending the mission to the work site. A Denver provider joins a local television station in sponsoring health fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S; Ginsburg, D; Godbey, V

    1994-10-01

    In 1991 KUSA Channel 9Health Fair Foundation asked Provenant Health Partners--a Catholic multi-institutional healthcare system in the Denver area--to become a sponsor of its annual fairs. Provenant viewed this invitation as an excellent opportunity to extend its mission and increase its focus on health and community service. Since January 1992, Provenant and 9Health Fair have conducted more than 45 fairs at 28 different work sites. At many sites, more than one employer participates, so approximately 90 companies have actually been served. Health fair volunteers and healthcare professionals check attendees' weight, blood pressure, lung function, body fat composition, foot conditions, vision, and hearing. Attendees may be screened for peripheral vascular disease, glaucoma, and a variety of cancers. In addition, a comprehensive blood chemistry test and a prostate-specific antigen blood test are offered for a small fee. For conditions requiring further evaluation, attendees are referred for medical follow-up. The fairs have been successful in identifying pathological conditions, enabling many people to seek early treatment. The early detection has resulted in significant healthcare cost savings. Health fairs have also promoted higher familiarity and favorability ratings of Provenant Health Partners and constituent institutions. Perhaps more important, the health fairs have enabled hundreds of Provenant employees and staff physicians to devote thousands of hours volunteering to promote better health in the community.

  9. Successful Integration of Hepatitis C Virus Point-of-Care Tests into the Denver Metro Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommends testing and linkage to care for persons most likely infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV, including persons with human immunodeficiency virus. We explored facilitators and barriers to integrating HCV point-of-care (POC testing into standard operations at an urban STD clinic. Methods. The OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test was integrated at the Denver Metro Health Clinic (DMHC. All clients with at least one risk factor were offered the POC test. Research staff conducted interviews with clients (three HCV positive and nine HCV negative. Focus groups were conducted with triage staff, providers, and linkage-to-care counselors. Results. Clients were pleased with the ease of use and rapid return of results from the HCV POC test. Integrating the test into this setting required more time but was not overly burdensome. While counseling messages were clear to staff, clients retained little knowledge of hepatitis C infection or factors related to risk. Barriers to integrating the HCV POC test into clinic operations were loss to follow-up and access to care. Conclusion. DMHC successfully integrated HCV POC testing and piloted a HCV linkage-to-care program. Providing testing opportunities at STD clinics could increase identification of persons with HCV infection.

  10. Radiation detection field test at the Federal Express (FedEx) air cargo facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amy; Weirup, Dave; Hall, Howard; Dougan, Arden; Trombino, Dave; Mattesich, Gary; Hull, Ethan L.; Bahowick, Sally; Loshak, Alex; Gruidl, Jeremiah

    2004-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility; quantify and identify "nuisance" alarms; evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment. LLNL emplaced a primary screening detector that provided the initial detection of radiation anomalies in near real-time. Once detected, a secondary test location provided capability to perform higher-resolution analysis of the parcels or containers that triggered the primary detector. Two triggered radiation events were observed during the course of this project. Both of the radiation events were determined to be legitimate shipments of radioactive material. The overall effect of this project on FedEx operations and personnel was deemed to be minimal.

  11. Successful Integration of Hepatitis C Virus Point-of-Care Tests into the Denver Metro Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, A; Al-Tayyib, A A; Ginnett, L; Smith, B D

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends testing and linkage to care for persons most likely infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), including persons with human immunodeficiency virus. We explored facilitators and barriers to integrating HCV point-of-care (POC) testing into standard operations at an urban STD clinic. Methods. The OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test was integrated at the Denver Metro Health Clinic (DMHC). All clients with at least one risk factor were offered the POC test. Research staff conducted interviews with clients (three HCV positive and nine HCV negative). Focus groups were conducted with triage staff, providers, and linkage-to-care counselors. Results. Clients were pleased with the ease of use and rapid return of results from the HCV POC test. Integrating the test into this setting required more time but was not overly burdensome. While counseling messages were clear to staff, clients retained little knowledge of hepatitis C infection or factors related to risk. Barriers to integrating the HCV POC test into clinic operations were loss to follow-up and access to care. Conclusion. DMHC successfully integrated HCV POC testing and piloted a HCV linkage-to-care program. Providing testing opportunities at STD clinics could increase identification of persons with HCV infection.

  12. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-408-1666, Doctors Hiatt, Metcalfe, and Schaad, Denver, Colorado. [Nitrous oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.; Pryor, P.D.

    1986-02-01

    Nitrous-oxide concentrations in office air were measured directly in September of 1985, and a follow-up environmental survey was made in January, 1986 at the Hiatt, Metcalfe, and Schaad dental clinic, Denver, Colorado. The office manager of the clinic had requested an evaluation of nitrous-oxide exposures during dental procedures. General area samples were taken on the nitrous-oxide administering equipment throughout the dental operatory, in the secretarial work area, and in the breathing zone of the two dental hygienists. Concentrations ranging from 100 to greater than 1000 parts per million (ppm) were found. The average nitrous-oxide concentration was approximately 500 to 600ppm in the breathing zone of the hygienists during the cleaning procedure. Hygienists used 3.5 to 4.5 liters of nitrous oxide per minute. Nitrous-oxide concentrations in the secretarial areas were 350 to 400ppm while the hygienists were using the gas. NIOSH recommended a 25ppm environmental limit for nitrous oxide. The author concludes that a health hazard exists from overexposures to nitrous oxide. A nitrous-oxide scavenging system, lower flow rates, and a better dilution ventilation system are recommended to lower these exposure concentrations.

  14. Proceedings of a U.S. Geological Survey pressure-sensor Workshop, Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Sammy L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a Pressure Sensor Workshop, oriented toward the measurement of stage in surface waters, in Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992. Twenty attendees from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration gave presentations concerning their experiences with the use of pressure sensors in hydrologic investigations. This report is a compilation of the abstracts of the presentations made at the workshop. Workshop participants concluded that each of the sensors evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey has strengths and weaknesses. Personnel contemplating the use of pressure sensors discussed at this workshop should contact workshop attendees and consult with them about their experiences with those sensors. The attendees preferred to use stilling wells with float-operated water-level sensors as the primary means for monitoring water levels. However, pressure sensor systems were favored as replacements for mercury manometers and as alternatives to stilling wells at sites where stilling wells are not practical or cost effective.

  15. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  16. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home and the Challenge of Hot Water on Demand, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    "This report outlines the steps a developer can use when looking to create and implement higher performance standards such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) standards in a community. The report also describes the specific examples of how this process was followed by a developer, Forest City, in the Stapleton community in Denver, Colorado. IBACOS described the steps used to begin to bring the DOE ZERH standard to the Forest City Stapleton community based on 15 years of community-scale development work done by IBACOS. As a result of this prior IBACOS work, the team gained an understanding of the various components that a master developer needs to consider and created strategies for incorporating those components in the initial phases of development to achieve higher performance buildings in the community. An automated scoring system can be used to perform an internal audit that provides a detailed and consistent evaluation of how several homes under construction or builders' floor plans compare with the requirements of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program. This audit can be performed multiple times at specific milestones during construction to allow the builder to make changes as needed throughout construction for the project to meet Zero Energy Ready Home standards. This scoring system also can be used to analyze a builder's current construction practices and design.

  17. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and infrastruct

  18. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  19. 78 FR 40146 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement...

  20. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  1. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Employees of Disinfection (spraying) in Malatya Metropolitan Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz, Serdar; Yeşilyurt, Hakkı; Nazlıcan, Ersin; Nayır, Tufan; Turan, Ercan; İlter, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Spraying works have been determined in a regulation issued by the Ministry of Health. The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the Employees of Spraying in Malatya Metropolitan Municipality.

  2. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...

  3. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil...

  4. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  6. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  7. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1).

