Sample records for dental school faculty

  1. Internal dental school environmental factors promoting faculty survival and success. (United States)

    Masella, Richard S


    A career in dental academics offers ample rewards and challenges. To promote successful careers in dental education, prospective and new dental faculty should possess a realistic view of the dental school work environment, akin to the informed consent so valuable to patients and doctors. Self-assessment of personal strengths and weaknesses provides helpful information in matching faculty applicants with appropriate dental schools. Essential prehiring information also includes a written job description detailing duties and responsibilities, professional development opportunities, and job performance evaluation protocol. Prehiring awareness of what constitutes excellence in job performance will aid new faculty in allotting time to productive venues. New faculty should not rely solely on professional expertise to advance careers. Research and regular peer-reviewed publications are necessary elements in academic career success, along with the ability to secure governmental, private foundation, and corporate grant support. Tactful self-promotion and self-definition to the dental school community are faculty responsibilities, along with substantial peer collaboration. The recruitment period is a singular opportunity to secure job benefits and privileges. It is also the time to gain knowledge of institutional culture and assess administrative and faculty willingness to collaborate on teaching, research, professional development, and attainment of change. Powerful people within dental schools and parent institutions may influence faculty careers and should be identified and carefully treated. The time may come to leave one's position for employment at a different dental school or to step down from full-time academics. Nonetheless, the world of dental and health professional education in 2005 is rapidly expanding and offers unlimited opportunities to dedicated, talented, and informed educators.

  2. Career transition and dental school faculty development program. (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffery L; Hendricson, William D; Partida, Mary N; Rugh, John D; Littlefield, John H; Jacks, Mary E


    Academic dentistry, as a career track, is not attracting sufficient numbers of new recruits to maintain a corps of skilled dental educators. The Faculty Development Program (FDP) at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School received federal funds to institute a 7-component program to enhance faculty recruitment and retention and provide training in skills associated with success in academics including:(1) a Teaching Excellence and Academic Skills (TExAS)Fellowship, (2) training in research methodology,evidence-based practice research, and information management, (3) an annual dental hygiene faculty development workshop for dental hygiene faculty, (4) a Teaching Honors Program and Academic Dental Careers Fellowship to cultivate students' interest in educational careers, (5) an Interprofessional Primary Care Rotation,(6) advanced education support toward a master's degree in public health, and (7) a key focus of the entire FDP, an annual Career Transition Workshop to facilitate movement from the practice arena to the educational arm of the profession.The Career Transition Workshop is a cap stone for the FDP; its goal is to build a bridge from practice to academic environment. It will provide guidance for private practice, public health, and military dentists and hygienists considering a career transition into academic dentistry. Topics will be addressed including: academic culture, preparation for the academic environment,academic responsibilities, terms of employment,compensation and benefits, career planning, and job search / interviewing. Instructors for the workshop will include dental school faculty who have transitioned from the practice, military, and public health sectors into dental education.Objectives of the Overall Faculty Development Program:• Provide training in teaching and research skills,career planning, and leadership in order to address faculty shortages in dental schools and under representation of minority

  3. Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental schools. (United States)

    Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine


    The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.

  4. The demographic and academic profile of Irish dental school faculty members.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eleanor M


    AIM: This paper reviews the demographic, academic and professional profile of Irish dental school faculty members. Faculty duties are explored. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Custom-designed questionnaires were distributed to faculty members for self-completion, adopting a \\'mixed-method\\' approach with quantitative and qualitative components. Response rate was 64.60%. RESULTS: Demographic profile reveals a male-dominated regime (64%). Males also occupy a disproportionate number of senior academic positions. The age profile mirrors international trends with 75% of staff over 40 and c.33% over 50, including 78% of professorial staff (p < 0.001). Dental school faculties are comprised of highly educated professionals with the following qualifications: 89% BDS, 43% FDS, 39% Masters, 16% Doctorates. Most (77%) have 10+ years of clinical experience, while 47% have over 20 years\\' experience. Clinical experience varied by age, rank (p < 0.001) and gender (p < 0.05). A review of contractual agreements and duties confirms the major role of part-time clinical staff in dental education, comprising the largest single group (48%) delivering the bulk of the clinical teaching. However, 54% of part-time clinical staff have less than five years teaching experience. This study also explores staff views of various faculty roles. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides a benchmark profile of Irish dental school faculty members. It reflects on the heavily skewed age groups of our current dental educators and the impending retirement of many senior academics. Educational organisations need to explore ways to make a career in dental education financially and sociologically attractive and provide adequate support for existing faculty to ensure their development during these challenging times.

  5. A Dental School's Experience with the Death of an HIV Positive Faculty Member. (United States)

    Butters, Janice M.; And Others


    This article reviews issues and circumstances surrounding the death of a University of Louisville (Kentucky) dental school faculty member found to be positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. it addresses administrative aspects including public relations, patient relations, epidemiological review, and staff counseling. (MSE)

  6. Will a Short Training Session Improve Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Quality by Dental School Faculty? A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A


    Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.

  7. Perception of tobacco use prevention and cessation among faculty members in Latin American and Caribbean dental schools. (United States)

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S; Gritz, Ellen R


    Rates of tobacco use are increasing in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of the dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in the dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and six supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into the dental curricula using a five-point Likert scale ("1" = strongly disagree to "5" = strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66 % South America, 18 % Mexico/Central America, 16 % the Caribbean). Of the respondents, 2, 12, and 83 % reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated into the dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools.

  8. Integration of Basic and Clinical Sciences: Faculty Perspectives at a U.S. Dental School. (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Dharini; van der Hoeven, Ransome; Zhu, Liang; Busaidy, Kamal; Quock, Ryan L


    Although dental education has traditionally been organized into basic sciences education (first and second years) and clinical education (third and fourth years), there has been growing interest in ways to better integrate the two to more effectively educate students and prepare them for practice. Since 2012, The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston (UTSD) has made it a priority to improve integration of basic and clinical sciences, with a focus to this point on integrating the basic sciences. The aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of basic and clinical science faculty members regarding basic and clinical sciences integration and the degree of integration currently occurring. In October 2016, all 227 faculty members (15 basic scientists and 212 clinicians) were invited to participate in an online survey. Of the 212 clinicians, 84 completed the clinician educator survey (response rate 40%). All 15 basic scientists completed the basic science educator survey (response rate 100%). The majority of basic and clinical respondents affirmed the value of integration (93.3%, 97.6%, respectively) and reported regular integration in their teaching (80%, 86.9%). There were no significant differences between basic scientists and clinicians on perceived importance (p=0.457) and comfort with integration (p=0.240), but the basic scientists were more likely to integrate (p=0.039) and collaborate (p=0.021) than the clinicians. There were no significant differences between generalist and specialist clinicians on importance (p=0.474) and degree (p=0.972) of integration in teaching and intent to collaborate (p=0.864), but the specialists reported feeling more comfortable presenting basic science information (p=0.033). Protected faculty time for collaborative efforts and a repository of integrated basic science and clinical examples for use in teaching and faculty development were recommended to improve integration. Although questions might be raised about

  9. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System. (United States)

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  10. Collateral Opportunity for Increased Faculty Collaboration and Development through a Mentored Critical Thinking and Writing Exercise in a Dental School Curriculum (United States)

    Hoover, Terry E.; Lyon, Lucinda J.


    This essay examines the collateral benefits to faculty from a guided learning literature review project for students. We describe a 3-year continuum of project creation and refinement designed to foster critical thinking and writing for second year dental students at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry. We discuss…

  11. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty. (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A


    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  12. Climate Study of the Learning Environment for Faculty, Staff, and Students at a U.S. Dental School: Foundation for Culture Change. (United States)

    Murdoch-Kinch, C A; Duff, R E; Ramaswamy, V; Ester, T V; Sponseller, S A; Seeley, J A


    -focused PPE process using mixed methods was effective for evaluating the dental school's climate for diversity and inclusion, as well as the learning environment for faculty, staff, and students.

  13. Mandatory Clinical Practice for Dental and Dental Hygiene Faculty. (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; And Others


    Dental and dental hygiene faculty should maintain their clinical skills through regular practice, to improve their ability to relate to students through instruction, provide an additional source of income, and improve their image in the community. Institutional policies fostering and regulating faculty practice plans are suggested. (Author/MSE)

  14. A national study on the attitudes of Irish dental faculty members to faculty development.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, E M


    International studies suggest that dental faculty are resistant to the concept and practice of faculty development. This paper analyses the demographic and educational profile of Irish Dental Faculty, exploring their attitudes to educational initiatives.

  15. Dental Student, Resident, and Faculty Attitudes Toward Treating Medicaid Patients. (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying


    Failure to receive proper oral health care including both prevention and maintenance is influenced by myriad and complex social, economic, and dental factors, including access to care. Reducing oral health disparities requires changes in the preparation of future dentists as well as measuring and influencing the attitudes and knowledge of practicing dentists. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that future dentists (students and residents) and faculty members at one U.S. dental school would treat Medicaid participants. Attitudes were measured using the Deamonte Driver scenario survey, which assesses factors affecting dentists' participation in Medicaid. In October 2012, all 113 full-time faculty members were invited to participate, and 60 completed the survey, for a response rate of 53.1%. In January and February 2013, all 18 residents in the dental clinics and university hospital were invited to participate, and 16 completed the survey, for a response rate of 88.9%. From 2013 to 2015, all 267 students in three classes were invited to participate: first-year students in the Classes of 2017 and 2018 and fourth-year students in the Class of 2015. A total of 255 students completed the survey, for an overall student response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the students were more likely to participate in caring for Medicaid patients than the faculty and residents. The white and male students had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the females and underrepresented minority students, while residents had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the students and faculty. Overall, the cultural competency skills, beliefs, and attitudes of these faculty members and residents were less developed than those of their students, signaling a need for broad educational and faculty development programs to fully prepare the future dental workforce to care for these patients.

  16. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives. (United States)

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R


    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  17. The role of observational research in improving faculty lecturing skills: A qualitative study in an Italian dental school. (United States)

    Visioli, Sonia; Lodi, Giovanni; Carrassi, Antonio; Zannini, Lucia


    This pilot study is based on observational research of lecturing skills during the annual Oral Medicine course at the Milan Dentistry School. Our goals were to explore how teachers exhibited desirable lecturing skills, to observe how their attitudes and lecturing skills affected students' attention and thereby learning, and to provide feedback. We prepared a structured observational grid divided into four categories: explaining, questioning, visual aids, and lecturer attitude. The grid was filled in by a participant, nonactive researcher. Two main types of lecture were observed: "traditional" and "interactive". Both of these can result in a high level of attention among students. Among the categories, only "lecturer attitude" appeared to affect student attention. In particular, the skills of "speaking aloud" and "sustaining verbal communication with vocal inflection" appeared to have the greatest impact on lecturer attitude. The data were then presented blindly to the five lecturers, who were able to identify their own lesson. Our grid proved to be a valid instrument although it was very expensive. When integrated with other strategies for improving lecturing, such as student scoring, peer evaluation, and microteaching, observational research can be a cost-effective method to stimulate guided reflection and to improve the lecturing skills of faculty members.

  18. Community-based dental education and the importance of faculty development. (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen


    Community-based dental education offers a variety of positive learning experiences for students while providing needed dental services for the underserved. More dental students are being instructed by a growing body of largely volunteer community-based faculty who practice in a wide range of community settings including community hospitals and clinics, nursing homes, and private practices. These geographically dispersed instructors may have little experience as educators. Their practice styles and their motivation to improve teaching effectiveness are likely to differ from the styles and motivation of school-based faculty members. Moreover, many dental schools have begun to emphasize practices that may be unfamiliar to community-based faculty such as evidence-based practice. Providing faculty development for them is challenging, yet crucial to the success of these programs and dental education in general. Fundamental elements that must be considered for effective community faculty development programming include fostering a culture of respect between school-based and community faculty members, basing programs on the actual needs of these educators, integrating principles of adult learning theory, and establishing ongoing institutional support. This article provides background on this movement, reviews the literature for faculty development programs geared specifically to community-based educators, makes recommendations for development programs for these dental educators, and includes suggestions for future research.

  19. Ethics Instruction at California Dental Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola K. Giusti


    Methods: Faculty members identified as Dental Ethics Course Directors at four schools were contacted by phone to inform them of the research project and invite participation. Subjects then responded to an emailed survey questionnaire. Results: Results were collated and analyzed. Conclusions: Effective ethics instruction is an essential component of modern dental education, and results show that each of the four schools uses a variety of methods to accomplish the task.

  20. Ergonomics Calibration Training Utilizing Photography for Dental Hygiene Faculty Members. (United States)

    Partido, Brian B


    Dental and dental hygiene clinical faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction, especially since most procedures involve clinical judgment. Although instructional variations frequently translate into variations in student performance, the effect of inconsistent instruction is unknown, especially related to ergonomics. The aim of this study was to determine whether photography-assisted calibration training would improve interrater reliability among dental hygiene faculty members in ergonomics evaluation. The photography-assisted ergonomics calibration program incorporated features to improve accessibility and optimize the quality of the training. The study used a two-group repeated measures design with a convenience sample of 11 dental hygiene faculty members (eight full-time and three part-time) during the autumn 2016 term at one U.S. dental school. At weeks one and seven, all participants evaluated imaged postures of five dental students using a modified-dental operator posture assessment instrument. During weeks three and five, training group participants completed calibration training using independent and group review of imaged postures. All pre-training and post-training evaluations were evaluated for interrater reliability. Two-way random effects intraclass coefficient (ICC) values were calculated to measure the effects of the training on interrater reliability. The average measure of ICC of the training group improved from 0.694 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.001 to 0.965 (F(4,8)=3.465, p>0.05) to 0.766 with a 95% CI of 0.098 to 0.972 (F(4,8)=7.913, p<0.01). The average measure of ICC of the control group improved from 0.821 with a 95% CI of 0.480 to 0.978 (F(4,28)=7.702, p<0.01) to 0.846 with a 95% CI of 0.542 to 0.981 (F(4,28)=8.561, p<0.01). These results showed that the photography-assisted calibration training with the opportunity to reconcile different opinions resulted in improved agreement among these faculty members.

  1. Dental school finances: current status. (United States)

    Crawford, W H


    Total expenditures and revenues of 58 US dental school were derived from reports of the ADA Division of Educational Measurements. These financial data were studied by type of dental school (public, state-related private, and private) and by expenditure/revenue categories. Dental schools showed little diversity in expenditures: most were directed toward instruction; few were directed toward research or continuing education. Several distinctive patterns among the three types of dental schools in revenues were observed. Two configurations emerged: public and state-related private dental schools receive more than 75% of their revenues from government and tuition, and private dental schools, more than 50%.

  2. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey. (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R


    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.

  3. The training and support needs of faculty and students using a health information technology system were significant: a case study in a dental school. (United States)

    Hill, Heather K; Stewart, Denice C L; Ash, Joan S


    Health Information Technology Systems (HITS) are becoming more widely integrated into patient care in the dental school setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a chairside HITS on users in the dental school setting. Qualitative techniques, including interviews, focus groups and observations, were used. Using grounded theory, we saw 9 themes emerge. One theme of particular interest was that "training and support needs of end-users were significant." This paper explores this theme in detail and discusses the implications.