  8. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  9. Uudised : Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    "Klassikaraadio" vahendab 25. dets. otseülekande New Yorgist Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele W.A. Mozarti ooper "Figaro pulm". 19. dets. nimetati N. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks

  10. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  11. Uudised : Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    "Klassikaraadio" vahendab 25. dets. otseülekande New Yorgist Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele W.A. Mozarti ooper "Figaro pulm". 19. dets. nimetati N. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  13. Uudised : ERSO menu Rootsis. Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. NYYD Ensemble'i kontserdid / Madis Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Madis, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    ERSO kontserdireisist Rootsis. "Klassikaraadio" teeb 17. veebr. otseülekande New Yorgi Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele Rossini ooepr "Itaallanna Alzhiiris". NYYD Ensemble'i kontsertidest Pärnus ja Tallinnas kontserdisarjas "I Got Rhythm"

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas 201309 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  15. Uudised : ERSO menu Rootsis. Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. NYYD Ensemble'i kontserdid / Madis Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Madis, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    ERSO kontserdireisist Rootsis. "Klassikaraadio" teeb 17. veebr. otseülekande New Yorgi Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele Rossini ooepr "Itaallanna Alzhiiris". NYYD Ensemble'i kontsertidest Pärnus ja Tallinnas kontserdisarjas "I Got Rhythm"

  16. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental...

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  18. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  19. The historical evolution of planning and metropolitan governance in the Greater Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of metropolitan planning policies and institutions in the Greater Copenhagen Region (GCR) over the past century. The paper’s focus is twofold. First, it develops an understanding regarding the fluctuating planning context in the GCR through a historical...... that planning and governance at the metropolitan levels have been historically complex given the inherent discrepancies that commonly emerge between the evolving functional city-region and the political-administrative structures wherein Greater Copenhagen is located....... analysis concerned with the evolution of ad hoc regional plans. Furthering this analysis, the paper then delves into the diverse forms of metropolitan governance in the GCR and classifies them into different periods defined by particular policy milestones. The case of metropolitan planning and governance...

  20. 1:1,000,000-Scale Metropolitan Statistical Areas - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The map layer was created from data produced by the U.S. Census Bureau....

  1. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  2. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  3. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  4. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, William C; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Nater, Urs M

    2013-04-30

    Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence--metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that

  5. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  6. Human capital growth in a cross section of U.S. metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Growth of human capital, defined as the change in the fraction of a metropolitan area's labor force with a bachelor's degree, is typically viewed as generating a number of desirable outcomes, including economic growth. Yet, in spite of its importance, few empirical studies have explored why some economies accumulate more human capital than others. This paper attempts to do so using a sample of more than 200 metropolitan areas in the United States over the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. The resul...

  7. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  8. The metropolitan VoD system based on ethernet/SCM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yang, Hongliang; Feng, Dejun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jande

    2008-11-01

    VoD is a very attractive service which used for entertainment, education and other purposes. In this paper, we present an evolution method that integrates the EPON and SCM-PON by WDM technology to provide high dedicated bandwidth for the metropolitan VoD services. Using DVB, IPTV protocol, unicasting and broadcasting method to maximize the system throughput and by numerical analysis, the hybrid PON system can implement the metropolitan VoD services.

  9. Recognition of management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Lalehpour

    2016-01-01

    Metropolitan areas are concentrated and dense areas filled settlements and include a central urban region with its surrounding residences. Severity and complexity of issues in metropolitan areas along with intricacy and quantity of influential factors in these areas necessitate novel approaches and innovative solutions for comprehensive strategies and management coordination of land use in these regions. The present study has taken this approach to investigate management structure and spatial...

  10. Good practices reducing the greenhouse gases in the transport sector; Buenas practicas en la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en el sector del transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.; Montane Lopez, M. M.

    2010-07-01

    Public policies addressing the reduction of the greenhouse gases emission have to give response to the improvement of mobility in three aspects: passengers, freights, and urban and metropolitan areas. Passenger transport, because it involves long transportation distances consuming an important part of transport energy and raises difficult organizational problems. Freight transport, due to the complexity of interconnecting a lot of modes of transportation and the big range for improvement. Urban and metropolitan mobility, by the impact of actions in this field in the quality of life of a big part of the population. According to the peculiarities of their respective territories, different strategies of sustainable mobility that address the three considered aspects have been set up in Spain and its neighbouring countries. This article reviews some action lines implemented in spain, France and Germany, as a previous step to assess their possible adaptation to other territories. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ernest; Garcia, Macarena C; Bastian, Brigham; Rossen, Lauren M; Ingram, Deborah D; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Yoon, Paula W; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed. 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially excess deaths are defined as deaths among persons aged leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. For example, approximately half of deaths from unintentional injury and chronic lower respiratory disease in nonmetropolitan areas were potentially excess deaths, compared with 39.2% and 30.9%, respectively, in metropolitan areas. Potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions; within regions, nonmetropolitan areas tended to have higher percentages of potentially excess deaths than metropolitan areas. Compared with metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan areas have higher age-adjusted death rates and greater percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death, nationally and across public health regions. Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths in nonmetropolitan areas might help public health departments identify emerging health problems, monitor known problems, and focus interventions to reduce preventable deaths in these areas.

  12. Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard in Metropolitan Taipei and Its Surrounding Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability of seismic hazard for the Taipei metropolitan area in northern Taiwan from readily available information, including the attenuation relationship of peak ground acceleration (PGA, tectonic settings, fault-slip data, and seismicity. The PGA seismic hazard mapping reveals that the hazard level in this area increases going from northwest to southeast and southwest. There are four important earthquake sources that contribute to the hazard level: (1 the plate-boundary interface (subduction zone interface located offshore of the Ilan plain; (2 the intraslab subduction zone underneath Taipei itself; (3 the crustal areal sources in eastern Taiwan and central Taiwan; and (4 the nearby active Shanchiao fault. The slip-rate of the targeted fault is relatively low, and therefore not the most dangerous earthquake source revealed in the 475-year return period. However, there is no doubt that the target fault is the control source in the 2475-year return period. Furthermore, higher PGAs are predicted using the attenuation relationship of subduction zone earthquake sources rather than crustal earthquake sources, meaning an increase of the seismic hazard level over previous estimates. Consequently, more attention needs to be paid to subduction zone sources when considering mitigation of seismic hazards in northern Taiwan.

  13. EVALUATION OF PRIVATE SCHOOL LOCATION IN THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  14. Solid waste characterisation study in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernache-Pérez, G; Sánchez-Colón, S; Garmendia, A M; Dávila-Villarreal, A; Sánchez-Salazar, M E

    2001-10-01

    The key findings of a solid waste characterisation study conducted at the Guadalajara Metropolitan Zone, Mexico, are reported. Objectives of the study were to estimate the daily generation rate of household (HSW) and municipal solid waste (MSW), characterise and compare their composition by type of material, determine the proportion that HSW contributes to MSW, explore changes in MSW composition through time after final disposal, and estimate the types and amount of MSW that are sorted out for recycling at final disposal sites. HSW generated during seven days by a sample of 300 households chosen through a two-stage stratified sampling design was collected, weighed and classified. MSW entering the four local disposal sites was recorded for 12 weeks, and materials' sorting was quantified. MSW samples taken by excavating trenches in two final disposal sites were also characterised. The average per capita daily HSW generation rate was 508 g. HSW mainly consisted of putrescible waste (53%), paper (10%) and plastic (9%). The average daily generation rate of MSW was 3119.2 metric tonnes. HSW represented 55.9% of MSW, and the main difference between HSW and MSW was a lower proportion of organic materials (53% vs. 16.5%, respectively). The major changes in MSW composition through time after final disposal, were the result of the quick decomposition of putrescible materials. Only 2.2% of total MSW generated in Guadalajara (mainly package waste) was sorted for recycling.

  15. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  16. E-book Collections in Academic Libraries of Metropolitan Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Fahimifar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present age users not only need to have access information, but they need to have access as fast and as easy as possible. This is one of the reasons that has intensified the current ICT applications and the growing need for it. Today not only countless journals are published in electronic format side by side with their printed versions, but numerous books on diverse subjects are published elecrtronically. To better serve their patrons, academic libraries should also collect electronic books along with printed resources. Managers of academic libraries must consider acquisition of various types of electronic books and provision of facilities for accessing. The present paper initially offers the definitions offered with respect to e-books as well as the workshops held globally, researches carried out in academic libraries as well as the categories of information contained in e-books. It would then investigates the various types of e-books held in the academic libraries within metropolitan Tehran and describes the access method for students and patrons. A survey , using questionnaire as a data collection instrument, was conducted .