  4. Calculus detection calibration among dental hygiene faculty members utilizing dental endoscopy: a pilot study. (United States)

    Partido, Brian B; Jones, Archie A; English, Dana L; Nguyen, Carol A; Jacks, Mary E


    Dental and dental hygiene faculty members often do not provide consistent instruction in the clinical environment, especially in tasks requiring clinical judgment. From previous efforts to calibrate faculty members in calculus detection using typodonts, researchers have suggested using human subjects and emerging technology to improve consistency in clinical instruction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if a dental endoscopy-assisted training program would improve intra- and interrater reliability of dental hygiene faculty members in calculus detection. Training included an ODU 11/12 explorer, typodonts, and dental endoscopy. A convenience sample of six participants was recruited from the dental hygiene faculty at a California community college, and a two-group randomized experimental design was utilized. Intra- and interrater reliability was measured before and after calibration training. Pretest and posttest Kappa averages of all participants were compared using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA to determine the effectiveness of the calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability. The results showed that both kinds of reliability significantly improved for all participants and the training group improved significantly in interrater reliability from pretest to posttest. Calibration training was beneficial to these dental hygiene faculty members, especially those beginning with less than full agreement. This study suggests that calculus detection calibration training utilizing dental endoscopy can effectively improve interrater reliability of dental and dental hygiene clinical educators. Future studies should include human subjects, involve more participants at multiple locations, and determine whether improved rater reliability can be sustained over time.

  5. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa


    The study aimed to assess the awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A total of 348 dental health professionals (170 males and 178 females) were surveyed, out of which 116 were MDS faculty, 45 were BDS faculty and 187 were pursuing post graduation. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions about the awareness of consumer protection act. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, student's t test and ANOVA. A total of 84.8% (n=295) reported to be aware of consumer protection act. Amongst them, MDS faculty showed more awareness as compared to BDS faculty and those pursuing post-graduation. Considering the present scenario, MDS faculty dental professionals have more awareness of consumer protection act compared to other dental professionals. So, we must upgrade our knowledge on consumer protection act at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of consumer protection act for delivering quality dental care.

  6. Dental Student and Faculty Perceptions of Uncivil Behavior by Faculty Members in Classroom and Clinic. (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Fournier, Suzanne E; Townsend, Janice A; Ballard, Mary B; Armbruster, Paul C


    Uncivil behavior by a faculty member or student can threaten a classroom environment and make it less conducive to learning. The aim of this study was to explore faculty behaviors that dental faculty and students perceive to be uncivil when exhibited in the classroom and clinic. In 2015, all faculty, administrators, and students at a single academic dental institution were invited to participate in an electronic survey that used a five-point Likert scale for respondents to indicate their agreement that 33 faculty behaviors were uncivil. Response rates were 49% for faculty and 59% for students. Significant differences were found between student and faculty responses on 22 of the 33 behavioral items. None of the three category composite scores differed significantly for students compared to faculty respondents. The category composite scores were not significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, or age for faculty or students. Overall, this study found significant differences between students and faculty about perceived uncivil faculty behaviors, though not for categories of behaviors.

  7. American Dental Education Association (United States)

    ... Interest Groups ADEA Governance Documents and Publications ADEA Dental Faculty Code of Conduct ADEA Bylaws ADEAGies Foundation ... Benefits for Faculty ADEA Member Benefits for Allied Dental Programs ADEA Member Benefits for Dental Schools ADEA ...

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards preventive dental care among dental faculties in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Ahuja


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Preventive approach in dental practice has been cited as a reason for the decline in oral diseases and as a predominant part of the service-mix of dental practices in the future. Dental faculty′s knowledge and attitude toward prevention are important, since they have exceptionally important direct and indirect roles in shaping student′s preventive orientation and also potentially influencing their patient′s ability to take care of their teeth. Thus, this study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care among dental faculties and their relation to demographic and professional characteristics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental faculties in Bangalore city. Of 17 dental colleges, 4 were selected by simple random sampling. A total of 218 dental faculties was individually asked to complete a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire requested information on dental faculty′s demographic and professional characteristics and their knowledge and attitudes toward preventive dental care. Descriptive, Chi-square tests, and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The highest knowledge was seen among dental faculties regarding prevention of malocclusion (3.51 ± 1.02 followed by oral cancer (2.95 ± 1.09 and periodontal diseases (2.86 ± 1.02. The least knowledge was seen for the prevention of caries (2.63 ± 1.35. The most positive attitudes regarding preventive dentistry was characterized as being essential (6.34 ± 1.05, useful (6.32 ± 1.07 and valuable (6.27 ± 1.00. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to knowledge and attitudes for all demographic and professional characteristics except for gender and Department of Teaching. Conclusion: Dental faculty seems to have differing levels of knowledge regarding oral diseases with positive attitudes seen regarding preventive dentistry. Continuing education activities and

  9. Faculty professional development in emergent pedagogies for instructional innovation in dental education. (United States)

    Zheng, M; Bender, D; Nadershahi, N


    Innovative pedagogies have significantly impacted health professions' education, dental education included. In this context, faculty, defined in this study as instructor in higher education, has been increasingly required to hone their instructional skills. The purpose of this exploratory study was to share the design, implementation and preliminary outcomes of two programmes to enhance dental faculty's instructional skills, the Teaching and Learning Seminar Series and the Course Director Orientation. Data sources included faculty and student surveys developed and administered by the researchers; data extracted from the learning management system; reports from the learning analytics tool; and classroom observations. Participants' satisfaction, self-reported learning, instructional behavioural change, and impact on student learning behaviours and institutional practice were assessed borrowing from Kirkpatrick's 4-level model of evaluation of professional development effectiveness. Initial findings showed that faculty in both programmes reported positive learning experiences. Participants reported that the programmes motivated them to improve instructional practice and improved their knowledge of instructional innovation. Some faculty reported implementation of new instructional strategies and tools, which helped create an active and interactive learning environment that was welcomed by their students. The study contributes to literature and best practice in health sciences faculty development in pedagogy and may guide other dental schools in designing professional development programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dental Hygiene Program Directors' Perceptions of Graduate Dental Hygiene Education and Future Faculty Needs. (United States)

    Wilder, Rebecca S.; Mann, Ginger; Tishk, Maxine


    A survey of 161 dental-hygiene-program directors investigated perceived future needs for faculty, preferences for type of faculty degree for selection and promotion, the extent to which master's programs are meeting those needs in both numbers and skills, and how the programs can better prepare graduates for the millennium. (MSE)

  11. Scholarship and Dental Education: New Perspectives for Clinical Faculty. (United States)

    Albino, Judith E.


    Career advancement in academic dentistry appears to demand success in teaching, scholarship, and service, but foremost in research or scholarship. As a result, many dental faculty believe they are forced to choose between providing excellent professional preparation for their students or ensuring their academic careers. (MLW)

  12. Effect of Faculty Development Activities on Dental Hygiene Faculty Perceptions of and Teaching About Motivational Interviewing: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Arnett, Michelle; Korte, Dina; Richards, Philip S; Saglik, Berna; Taichman, L Susan; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne E


    The aims of this pilot study were to assess dental hygiene faculty members' perceptions of the importance of motivational interviewing (MI) and their confidence in teaching students about MI and to determine the effect of MI training sessions on those perceptions. Participants were a convenience sample of all 16 dental hygiene faculty members who teach in the clinic at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Participants' perceptions were assessed prior to a workshop in MI (pretest), immediately after the workshop (posttest 1), and eight months after the workshop, at the end of the academic year (posttest 2). During the same period, some of the workshop participants took part in team grading sessions of audio recordings of student-patient MI interactions. The results showed that the majority of the faculty members perceived it was important to personally embrace the overall spirit of MI during patient care, and they were confident supporting students as well. Their ratings for embracing the spirit of MI increased from pretest to posttest 1, but slightly decreased at posttest 2. This trend was also seen in their assessment of the importance of and their confidence in teaching the eight MI strategies over time. Among the workshop participants, 56% were part of team grading; they reported the most helpful professional development activities overall were team grading (58%) and the workshop (25%). These results suggest the importance of making use of a variety of faculty development activities and of introducing appropriate follow-up to training sessions over time to ensure long-lasting effects. Future research using carefully designed, multi-institution, longitudinal studies is needed to determine the most effective ways to prepare dental hygiene faculty members to educate their students about MI.

  13. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective. (United States)

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H


    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.

  14. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING. (United States)



  15. The research impact of school psychology faculty. (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W; Chan-Park, Christina Y


    Hirsch's (2005) h index has become one of the most popular indicators of research productivity for higher education faculty. However, the h index varies across academic disciplines so empirically established norms for each discipline are necessary. To that end, the current study collected h index values from Scopus and Google Scholar databases for 401 tenure-track faculty members from 109 school psychology training programs. Male faculty tended to be more senior than female faculty and a greater proportion of the male faculty held professorial rank. However, female faculty members outnumbered males at the assistant and associate professor ranks. Although strongly correlated (rho=.84), h index values from Google Scholar were higher than those from Scopus. h index distributions were positively skewed with many faculty having low values and a few faculty having high values. Faculty in doctoral training programs exhibited significantly larger h index values than faculty in specialist training programs and there were univariate differences in h index values across academic rank and sex, but sex differences were not significant after taking seniority into account. It was recommended that the h index be integrated with peer review and diverse other indicators when considering individual merit. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental Faculty Perceptions of Workplace Environment and Job Satisfaction at a Southeastern University, College of Dentistry (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon L.


    The purpose of this study was to replicate the American Dental Education Association 2007 Dental Faculty Perceptions of Workplace Environment survey at A Southeastern University, College of Dentistry. The study examined dental faculty perceptions of academic workplace variables including culture and environment, as well as professional development…

  17. A snapshot of cultural competency education in US dental schools. (United States)

    Rowland, Michael L; Bean, Canise Y; Casamassimo, Paul S


    During the last decade, cultural competency has received a great deal of attention in health care and the literature of many fields, including education, social services, law, and health care. The dental education literature provides little information regarding status, strategies, or guiding principles of cultural competency education in U.S. dental schools. This study was an attempt to describe the status of cultural competency education in U.S. dental schools. A web-based thirty-question survey regarding cultural competency education coursework, teaching, course materials, and content was sent in 2005 to the assistant/associate deans for academic affairs at fifty-six U.S. dental schools, followed up by subsequent email messages. Thirty-four (61 percent) dental school officials responded to the survey. The majority of respondents (twenty-eight; 82 percent) did not have a specific stand-alone cultural competency course, but indicated it was integrated into the curriculum. Recognition of local and national community diversity needs prompted course creation in most schools. Respondents at almost two-thirds of schools indicated that their impression of students' acceptance was positive. Teachers of cultural competency were primarily white female dentists. Few schools required faculty to have similar cultural competency or diversity training. Thirty-three of the thirty-four U.S. dental schools responding to this survey offer some form of coursework in cultural competency with little standardization and a variety of methods and strategies to teach dental students.

  18. Developing dental faculty for the future: ADEA/AAL Institute for Teaching and Learning, 2006-09. (United States)

    Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William D; Killip, John W; O'Neill, Paula N; Reed, Michael J; Weinstein, George; Williams, John N; Valachovic, Richard W


    This report summarizes the history and curriculum of the American Dental Education Association/Academy for Academic Leadership Institute for Teaching and Learning (ADEA/AAL ITL) Program for Dental School Faculty, describes participant feedback, and reviews how the program serves the faculty development initiatives of the American Dental Education Association. The fifty-hour program (6.5 days), conducted in two phases at collaborating dental schools, enhances core academic competencies of new and transitional faculty, including faculty members whose responsibilities include predoctoral, allied, and postdoctoral dental education. The program's mission is to prepare participants to become more effective teachers and develop other skills that will facilitate confidence, job satisfaction, and professional growth in the academic environment. From 2005 to 2009, 174 individuals graduated from the program, representing forty-three schools of dentistry in the United States and Canada and twenty-nine private practices. A total of forty scholarships have been awarded to participants by the American Academy of Periodontology Foundation, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, and the American Association of Orthodontists. In an online survey completed by 75 percent of ADEA/AAL ITL participants, 99 percent indicated they were positive or highly positive about their learning experience in this faculty development program. Ninety-six percent stated that the program had been important or very important in their effectiveness as a teacher. In 2010, the program will be held at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry, with phase I occurring on August 19-22, 2010, and phase II on October 22-24, 2010. In summary, the ADEA/AAL ITL is addressing an unmet need through a formal professional development program designed to help new and potential faculty members thrive as educators and become future leaders in academic health care.

  19. Business schools' international networks for faculty development


    Pennarola F.


    Business schools are facing ever increasing internationalization: students are far less homogenous than before, faculty members come from different countries, and teaching is carried out in second (or even third) languages. As a result business schools and their teachers wrestle with new challenges as these changes accelerate. Teaching and Learning at Business Schools brings together contributions from business school managers and educators involved in the International Teachers Programm...

  20. Ethics and the electronic health record in dental school clinics. (United States)

    Cederberg, Robert A; Valenza, John A


    Electronic health records (EHRs) are a major development in the practice of dentistry, and dental schools and dental curricula have benefitted from this technology. Patient data entry, storage, retrieval, transmission, and archiving have been streamlined, and the potential for teledentistry and improvement in epidemiological research is beginning to be realized. However, maintaining patient health information in an electronic form has also changed the environment in dental education, setting up potential ethical dilemmas for students and faculty members. The purpose of this article is to explore some of the ethical issues related to EHRs, the advantages and concerns related to the use of computers in the dental operatory, the impact of the EHR on the doctor-patient relationship, the introduction of web-based EHRs, the link between technology and ethics, and potential solutions for the management of ethical concerns related to EHRs in dental schools.

  1. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program. (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R


    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (ppeer teaching (ppeer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.

  2. Satisfaction of Dental Students, Faculty, and Patients with Tooth Shade-Matching Using a Spectrophotometer. (United States)

    Ballard, Erin; Metz, Michael J; Harris, Bryan T; Metz, Cynthia J; Chou, Jang-Ching; Morton, Dean; Lin, Wei-Shao


    The aims of this study were to evaluate dental students' clinical shade-matching outcomes (from subjective use of shade guide) with an objective electronic shade-matching tool (spectrophotometer); to assess patients', students', and supervising faculty members' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcomes; and to assess clinicians' support for use of the spectrophotometer to improve esthetic outcomes. A total of 103 volunteer groups, each consisting of patient, dental student, and supervising faculty member at the University of Louisville, were recruited to participate in the study in 2015. Using the spectrophotometer, clinical shade-matching outcome (ΔE clinical ) and laboratory shade-matching outcome (ΔE laboratory ) were calculated. Two five-point survey items were used to assess the groups' satisfaction with the clinical shade-matching outcome and support for an objective electronic shade-matching tool in the student clinic. The results showed that both ΔE clinical (6.5±2.4) and ΔE laboratory (4.3±2.0) were outside the clinical acceptability threshold ΔE values of 2.7, when visual shade-matching method (subjective usage of shade guide) was used to fabricate definitive restorations. Characteristics of the patients, dental students, supervising faculty members, and restorations had minimal to no effect on the ΔE clinical The patients, dental students, and supervising faculty members generally had positive opinions about the clinical shade-matching outcome, despite the increased ΔE clinical observed. Overall, clinical shade-matching outcomes in this school need further improvement, but the patients' positive opinions may indicate the need to revisit the acceptability threshold ΔE value of 2.7 in the academic setting.

  3. Triple jump examination evaluation of faculty examiners by dental student examinees. (United States)

    Navazesh, Mahvash; Rich, Sandra K; Keim, Robert G


    The triple jump examination (TJE) is an oral examination that poses challenges for objective assessment. Student satisfaction levels with faculty assessment can provide information on quality of teaching and students' perceptions of the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine scale and interrater reliability of an instrument used by approximately 576 first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school for assessment of their faculty evaluators following midterm and final TJEs over a three-year period. One hundred and one faculty members served as administrators of the TJE with a range of one to 187 times (mean=44.10, median=29, mode=11). The grand mean for six items on a six-point Likert scale was 5.39 with a pooled standard deviation of 1.01. Results indicate positive agreement toward performance of examiners with strong interrater reliability (Average Measures ICC=0.936, Single Measures ICC=0.708) (F5,23475 = 51.564, pperform acceptable assessment from the students' perspective. Overall, these students expressed a high level of satisfaction with TJE faculty performance.