  17. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  18. Reformulated gasolines: The experience of Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Jardon, R.T.; Echeverria, R.S. [Centro de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    The introduction of several reformulated gasolines into the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) in the middle 1986 is an example of using fuel composition to improve, in theory, the air quality. However, although these changes have resulted in an important reduction of lead airborne concentrations, a worsened situation has been created. Ozone levels in the atmosphere MCMZ have presented a sudden rise since the introduction of the first reformulated gasoline, reaching in the 1990`s an annual average of 1,700 exceedances to the Mexican Ozone Air Quality Standard (0.11 ppm not to be exceeded 1 hr. a day one day a year). The authors examine the tendency on ozone air quality in MCMZ in relation with the changes in gasoline composition since 1986. The authors also discuss the importance to perform an air quality impact analysis before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in countries where the local economy do not allow to change the old car fleet not fitted with exhaust treatment devices.

  19. Statistical investigations into indicator bacteria concentrations in Houston metropolitan watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Anuradha M; Rifai, Hanadi; Helfer, Emil; Moreno, Norma; Stein, Ron

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial pollution in the Houston metropolitan area (Texas) watersheds was studied using statistical methods to determine the Escherichia coli levels and causes of their spatial and temporal variability. Houston bayous generally exhibit elevated E. coli concentrations. The more urban watersheds had higher concentration ranges and geometric means and had more spatial variation with higher overall ranges at downstream monitoring stations. They also were less sensitive to temperature variations and more strongly influenced by rainfall events. The median flow in the more urban bayous is predominantly wastewater. Frequent rainfall in the region, combined with relatively long travel times in the bayous, results in elevated bacterial levels in the bayous. Multiple regression models using water quality parameters were more representative on the segment level and not at the watershed level and may not be useful for predictions that rely on conventional water quality measures, particularly in urban watersheds, such as those studied here. Cluster analysis for the segments resulted in two distinct clusters differentiated by their developed land-use, population density, domestic animal density, and grassy land-use.

  20. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-23

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  1. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  2. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Robertson

    Full Text Available Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  3. Convective weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Kenneth A.

    This dissertation investigates the frequency and intensity of severe convective storms, and their associated hazards, in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), Minnesota. Using public severe weather reports databases and high spatial density rain gauge data, annual frequencies and return-periods are calculated for tornadoes, damaging winds, large hail, and flood-inducing rainfall. The hypothesis that severe thunderstorms and tornadoes are less likely in the central TCMA than in surrounding areas also is examined, and techniques for estimating 100-year rainfall amounts are developed and discussed. This research finds that: (i) storms capable of significant damage somewhere within the TCMA recur annually (sometimes multiple times per year), while storms virtually certain to cause such damage recur every 2-3 years; (ii) though severe weather reports data are not amenable to classical comparative statistical testing, careful treatment of them suggests all types and intensity categories of severe convective weather have been and should continue to be approximately as common in the central TCMA as in surrounding areas; and (iii) applications of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistics and areal analyses of rainfall data lead to significantly larger (25-50%) estimates of 100-year rainfall amounts in the TCMA and parts of Minnesota than those currently published and used for precipitation design. The growth of the TCMA, the popular sentiment that downtown areas somehow deter severe storms and tornadoes, and the prior underestimation of extreme rainfall thresholds for precipitation design, all act to enhance local susceptibility to hazards from severe convective storms.

  4. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  5. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey, we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making

  6. Desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor: o teste de Denver na triagem dos atrasos cognitivos e neuromotores de pré-escolares Neuropsychomotor development: the Denver scale for screening cognitive and neuromotor delays in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cileide Mascarenhas Lopes Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência e fatores associados no que se refere ao desempenho anormal do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de crianças matriculadas na educação infantil pública em Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil, em 2009 (n = 438. Esta é uma pesquisa epidemiológica de corte transversal, com amostragem por conglomerado e sorteio das escolas e crianças. Foram verificados os fatores associados por meio de aplicação de questionário às mães e de teste Denver II ao filho. A análise estatística realizou o teste χ2 com intervalo de 95% de confiança e α = 5%. A prevalência de desempenho anormal do desenvolvimento foi 46,3%. Na análise de regressão logística, as variáveis estatisticamente significantes associadas foram: sexo masculino (RP = 1,43; p = 0,00, cinco anos de idade (RP = 1,42; p = 0,00, não realização de pré-natal (RP = 1,41; p = 0,00, início do pré-natal > 3 meses (RP = 1,25; p = 0,00 e consumo alcoólico na gestação (RP = 1,55; p = 0,00. A prevalência foi elevada, apontando a necessidade de pré-natal precoce, alertando sobre o consumo alcoólico, e de vigilância nos primeiros anos de vida, visando a prevenir ou tratar precocemente as alterações.This study investigated the prevalence of abnormal neuropsychomotor developmental performance and associated factors in children enrolled in the public preschool system in Feira de Santana, Bahia State, Brazil, 2009 (N = 438. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with random sampling of schools and children. The study analyzed associated factors with a questionnaire applied to mothers and the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST II in the preschool children. Statistical analysis used the χ2 test with 95% confidence interval and α = 5%. Prevalence of abnormal developmental performance was 46.3%. According to logistic regression analysis, variables showing statistically significant association were: male gender (PR = 1.43; p

  7. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  8. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  9. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Movahed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable.Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution, oil-dependent industries, hot and humid weather, having a long hot and dusty season, the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore, it is necessary to locate a place with appropriate climate in the province. In this study, we use the descriptive combination and analytical method and this research is applied. We aim to examine three patterns: the final level pattern walkway areas of major cities, Robert pattern and standard distance pattern. Results show that, because of the long distance between Ahvaz and Malaga, the above-mentioned models could not determine Ahvaz walkway field.2- Theoretical basesThe Tourism has expressed as the specific spatial patterns. One of them is spatial patterns of urban tourism. Urban areas are important tourism places because they have historical and cultural attractions. The major cities have many diverse attractions, including museums, monuments, theaters, sports stadiums, parks, toy city, Shopping centers, and places of historical and architectural sites of important events with famous people. Moreover, if the tourist attractions are located in rural areas, urban movement supports the objective location.To examine the influence of large urban parks, three methods are used that are: A - The final model of the metropolitan parkB - Robert patternC - Standard distance model3– DiscussionThere are three different variations of climate in Khuzestan province: desert climate, semi desert climate and mountainous climate that are suitable for tourism. Ahvaz city has taken in desert climatology; therefore, there is a need for amusement places at mountainous climates. As map

  10. Mountain Land Use Planning of Metropolitan Suburbs: the Case of the Jinyun Mountain and Its Surrounding area, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jingan; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti

    2005-01-01

    Open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain region, has been increasingly becoming the coupling mosaic structure of industrial actions and landscape behaviors. However, the local governments, when making land use planning, often aim at economic development, and rarely refer to the coordination of compatibilities and conflicts between industrial actions and landscape behaviors in the mosaic structure. In this study land use in the Jinyun Mountain and its surrounding area, Chongqing is adjusted by gray multi-objective programming approach and local-level decision-making process to cope with conflicts between objectives for human welfare and objectives for landscape conservation. The results indicate that: 1) the compatibilities and conflicts among different behavior characters and different landscape types result in the compatibilities of landscape to human behavior; 2) a land use planning in the study area is produced based on the sustainable land use and social-eco development, which pays more attention to the resources and environment constraints and economic objectives, and follows the distribution law of rare resources; 3) in the study area, cultivated land of 1,207.27 ha can meet the demands for food and byproducts by the residents there, orchard land and forestland of 632.55 ha, 2,276.61 ha, respectively can provide enough space for the local people to improve their living structure and meet their demands for recreational activities, and urban residential land, rural residential land, mining land and transportation land of 1,107.60 ha, 120.27 ha, 162.48 ha, 100.91 ha, respectively can satisfy the resident's economic development and infrastructures; 4) the equilibrium among industrial actions, landscape accessibility and ecological conservation can be obtained by analyzing the possible impacts of human activities on landscape ecological process in open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain areas.