  4. Sexual discrimination in academia. Implications for dental hygiene faculty. (United States)

    Shuman, D; Tolle, S L


    Despite anti-discriminatory legislation, academic women in the 1980s have not achieved equality, and continue to face diverse problems advancing in an academic system based on a patriarchal paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to provide dental hygiene faculty with insight, awareness, and understanding into four major problem areas that influence women's academic success: values and attitudes learned through socialization; blocks to administrative positions; the male locus of decision making; and double standards of performance evaluation. Additionally, examples of solutions to these problems are discussed in three categories: individual, internal to the university, and external to the university; in an effort to better prepare women in dental hygiene education to succeed in academia despite discriminatory practices.

  5. Dental hygiene faculty calibration in the evaluation of calculus detection. (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V; Newell, Kathleen J


    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the impact of faculty calibration training on intra- and interrater reliability regarding calculus detection. After IRB approval, twelve dental hygiene faculty members were recruited from a pool of twenty-two for voluntary participation and randomized into two groups. All subjects provided two pre- and two posttest scorings of calculus deposits on each of three typodonts by recording yes or no indicating if they detected calculus. Accuracy and consistency of calculus detection were evaluated using an answer key. The experimental group received three two-hour training sessions to practice a prescribed exploring sequence and technique for calculus detection. Participants immediately corrected their answers, received feedback from the trainer, and reconciled missed areas. Intra- and interrater reliability (pre- and posttest) was determined using Cohen's Kappa and compared between groups using repeated measures (split-plot) ANOVA. The groups did not differ from pre- to posttraining (intrarater reliability p=0.64; interrater reliability p=0.20). Training had no effect on reliability levels for simulated calculus detection in this study. Recommendations for future studies of faculty calibration when evaluating students include using patients for assessing rater reliability, employing larger samples at multiple sites, and assessing the impact on students' attitudes and learning outcomes.

  6. An assessment of faculty and dental student decision-making in ethics. (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Catalanotto, Frank A; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse


    This study reports and compares dental student and dental faculty scores to national norms for the Defining Issues Test 2, a measure of ethical decision-making competency. The findings showed that dental students and faculty tend to make decisions that promote self-interest, paralleling the ethical orientation of business professionals. Differences associated with gender, language, and norms from previous studies were observed. The findings underscore the importance of raising dental faculty and student awareness of their own ethical decision-making approaches. More importantly, the findings highlight the need to ensure that dental faculty have both the knowledge and skills to train dental students about the central role that ethical decision-making must play in patient care.

  7. Which Way to Lean? A National Study of Women Dental Faculty Members' Career Aspirations and Choices. (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Pyle, Marsha A; Van Ness, Christopher J; Overman, Pamela R; West, Karen P


    The aim of this first national study of women in academic dentistry was to explore factors and perceived barriers for why administrative/leadership positions were or were not sought via data collected from full-time women dental faculty members in the U.S. In fall 2015, the researchers conducted a survey that employed a combination of response formats: forced choice from a menu, multiple allowable answers, and open-ended written comments. The overall response rate for the survey was 35.6% (537/1504). Respondents were from 48 of the 65 U.S. dental schools. Half of the respondents indicated their primary appointment was in clinical sciences, 22.9% were in administration, 7.3% in research, 7.1% in basic science, and 2.5% in behavioral science. While a quarter of the respondents indicated administration as their primary appointment, over half reported holding administrative positions, and nearly all (92.4%) reported currently holding leadership roles at their institutions. For those not currently in administrative/leadership roles, 52.6% indicated a desire for an administrative role and 70.7% a leadership role. Of those in administrative/leadership roles, 62.1% indicated not receiving extra remuneration for those responsibilities. Half of the respondents perceived that they were paid less in their current position than men doing the same work. The most dominant theme emerging from qualitative analysis of barriers the respondents experienced was the difficulty women in dental education have in a traditionally male-dominated profession. The results confirmed that women faculty members are "leaning in" to seek administrative/leadership roles in academic dentistry. However, pay equity remains an issue, and faculty development and mentoring are needed for the advancement of academic dentistry and ultimately the dental profession.

  8. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement. (United States)

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda


    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  9. LGBT Coverage in U.S. Dental Schools and Dental Hygiene Programs: Results of a National Survey. (United States)

    Hillenburg, Kenneth L; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A; Kinney, Janet S; Temple, Henry; Inglehart, Marita R


    The aims of this study were to assess curricular coverage of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content in U.S. and Canadian dental schools and U.S. dental hygiene programs, including hours of LGBT content, pedagogy used, and assessment methods, and to determine whether respondents perceived their institution's coverage as adequate. Data were collected from academic deans at 32 U.S. and two Canadian dental schools and from program directors at 71 U.S. dental hygiene programs (response rates 49%, 20%, 23%, respectively). The results showed that 29% of responding dental schools and 48% of responding dental hygiene programs did not cover LGBT content. Among the respondents, dental schools dedicated on average 3.68 hours and dental hygiene programs 1.25 hours in required settings to LGBT content. Lectures (dental schools 68%, dental hygiene programs 45%) and small group instruction (43%, 25%) were reported as the most common methodology used in teaching this content. Most of the responding dental schools and dental hygiene programs covered HIV (85%, 53%), oral disease risk (63%, 54%), and barriers to accessing health care for LGBT people (58%, 38%). Up to a third reported no need for coverage of topics such as sexual orientation (21%, 32%), coming out (29%, 37%), transitioning (29%, 38%), and sex reassignment surgery (32%, 35%). Assessment was through written examinations (41%, 30%) and faculty-observed patient interactions (21%, 23%); some respondents (20%, 33%) reported no assessment of learning outcomes. The most frequently endorsed strategies for increasing LGBT content were receiving curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health issues and health disparities and having trained faculty to teach LGBT content.

  10. Trends in Behavioral Sciences Education in Dental Schools, 1926 to 2016. (United States)

    Centore, Linda


    This article outlines the journey of behavioral sciences education from a multidisciplinary array of topics to a discipline with a name, core identity, and mission in dental schools' curricula. While not exhaustive, it covers pivotal events from the time of the Gies report in 1926 to the present. Strengths and weaknesses of current behavioral sciences instruction in dental schools are discussed, along with identification of future opportunities and potential threats. Suggestions for future directions for behavioral sciences and new roles for behavioral sciences faculty in dental schools are proposed. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  11. New Clinical Faculty Training Program: Transforming Practicing Dentists into Part-Time Dental Faculty Members. (United States)

    Adams, Brooke N; Kirkup, Michele L; Willis, Lisa H; Reifeis, Paul E


    At Indiana University School of Dentistry, a New Clinical Faculty Training (NCFT) program was created with the primary goals of informing new part-time faculty members of clinical policies and assessment guidelines and thus developing qualified and satisfied faculty members. The aim of this study was to determine if participation in the training program improved the participants' satisfaction and competence in comparison to their colleagues who did not participate in the program. Two cohorts were compared: a control group of part-time faculty members who did not receive formal training when they were hired (n=21; response rate 58.3%); and the intervention group, who had participated in the NCFT program (n=12; response rate 80%). A survey of faculty members in the control group gathered information on their experiences when initially hired, and a pretest was administered to measure their knowledge of clinical policies. After the control group was given an overview of the program, their feedback was collected through post surveys, and a posttest identical to the pretest was given that found statistically significant increases on questions one (p=0.003) and four (p=0.025). In February 2014, 15 new faculty members participated in the pilot implementation of the NCFT program. Of those 15, 12 (the intervention group) completed follow-up surveys identical to the pre survey used with the control group. Statistically significant differences were found for the factors clinical teaching (p=0.005) and assessment training (p=0.008) with better responses for the NCFT group. These results suggest that participation in the program was associated with improved clinical teaching knowledge and job satisfaction.

  12. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues in dental school environments: dental student leaders' perceptions. (United States)

    Anderson, Joan I; Patterson, April N; Temple, Henry J; Inglehart, Marita Rohr


    The objectives of the study reported in this article were to assess dental student leaders' perceptions of educational efforts concerning lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics and the cultural climate concerning LGBT issues in dental schools in the United States and Canada. In addition, the perceptions of student leaders who self-identified as belonging to the LGBT community and of students with a heterosexual orientation were compared. Data were collected from 113 dental student leaders from twenty-seven dental schools in the United States and three in Canada. Fifty student leaders were females, and sixty-two were males. Only 13.3 percent of the respondents agreed that their dental education prepared them well to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds. The more the student leaders believed that their university has an honest interest in diversity, the better they felt prepared by their dental school program to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds (r=.327; pschools' administrations create a positive environment for students with LGBT orientations, the more they agreed that persons can feel comfortable regardless of their sexual orientation (r=.585; pschool administrators play an important role in ensuring that future care providers are well prepared to treat patients from LGBT backgrounds and that staff, faculty, students, and patients from these backgrounds are not discriminated against.

  13. Entrepreneurship in continuing dental education: a dental school perspective. (United States)

    Liberto, Vincent N


    The definition of continuing dental education is presented, along with its benefits to the profession. The preeminence of dental schools in providing lifelong learning opportunities and freedom from commercial involvement that existed even twenty years ago has changed. Less than a quarter of CE takes place in school, and the focus there is increasingly on material with deep scientific background and hands-on learning. The newest innovations and those with the greatest commercial potential are taught elsewhere. Proposed changes in the ADA CERP standards would take on a "purist" approach that could place dental schools at a severe disadvantage while allowing "for profit" institutes to flourish and thus further undermine the role dental schools can play in providing quality professional development experiences.

  14. What I wish I'd learned at dental school. (United States)

    Oliver, G R; Lynch, C D; Chadwick, B L; Santini, A; Wilson, N H F


    Background Much concern appears to exist as to the scope and content of contemporary dental school programmes, with the oft-cited criticism being made that dental graduates are 'no longer as good as they used to be'.Aim The aim of this project was to survey the views of dentists - both new graduates and more established practitioners - on aspects of their own dental school training they felt had been deficient as well as commenting on what aspects of dental school education they would like to see improved/enhanced in current times.Methods An invitation to complete an Internet-based questionnaire was emailed to the Fellows and Members of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK). Topics in the questionnaire included the respondent's own dental education history, how well they felt their dental school training had covered certain clinical and non-clinical topics; and their opinions on areas they felt should be included in contemporary dental school programmes.Results Six hundred and forty-nine responses were received from 3,348 emailed invitations (response rate = 19.4%). Sixty-one percent (395) of respondents were qualified for 10 years or more. Among clinical skills and techniques, a majority of respondents reported they felt they had not had sufficient teaching/training in dental school in surgical endodontics (76%), conscious sedation (72%), root surface debridement (71%), fixed orthodontic appliances (68%), porcelain veneers (63%), implants (56%) and posterior composites (53%). If designing a new dental school programme, the most common topics respondents would seek to include/increase were business and practice management (21%), communication skills (including patient management and leadership skills) (10%), and increased clinical time and experience (8%).Conclusions The findings of this project are of interest and relevance to those working with student dentists and young dental practitioners. A greater emphasis is needed on the teaching of certain non

  15. U.S. Dental Schools' Preparation for the Integrated National Board Dental Examination. (United States)

    Duong, Mai-Ly T; Cothron, Annaliese E; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Doherty, Eileen H


    An Integrated National Board Dental Examination (INBDE) combining basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences will be implemented in 2020 to replace the current two-part National Board Dental Examination required for all candidates who seek to practice dentistry in the U.S. The aims of this study were to determine how U.S. dental schools are preparing for implementation of the INBDE and to assess their top administrators' attitudes about the new exam. A total of 150 deans, academic deans, and other administrators at all 64 U.S. dental schools with graduating classes in 2016 were emailed a 19-question electronic survey. The survey questions addressed the respondents' level of support, perceived benefits and challenges, and planned preparation strategies for the INBDE. The individual response rate was 59%, representing 57 of the 64 schools. Approximately 60% of the respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that they support the integrated exam, while roughly 25% either somewhat or strongly disagreed. While most respondents (72%) reported that their institutions would be prepared for the INBDE, 74% reported that the merged exam created additional strain for their institutions. Respondents reported viewing content integration and clinical applicability as benefits of the INBDE, while required curriculum changes and student preparedness and stress were seen as challenges. Most of the respondents reported their schools were currently employing strategies to prepare for the INBDE including meetings with faculty and students and changes to curricula and course content. The beginning of the fourth year and the end of the third year were the most frequently reported times when schools planned to require students to take the INBDE, although almost half of the respondents did not yet know what it would be required at their school. Several schools were reconsidering using the boards as a passing requirement. This study found that support for the INBDE was not universal, but

  16. Geriatric dentistry content in the curriculum of the dental schools in Chile. (United States)

    León, Soraya; Araya-Bustos, Francisca; Ettinger, Ronald L; Giacaman, Rodrigo A


    The purpose of this study was to identify the status of pre-doctoral geriatric dentistry education among all Chilean dental schools. Chile is one of the most rapidly ageing countries in Latin America. Consequently, specific knowledge and training on the needs of elderly populations need to be emphasised in dental schools. The current extent and methods of teaching geriatric dentistry among the dental schools in Chile are unknown. A web-based questionnaire was developed and sent to all 19 Chilean dental schools to identify which schools had a formal programme on geriatric dentistry and ask about their format, content and type of training of the faculty who taught in the programmes. Data were analysed, and a comparison was made among the schools. Sixteen (84%) of the participant schools reported teaching at least some aspects of geriatric dentistry, using various methodologies, but only 7 (37%) had specific courses. Of those schools reporting a didactic content on geriatric dentistry, 71% included clinical training, either in the school's dental clinics or in an extramural service. Contents mostly included demographics of ageing, theories of ageing and medical conditions. More than half of the faculty (57%) stated that they had formal training in geriatric dentistry, 43% were trained in prosthodontics, public health or other areas. Although most dental schools taught geriatric dentistry, only some had a specific course. Most schools with formal courses followed the international curriculum guidelines for geriatric dentistry. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Use of information and communication technology among dental students and registrars at the faculty of dental sciences, University of Lagos. (United States)

    Butali, A; Adeyemo, W L; Akinshipo, A O; Fashina, A; Savage, K O


    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of information technology amongst dental students, dental nursing students and resident doctors in training at the faculty of dental Surgery University of Lagos. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 58 clinical dental students in 4 th and 5 th years of training in the 2010/2011 academic year, 36 dental nursing students and 63 resident doctors undergoing specialist training. All participants have access to the computers, 2.5% within the University and 31% at home and internet cafes and about 50% have the basic skills required. A significant difference was observed between the resident doctors and clinical dental students (P = 0.003), between resident doctors and dental nursing students (P = 0.0001) when the use of computer for study was compared. Over 95% of participants have access to internet and about 50% of them use the internet for their studies. A significant difference (P = 0.005) was observed between clinical dental students and dental nursing students that use the internet and word processing. The resident doctors used the computers for multimedia and MedLine search tools more than clinical dental students (P = 0.004) and dental nursing students (0.0006). The findings of the study show that dental students and resident doctors in training have the requisite knowledge to operate the computer for use in their study and personal activities.