  11. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  12. The Amsterdam metropolitan housing market: how a prosperous metropolitan area coexists with a central city dominated by social rental housing for the poor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Vlist, van der A.

    2002-01-01

    In this Chapter we describe the development of Amsterdam Metropolitan Housing Market over the years. We start-off with a discussion of the historicaldevelopment of Amsterdam and its suburban areas. There we address how main contextual factors like wars, financial crises and prosperity have shaped th

  13. Modeling and Management of Increased Urban Stormwater Runoff Using InfoSWMM Sustain in the Berkeley Neighborhood of Denver, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, C.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Few urban studies have evaluated the hydrologic impacts of redevelopment - for example, a rapid conversion from single to multi-family homes - known as infill, or re-urbanization. Redevelopment provides unique stormwater challenges as private property owners in many cities are not mandated to undertake stormwater retrofits leading to an overall increase in stormwater quantity and decrease in quality. This research utilizes a version of the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), InfoSWMM Sustain, to model and analyze the impacts of impervious cover change due to redevelopment on stormwater quantity and quality in Denver, Colorado, with a focus on the Berkeley Neighborhood, where the percent imperviousness is expected to increase significantly from a current value of 53% by 2025. We utilize flow data from multiple pressure transducers installed directly within the storm sewer network as well as water quality data from storm and low flow sampling to initially calibrate InfoSWMM Sustain using September 2015 through September 2016 storm data. Model scenarios include current land cover conditions as well as future imperviousness predictions from redevelopment. The Urban Drainage and Flood Control District's Colorado Urban Hydrograph Procedure (CUHP) model is also implemented and used for calibration and comparison to the InfoSWMM stormwater model. Model simulations predicting an average annual stormwater runoff for the basin will be used to inform stormwater capture for the Berkeley Neighborhood on the downstream Willis Case Golf Course, where treatment trains are being designed to provide irrigation water (a 250 ac-ft per year demand) and improved water quality for discharge to the nearby receiving waters of Clear Creek. Ultimately, study results will better inform regional stormwater capture requirements when transitioning from single to multi-family units by providing a quantitative basis for treatment and regulation priorities.

  14. Paleoenvironmental and source rock assessment of black shales of Pennsylvanian Age, Powder River and northern Denver basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, J.L.; King, J.D.; Lubeck, C.M.; Leventhal, J.S.; Daws, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    Thin Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) organic-rich black shales (cumulative thickness < 50 ft) underlie much of the northern Denver basin and southeastern Powder River basin. In the Powder River basin, these shales are part of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. During Desmoinesian time, the present area of the southeastern Powder River basin and Nebraska was a shallow, at times highly saline, restricted sea. In contrast, in the present area of northeastern Colorado, black shales were deposited in a marine environment with normal salinity that was probably continuous with the Mid-Continent Pennsylvanian sea. Assessment of the paleoenvironment has been carried out using organic geochemical parameters. Shales deposited in the restricted basin setting contain abundant porphyrins (25,000-30,000 ppm relative to total extractable organic matter) and significant quantities of aryl isoprenoids. The aryl isoprenoid compounds (1) are evidence for the presence of the sulfur bacteria families Chlorobiaceae and possibly Chromatiaceae and (2) indicate that euxinic conditions existed in the water column. High ratios of sulfur to carbon in the shales support this interpretation. In contrast, extracts from black shale in the normal sea to the south contain lower porphyrin concentrations (generally less than 1000 ppm) and aryl isoprenoids are minor constituents or are absent. Sulfur/carbon ratios in these latter shales are similar to those observed for normal marine shales (that is, not euxinic conditions). Other paleoenvironmental indicators (sterane composition, alkane distribution) are consistent with these observations. Bulk organic matter in the black shales from both environments is type II and has good source potential for generation of liquid hydrocarbons during catagenesis. Pyrolysis yields of 50 kg/MT (50,000 ppm) are common, and in some shales, yield is 100 kg/MT (100,000 ppm).

  15. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. Results We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19–75. We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different

  16. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size <63 {mu}m, which were then analyzed for 7 elements by X-ray fluorescence technique. The fundamental parameters method (FP) was applied and the simple pressed powder technique for sample preparation was used. The concentrations preliminary results of metals in the household dust were Cr, 18-188 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Mn, 119-369 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Fe, 372-1464 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Ni, 33-85 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Cu, 42-303 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Zn, 156-1369 {mu}g g{sup -1} and Pb, 26-160 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  17. Office space bacterial abundance and diversity in three metropolitan areas.

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    Krissi M Hewitt

    Full Text Available People in developed countries spend approximately 90% of their lives indoors, yet we know little about the source and diversity of microbes in built environments. In this study, we combined culture-based cell counting and multiplexed pyrosequencing of environmental ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequences to investigate office space bacterial diversity in three metropolitan areas. Five surfaces common to all offices were sampled using sterile double-tipped swabs, one tip for culturing and one for DNA extraction, in 30 different offices per city (90 offices, 450 total samples. 16S rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified using bar-coded "universal" bacterial primers from 54 of the surfaces (18 per city and pooled for pyrosequencing. A three-factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA found significant differences in viable bacterial abundance between offices inhabited by men or women, among the various surface types, and among cities. Multiplex pyrosequencing identified more than 500 bacterial genera from 20 different bacterial divisions. The most abundant of these genera tended to be common inhabitants of human skin, nasal, oral or intestinal cavities. Other commonly occurring genera appeared to have environmental origins (e.g., soils. There were no significant differences in the bacterial diversity between offices inhabited by men or women or among surfaces, but the bacterial community diversity of the Tucson samples was clearly distinguishable from that of New York and San Francisco, which were indistinguishable. Overall, our comprehensive molecular analysis of office building microbial diversity shows the potential of these methods for studying patterns and origins of indoor bacterial contamination. "[H]umans move through a sea of microbial life that is seldom perceived except in the context of potential disease and decay." - Feazel et al. (2009.

  18. Investigation of the climate change within Moscow metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Trusilova, Kristina; Konstantinov, Pavel; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    As the urbanization continues worldwide more than half of the Earth's population live in the cities (U.N., 2010). Therefore the vulnerability of the urban environment - the living space for millions of people - to the climate change has to be investigated. It is well known that urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available temperature observations in cities are, however, influenced by the natural climate variations, human-induced climate warming (IPCC, 2007) and in the same time by the growth and structural modification of the urban areas. The relationship between these three factors and their roles in climate changes in the cities are very important for the climatic forecast and requires better understanding. In this study, we made analysis of the air temperature change and urban heat island evolution within Moscow urban area during decades 1970-2010, while this urban area had undergone intensive growth and building modification allowing the population of Moscow to increase from 7 to 12 million people. Analysis was based on the data from several meteorological stations in Moscow region and Moscow city, including meteorological observatory of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Differences in climate change between urban and rural stations, changes of the power and shape of urban heat island and their relationships with changes of building height and density were investigated. Collected data and obtained results are currently to be used for the validation of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with the purpose to use this model for further more detailed climate research and forecasts for Moscow metropolitan area. References: 1. U.N. (2010), World Urbanization Prospects. The 2009 Revision.Rep., 1-47 pp, United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division., New York. 2. IPCC (2007), IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

  19. [Epidemiology of severe acute renal failure in Metropolitan Santiago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukusich, Antonio; Alvear, Felipe; Villanueva, Pablo; González, Claudio; Francisco, Olivari; Alvarado, Nelly; Zehnder, Carlos

    2004-11-01

    There is a paucity of information about the epidemiology of acute renal failure in Chile. To perform a prospective multicentric survey of severe acute renal failure in Chile. All patients admitted to ten hospitals in Metropolitan Santiago, during a period of six months with severe acute renal failure, were studied. The criteria for severity was the requirement of renal replacement therapy. All patients information was gathered in special forms and the type of renal replacement therapy and evolution was registeres. One hundred fourteen patients were studied (65 males, age range 18 to 87 years). The calculated incidence of acute renal failure was 1.03 cases per 1000 hospital discharges. The onset was nosocomial in 79 subjects (69%) and community acquired in the rest. Renal failure was oliguric in 64 cases (56%) and in 60% of patients it had two or more causative factors. Sepsis, isolated or combined with other causes, was present in 51 of patients. Other causes included ischemia in 47%, surgery in 26%, exogenous toxicity in 25%, endocenous toxicity in 11%, acute glomerular damage in 6% and obstructive uropathy in 6%. Cardiac surgery was responsible for 47% of post operative cases of acute renal failure. Intermittent conventional hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement techniques and daily prolonged hemodialysis were used in 66%, 29% and 2% of patients, respectively. Overall mortality was 45% and it was higher in oliguric patients. Gender, age, cause or the type of therapy did not influence survival. Nine percent of surviving patients had some degree of kidney dysfunction at discharge. There is still a great space for prevention of severe acute renal failure in Chile, considering the main etiologies found in this study.

  20. Thermal discomfort and hypertension in bus drivers and chargers in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between perception of temperature inside the bus and hypertension among 1126 collective transportation workers in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Thermal discomfort was determined based on the perception of temperature inside the bus. Hypertension was determined if participant had a medical diagnosis of this disease. Prevalence ratios (PR) for hypertension and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The perceptions of temperature inside the bus were tolerable (26.5%), disturbs a little (28.6%), disturbs a lot (34.8%) and unbearable (10.2%). The prevalence of hypertension was 14.3%. The thermal discomfort categories of disturbs a lot (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02-1.95) and unbearable (PR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.16-2.63) were independently related to hypertension. Thermal discomfort was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. This finding should be considerate in new policies for public transportation.

  1. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

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    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  2. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 10, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Unal, Mehmet (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Mitigation Alternatives for Carbon Dioxide Emissions by the Air Transport Industry in Brazil; Air Transport Regulation Under Transformation: The Case of Switzerland; An Estimation of Aircraft Emissions at Turkish Airports; Guide to the Implementation of Iso 14401 at Airports; The Impact of Constrained Future Scenarios on Aviation and Emissions; The Immediate Financial Impact of Transportation Deregulation on the Stockholders of the Airline Industry; Aviation Related Airport Marketing in an Overlapping Metropolitan Catchment Area: The Case of Milan's Three Airports; and Airport Pricing Systems and Airport Deregulation Effects on Welfare.

  3. Triagem de desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em instituições de educação infantil segundo o Teste de Denver II Selección de desarrollo neuropsicomotriz en instituciones de educación infantil según el Test de Denver II Neuropsychological development screening in child's educational institutions according to Denver II Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Andrade Rezende

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvimento é um direito fundamental de qualquer criança e depende da interação entre herança genética e condições ambientais. A partir desta premissa, triou-se o desenvolvimento de 66 crianças (37 meninos e 29 meninas de 2 a 3 anos que freqüentavam 4 instituições públicas de educação infantil (IEIs na cidade de São Paulo. Usou-se o Teste de Triagem de Desenvolvimento de Denver II. A maior parte da amostra (62,74% ganha até 0,5 SM per capita por mês. As adequações de cada área do desenvolvimento foram: pessoal-social (N=54; 81,8%, motor fino (N= 53; 80,3%, motor grosso (N=53; 80,3% e linguagem (N=49; 74,2%. Nas áreas de linguagem e pessoal-social, as crianças obtiveram os piores resultados e na motora grossa, os melhores. Levanta-se como hipóteses: os resultados de linguagem e pessoal-social foram prejudicados pelas condições das IEIS (escolaridade das educadoras e tamanho dos grupos de crianças e talvez pela situação familiar. Quanto à área motora, vê-se que as crianças, mesmo pequenas, têm a possibilidade de brincar nas ruas. As hipóteses precisam ser comprovadas por novas pesquisas.Desarrollarse es un derecho que todo niño tiene y que depende de la herencia y lo ambiente. A seguir, se procedió a una selección de desarrollo de 66 niños (37 niños y 29 niñas de 2 a 3 años que frecuentaban 4 instituciones publicas de educación infantil en la ciudad de São Paulo Brasil, en el período de agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2005. Fue utilizado el Test de Selección de Desarrollo de Denver II. La mayor parte de los seleccionados (62,74% gana hasta 0,5 SM per cápita por mes. Las adecuaciones de cada área de desarrollo fueron: personal-social (N=54;81,8%, motriz fina (N=53; 80,3%, motriz gruesa (N=53; 80,3% y lenguaje (N=49; 74,2 %. En las áreas de lenguaje y personal-social, los niños obtuvieron los peores resultados, y en la de motriz gruesa los mejores. Se levanta como hipótesis: los resultados de

  4. Small-town migration to metropolitan centres: a case in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Boon Thong

    1979-12-01

    In Malaysia small towns are an important source of population gowth in metropolitan areas. To provide empirical evidence of the magnitude and roles of small urban centers as complementary sources of population growth in metropolitan areas, a small survey was conducted in 10 small towns in the State of Selangor. Criteria for the selection of these towns include a fair geographical spread over the State, and each area must characteristically possess a dominant urban center. The questionnaires were directed to the heads of 300 households with the intention of investigating the socioeconomic background of the households and the magnitude and characteristics of those members of the households who have migrated elsewhere. The total number of outmigrants from each area varied from 27-57, giving an overall average figure of 1.53 outmigrants/household. About 77% of the outmigrants had moved to the metropolitan centers. As the majority of the metropolitan migrants were more attracted to Kuala Lumpur, Klang, and Petaling Jaya, it may be assumed that the total outmigrants from small towns as derived would have consitituted about 39% of the population in the Klang Valley region. Based on this estimate, the role of small towns in metropolitan population growth is important. In the survey conducted, 2 broad categories of movements were involved: "economic movers," i.e., those who migrated to work or to establish businesses in the metropolitan areas; and "noneconomic movers," i.e., those who moved to continue their studies or to follow their spouses, and so forth. The economic mover stream made up 71% of the total metropolitan migrants. 2 variables--marital status and sex--were significantly related to the economic or noneconomic nature of the metropolitan migrants. The movement of males tended to be associated with economic motives whereas noneconomic reasons for movement tended to be the case among females migrants. The most important occupational group of the economically

  5. Representations of cycling in metropolitan newspapers - changes over time and differences between Sydney and Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilsen Adrian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is important for health, transport, environmental and economic reasons. Newspaper reporting of cycling reflects and can influence public and policy maker attitudes towards resource allocation for cycling and cycling infrastructure, yet such coverage has not been systematically examined. Methods The Factiva electronic news archive was searched for articles referring to cycling published in four major metropolitan newspapers - two in Sydney and two in Melbourne, Australia, in the years from 1998 until 2008. After excluding articles not about cycling, there were 61 articles published in 1998, 45 in 1999, 51 in 2003, 82 in 2007 and 87 in 2008. Each article was coded for positive or negative orientation, and for framing of cyclists and cycling. Inter-rater reliability was calculated on a sample of 30 articles. Results Over the past decade there has been an increase in the reporting of cycling in the major newspapers in Sydney and Melbourne (from 106 in 1998/99 to 169 stories in 2007/08, with a significant increase in reporting of cycling in Melbourne, from 49 to 103 stories (p = 0.04. Recent reporting of cycling was generally positive (47% of articles, compared with 30% of articles which were negative and focused on benefits such as health and the environment. Three quarters of negative stories involved injury or death of a cyclist. The Sydney based The Daily Telegraph reported the most negative stories (n = 60. We found positive framing of 'cycling' was more widespread than negative, whereas framing of 'cyclists' was more negative than positive. Conclusions Quantity of reporting of cycling varies over time and by newspaper, and even between newspapers in different cities owned by the same media company. News coverage appears to reflect developments in the different cities, with increases in positive reporting of cycling in Melbourne following increases in cycling in that city. Negative cycling newspaper stories may deter

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

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    W. Junkermann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18~March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19~March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19~March plume and to help interpret