  18. A humanistic environment for dental schools: what are dental students experiencing? (United States)

    Quick, Karin K


    A Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) standard now requires that dental schools commit to establishing a "humanistic culture and learning environment" for all members of the academic environment. The aim of this study was to identify students' perceptions of factors that affect the dental school environment and to test differences in their experiences in terms of gender and year. This picture of the existing environment was meant to serve as a first step toward creating and supporting a more humanistic academic environment. A mixed-methods approach was used for data collection during the 2009-10 and 2010-11 academic years at one U.S. dental school. Four focus groups were first conducted to explore challenges and conflicts faced by students during their dental education. A written survey informed by the focus group results was then used to obtain quantitative data. The survey response rate was 47 percent (N=188). Faculty inconsistency, cheating, and belittlement/disrespect were experienced by many of the responding dental students during their education, similar to what has been documented in medicine. These students also reported experiencing both constructive communication (90 percent) and destructive communication (up to 32 percent). The female students reported more gender discrimination and sexual harassment than their male peers, and the clinical students reported more experience with belittlement and destructive communication than the preclinical students. The results suggest that greater effort should be directed toward creating a more humanistic environment in dental schools. Based on the issues identified, steps academic institutions can take to improve these environments and student skills are outlined.

  19. A Case Study Optimizing Human Resources in Rwanda's First Dental School: Three Innovative Management Tools. (United States)

    Hackley, Donna M; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Cancedda, Corrado; Barrow, Jane R


    Harvard School of Dental Medicine, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, and the University of Rwanda (UR) are collaborating to create Rwanda's first School of Dentistry as part of the Human Resources for Health (HRH) Rwanda initiative that aims to strengthen the health care system of Rwanda. The HRH oral health team developed three management tools to measure progress in systems-strengthening efforts: 1) the road map is an operations plan for the entire dental school and facilitates delivery of the curriculum and management of human and material resources; 2) each HRH U.S. faculty member develops a work plan with targeted deliverables for his or her rotation, which is facilitated with biweekly flash reports that measure progress and keep the faculty member focused on his or her specific deliverables; and 3) the redesigned HRH twinning model, changed from twinning of an HRH faculty member with a single Rwandan faculty member to twinning with multiple Rwandan faculty members based on shared academic interests and goals, has improved efficiency, heightened engagement of the UR dental faculty, and increased the impact of HRH U.S. faculty members. These new tools enable the team to measure its progress toward the collaborative's goals and understand the successes and challenges in moving toward the planned targets. The tools have been valuable instruments in fostering discussion around priorities and deployment of resources as well as in developing strong relationships, enabling two-way exchange of knowledge, and promoting sustainability.

  20. Comparing Practice Management Courses in Canadian Dental Schools. (United States)

    Schonwetter, Dieter J; Schwartz, Barry


    Practice management has become an increasingly important aspect of dental education over the years in order to better prepare students for the reality of practice. The aim of this study was to quantify and describe practice management courses taught at the ten Canadian dental schools in order to identify common approaches, compare hours, determine types of instructors, and assess the relationship between courses' learning objectives and the Association of Canadian Faculties of Dentistry (ACFD) competencies and Bloom's cognitive levels. The academic deans at these ten schools were surveyed in 2016; all ten schools responded for a 100% response rate. The authors also gathered syllabi and descriptions of the courses and analyzed them for themes. The results showed a total of 22 practice management courses in the ten Canadian dental schools. The courses provided 27 to 109 hours of teaching and were mostly taught in the third and fourth years and by dentists on three main topics: ethics, human resource management, and running a private practice. The courses were correlated to the ACFD competencies related to ethics, professionalism, application of basic principles of business practices, and effective interpersonal communication. Most of the courses' learning objectives addressed comprehension and knowledge in Bloom's cognitive levels of learning. These results can help to guide discussions on how practice management courses can be developed, improved, and refined to meet the challenges of preparing students for dental practice.

  1. Negative ageing stereotypes in students and faculty members from three health science schools. (United States)

    León, Soraya; Correa-Beltrán, Gloria; Giacaman, Rodrigo A


    To explore the ageing stereotypes held by health students and faculty members in three health science schools in Chile. This cross-sectional study surveyed 284 students and faculty members from the dental, physical therapy and speech therapy schools of the University of Talca, Chile. A validated 15-question questionnaire about negative stereotypes was used (CENVE). The questions were divided into three categories: (i) health, (ii) social factors and motivation and (iii) character and personality. The scores for each category were grouped into the following categories: (i) positive, (ii) neutral and (iii) negative. Negative stereotypes were compared across genders, socio-economic status levels, classes, positions (student or faculty member) and schools. The majority of the participants held neutral stereotypes towards ageing, followed by positive perceptions. No differences were detected between the genders, schools or classes. While most of the students had neutral perceptions about ageing, the faculty's perceptions were rather positive (p = 0.0182). In addition, people of lower-middle socio-economic status held more positive stereotypes about ageing than the participants of high and middle status (p = 0.0496). Stereotypes about ageing held by health-related students and faculty members appear to be rather neutral. The stereotypes seem to be better among students with some clinical experience, students of lower socio-economic status and faculty members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. PENN PASS: a program for graduates of foreign dental schools. (United States)

    Berthold, P; Lopez, N


    An increasing number of graduates of foreign dental schools who enroll in advanced standing programs to qualify for licensure calls for dental schools to be prepared to handle not only the curricular demands but also the growing cultural diversity among its student population. The "reeducation" of this student group not only meets the need of foreign dentists for an American degree but may also provide health professionals to service various ethnic populations whose language and culture they are able to understand and identify with. A survey of students and graduates of a two-year Program for Advanced Standing Students (PASS) for graduates of foreign dental schools representing 34 countries aimed to arrive at an understanding of this student group through characterization of the foreign dentists and identification of their attitudes and feelings toward various aspects of the program, the school and faculty and their experience of stress. This report includes description of the distinctive features of the program which cater to specific needs and concerns of this non-traditional group of dental students. PASS students are accepted on the basis of their grades in dental school in home country, scores in the National Dental Board Examination Part I, Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), and ratings in personal interviews. They complete an intensive summer program consisting of didactic and laboratory courses which prepares them for integration with four-year students for the last two years of didactic and clinical curriculum. Cultural diversity seminars, a special English class, PASS class meetings and seminars are unique additions to their program and aim to assist them adjust to the educational, social and cultural systems in an American school. Results of the survey show a majority of the PASS students feel that they are part of the school and that there is someone in the school whom they can approach for problems. An understanding of their ethnic and

  3. Humanism in Dental Education: A Comparison of Theory, Intention, and Stakeholder Perceptions at a North American Dental School. (United States)

    Lyon, Lucinda; Itaya, Lisa E; Hoover, Terry; Booth, Mark T; Nadershahi, Nader


    In today's dental education environment, a humanistic culture is an expectation for all U.S. dental schools, codified in 2013 by its inclusion in the Commission on Dental Accreditation's standards for accreditation. The University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry has made an active commitment to humanism since the mid-1970s. The aim of this study was to determine how well the school's students and faculty and staff members perceived the school was living up to its formal aspirational values and who was benefitting from the humanistic culture. Using an electronic survey, data were collected from a total of 195 students, faculty members, and staff members in 2014. Respondents were 15% of the 492 full- and part-time faculty members; 9% of the total student population of 540; and 29% of 255 staff members. In the responses, humanism was described as manifest by attributes such as caring, understanding, respect, and compassion. Although the findings confirmed the value of a humanistic culture, some portions of the school's formal definition and goals, such as good work ethic, professional responsibility, high ethical standards, increasing independence, and attainment of competence, appeared less frequently in responses. Authentic assessment of institutional culture proved challenging. Focus groups offered additional ways to assess how effectively the school lives its core value of humanism. There was recognition that more varied, robust methods were needed to assess institutional alignment with stated goals for a humanistic learning environment.

  4. Publication Outlets for School Psychology Faculty: 2010 to 2015 (United States)

    Hulac, David; Johnson, Natalie D.; Ushijima, Shiho C.; Schneider, Maryia M.


    Many school psychology faculty are required to publish for purposes of retention and promotion. It is useful to have an understanding of the different outlets for scholarly publications. In the present study, we investigated the peer-reviewed journals in which school psychology faculty were published between 2010 and 2015, the number of articles…

  5. Applying Corporate Climate Principles to Dental School Operations. (United States)

    Robinson, Michelle A; Reddy, Michael S


    Decades of research have shown that organizational climate has the potential to form the basis of workplace operations and impact an organization's performance. Culture is related to climate but is not the same. "Culture" is the broader term, defining how things are done in an organization, while "climate" is a component of culture that describes how people perceive their environment. Climate can be changed but requires substantial effort over time by management and the workforce. Interest has recently grown in culture and climate in dental education due to the humanistic culture accreditation standard. The aim of this study was to use corporate climate principles to examine how organizational culture and, subsequently, workplace operations can be improved through specific strategic efforts in a U.S. dental school. The school's parent institution initiated a climate survey that the dental school used with qualitative culture data to drive strategic planning and change in the school. Administration of the same survey to faculty and staff members three times over a six-year period showed significant changes to the school's climate occurred as a new strategic plan was implemented that focused on reforming areas of weakness. Concentrated efforts in key areas in the strategic plan resulted in measurable improvements in climate perception. The study discovered that culture was an area previously overlooked but explicitly linked to the success of the organization.

  6. Cariology Education in Canadian Dental Schools: Where Are We? Where Do We Need to Go? (United States)

    Tikhonova, Svetlana; Girard, Félix; Fontana, Margherita


    The aim of this study was to document cariology education across Canadian dental schools. Ten faculty members who supervise cariology education at each of the ten Canadian dental schools were invited to participate in the study in 2016. An adapted version of the European Organization for Caries Research-Association for Dental Education in Europe cariology curriculum group questionnaire was used. Representatives of all ten dental schools completed the questionnaire, for a 100% response rate. In four schools, cariology and restorative dentistry were taught by the same department. Five schools had didactic/laboratory courses focusing primarily on cariology as well as a specific written curriculum. Six schools provided cariology-related hands-on workshops/laboratories before students started working with patients. In teaching cariology, seven institutions included dental hard tissues defects. The following caries detection methods were addressed didactically in cariology education: visual (10/10 total schools), tactile (9/10), International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria (6/10), caries activity assessment (9/10), radiographic (10/10), and other detection tools (8/10). Seven schools charted activity of carious lesions in clinic. Only one school used the concept of caries risk assessment regularly in clinic. Clinical cariology teaching was carried out mostly by private dentists hired as clinical instructors (7/10) and faculty members involved in didactic cariology education (9/10). Calibration of faculty members for caries detection criteria was reported by only one school. The main concern reported by all institutions was the difficulty of implementing didactic instruction on cariology into clinical training. This study found that contemporary cariology concepts are in the process of being implemented in didactic education across Canadian dental schools, but all schools lacked appropriate integration of cariology education into clinical training. These

  7. Clinical and Community-Based Education in U.S. Dental Schools. (United States)

    Licari, Frank W; Evans, Caswell A


    This review of U.S. dental schools' clinical curricula suggests that the basic structure of clinical education has not changed significantly in the past 60 years, although important developments include the introduction of competency-based education and community-based clinical education. Most dental schools still have a two-year preclinical curriculum and a two-year clinical curriculum, and most schools still operate a large clinical facility where students receive the bulk of their clinical education and assessment for graduation. In those clinics, dental students are the main providers of patient treatment, with faculty serving in supervisory roles. In addition, a major portion of the entire dental curriculum continues to be dedicated to student education on the restoration of a single tooth or replacement of teeth. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  8. Developing a flexible core Dental Public Health curriculum for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene schools. (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Bhoopathi, Vinodh


    The curriculum for graduating dental and dental hygiene students must prepare them to contribute to the improvement or maintenance of health for individual patient's and the public's health. The objective is to describe the background for and the process used to develop a core Dental Public Health Curriculum for such students. The process used was to solicit and review existing dental public health curriculum in dental and dental hygiene schools; review curriculum for other health professionals; identify the themes needed to frame the curriculum; select usable materials and identify gaps in existing curricular materials; and develop appropriate curriculum materials that would embody the competencies developed for undergraduate dental and dental hygiene education. Twenty-three topics were identified as embodying the eight competencies. Based on these topics, six courses, Principles of Dental Public Health, Evidence-Based Dentistry, Ethics and Dental Public Health, Dental Public Health Policy and Advocacy, Oral Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and Oral Health Literacy and Dental Public Health, were prepared. Each course includes syllabus, PowerPoint presentations, student assignments and activities, instructor guide, and classroom discussion points. Depending on the hours available in the existing curriculum at the dental or hygiene school, lecture presentations and take home assignments/discussions may be used independently or in combination with presentations from other courses. In addition, individual discussions and activities may be used to integrate dental public health materials into other courses. A flexible curriculum is available at the AAPHD website to enable the incorporation of DPH topics into the curriculum. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Challenges of Measuring a Faculty Member Activity in Medical Schools


    Mohammadi, A; Mojtahedzadeh, R; Emami Razavi, S H


    Background One of the features of Mission Based Management is measuring the activities of faculty members and departments and their contributions to the school's mission. As it is important to assess the school's readiness for such a system, in this study we assessed the view points of Tehran Medical School's department chairs about faculty members’ activities. Methods We used focus group technique to identify participants' view points. We divided 30 department chairs into homogenous groups o...

  10. Undergraduate education in special needs dentistry in Malaysian and Australian dental schools. (United States)

    Ahmad, Mas S; Razak, Ishak A; Borromeo, Gelsomina L


    Meeting the oral health care needs of the growing population of people with special health care needs (SHCN) starts with dental students' acquisition of sound knowledge and development of clinical competence at the predoctoral level. The aim of this study was to review the level of undergraduate education in Special Needs Dentistry (SND) in Malaysian and Australian dental schools. The deans of all six Malaysian public dental schools and eight of nine Australian dental schools participated in a postal survey on current undergraduate didactic and clinical training in SND at their institutions. The results showed the number of dental schools in Malaysia with teaching in SND as a specific discipline was relatively low compared to that of Australia. However, a high percentage of Malaysian and Australian dental schools reported incorporating teaching of SND into pediatric dentistry (83.3 percent vs. 75 percent), oral medicine/oral pathology (66.7 percent vs. 75 percent), and oral surgery (66.7 percent vs. 25 percent). Most respondents said their school delivered SND clinical training in dental school clinics, hospital-based settings, and residential aged care facilities. Respondents in both countries viewed lack of faculty expertise as the greatest barrier to providing SND education. The study provides valuable information that can direct SND curriculum development in the two countries.

  11. Expanding services in a shrinking economy: desktop document delivery in a dental school library. (United States)

    Gushrowski, Barbara A


    How can library staff develop and promote a document delivery service and then expand the service to a wide audience? The setting is the library at the Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD), Indianapolis. A faculty survey and a citation analysis were conducted to determine potential use of the service. Volume of interlibrary loan transactions and staff and equipment capacity were also studied. IUSD Library staff created a desktop delivery service (DDSXpress) for faculty and then expanded the service to practicing dental professionals and graduate students. The number of faculty using DDSXpress remains consistent. The number of practicing dental professionals using the service is low. Graduate students have been quick to adopt the service. Through careful analysis of capacity and need for the service, staff successfully expanded document delivery service without incurring additional costs. Use of DDSXpress is continually monitored, and opportunities to market the service to practicing dental professionals are being investigated.

  12. Dental School Administrators' Attitudes Towards Providing Support Services for LGBT-Identified Students. (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Morris, Dustin R


    A lack of curriculum time devoted to teaching dental students about the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) health care patient needs and biases against LGBT students and faculty have been reported. Understanding dental school administrators' attitudes about LGBT students' needs might provide further insight into these long-standing issues. The aims of this study were to develop a survey to assess dental administrators' attitudes regarding the support services they believe LGBT-identified students need, to identify dental schools' current diversity inclusion policies, and to determine what types of support dental schools currently provide to LGBT students. A survey developed with the aid of a focus group, cognitive interviewing, and pilot testing was sent to 136 assistant and associate deans and deans of the 65 U.S. and Canadian dental schools. A total of 54 responses from 43 (66%) schools were received from 13 deans, 29 associate deans, and 11 assistant deans (one participant did not report a position), for a 40% response rate. The findings suggest there is a considerable lack of knowledge or acknowledgment of LGBT dental students' needs. Future studies are needed to show the importance of creating awareness about meeting the needs of all dental student groups, perhaps through awareness campaigns initiated by LGBT students.