  7. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  8. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  9. A continuous-scale measure of child development for population-based epidemiological surveys: a preliminary study using Item Response Theory for the Denver Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Marshall, Tom; de Carvalho Leite, José Carlos

    2007-03-01

    A method for translating research data from the Denver Test into individual scores of developmental status measured in a continuous scale is presented. It was devised using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) but can be used for Denver II. The DDST was applied in a community-based survey of 3389 under-5-year-olds in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The items of success were standardised by logistic regression on log chronological age. Each child's ability age was then estimated by maximum likelihood as the age in this reference population corresponding to the child's success and failures in the test. The score of developmental status is the natural logarithm of this ability age divided by chronological age and thus measures the delay or advance in the child's ability age compared with chronological age. This method estimates development status using both difficulty and discriminating power of each item in the reference population, an advantage over scores based on total number of items correctly performed or failed, which depend on difficulty only. The score corresponds with maternal opinion of child developmental status and with the 3-category scale of the DDST. It shows good construct validity, indicated by symmetrical and homogeneous variability from 3 months upwards, and reasonable results in describing gender differences in development by age, the mean score increasing with socio-economic conditions and diminishing among low-birthweight children. If a standardised measure of development status (z-scores) is required, this can be obtained by dividing the score by its standard deviation. Concurrent and discriminant validity of the score must be examined in further studies.

  10. 76 FR 35939 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... (Montlake Triangle Project) Sound Transit North Link Light Rail, Sound Transit, Seattle, WA; (10) North... (Montlake Triangle Project) Sound Transit North Link Light Rail, Seattle, WA. Project sponsor: Sound Transit... Exposition Light Rail Transit Project, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los...

  11. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  12. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

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    Korkmaz Seher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning, forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate

  13. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  14. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning), forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate of adoption of new

  15. Intervention to reduce inpatient psychiatric admission in a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsadri, Alireza; Mischel, Edward; Haddad, Luay; Tancer, Manuel; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2015-02-01

    When psychiatric hospitalization is over-used, it represents a financial drain and failure of care. We evaluated implementation and cessation of transporting people medically certified for psychiatric hospitalization to a central psychiatric emergency service for management and re-evaluation of hospitalization need. After implementation, the hospitalization rate declined 89% for 346 transported patients; only four of the nonhospitalized patients presented in crisis again in the next 30 days. Following cessation, the hospitalization rate jumped 59% compared to the preceding year. Costs declined 78.7% per diverted patient. The findings indicate that it is possible to reduce hospitalization and costs, and maintain quality care.

  16. Transportations Systems Modeling and Applications in Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    earthquake (Japan) The 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake ( wM 6.8) in the Osaka -Kobe area had an even greater impact on the transportation systems compared...with the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes in the U.S. The span collapses of the elevated Osaka -Kobe expressway (Route 3) caused long- time...nation’s economy and society. The numerical case study focuses on the road network in the Memphis metropolitan area. The road network information

  17. Spacial economic impacts of creative industries of the metropolitan areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valdivia López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth dynamics in contemporary cities and their territorial organization are subject to the influence of economic activities associated with creative industries. In this research, we perform a spatial analysis of such creative industries across all metropolitan areas of Mexico during the period. In order to show the spatial relevance that creative industries have over the urban structure, we calculate the employment concentration of each of the sectors and subsectors with respect to the distance from the closest metropolitan area’s Central Business District. We conclude that creative industries tend to localize close to the Metropolitan Areas’ CBD and they are the ones with greater capacity to generate positive externalities on employment growth.

  18. Relationship Between Solid Waste Service Characteristics and Income Level in Metropolitan Bandung Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Maryati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization process has stimulated the emergence of the metropolitan area, including Metropolitan Bandung Raya. The development of the metropolitan region is not equipped by infrastructure. Generally, the level of service of infrastructure varies based on income level. The purpose of this research is to identify the relationship between solid waste service characteristics and household income level. Solid waste service characteristics are measured from waste handling and disposal, waste collection officers, the frequency of waste collection, and fees and payment. The results of the analysis show that there is a relationship between solid waste service and income level: the higher the income, the better the solid waste service. The followings are some significant findings found in this research: (a solid waste service in housing developed by the developer is better compared to those in self-help housing, and (b solid waste service in the urban area is better compared to those in peri-urban and rural area.

  19. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    This paper hopes to fill this gap by working with the notion of environmental justice and by introducing hydrographical systems as an important level of analysis, together with the municipal and metropolitan scales. In that sense, the environment figures as the basis to correlate social, economical....... The ocean front is historically the wealthiest region of the metropolitan area and is visually and physically separated from the Rio de Janeiro suburbs by mountains characterising a schism between two cities: the ocean front extensively provided with environmental amenities and the suburbs marked...... by environmental degradation. This condition is true, but the metropolitan dynamic goes beyond that schism and this analysis reveals the dichotomy and contradictions of the hydrographical systems where wealthy and low income neighbourhoods divide the same ecological system and deal with their environmental...

  20. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over Untrustful Metropolitan Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD network in a star topology over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate 10 times larger than previous results. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds—security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.

  1. Epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, in the treasury of the Hilandar monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, was created between 1346 and 1348. It is unique for its beauty and iconographic program and, at the same time, it is the oldest of the epitaphia preserved in our country. The epitaphios was worn in the course of Holy Liturgy, during the Great Entrance in the cathedral churches and the major monasteries. Metropolitan Jovan presented the epitaphios as a gift to Christ 'my life-giver.' Depicted on its central field is the Epitaphios Threnos (Lamentation at the Tomb. Added around it, at a later time it seems, are bands representing the fourteen scenes of Great Feasts and the officiating Church Fathers, in embroidery. Holy Liturgy is served by the greatest fathers and teachers of the Church and Metropolitan Jovan.

  2. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  3. Validity and Reliability Determination of Denver Developmental Screening Test-II in 0-6 Year-Olds in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahshahani, Soheila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Azari, Nadia; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan

    2010-09-01

    This research was designed to identify the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) in Iranian children, in order to provide an appropriate developmental screening tool for Iranian child health workers. At first a precise translation of test was done by three specialists in English literature and then it was revised by three pediatricians familiar with developmental domains. Then, DDST-II was performed on 221 children ranging from 0 to 6 years, in four Child Health Clinics, in north, south, east and west regions of Tehran city. In order to determine the agreement coefficient, these children were also evaluated by ASQ test. Because ASQ is designed to use for 4-60 month- old children, children who were out of this rang were evaluated by developmental pediatricians. Available sampling was used. Obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software. Developmental disorders were observed in 34% of children who were examined by DDST-II, and in 12% of children who were examined by ASQ test. The estimated consistency coefficient between DDST-II and ASQ was 0.21, which is weak, and between DDST-II and the physicians' examination was 0.44. The content validity of DDST-II was verified by reviewing books and journals, and by specialists' opinions. All of the questions in DDST-II had appropriate content validity, and there was no need to change them. Test-retest and Inter-rater methods were used in order to determine reliability of the test, by Cronbach's α and Kauder-Richardson coefficients. Kauder-Richardson coefficient for different developmental domains was between 61% and 74%, which is good. Cronbach's α coefficient and Kappa measure of agreement for test-retest were 92% and 87% and for Inter-rater 90% and 76%, respectively. This research showed that Persian version of DDST-II has a good validity and reliability, and can be used as a screening tool for developmental screening of children in Tehran city.

  4. Urban transportation energy conservation: case city applications of analysis methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, T.J.; Suhrbier, J.H.

    1979-10-01

    This report demonstrates the application of a set of disaggregate travel demand methodologies to the analysis of potential energy conservation strategies in three urban areas: Denver, Colorado; Fort Worth, Texas; and San Francisco, California. The methodologies are sketch planning in nature and include the forecasting of changes in automobile ownership; work trip model shares by drive alone, shared ride, and transit; non-work trip frequency, destination, and mode choice; fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Using concepts of market segmentation and random sample household aggregation, both computer system and manual worksheet versions of the basic approach are applied. Policies analyzed include those related as employer based ride sharing, parking management, transit, pricing, and traffic operations. Considerable variations in the potential effectiveness was found, among the three urban areas, depending in large part on the availability of alternative travel modes such as transit. Descriptions are provided of the individual policy analyses performed, the methods by which example policies were analyzed, the necessary data preparation activities, and the procedures used to adapt the set of travel demand models to the unique conditions of each of the three metropolitan areas.

  5. Alpine gentrification: The mountain village as a metropolitan neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Perlik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the transformation of mountainous areas into residence places that replace older economic sectors (agriculture, manufacturing and even tourism in the European mountains from the perspective of regional development and the influence on the regionally anchored assets, known as territorial capital. This new tendency affects the European mountains in two ways and is one element of the constitution of metropolitan regions (metro-regions that combines metropolitan cores and leisure landscapes as new integral entities. During this process the landscape becomes a new rare commodity and becomes part of the accumulation process of capital. The article states that concepts of landscape aesthetics and amenities cannot explain these new dynamics as they hide spatio-economic processes as well as the role of landscape commodification for the new residents. The new residents are rather multi-locals than migrants. The multi-local character and the selective use of landscape commodities make it difficult to create embeddedness, which is crucial to maintaining and developing territorial capital. It may be assumed that the part-time character of the new residents may rather weaken than strengthen the existing local structures. Therefore it seems necessary to develop specific efforts for each different group of new residents to make from part-time residents (at least part-time regional actors. Moreover, the concept of regional development based on innovative actors itself has to be questioned as long as consumptive aspects are the prevailing landscape use.Cet article aborde la transformation de régions de montagne en lieux de résidence remplaçant des secteurs économiques plus anciens (agriculture, industrie manufacturière, tourisme dans les montagnes européennes. Il se place dans la perspective du développement régional et de son impact sur les ressources régionales fixes, le « capital territorial ». Cette nouvelle tendance

  6. Factors affecting the formation of sub-downtowns in various metropolitan areas around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Roman; Pomorov, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating and compiling systematic knowledge about the factors affecting formation and specificity of urban sub-downtowns (sub-centers). Sub-downtowns are autonomous territories, identical to the downtown and located within one metropolitan area with downtown. Objects corresponding to the concepts of "Edge City", "Edgeless City", "Secondary Business District", "Mixed-Use Development" were investigated as sub-downtowns. Terrestrial and satellite images, as well as functional zoning data of more than 250 metropolitan areas in all world's regions were explored. A special form of sub-downtowns characterized by direct commercial corridor connection with central business district was found and defined as "Total Business District" concept. Eight metropolitan area types were distinguished based on sub-downtown development level criterion. These types were found to have significant relation to the specific world regions. Sub-downtowns are more frequent and diverse in countries with higher level, pace and liberalization of economic development, as well as with higher motorization rate. The closer to the coast or state border the metropolitan area is, the more likely sub-downtowns within it will be developed. In the context of continental, desert, tropical, northern maritime climates sub-downtowns are less common than in subtropical, temperate and Mediterranean or Polynesian climates. In most cases, clustered (not just corridor-like) sub-downtowns are likely to be found in metropolitan areas with a population of more than 1.5-3.5 million people, depending on the geographic region of the world. The research results can improve forecasting the development and master planning of sub-downtowns in specific metropolitan areas.

  7. Expeditie agroparken : ontwerpend onderzoek naar metropolitane landbouw en duurzame ontwikkeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In agropark-ontwerpen ligt de ambitie besloten om via ruimtelijke clustering scheiding op te heffen tussen landbouw(productie), transport in de primaire lijn en de verwerking van produkten (zoals bij slacht van vee). Belangrijke uitdaging daarbij is het aandeel van fossiele energie. Daarnaast zijn o

  8. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  9. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, DENVER COUNTY, COLORADO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  12. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  13. Metropolitan Blueprints of Colonial Taxation? Lessons from Fiscal Capacity Building in British and French Africa, c. 1880-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical and social science literature is divided about the importance of metropolitan blueprints of colonial rule for the development of colonial states. We exploit historical records of colonial state finances to explore the importance of metropolitan identity on the comparative development

  14. The Prominence of Colleges and Universities in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Regional Report. Summary 09-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Denis M.; Marshall, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boston metropolitan area is recognized by many for its concentration of prestigious private colleges and universities. The metropolitan area is home to over 80 private colleges and universities employing 68,600 people and attracting over 360,000 students from all over the world. This report uses employment and wage data from the Bureau of…

  15. Environmental assessment of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification: The case study of Barcelona metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puy, Neus [SosteniPrA, Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan [SosteniPrA, Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Bartroli, Jordi [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn - Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    An energy and environmental analysis of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification in metropolitan areas is carried out to determine the most critical stages of their life cycle. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology is used to identify the environmental load of three defined scenarios: (1) Post-consumer wood from recycling points; (2) Post-consumer wood from bulky wastes; and (3) Forest residues. The stages considered are biomass pre-treatment, transport and gasification. Biomass pre-treatment comprise different steps: separation, chipping, sifting, post-chipping for all the scenarios; except for the drying step which is only entailed to Scenario 3. The midpoint impact categories taken into account are: abiotic depletion (AD), global warming (GW), ozone layer depletion (ODP), human toxicity (HT), acidification (A) and eutrophication (E). Results show that, due to the high physical requirements for biomass gasification, the most appropriate biomass is that of Scenario 1, since forest residues require a drying stage, which involves high energy consumption and high environmental impact. Energy consumption in biomass pre-treatment and transport stages is low compared to the energy obtained from gasification, which represents the 5% in Scenario 1; 7% in Scenario 2; and 13% in Scenario 3. Biomass pre-treatment is associated to an important contribution in AD and ODP impact categories, calculated as 71% and 98% of the overall impact. The transport stage is of no significant influence either in the scenarios or in the impact categories (less than 24% of the overall impact). Finally, gasification represents an impact of 3-78% of the different impact categories. (author)

  16. Advocating for active living on the rural-urban fringe: a case study of planning in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sy; Dobson, Noelle; Fox, Karen Perl; Weigand, Lynn

    2008-06-01

    This case study is about the politics of incorporating active-living elements into a concept plan for a new community of about 68,000 people on the edge of the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Development on the rural-urban fringe is ongoing in metropolitan areas around the United States. In this article, we evaluate the product of the concept-planning process from the standpoint of the extent to which environmental elements conducive to active living were included. We also analyze four issues in which challenges to the incorporation of active-living features surfaced: choices related to transportation facilities, the design and location of retail stores, the location of schools and parks, and the location of a new town center. Overall, the Damascus/Boring Concept Plan positions the area well to promote active living. Analyses of the challenges that emerged yielded lessons for advocates regarding ways to deal with conflicts between facilitating active living and local economic development and related tax-base concerns and between active-living elements and school-district planning autonomy as well as the need for advocates to have the capacity to present alternatives to the usual financial and design approaches taken by private- and public-sector investors.

  17. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Heiskanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW collected from residential sources, a comparative carbon footprint analysis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA on six different waste management scenarios is carried out. The modeled system consisted of a waste collection system, transportation, and different waste management alternatives, including on-site separation, separation at the waste management facility as well as metallurgical recovery of separated scrap. The results show that, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, separate collection and recycling of the metallic fraction of solid MSW at residential properties is the preferable option compared to a scenario with no source sorting and incineration of everything. According to this research scenario where the metal fraction of solid household waste was not source-separated or collected separately have clearly higher greenhouse gas emissions compared to all the other scenarios with separate collection for metals. In addition, metal recycling by regional collection points has considerably lower greenhouse gas emission potential than metal recycling by collection directly from residential properties.