  13. Surfing for history: dental library and dental school websites. (United States)

    Kreinbring, Mary


    Library and academic websites are among the most reliable Internet resources available today. Schools of all types use the Internet as a means of sharing information; and libraries provide broader access to their collections via the Web. For researchers seeking specific, authoritative resources on dental history, library and dental school websites are most helpful in identifying print and online resources, in describing manuscript collections, and in presenting a history of the host institution. A library site often can provide sufficient information online to eliminate the need for an in-person visit to the library. On the other hand, a library site may tantalize the historian with enough information on unique collections that a trip can be justified.

  14. Faculty Retention factors at European Business Schools. How Deans and Faculty Perceptions Differ.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Moratis; P.J. van Baalen (Peter); L.H. Teunter (Linda); P.H.A.M. Verhaegen


    textabstractDevelopments in the management education environment present business schools with several challenges. Among these, perhaps the most important to address relates to a mission-critical resource for business schools: faculty retention. In this paper, we position and examine this problem


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. 1. Pain due to ... increased intake of sweets and sweet snacks, ... to restrain production, import and marketing of modern sweets ... STRATEGY .... water we drink and bathe In. They are always ready to heip us or ...

  16. Faculty diversity programs in U.S. medical schools and characteristics associated with higher faculty diversity. (United States)

    Page, Kathleen Raquel; Castillo-Page, Laura; Wright, Scott M


    To describe diversity programs for racial and ethnic minority faculty in U.S. medical schools and identify characteristics associated with higher faculty diversity. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study of leaders of diversity programs at 106 U.S. MD-granting medical schools in 2010. Main outcome measures included African American and Latino faculty representation, with correlations to diversity program characteristics, minority medical student representation, and state demographics. Responses were obtained from 82 of the 106 institutions (77.4%). The majority of the respondents were deans, associate and assistant deans (68.3%), members of minority ethnic/racial background (65.9% African American, 14.7% Latino), and women (63.4%). The average time in the current position was 6.7 years, with approximately 50% effort devoted to the diversity program. Most programs targeted medical trainees and faculty (63.4%). A majority of programs received monetary support from their institutions (82.9%). In bivariate analysis, none of the program characteristics measured were associated with higher than the mean minority faculty representation in 2008 (3% African American and 4.2% Latino faculty). However, minority state demographics in 2008, and proportion of minority medical students a decade earlier, were significantly associated with minority faculty representation. Medical student diversity 10 years earlier was the strongest modifiable factor associated with faculty diversity. Our results support intervening early to strengthen the minority medical student pipeline to improve faculty diversity. Schools located in states with low minority representation may need to commit additional effort to realize institutional diversity.

  17. A comparison of millennial dental hygiene student and faculty classroom expectations. (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Gibson-Howell, Joan


    Research has shown that Millennial students are different than students in previous generations. This study compares the expectations of the didactic environment of faculty and students in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Expectations of faculty and students were examined, and comparisons between Millennial and non-Millennial students and faculty were made in order to improve the educational experience of dental hygiene students. Students and faculty completed a survey adapted from McCargar's role expectations survey. Items were chosen from the survey to cover such areas as technology, group work and authority. The survey consisted of a Likert-type scale including strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree and strongly disagree. Data was entered into SPSS 15.0 database. Scoring on negative questions was reversed so that the score would be positive. Individual answers are given the following scoring assignments: Strongly Agree (+2), Agree (+1), Neutral (0), Disagree (-1) and Strongly Disagree (-2). Scores were added together to create a summative score for each item. Descriptive statistics and an unpaired t-test comparing responses were used to analyze data. Cronbach's alpha was run to measure the internal consistency of the instrument. Twelve faculty and 94 students returned surveys. Students felt strongly that copies of course notes should be available online and faculty should return emails within 24 hours. Statistically significant differences in the expectations of Millennial and non-Millennial students were found in regards to issues of authority, community service, attendance and evaluation. The majority of significant differences were found between Millennial students and faculty. Significant differences were found in interaction, community service, technology and homework. Faculty should examine the expectations of their students and should use the findings to create learning experiences that are more effective for students. Expectations change with

  18. Establishing a good dentist-patient relationship: skills defined from the dental faculty perspective. (United States)

    Orsini, Cesar A; Jerez, Oscar M


    The importance of developing good dentist-patient relationships has been well documented, but previous studies have focused on social techniques, not considering the psychological and behavioral characteristics of patients, and have used definitions and instruments that were not dental-specific. Therefore, the aims of this study were to propose a definition of dentist-patient relationship skills, derived from dental faculty members' criteria and informed by Emotional Intelligence concepts, and to propose a preliminary dental-specific, face-valid, and reliable self-assessment instrument. The study was conducted in three phases. Phases I and II defined dentist-patient relationship competence through literature analysis and semi-structured interviews with expert key informants, establishing the outcome skills. In Phase III, the instrument was constructed and piloted. Communication skills and basic psychological tools resulted in core topics for use in practice. The definition both specifies and broadens social interactions in dentistry by including dental faculty members' criteria and topics such as psychological tools and pre-, intra-, and postoperative topics appropriate for use during consultation, examination, and treatment. The instrument was found suitable, reasonable, and accessible with a Cronbach's alpha level of 0.95. Future studies are needed to confirm the definition, as well as the instrument's validity, reliability, transference, and sensitivity to the dental educational environment.

  19. Tooth erosion awareness in a Brazilian dental school. (United States)

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Patricia A D; Auad, Sheyla M


    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess awareness and attitudes related to tooth erosion among dental students, patients, and faculty members in a Brazilian dental school. Data were collected by means of a self-applied questionnaire that was distributed among 298 participants. The response rate was 89.6 percent. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis (perosion (72.9 percent), with lower percentages among the patients (perosion (p=0.004). Almost 30 percent of the students did not know if they had had a patient with erosion, and 73.1 percent reported they were not advised by their clinical supervisor to examine their patients for tooth erosion (p=0.138). Concerning the faculty, 23.6 percent of them along with 61.5 percent of the students did not feel prepared to diagnose the condition (perosion (89.6 percent). Knowledge about tooth erosion was not as widely evident as it should be in this sample, suggesting the need for better understanding and communication in this important area of oral health care.




  1. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: theory X, theory Y, and situational leadership applied to dental education. (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen


    This article applies two well-known management and leadership models-Theory X and Theory Y, and Situational Leadership-to dental education. Theory X and Theory Y explain how assumptions may shape the behaviors of dental educators and lead to the development of "cop" and "coach" teaching styles. The Situational Leadership Model helps the educator to identify the teaching behaviors that are appropriate in a given situation to assist students as they move from beginner to advanced status. Together, these models provide a conceptual reference to assist in the understanding of the behaviors of both students and faculty and remind us to apply discretion in the education of our students. The implications of these models for assessing and enhancing the educational environment in dental school are discussed.

  2. Current Status of Operation and Management of Dental School Clinics. (United States)

    Reinhardt, John W


    This article summarizes the current status of the operation and management of dental school clinics as schools strive to provide excellent patient-centered care in an environment that is educationally sound, efficient, and financially strong. Clinical education is a large component of dental education and an area in which many dental schools have an opportunity to enhance revenue. Clinical efficiencies and alternative models of clinical education are evolving in U.S. dental schools, and this article describes some of those evolutionary changes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  3. A survey of information technology management at U.S. dental schools. (United States)

    Wrzosek, Mariusz; Warner, Gary; Donoff, R Bruce; Howell, Thomas H; Karimbux, Nadeem


    The purpose of this project is to assess how information technology (IT) is being implemented and managed in U.S. dental schools. Recent advances in IT have restructured many of the administrative, curricular, and clinical functions in dental schools. Purchasing hardware and software and hiring personnel to maintain IT present significant financial and administrative commitments for these schools. A nine-question survey was sent to all U.S. dental schools via email with a follow-up postal mailing. Forty-six surveys were returned (83.6 percent response rate). The analysis indicates that dental schools are managing IT in vastly different ways. For example, 71 percent of the schools report a centralized structure, and 61 percent have a line item in the budget to manage IT. On average there are 4.4 full-time equivalents hired to manage IT, with the majority of these people being trained in IT (eight schools reported dually trained IT/dental personnel). The majority of schools report using software to manage their admissions process (70 percent), curriculum analysis (72 percent), and delivery of curriculum content (72 percent), as well as to manage their student clinics (91 percent, business aspect; 87 percent, patients; 65 percent, grading on clinic floor; 76 percent, managing clinical evaluations) and faculty practices (85 percent, business aspect; 65 percent, patients). The use of multimedia (50 percent) and simulation (52 percent) in the preclinical area is mixed. The purchase of laptops (24 percent) and PCs (11 percent) is required in almost a third of all schools participating in this survey. Dental schools in the United States are managing IT in a variety of different ways, using various internally and commercially available tools. The cost to institutions can be large and is usually handled in centralized structures in the school with fixed budgets. The results of this survey can be used to assist schools in the planning and implementation of IT at their

  4. Distance Education in Dental Hygiene Bachelor of Science Degree Completion Programs: As Perceived by Students and Faculty (United States)

    Tsokris, Maureen


    This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took…

  5. Dental Faculty Members' Pedagogic Beliefs and Curriculum Aims in Problem-Based Learning: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    von Bergmann, HsingChi; Walker, Judith; Dalrymple, Kirsten R; Shuler, Charles F


    The aims of this exploratory study were to explore dental faculty members' views and beliefs regarding knowledge, the dental profession, and teaching and learning and to determine how these views related to their problem-based learning (PBL) instructional practices. Prior to a PBL in dental education conference held in 2011, all attendees were invited to complete a survey focused on their pedagogical beliefs and practices in PBL. Out of a possible 55 participants, 28 responded. Additionally, during the conference, a forum was held in which preliminary survey findings were shared and participants contributed to focus group data collection. The forum results served to validate and bring deeper understanding to the survey findings. The conference participants who joined the forum (N=32) likely included some or many of the anonymous respondents to the survey, along with additional participants interested in dental educators' beliefs. The findings of the survey and follow-up forum indicated a disconnect between dental educators' reported views of knowledge and their pedagogical practices in a PBL environment. The results suggested that the degree of participants' tolerance of uncertainty in knowledge and the discrepancy between their epistemological and ontological beliefs about PBL pedagogy influenced their pedagogical choices. These findings support the idea that learner-centered, inquiry-based pedagogical approaches such as PBL may create dissonance between beliefs about knowledge and pedagogical practice that require the building of a shared understanding of and commitment to curricular goals prior to implementation to ensure success. The methods used in this study can be useful tools for faculty development in PBL programs in dental education.

  6. Awareness of Infection Control Protocols Among Dental Students in Babylon Dental Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ibraheem Zaidan


    Full Text Available Infection control and knowledge of common "infectious diseases" is essential for safe dental practice. Conveyance of infectious diseases is likely "from one individual to another during dental procedures", thorough" blood-borne" viruses and bacteria   "such as hepatitis" , human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thence in dental practice, the  sterilization and particular protection  is of most importance Process in  dental procedures,  and patient sponsor settings seek specific strategies guide to prevent the  transmission of diseases among dental students , oral verdure care staffs and their patients. Aim: Current study highlight  the methods and behavior  to evaluate  the  benefits of awareness, stance and pursuit of infection control between dental students in training dental clinic at Babylon  dental collage . Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional wipe using a rear ordered questionnaire was executed. The reconnaissance consisted of 38 closed-ended questions that included the key areas of infection control, including hand hygiene, personal preservation, sterilization and disinfection and ecological infection monitoring. There were also questions to elicit perceptions regarding the treatment of HBV and HIV/AIDS patients. Results: Survey study was done for dental students replied to the reconnaissance. Their situation and realization across infection control in college teaching  clinic .The results were assorted between 100% were orderly using gloves and 96% mask   with patient to 6% were orderly wore eye glasses. The type of sterilization of instrument was 90% autoclave and 10% oven and from analysis of data revealed most teaching clinics devoid of instruction post about control of infection control measures   Conclusion: "Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists" and graduated dental students  predestined in the existing project. Enduring instruction "programs and short

  7. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene. (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985


    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  8. Use of a Self-Instructional Radiographic Anatomy Module for Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration. (United States)

    Brame, Jennifer L; AlGheithy, Demah Salem; Platin, Enrique; Mitchell, Shannon H


    Purpose: Dental hygiene educators often provide inconsistent instruction in clinical settings and various attempts to address the lack of consistency have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if the use of a use of a self-instructional, radiographic anatomy (SIRA) module improved DH faculty calibration regarding the identifica-tion of normal intraoral and extraoral radiographic anatomy and whether its effect could be sustained over a period of four months. Methods: A convenience sample consisting of all dental hygiene faculty members involved in clinical instruction (N=23) at the University of North Carolina (UNC) was invited to complete the four parts of this online pilot study: a pre-test, review of the SIRA module, an immediate post-test, and a four-month follow-up post-test. Descriptive analyses, the Friedman's ANOVA, and the exact form of the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test were used to an-alyze the data. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Participants who did not complete all parts of the study were omitted from data analysis comparing the pre to post-test performance. Results: The pre-test response rate was 73.9% (N=17), and 88.2% (N=15) of those initial participants completed both the immediate and follow-up post-tests. Faculty completing all parts of the study consisted of: 5 full-time faculty, 5 part-time faculty, and 5 graduate teaching assistants. The Friedman's ANOVA revealed no statistically significant difference (P=0.179) in percentages of correct responses between the three tests (pre, post and follow-up). The exact form of the Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test revealed marginal significance when comparing percent of correct responses at pre-test and immediate post-test (P=0.054), and no statistically significant difference when comparing percent of correct responses at immediate post-test and the follow-up post-test four months later (P=0.106). Conclusions: Use of a SIRA module did not significantly affect DH

  9. Influences of faculty evaluating system on educational performance of medical school faculty. (United States)

    Kim, Hong Bin; Myung, Sun Jung; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chang, Ji Young; Shin, Chan Soo


    The promotion of educators is challenged by the lack of accepted standards to evaluate the quality and impact of educational activities. Traditionally, promotion is related to research productivity. This study developed an evaluation tool for educational performance of medical school faculty using educator portfolios (EPs). Design principles and quantitative items for EPs were developed in a consensus workshop. These principles were tested in a simulation and revised based on feedback. The changes of total educational activities following introduction of the system were analyzed. A total of 71% faculty members answered the simulation of the system and the score distributed widely (mean±standard deviation, 65.43±68.64). The introduction of new system significantly increased the total educational activities, especially in assistant professors. The authors offer comprehensive and practical tool for enhancing educational participation of faculty members. Further research for development of qualitative evaluation systems is needed.

  10. Influences of faculty evaluating system on educational performance of medical school faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bin Kim


    Full Text Available Purpose: The promotion of educators is challenged by the lack of accepted standards to evaluate the quality and impact of educational activities. Traditionally, promotion is related to research productivity. This study developed an evaluation tool for educational performance of medical school faculty using educator portfolios (EPs. Methods: Design principles and quantitative items for EPs were developed in a consensus workshop. These principles were tested in a simulation and revised based on feedback. The changes of total educational activities following introduction of the system were analyzed. Results: A total of 71% faculty members answered the simulation of the system and the score distributed widely (mean±standard deviation, 65.43±68.64. The introduction of new system significantly increased the total educational activities, especially in assistant professors. Conclusion: The authors offer comprehensive and practical tool for enhancing educational participation of faculty members. Further research for development of qualitative evaluation systems is needed.

  11. School climate factors contributing to student and faculty perceptions of safety in select Arizona schools. (United States)

    Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley


    To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected from a stratified sample to vary in location, proximity to Indian reservations, size, and type. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. In 9 of 11 schools, neither faculty nor students voiced overwhelming concerns about safety. When asked what makes school safe, students tended to report physical security features. School climate and staff actions also increased feelings of safety. Faculty reported that relationships and climate are key factors in making schools safe. High student performance on standardized tests does not buffer students from unsafe behavior, nor does living in a dangerous neighborhood necessarily lead to more drug use or violence within school walls. School climate seemed to explain the difference between schools in which students and faculty reported higher versus lower levels of violence and alcohol and other drug use. The findings raise provocative questions about school safety and provide insight into elements that lead to perceptions of safety. Some schools have transcended issues of location and neighborhood to provide an environment perceived as safe. Further study of those schools could provide insights for policy makers, program planners, and educational leaders. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  12. Educational Background and Academic Rank of Faculty Members within US Schools of Pharmacy. (United States)

    Assemi, Mitra; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Sowinski, Kevin M; Corelli, Robin L


    Objective. To characterize the educational background and academic rank of faculty members in US schools of pharmacy, estimate the extent to which they are employed by institutions where they received previous training, and determine whether differences in degree origin and rank exist between faculty members in established (≤1995) vs newer programs. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty database and demographic information from the public domain. Results. Among 5516 faculty members, 50.3% held two or more types of degrees. Established schools had a higher median number of faculty members and a higher mean faculty rank than did newer schools. Conclusion. The difference in mean faculty rank highlights the shortage of experienced faculty members in newer schools. Future research efforts should investigate educational attainment in correlation to other faculty and school characteristics and prospectively track and report trends related to pharmacy faculty members composition.

  13. Development of ethical practices and social responsibility in dental education at the university of Chile: student and faculty perceptions. (United States)

    Alcota, M; Ruiz de Gauna, P; González, F E


    The authors argue that dental curricula in Latin America are noted for providing highly technical and individualistic training that may fail to address society's problems or instil in the dentist the idea that he/she has a social responsibility to contribute to his/her community. This study's main objectives were to determine whether the curriculum and the faculty teaching practices of the School of Dentistry at the University of Chile contribute to its students' commitment to ethical and social responsibility. This was a qualitative study that investigated the perceptions of sixteen subjects (eight students and eight faculty members). Data were collected in thorough deep interviews. The interview process model conceptualised and organised the information into sets of dimensions and categories. The dimensions studied were ethical commitment and social responsibility. The categories assessed within ethical commitment were honesty, tolerance, responsibility and respect. In the social responsibility dimension, the categories were solidarity, teamwork and concern for and communication with the patient. Analysis of the textual data was performed using a method of content analysis based upon constructed qualitative matrices. Our results show that students and scholars alike realise that ethical commitment and a sense of social responsibility are not promoted in the curriculum. They do, however, recognise the importance of these qualities in dental practitioners. These results indicate that the current curriculum and teaching practices used in our School of Dentistry need to be reviewed and that programmes promoting professionals' commitment to their role in society need to be implemented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Faculty research productivity and organizational structure in schools of nursing. (United States)

    Kohlenberg, E M


    The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between faculty research productivity and organizational structure in schools of nursing. The need for nursing research has been widely recognized by members of the nursing profession, yet comparatively few engage in conducting research. Although contextual variables have been investigated that facilitate or inhibit nursing research, the relationship between organizational structure and nursing research productivity has not been examined. This problem was examined within the context of the Entrepreneurial Theory of Formal Organizations. A survey methodology was used for data collection. Data on individual faculty research productivity and organizational structure in the school of nursing were obtained through the use of a questionnaire. A random sample of 300 faculty teaching in 60 master's and doctoral nursing schools in the United States was used. The instruments for data collection were Wakefield-Fisher's Adapted Scholarly Productivity Index and Hall's Organizational Inventory. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients and multiple correlation/regression techniques. The overall relationship between faculty research productivity and organizational structure in schools of nursing was not significant at the .002 level of confidence. Although statistically significant relationships were not identified, scholarly research productivity and its subscale prepublication and research activities tended to vary positively with procedural specifications in a highly bureaucratic organizational structure. Further research may focus on identification of structural variables that support highly productive nurse researchers.

  15. Socio-economic and schooling status of dental undergraduates from six French universities. (United States)

    Hennequin, M; Tubert, S; Devillers, A; Müller, M; Michaïlesco, P; Peli, J F; Pouëzat, J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the socio-economic status of French undergraduate dental students. A 46-item questionnaire was completed by the dental students of six universities between 1992 and 1995. Subjects related to family background, housing, schooling, income, expenditure and participation in student life were investigated. A total of 1192 out of 1207 questionnaires were returned. Both genders had equal access to dental training. The average overall cost of the four last years of the dental course was 30,302 French francs and varied greatly between faculties, as did the number of hours spent at the faculty for lectures, tutorials and practicals, and clinical work. Overall, the majority of students came from a well off social background, and had a relatively high quality of life while a small minority received no support from their families. Thirty-four per cent of students had never worked. One third of students smoked and one third regularly consumed medication of some sort. A third did not participate in any sport. Only 25% students bought dental text books and 42% of the students reported using the library regularly. This study offers an accurate description of the socio-economic status of French dental students that could be used as a reference for comparable studies in other European countries.

  16. Patient satisfaction with dental services rendered at School of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine patient satisfaction among dental patients treated at the School of Dentistry, MUHAS. Study design: Cross-sectional clinic based study. Study participants and methods: Two hundred twelve dental patients aged 18 years and above who attended the oral surgery and restorative dental clinics were given a ...

  17. Physiology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series. (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne


    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed directors of physiology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-four of sixty-seven (65.7 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of physiology courses; physiology course content emphasis is similar between schools; student contact hours in physiology, which have remained relatively stable in the past fifteen years, are starting to be reduced; recent curricular changes have often been directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of physiology instruction; and a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction, is evident. Data from this study may be useful to physiology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  18. Pharmacology education in North American dental schools: the basic science survey series. (United States)

    Gautam, Medha; Shaw, David H; Pate, Ted D; Lambert, H Wayne


    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics Section surveyed course directors of basic pharmacology courses in North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, faculty affiliation and experience of course directors, teaching methods, general course content and emphasis, extent of interdisciplinary (shared) instruction, and impact of recent curricular changes. Responses were received from forty-nine of sixty-seven (73.1 percent) U.S. and Canadian dental schools. The findings suggest the following: 1) substantial variation exists in instructional hours, faculty affiliation, placement within curriculum, class size, and interdisciplinary nature of pharmacology courses; 2) pharmacology course content emphasis is similar among schools; 3) the number of contact hours in pharmacology has remained stable over the past three decades; 4) recent curricular changes were often directed towards enhancing the integrative and clinically relevant aspects of pharmacology instruction; and 5) a trend toward innovative content delivery, such as use of computer-assisted instruction applications, is evident. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to pharmacology course directors, curriculum committees, and other dental educators with an interest in integrative and interprofessional education.

  19. Organizational culture in nursing schools in Turkey: faculty members' perspectives. (United States)

    Kantek, F; Baykal, U


    Among the benefits of examining an organization's culture are the opportunity to understand the basic mechanisms of the institutional and structural procedures, to determine the need for change and to ensure the development and satisfaction of the faculty members. To determine the perceptions of faculty members of organizational culture at nursing schools in Turkey and to examine different perceptions in relation to demographic variables. The study was conducted with 180 faculty members from seven nursing schools in state universities located in different geographical regions of Turkey that granted permission for the study. All faculty members in these schools with at least 1 year of institutional experience were included in the research. No sampling was required. A demographic information form and an organizational culture scale were used as data collection materials. The organizational culture scale contains 30 items and resolves the organizational culture in three dimensions. The minimum score obtained was 1 and the maximum was 5. The mean score for faculty members' in total scale was 3.40 (SD = 0.68), while it was 3.26 (SD = 0.77) for the management style dimension, 3.39 (SD = 0.73) for the organizational commitment/relations dimension and 3.68 (SD = 0.73) for the student-oriented dimension. There was no statistical difference between the perception of organizational culture and work experience at the institution, marital status or educational status, but there were differences in age, number of years in the profession and academic titles. It was found that strong perceptions have been established in nursing schools in regard to student-oriented practices, and that groups consisting of senior academic personnel and experienced academicians are considered to be better at perceiving the importance of the organizational culture. The administrators are recommended to promote policies to enhance the participation in decision-making processes and regularly monitor

  20. An Update on Practice Management Instruction in U.S. Dental Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Lange


    Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice management in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corporations marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identified. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.

  1. An Update on Practice Management Instruction in U.S. Dental Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Lange


    Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice man-agement in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corpora-tions marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identi-fied. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.

  2. “Making our job hospitable” – Assessment of job-crafting behavior among dental academic faculty in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Siva Kalyan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Employees are regularly offered opportunities to make their work more appealing and rewarding. These opportunities might be as simple as making fine changes to their daily tasks to boost happiness and to connect with more people at vocation. Hence, an attempt is made to assess job-crafting behavior among the dental academic faculty. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among dental academic faculty from five dental colleges. Job Crafting Questionnaire (JCQ was used to assess the job-crafting behavior. Mean scores were calculated for different domains of JCQ. Gender differences were analyzed using Student's “t-” test and one-way ANOVA to test the difference between different academic positions of the faculty members. Results: A total of 228 dental faculty members with a mean age of 34.43 ± 6.13 years participated in the study. The mean value of job-crafting behavior was found to be highest among female faculty (60.07 ± 8.38 and professors (61.35 ± 8.30. Male faculty scored higher in task-crafting domain and female faculty scored higher in both cognitive- and relational-crafting domains. The professors scored highest in all the three domains of job-crafting behavior as compared to that of senior lecturers and readers. Conclusion: Job crafting is an effectual workplace intervention, where employees assume an active role in shaping their work experience to enhance their job satisfaction and well-being. The overall score of job-crafting behavior was found to be highest among both professors and female faculty members. Male faculty members scored higher in task-crafting domain. With regard to individual domains, the participants scored highest in cognitive crafting followed by task and relational crafting.

  3. Millennial Dental Hygiene Students' Learning Preferences Compared to Non-Millennial Faculty Members' Teaching Methods: A National Study. (United States)

    Turner, April M; Prihoda, Thomas J; English, Dana K; Chismark, Aubreé; Jacks, Mary E


    The aim of this study was to compare the learning preferences of millennial dental hygiene students (born between 1982 and 2002) in the U.S. with the teaching methods used by their non-millennial instructors. Cross-sectional surveys were developed with 21-item, five-point Likert scales to examine students' preferences for and faculty use of lecture, collaborative activities, technology, independent work, and group discussion. Surveys were emailed to U.S. dental hygiene program directors in September 2015. The respondents totaled 800 students and 343 faculty members-approximately 5% of all dental hygiene students and 6.8% of all dental hygiene faculty members in the U.S. The results showed that the responding faculty members (88.7%) used case studies more than the students (61.2%) preferred and that the students (71.4%) preferred games when learning more than the faculty members (57.2%) used them (pStudent respondents (82.1%) preferred handouts for lecture more than did the faculty respondents (58.8%; pstudents to read before class 39.3% more than student respondents read (pStudent respondents preferred study guides for exams 39.2% more than the faculty respondents provided them (pstudents work in groups more than these students preferred (57.8%), and 92% of these faculty members used group activities in class (pstudents in this study were consistent with previous research on millennial traits. This study found areas of disagreement between students and faculty members on the use of case studies, study guides, and group work. Although these students stated they preferred lecture over group work, trends in education stress using active learning over lecture.

  4. Development and Implementation of an Electronic Clinical Formative Assessment: Dental Faculty and Student Perspectives. (United States)

    Kirkup, Michele L; Adams, Brooke N; Meadows, Melinda L; Jackson, Richard


    A traditional summative grading structure, used at Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) for more than 30 years, was identified by faculty as outdated for assessing students' clinical performance. In an effort to change the status quo, a feedback-driven assessment was implemented in 2012 to provide a constructive assessment tool acceptable to both faculty and students. Building on the successful non-graded clinical evaluation employed at Baylor College of Dentistry, IUSD implemented a streamlined electronic formative feedback model (FFM) to assess students' daily clinical performance. An important addition to this evaluation tool was the inclusion of routine student self-assessment opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine faculty and student response to the new assessment instrument. Following training sessions, anonymous satisfaction surveys were examined for the three user groups: clinical faculty (60% response rate), third-year (D3) students (72% response rate), and fourth-year (D4) students (57% response rate). In the results, 70% of the responding faculty members preferred the FFM over the summative model; however, 61.8% of the D4 respondents preferred the summative model, reporting insufficient assessment time and low faculty participation. The two groups of students had different responses to the self-assessment component: 70.2% of the D4 respondents appreciated clinical self-assessment compared to 46% of the D3 respondents. Overall, while some components of the FFM assessment were well received, a phased approach to implementation may have facilitated a transition more acceptable to both faculty and students. Improvements are being made in an attempt to increase overall satisfaction.

  5. Dental Hygiene Faculty Calibration Using Two Accepted Standards for Calculus Detection: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Santiago, Lisa J; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Peterson, Teri; Bowen, Denise M


    Faculty calibration studies for calculus detection use two different standards for examiner evaluation, yet the only therapeutic modality that can be used for nonsurgical periodontal treatment is scaling/root debridement or planing. In this study, a pretest-posttest design was used to assess the feasibility of faculty calibration for calculus detection using two accepted standards: that established by the Central Regional Dental Testing Service, Inc. (CRDTS; readily detectible calculus) and the gold standard for scaling/root debridement (root roughness). Four clinical dental hygiene faculty members out of five possible participants at Halifax Community College agreed to participate. The participants explored calculus on the 16 assigned teeth (64 surfaces) of four patients. Calculus detection scores were calculated before and after training. Kappa averages using CRDTS criteria were 0.561 at pretest and 0.631 at posttest. Kappa scores using the scaling/root debridement or planing standard were 0.152 at pretest and 0.271 at posttest. The scores indicated improvement from moderate (Kappa=0.41-0.60) to substantial agreement (Kappa=0.61-0.80) following training using the CRDTS standard. Although this result differed qualitatively and Kappas were significantly different from 0, the differences for pre- to post-Kappas for patient-rater dyads using CRDTS were not statistically significant (p=0.778). There was no difference (p=0.913) in Kappa scores pre- to post-training using the scaling/root debridement standard. Despite the small number of participants in this study, the results indicated that training to improve interrater reliability to substantial agreement was feasible using the CRDTS standard but not using the gold standard. The difference may have been due to greater difficulty in attaining agreement regarding root roughness. Future studies should include multiple training sessions with patients using the same standard for scaling/root debridement used for

  6. Current State of Dental Education: Executive Summary. (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J


    This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.

  7. School Counseling Faculty Perceptions and Experiences Preparing Elementary School Counselors (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo; Martin, Ian; Biles, Kathy


    School counselors' job roles and preferences reportedly vary by educational level (i.e., elementary, middle and high school); however, several organizations, such as the American School Counselor Association, conceptualize and recommend school counseling practice and preparation through a K-12 lens. Little is known about how or if school…

  8. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on dental caries among patients attending Mulago Hospital is scarce. Yet knowledge of the pattern of caries can be used to plan preventive and treatment interventions. This study describes the pattern of dental caries (in terms of age group, tooth and tooth surface and gender) among patients attending the ...