  18. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  19. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brasov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  20. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    -HCO3 or Na-HCO3 types. TDS (107-14,500 /L), EC (225-25,500 μS/cm), salinity (100-15,500 /kg), Na+ (13.39-2,866 /L) and Cl- (15.3-7,066 /L) concentrations are also higher than those of general groundwater. This fact indicates that groundwater in study area was polluted by saline water and/or anthropogenic sources. TCE, PCE, 1.1.1-trichloroethane (TCA) were analyzed by Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health &Environment. PCE and TCA are not detected most of sites, while TCE is detected most of the sites and exceeds drinking water standard of Korea 0.03 /L. It is considered that TCE was derived from variety contamination sources such as car-washing centers, transportation companies, iron molding factories and waste treating companies. Risk assessment to human health and environmental resources by groundwater contamination was conducted. The RBCA Tool Kit for Chemical Releases can be used for the risk assessment at Tier 1 and Tier 2. The risk assessment determines risk-based concentration of constituents of concerns (COCs) that moves through groundwater, soil and air. It also evaluates carcinogenic risk and toxic effect when receptor exposures to the COCs. Tier 1 analysis determines risk-based screening levels (RBSLs) for one-site exposure. Tier 2 analysis evaluates RBSL and/or site-specific target levels (SSTLs) for both on-site and off-site receptor. RBSLs were calculated as 2.2E-2 /L for TCE and as 4.7E-3 /L for PCE at Tier 1 risk assessment. Average concentrations of TCE and PCE from measuring the groundwater samples were 0.15 mg/L and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. The actual measured values are higher than the RBSLs. Carcinogenic risk of TCE to animals was identified as B2 (inadequate or no human evidence but sufficient animal evidence). From this result, we will conduct the further detail risk assessment at Tier 2 level before conducting groundwater remediation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Korea Science &Engineering

  1. Denver peritoneovenous shunt in the management of refractory ascites due to chronic liver diseases: impact of patients selection on its outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed; El Damarawy, Mervat; Seyam, Moataz; Awad, Alaa; Madkour, Mona Ezzat; Salah, Mohamed

    2007-12-01

    Forty four patients with refractory ascites due to chronic liver diseases that fulfilling the inclusion criteria of selection were divided into 2 groups. The first group (GI, n=24) was subdivided into 2 subgroups according to degree of liver condition; GIa (n=11) with Child-Pugh class B and GIb (n=13) with early class C. The patients were subjected to P-V shunt (Denver group). Similarly, patients in the second group (GII, n=20) were divided into 2 subgroups GIIa (n=10) & GIIb (n=10) respectively and treated by the repeated tapping and albumin infusion (control group). Postoperative results revealed a significant increase in urine out put (P<0.001), decrease in abdominal girth (P<0.01) and body weight (p<0.01) with more patients fitness and satisfaction than in controls. Postoperative complications were more in GIb. Ascites recurrence occurred in 3 (23%) patients in GIb due to severe infection (2 cases) and irreversible shunt obstruction (1 case) and without recurrence in GIa. So, Denver P-V shunt offers a good palliation in such patients, but its use is more justified in selected cases.

  2. Dynamism of Transportation and Land Use Interaction in Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rajesh J.; Katti, B. K.

    2012-10-01

    Transportation in urban areas is highly complex and the urban transport system is intricately linked with urban form and spatial structure. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, notably in high density areas. The spatial separation of human activities which creates the need for travel and goods transport is the underlying principle of transport analysis and forecasting. To understand the complex relationships between transportation and land use and to help the urban planning process, several models have been developed. Many theories, models are developed by different authors on land use and transportation interaction, which clearly indicate that change in land use transformation have a greater impact on transportation. Similarly, introducing new transportation facility or strengthening of existing transport facility makes an impact on the abutting land. In cities like Delhi, Navi Mumbai, Ahmedabad, introducing of new mass transport system or strengthening of existing transportation system had given greater impact on surrounding development. In this Paper the major theoretical approaches to explain the two-way interaction of land use and transport in metropolitan areas are summarized. The paper also reviews research on the two-way interaction between urban land use and transport, i.e. the location and mobility responses of private actors (households and firms, travelers) to changes in the urban land use and transport system at the urban regional level.

  3. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  4. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  5. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  6. Project Wingspread. Metropolitan Community Resources as the Interface for Open Communications: Ideology and Social Studies Action Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Harriet; Mendelson, Lloyd J.

    This paper, presented in 1971 at the National Council for Social Studies Conference in Denver, advocates structuring elementary and secondary social studies programs around social intelligence in the Deweyan sense rather than building them around ideology. Too often programs espousing an ideology are touted as the best approach toward solving…

  7. Metropolitan reform in Allegheny County: the local failure of National Urban Reform Advocacy, 1920-1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    During the 1920-1929 period, the Civic Club of Allegheny County supported political consolidation of the county's municipalities and townships. Civic Club leaders sought boundary reform to tackle perceived social problems and political inefficiencies in the Pittsburgh region. This policy was aligned with a national network of Progressive urban reformers, some of whom guided the Civic Club's plans. These reform efforts culminated in the 1929 Metropolitan Charter, which was rejected by Allegheny County voters. Traditional explanations of this failed vote emphasize the high threshold for success of the charter. However, such accounts ignore the apparent disjunction between the national perception of regional problems and the local reception of recommended solutions. Reform advocates were unable to adapt national Progressive theories to the local context of Allegheny County. This article first describes the national network of Progressive Era research that prescribed metropolitan solutions for urban problems in cities such as Pittsburgh. The article then examines attempts by the Civic Club of Allegheny County to introduce these theories to Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The failure of the 1929 Metropolitan Charter is reevaluated, and the implications of these events for current proponents of metropolitanism and political reform are discussed.

  8. Value of Vocational Education and Training in a Non-Metropolitan Community. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Jon; Golding, Barry; Falk, Ian; Kilpatrick, Sue

    A study examined the question of how one Australian non-metropolitan community consolidates and develops sustainable economic and social activity through the learning of community members. The research used a focused interview process with open-ended questions with these 2 major sub-groups in the community and explored their interrelatedness: 2…

  9. 78 FR 10554 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset...

  10. Specifying the Determinants of Neighborhood Satisfaction: A Robust Assessment in 24 Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of households nested in census tracts in 24 metropolitan areas over four time points, this study provides a robust test of the determinants of neighborhood satisfaction, taking into account the census tract context. Consistent with social disorganization theory, the presence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity and single-parent…

  11. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  12. Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument use

  13. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Heimeriks, Gaston|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291061664

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  14. 'Wrong but Impeccable': Lehman Wing, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxtable, Ada Louise

    1975-01-01

    Although the new Lehman Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art was a controversial project based on a questionable premise, the finished building is an architectural tour de force. Despite restrictions imposed by the Landmarks Commission and the donor, the architects responded with consummate ingenuity, artistry, and skill. (JG)

  15. Metropolitan Corporate Academy: An Alternative High School for Business/Finance and Public Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metropolitan Corporate Academy, Brooklyn, NY.

    This paper describes a proposed alternative public high school, the Metropolitan Corporate Academy, a joint project of private and public institutions including the New York City Public Schools and designed to serve at-risk students. An overview notes the high New York City dropout rate and the fragmented nature of most of the programs offered in…

  16. A Comprehensive Survey on Cyberbullying Perceptions at a Major Metropolitan University--Faculty Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molluzzo, John C.; Lawler, James; Manneh, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of faculty on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a survey distributed to faculty in all schools of the university, the authors learn of high…

  17. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  18. Do Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Chicano Youth Differ: A Study of South Texas Teen-Agers - 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Moises; Kuvlesky, William

    Based on comparative data from two 1973 studies, this study examined whether or not the occupational and educational status projections and language usage patterns of Mexican American teenagers living in a large metropolitan area differed from those of teenagers living in isolated, relatively small nonmetropolitan places. The two separate, but…

  19. A Comprehensive Survey on Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying at a Major Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James P.; Molluzzo, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a concern for any college or university. Digital harassment incidents are featured daily in the news. The authors of this study examine the perceptions of students on cyberbullying at a major metropolitan university. From the findings of a student survey, the authors learn of high levels of perceptions on incidents as an issue but…

  20. Resolving Issues in Innovative Graduate Degree Programs: The Metropolitan State University Doctor of Business Administration Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmont, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Applied Master's Degree and doctoral programs have been criticized widely for their lack of relevance, rigor and quality. New graduate degree programs have responded to these criticisms by implementing innovative academic policies, program curriculum, and student services. A case study of the Metropolitan State University Doctor of Business…