  9. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Perceptions of the Rising Cost of Dental Education and Borrowing Pressures on Dental Students: Report of Survey Results. (United States)

    McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W


    This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.

  10. Why do faculty leave? Reasons for attrition of women and minority faculty from a medical school: four-year results. (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Masho, Saba W; Shiang, Rita; Sikka, Veronica; Kornstein, Susan G; Hampton, Carol L


    Faculty attrition, particularly among female and minority faculty, is a serious problem in academic medical settings. The reasons why faculty in academic medical settings choose to leave their employment are not well understood. Further, it is not clear if the reasons why women and minority faculty leave differ from those of other groups. One hundred sixty-six medical school faculty who left the School of Medicine (SOM) between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2005, completed a survey about their reasons for leaving. The three most common overall reasons for leaving the institution included career/professional advancement (29.8%), low salary (25.5%), and chairman/departmental leadership issues (22.4%). The ranking of these reasons varied slightly across racial and gender groups, with women and minority faculty also citing personal reasons for leaving. Women and minority faculty were at lower academic ranks at the time they left the SOM compared with male and majority groups. Although salary differences were not present at the time of initial hire, sex was a significant predictor of lower salary at the start of the new position. Opportunity for advancement and the rate of promotion were significantly different between women and men. Job characteristics prior to leaving that were rated most poorly were protected time for teaching and research, communication across the campus, and patient parking. Harassment and discrimination were reported by a small number of those surveyed, particularly women and minority faculty. The majority of reasons for faculty attrition are amenable to change. Retaining high-quality faculty in medical settings may justify the costs of faculty development and retention efforts.

  11. Annual ADEA Survey of Dental School Seniors: 2016 Graduating Class. (United States)

    Wanchek, Tanya; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W


    This report examines the results of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Survey of Dental School Seniors graduating in 2016. Data were collected from 4,558 respondents at all 59 U.S. dental schools with graduating classes that year. This annual survey asks graduating students about a variety of topics in order to understand their motivation for attending dental school, educational experiences while in school, debt incurred, and plans following graduation. Motivations for choosing to attend dental school typically involved family or friends who were dentists or students' personal experiences. The timing of the decision to enter dentistry has been getting earlier over time. Similar to previous years, the average graduating student had above $200,000 in student debt. However, for the first time in two decades, inflation-adjusted debt decreased slightly. The reduction in debt was due to students from private schools reducing their average debt by $23,401. Immediately after graduation, most seniors planned to enter private practice (50.5%) or advanced dental education (33.8%). Approximately half of the respondents planned to work in underserved areas at some point in their careers. These findings underscore the continued value of the senior survey to offer a unique view of the diverse characteristics and career paths of the future dental workforce.

  12. Radiation Safety and Quality Assurance in North American Dental Schools. (United States)

    Farman, Allan G.; Hines, Vickie G.


    A survey of dental schools that revealed processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are being carried out in a timely manner is discussed. However, methods for reducing patient exposure to radiation are not being fully implemented, and some dental students are being exposed to x-rays. (Author/MLW)

  13. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics. (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980


    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  14. A survey of local anaesthesia education in European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Kuin, D.; Baart, J.A.


    Objective: A survey of European dental schools was conducted in 2006 to determine the curricular structure, techniques and materials used in local anaesthesia teaching to dental students. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia education.

  15. Perception of Uncivil Classroom Behavior Among the Faculty Members and the Students in an Indian Dental Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantala Satyanrayana


    Full Text Available Introduction: Students and faculty members in the health professions classroom are expected to exhibit professional behaviors that are conducive to maintaining a positive learning environment. Aim: To assess the perception of uncivil classroom behavior among the students and the faculty members in a private dental institute in Hyderabad city, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among the dental students and the faculty members. The mean perceptions of uncivil classroom behavior were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire of Rowland and Srisukho containing 18 items. Results: A statistically significant difference was noted between the students and the faculty members for mean perception of uncivil classroom behavior (P = 0.002. When based on gender, no significant difference was observed among the students and the staff, but when individual items were considered, most of the male students and the faculty members perceived uncivil behaviors. Among all students, the mean perception of uncivil classroom behavior was significantly high among the undergraduates (68.17 ± 14.5 and least in postgraduates (62.67 ± 22.7, and among the faculty members, it was more among the professors (82.63 ± 4.0. Conclusion: Overall, the issue of uncivil classroom behavior remains a major concern, because 88.6% of the students agreed that they were involved in uncivil classroom behavior previously.

  16. Effects of a proposed rural dental school on regional dental workforce and access to care. (United States)

    Wanchek, Tanya N; Rephann, Terance J


    Southwest Virginia is a rural, low-income region with a relatively small dentist workforce and poor oral health outcomes. The opening of a dental school in the region has been proposed by policy-makers as one approach to improving the size of the dentist workforce and oral health outcomes. A policy simulation was conducted to assess how a hypothetical dental school in rural Southwest Virginia would affect the availability of dentists and utilization levels of dental services. The simulation focuses on two channels through which the dental school would most likely affect the region. First, the number of graduates who are expected to remain in the region was varied, based on the extensiveness of the education pipeline used to attract local students. Second, the number of patients treated in the dental school clinic under different dental school clinical models, including the traditional model, a patient-centered clinic model and a community-based clinic model, was varied in the simulation to obtain a range of additional dentists and utilization rates under differing dental school models. Under a set of plausible assumptions, the low yield scenario (ie private school with a traditional clinic) would result in three additional dentists residing in the region and a total of 8090 additional underserved patients receiving care. Under the high yield scenario (ie dental pipeline program with community based clinics) nine new dentists would reside in the region and as many as 18 054 underserved patients would receive care. Even with the high yield scenario and the strong assumption that these patients would not otherwise access care, the utilization rate increases to 68.9% from its current 60.1%. While the new dental school in Southwest Virginia would increase the dentist workforce and utilization rates, the high cost combined with the continued low rate of dental utilization suggests that there may be more effective alternatives to improving oral health in rural areas

  17. Western Australian schools access to dentally optimal fluoridated water. (United States)

    Desai, P; Kruger, E; Trolio, R; Tennant, M


    This study examined water fluoride levels at schools across Western Australia. The aim was to identify schools where levels of water fluoride appeared to be below dental health thresholds (0.5-1.0 mg/L) as recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The objective is to provide health organizations with the knowledge for a more targeted approach to schools with greater risk of decay. Population data, school location, enrolment data and water quality data were integrated into geographic databases for analysis using Quantum GIS, Lisboa 1.8. The results indicated that 46% of school attendees in the northern half of Western Australia were at schools where there was the potential that the water was not dentally optimally fluoridated while in the southern half of Western Australia this was about 10%. Of these attendees (north and south), 45% were at primary school. Similarly, there was an association between socio-economic decile and proportion of school attendees in non-dentally optimally fluoridated schools. Lower deciles (i.e. poorer attendees) had a greater risk of being in schools outside dentally optimally fluoridated areas. This study clearly highlights areas where more prevention (and probably) treatment needs are present and provides a framework for targeted service planning. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Students' clinical learning in an emerging dental school: an investigation in international collaboration between Michigan and Ghana. (United States)

    Peters, Mathilde C; Adu-Ababio, Francis; Jarrett-Ananaba, Nejay P; Johnson, Lynn A


    The dearth of dental faculty members is a widely known problem that is exacerbated in countries that are attempting to begin dental education programs. This collaboration between Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and the University of Michigan investigated if dental students who have just started their clinical dental education can learn the knowledge and skills required for identifying and restoring cavitated caries lesions through compact course delivery. There were three instructional blocks: 1) didactic seminar; 2) seminar, simulated hands-on skills instruction, and clinical observation/assisting with treatment of schoolchildren; and 3) seminar, simulated skills training, and application to schoolchildren. Each dental student completed a questionnaire measuring knowledge and perceptions of knowledge, experience, and confidence at five points in time. The dental students' knowledge increased significantly as well as their perceived knowledge, experience, and confidence (p<0.0001). In general, the students showed proficiency in delivering simple treatments. The project showed that an integrated compact course delivery model may assist emerging dental schools to cope with the challenging shortage of resident faculty members.

  19. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school. (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A


    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  20. Electronic health records: a valuable tool for dental school strategic planning. (United States)

    Filker, Phyllis J; Cook, Nicole; Kodish-Stav, Jodi


    The objective of this study was to investigate if electronic patient records have utility in dental school strategic planning. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been used by all predoctoral students and faculty members at Nova Southeastern University's College of Dental Medicine (NSU-CDM) since 2006. The study analyzed patient demographic and caries risk assessment data from October 2006 to May 2011 extracted from the axiUm EHR database. The purpose was to determine if there was a relationship between high oral health care needs and patient demographics, including gender, age, and median income of the zip code where they reside in order to support dental school strategic planning including the locations of future satellite clinics. The results showed that about 51 percent of patients serviced by the Broward County-based NSU-CDM oral health care facilities have high oral health care needs and that about 60 percent of this population resides in zip codes where the average income is below the median income for the county ($41,691). The results suggest that EHR data can be used adjunctively by dental schools when proposing potential sites for satellite clinics and planning for future oral health care programming.

  1. Preliminary assessment of faculty and student perception of a haptic virtual reality simulator for training dental manual dexterity. (United States)

    Gal, Gilad Ben; Weiss, Ervin I; Gafni, Naomi; Ziv, Amitai


    Virtual reality force feedback simulators provide a haptic (sense of touch) feedback through the device being held by the user. The simulator's goal is to provide a learning experience resembling reality. A newly developed haptic simulator (IDEA Dental, Las Vegas, NV, USA) was assessed in this study. Our objectives were to assess the simulator's ability to serve as a tool for dental instruction, self-practice, and student evaluation, as well as to evaluate the sensation it provides. A total of thirty-three evaluators were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of twenty-one experienced dental educators; the second consisted of twelve fifth-year dental students. Each participant performed drilling tasks using the simulator and filled out a questionnaire regarding the simulator and potential ways of using it in dental education. The results show that experienced dental faculty members as well as advanced dental students found that the simulator could provide significant potential benefits in the teaching and self-learning of manual dental skills. Development of the simulator's tactile sensation is needed to attune it to genuine sensation. Further studies relating to aspects of the simulator's structure and its predictive validity, its scoring system, and the nature of the performed tasks should be conducted.

  2. Tooth extraction education at dental schools across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; van der Cammen, C.C.J.; Roorda, S.M.E.; Baart, J.A.


    Objectives/Aims: To explore students’ opinion about theoretical and clinical training in tooth extraction at different European dental schools. Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire, containing 36 dichotomous, multiple choice and Likert scale rating questions, was distributed among students

  3. A Needs Assessment of Medical School Faculty: Caring for the Caretakers. (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H.; Dennis, Kay; Winn, Gloria M.; Mitchell, Jim


    In administrator interviews and a survey of 395 medical school faculty (72% responded), faculty prioritized the following learning needs: sustaining vitality, life balance, meaningful work, relationships, and personal growth. Administrators ranked the following needs for faculty: time management, teamwork, and improved performance. Junior faculty…

  4. Achieving student diversity in dental schools: a model that works. (United States)

    Lacy, Ernestine S; McCann, Ann L; Miller, Barbara H; Solomon, Eric; Reuben, Jayne S


    It is well known that there is a large disparity between the proportions of African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians in the general U.S. population and in the nation's dental profession. While these underrepresented minorities (URMs) together make up almost 30 percent of the population, they comprise only about 6 percent of U.S. dentists. For years, the American Dental Education Association has been diligently working with U.S. dental schools to reduce this disparity by increasing the diversity of their student bodies. However, with approximately 13 percent of first-year dental students coming from URM groups, the proportion of URM students entering dental school continues to remain significantly below that of the general population. Diversifying the dental profession is important for improving access to care for underrepresented groups, and student diversity provides better educational experiences for all students. Texas A&M Health Science Center Baylor College of Dentistry's strategy for increasing the number of URM dentists was to create a series of initiatives that together form a successful comprehensive program addressing students' awareness of and attraction to a dental career, academic enrichment, admissions, and graduation. The cumulative impact of this program is that the college enrolled greater numbers and proportions of URM students than any other non-minority U.S. dental school from 2006 to 2009. This article describes the program that led to these successes.

  5. Dental Students' Knowledge of Resources for LGBT Persons: Findings from Three Dental Schools. (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoying; Mugayar, Leda; Perez, Edna; Nagasawa, Pamela R; Brown, David G; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S


    Recently, there has been increased attention to including cultural diversity in the education of health professionals, including concern for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) inclusion and visibility. Studies regarding cultural exposure and acceptance of LGBT populations have been concentrated in medicine, with findings showing that medical providers often graduate having missed the preparation required to care for LGBT persons. A visible, comprehensive, culturally competent environment in dental schools would help ensure that all oral health professionals and students are aware of services available to address the particular needs of LGBT students. The aims of this survey-based study conducted in 2015-16 were to determine dental students' perceptions regarding LGBT students' needs and to assess dental students' knowledge of resources for LGBT persons at three U.S. dental schools, one each in the Midwest, West, and South. Of the 849 students invited to participate, 364 completed the survey (338 dental, 26 dental hygiene), for an overall response rate of 43%. The response rate at individual schools ranged from 30% to 55%. The results showed perceptions of insufficient LGBT information, resources, and support at these institutions, especially at the Western school. There were significant differences among the three schools, with students at the Western school more than the other two schools perceiving that their institution was less aware of whether it met the academic, social support, and spiritual needs of LGBT students. There were no significant differences between LGBT and non-LGBT students' perceptions. The authors urge dental school administrators to explore the degree to which their programs teach respectful and caring behavior towards LGBT students and, by extension, LGBT patient populations.

  6. Homepages of German dental schools - a target group-oriented evaluation. (United States)

    Wehlers, A; Schäfer, I; Sehner, S; Kahl-Nieke, B; Kuhnigk, O


    The Internet represents the central communication medium in higher education. University applicants, students, teachers and scientists use the Internet when seeking information on medicine. The homepages of dental schools are not just sources of information, but also a means of presenting the school. No comparative studies have been undertaken concerning the content and extent of their Internet sites so far. Based on the literature and assessments of medical school websites, 136 criteria were defined within the setting of a Delphi procedure and drawn upon for a standardised evaluation of the websites of all 30 German dental schools. Structure and extent of the content of the websites were evaluated. Possible influencing factors, such as financial resources and number of applicants, were investigated. The results yielded by the homepages varied considerably. The best Internet site received 84% of the possible points, the poorest 38%. On average, 62% of the criteria were fulfilled. Influencing factors, such as the amount of funding by the particular state government, could not be detected. Two-thirds of the dental schools addressed students, three-fourth teachers and scientists as target groups. More than 50% did not address applicants. Specific requirements regarding barrier-free accessibility of information were hardly met. Individual faculties already have homepages of a high quality; for others, there is a need for improvement. General recommendations for university websites should be discussed at the European level to ensure a uniform standard of quality. The criteria presented here offer faculties the possibility to reflect upon their own Internet sites. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Awareness of Eco-Friendly Dentistry among Dental Faculty and Students of King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Al-Qarni, Mohammed A; Shakeela, Nasim Vahid; Alamri, Mohammed Abdullah; Alshaikh, Yahya A


    Eco-friendly or green dentistry can be a reality by effectively designing dental clinics and using more eco-friendly materials in the clinical practice. To determine the awareness of eco-friendly dentistry among dental faculty and students in preparation for future implementation. Assessment of knowledge regarding eco-friendly dentistry was done using an 18 item self-administered questionnaire among 160 participants. After baseline data collection, the intervention was done by educating participants with a power point presentation. The post-intervention data was then collected for analysis. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon's signed rank test and one-way ANOVA. The educational intervention increased the knowledge about eco-friendly dentistry confirming the importance of continuing education. There was a statistically significant gain in knowledge among the participants after the presentation. The gain was highest for department of Preventive Dental Sciences (PDS) followed by Substitute Dental Sciences (SDS), No specialty, Maxillofacial Dental Sciences (MDS), and Restorative Dental Sciences (RDS) respectively. (F=5.5091, p<0.05). Lack of knowledge of green dentistry amongst the dental fraternity is highly prevailing. The same can be substantiated with effective training in the respective fields if channelized through the curriculum in an educational set-up.

  8. Should Student Evaluation of Teaching Play a Significant Role in the Formal Assessment of Dental Faculty? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Formal Faculty Assessment Should Include Student Evaluation of Teaching and Viewpoint 2: Student Evaluation of Teaching Should Not Be Part of Formal Faculty Assessment. (United States)

    Rowan, Susan; Newness, Elmer J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Prasad, Joanne L; Ko, Ching-Chang; Sanchez, Arlene


    Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is often used in the assessment of faculty members' job performance and promotion and tenure decisions, but debate over this use of student evaluations has centered on the validity, reliability, and application of the data in assessing teaching performance. Additionally, the fear of student criticism has the potential of influencing course content delivery and testing measures. This Point/Counterpoint article reviews the potential utility of and controversy surrounding the use of SETs in the formal assessment of dental school faculty. Viewpoint 1 supports the view that SETs are reliable and should be included in those formal assessments. Proponents of this opinion contend that SETs serve to measure a school's effectiveness in support of its core mission, are valid measures based on feedback from the recipients of educational delivery, and provide formative feedback to improve faculty accountability to the institution. Viewpoint 2 argues that SETs should not be used for promotion and tenure decisions, asserting that higher SET ratings do not correlate with improved student learning. The advocates of this viewpoint contend that faculty members may be influenced to focus on student satisfaction rather than pedagogy, resulting in grade inflation. They also argue that SETs are prone to gender and racial biases and that SET results are frequently misinterpreted by administrators. Low response rates and monotonic response patterns are other factors that compromise the reliability of SETs.

  9. Strategic management and organizational behavior in dental education: reflections on key issues in an environment of change. (United States)

    Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N


    With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.

  10. Academic PHD School at Faculty of Agriculture in Tirana, Albania. (United States)

    Bijo, B; Hoda, A; Thamaj, F


    Agricultural University of Tirana (AUT) is one of 12 public Universities in Albania. There are five Faculties within AUT. The study courses in AUT except of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, are organized in three levels. Courses of the first level offer the fundamental knowledge. The students at the end of this cycle own 180 credits and obtain a first level diploma. In the second level study courses, the students get deeper theoretical and practical knowledge and modules are spread across 120 credits. At the end of this level the students obtain a second level diploma, according to the study course. In FVM, the study courses are organized as integrated program of second level that is spread across 300 credits. The students, who have finished the first level course, may go further in "Master of First level" for a professional training, where they do obtain 60 credits. The program of third cycle includes the courses of "Master of Second level" and the programs of PhD. The course of "Master of second level" is offered to the students who have achieved a Diploma of Second Level, and the students get deeper knowledge of scientific and professional character and do obtain at least 60 credits. PhD programs have totally an academic character. The principal aspect is the research and independent scientific activity. This program can be followed by the students who have a diploma of second level, or a diploma of "Master of Second level". The PhD program is organized in four years. The first year, consists of theoretical knowledge of the students. The second year is mainly research. The third year is research, data manipulation, publications, oral presentations and the last year is compilation of PhD thesis, its presentation and defense. Here is presented newly established doctoral school at Faculty of Agriculture and Environment.

  11. Dental measurements of Deuteromalayid Javanese students of the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrtati Dyah Artaria


    Full Text Available Background: Dental anthropology is a new field of study in Indonesia, hence there are few numbers of research that can be found in this field. Knowledge in this field is needed due to the large area and diversity of the people. Moreover, knowledge regarding the possibility to differentiate the sexes of skeletons is still needed for the purpose of identification. Purpose: This research intended to study the differences in mesio-distal measurements of the teeth of Deuteromalayid Javanese males and females studying in the Faculty of Dentistry in Airlangga University. Methods: This study used mesiodistal metric dental data, using dental caliper, to test the existence of sexual dimorphism. Sample were teeth of freshman students of the Airlangga University, from 52 individuals comprising 26 males and 26 females Deuteromalayid originated from Java (Indonesia studying in the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. Measurements were not performed on damaged casts due to caries or other reasons. Differences between males and females were tested using independent t-test. Results: The mean of mesiodistal measurements in males and females differs, where the males have greater size of mesiodistal measurements. The results showed that there were significant differences between sexes in the sample, in all field of teeth except the second upper and lower premolars. Reverse sexual dimorphism-female teeth measurement is larger than those of males-has not been found in these samples. The result of this study revealed that the range of mesiodistal measurements of every tooth in males and females overlapped. Conclusion: It is concluded that teeth measurement of males is bigger than females, except maxillary and mandibular second premolars. Latar belakang: Antropologi dental adalah bidang studi baru di Indonesia, dan karenanya penelitian di bidang ini masih sedikit dijumpai di Indonesia. Apalagi masih dibutuhkan pengetahuan mengenai apakah jenis kelamin dapat

  12. A Study of Faculty Racial Diversity in Business Schools: Perceptions of Business Deans (United States)

    Moshiri, Farrokh; Cardon, Peter Wilson


    For decades, business schools in the United States have attempted to increase faculty diversity. The goals and benefits of increasing faculty diversity include improved educational outcomes, social justice, and economic competitiveness. While Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business data shows that a gender gap still exists in…

  13. The Racial Stress of Membership: Development of the Faculty Inventory of Racialized Experiences in Schools (United States)

    Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.


    Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…

  14. Social Networking in School Psychology Training Programs: A Survey of Faculty and Graduate Students (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.; Goforth, Anisa N.; Segool, Natasha; Burt, Isaac


    The increasing use of social networking sites has become an emerging focus in school psychology training, policy, and research. The purpose of the current study is to present data from a survey on social networking among faculty and graduate students in school psychology training programs. A total of 110 faculty and 112 graduate students in school…

  15. U.S. dental hygiene faculty perceptions of learner outcomes in distance education courses. (United States)

    Corum, Kathrine A; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Johnson, Kerry; Strait, Tia M


    The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of full-time, entry-level dental hygiene educators regarding the ability to achieve interaction in their distance education courses and the impact of interaction on learning outcomes. The specific interactions explored were student-instructor, student-content, and student-student. A survey was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 287 educators across the United States, generating an overall response rate of 22.3 percent. The majority of respondents perceived interaction to be achievable in their distance courses, to increase through technology, and to positively influence learning outcomes. Nearly 90 percent reported student-instructor interaction as achievable, 95.3 percent reported student-content interaction as achievable, and 79.7 percent reported student-student interaction as achievable. Learning outcomes were defined in this study as the student's achievement of course objectives and competencies at course completion. Approximately 81 percent of the respondents reported a positive influence from student-instructor interaction, 79.7 percent from student-content interaction, and 70.3 percent from student-student interaction. This study also examined which modalities were perceived as being most influential in achieving interaction. The results demonstrated a prevalence of discussion board posting in an environment in which numerous Web 2.0 tools are available and respondents were not as positive about their ability to achieve student-student interaction in the distance learning environment. The authors conclude that faculty development is critical in achieving quality outcomes in dental hygiene distance education courses.

  16. Faktor pendorong motivasi orang tua merawatkan gigi anak di klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Unair (Stimulating factor of parents' motivation to take their children's dental health for treatment in the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University)


    Anggriana, Dita; Musyrifah, Musyrifah


    Children dental health is very beneficial for children's growth Parent’s motivation for taking their children dental for treatment before more serious dental damage can help to decrease the prevalence of children's dental damage, especially for patients who came to pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. This study aimed to know the parents' motivation to take their children dental for treatment in Pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University ...

  17. Modern Management Principles Come to the Dental School. (United States)

    Wataha, John C; Mouradian, Wendy E; Slayton, Rebecca L; Sorensen, John A; Berg, Joel H


    The University of Washington School of Dentistry may be the first dental school in the nation to apply lean process management principles as a primary tool to re-engineer its operations and curriculum to produce the dentist of the future. The efficiencies realized through re-engineering will better enable the school to remain competitive and viable as a national leader of dental education. Several task forces conducted rigorous value stream analyses in a highly collaborative environment led by the dean of the school. The four areas undergoing evaluation and re-engineering were organizational infrastructure, organizational processes, curriculum, and clinic operations. The new educational model was derived by thoroughly analyzing the current state of dental education in order to design and achieve the closest possible ideal state. As well, the school's goal was to create a lean, sustainable operational model. This model aims to ensure continued excellence in restorative dental instruction and to serve as a blueprint for other public dental schools seeking financial stability in this era of shrinking state support and rising costs.

  18. Models for Delivering School-Based Dental Care. (United States)

    Albert, David A.; McManus, Joseph M.; Mitchell, Dennis A.


    School-based health centers (SBHCs) often are located in high-need schools and communities. Dental service is frequently an addition to existing comprehensive services, functioning in a variety of models, configurations, and locations. SBHCs are indicated when parents have limited financial resources or inadequate health insurance, limiting…

  19. Psychological stress in undergraduate dental students: baseline results from seven European dental schools. (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry; Blinkhorn, Andy; Freeman, Ruth; Gorter, Ronald; Hoad-Reddick, Gillian; Murtomaa, Heikki; O'Sullivan, Robin; Splieth, Christian


    To determine the degree of psychological distress, the experience of emotional exhaustion, and the extent of stress associated with course work in dental students and to compare these measurements among seven European dental schools. Multi-centred survey. Dental Schools at Amsterdam, Belfast, Cork, Greifswald, Helsinki, Liverpool and Manchester. 333 undergraduate first-year dental students. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire (DES), demographic variables. Questionnaire administered to all students attending first year course. Completed questionnaires sent to central office for processing. Seventy-nine percent of the sampled students responded. Over a third of the students (36%) reported significant psychological distress (morbidity) at the recommended cut-off point (>3 on GHQ). These scores were similar to those reported for medical undergraduates. Twenty-two percent recorded comparatively high scores on emotional exhaustion. A wide variation in these 2 measurements was found across schools (p'sStress levels indicated by the DES were less variable (p>0.5). Some evidence showed that contact with patients and the level of support afforded by living at home may be protective. Higher than expected levels of emotional exhaustion were found in a large sample of first-year undergraduate dental students in Europe.

  20. Consensus training: an effective tool to minimize variations in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among dental faculty and students. (United States)

    John, Vanchit; Lee, Seung-Jun; Prakasam, Sivaraman; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo


    Considerable disagreements and variations exist in diagnosis and treatment planning of periodontal disease. Achieving high interrater periodontal diagnosis can prove challenging. The objectives of this study were to measure variations in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among predoctoral periodontics faculty members after consensus training and to compare such variation with those identified in third- and fourth-year dental students. Nine electronically stored case vignettes and survey instruments were made available to eighteen faculty members and twenty dental students under standardized conditions. A chi-square test was used to compare responses between groups, and multirater kappa tests were used to evaluate interrater agreement/reliability. Of the nine cases, only one differed between groups significantly in terms of treatment. Also, third-year students differed from fourth-year students on the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis versus chronic periodontitis. Most respondents were able to distinguish clearly among diagnoses of chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and gingivitis. This study established a baseline assessment of the current status of consensus after training. We will reassess variations after addressing the specific challenges identified. Programs designed and implemented to help decrease the variation in periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning among faculty members may ultimately translate into better agreement and better standardization of dental instruction.

  1. Awareness, Attitude, and Knowledge of Basic Life Support among Medical, Dental, and Nursing Faculties and Students in the University Hospital. (United States)

    Sangamesh, N C; Vidya, K C; Pathi, Jugajyoti; Singh, Arpita


    To assess the awareness, attitude, and knowledge about basic life support (BLS) among medical, dental, and nursing students and faculties and the proposal of BLS skills in the academic curriculum of undergraduate (UG) course. Recognition, prevention, and effective management of life-threatening emergencies are the responsibility of health-care professionals. These situations can be successfully managed by proper knowledge and training of the BLS skills. These life-saving maneuvers can be given through the structured resuscitation programs, which are lacking in the academic curriculum. A questionnaire study consisting of 20 questions was conducted among 659 participants in the Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, KIIT University. Medical junior residents, BDS faculties, interns, nursing faculties, and 3 rd -year and final-year UG students from both medical and dental colleges were chosen. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software version 20.0 (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). After collecting the data, the values were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. The results with P life-threatening emergencies.

  2. Medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of conflict of interest. (United States)

    Andresen, Nicholas S; Olson, Tyler S; Krasowski, Matthew D


    Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the 'hidden' medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy have not been compared in detail. The authors surveyed first year medical students and medical school teaching faculty at one academic medical center. The response rate was 98.7% (150/152) for students and 34.2% (69/202) for faculty. Students were less likely than faculty to agree that lecturers should disclose COI to any learners (4.06 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), but more likely to agree that COI disclosure decreases the presentation of biased material (3.80 vs. 3.21, p < 0.001). Student and faculty responses for all other questions were not different. Many of these responses suggest student and faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers. Students and faculty perceptions regarding COI and COI policy are largely similar, but differ in terms of the perceived effectiveness of COI disclosure. This study also suggests that medical students and medical school teaching faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  4. [An illustrated guide to dental screening: a school survey]. (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Annabelle; Sayada, Mélanie; Azogui-Levy, Sylvie


    Marked social inequalities in oral health are observed right from early childhood. A mandatory complete health check-up, including dental screening, is organized at school for 6-year-old children. School healthcare professionals are not well trained in dental health. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of an illustrated guide as a simple and rapid dental screening training tool in order to ensure effective, standardized and reproducible screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the context of the dental examination performed as part of the health check-up. Two examiners (Doctor E1 and Nurse E2) were trained in dental screening by means of the illustrated guide. This reference guide, comprising pictures and legends, presents the main oral pathology observed in children. 109 consent forms for oral screening were delivered, and 102 children agreed to participate (93.57%). The sensitivity of detection of tooth decay by examiners E1 and E2 was 81.48% with a specificity of 96%. No correlation was observed between the child's age (+/- 6 years) and correct detection rates. The illustrated guide is an appropriate and rapid tool for dental screening that can improve the quality of dental check-up and increase the number of children detected.

  5. Sexual harassment in Dentistry: prevalence in dental school


    GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba; ZINA, Lívia Guimarães; GARBIN, Artênio José Insper; MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba


    OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic...

  6. Quality assurance study of caries risk assessment performance by clinical faculty members in a school of dentistry. (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Featherstone, John D B


    The goal of this quality assurance study was to explore the decision making of clinical faculty members at the University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry predoctoral dental clinic in terms of caries risk level assignment using the caries risk assessment (CRA) as part of the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) concept. This research was done in part to determine if additional training and calibration were needed for these faculty members. The study tested the reliability and reproducibility of the caries risk levels assigned by different clinical teachers who completed CRA forms for simulated patients. In the first step, five clinical teachers assigned caries risk levels for thirteen simulated patients. Six months later, the same five plus an additional nine faculty members assigned caries risk levels to the same thirteen simulated and nine additional cases. While the intra-examiner reliability with weighted kappa strength of agreement was very high, the inter-examiner agreements with a gold standard were on average only moderate. In total, 20 percent of the presented high caries risk cases were underestimated at caries levels too low, even when obvious caries disease indicators were present. This study suggests that more consistent training and calibration of clinical faculty members as well as students are needed.

  7. Not Dean School: Leadership Development for Faculty Where They Are (United States)

    Wilks, Karrin E.; Shults, Christopher; Berg, James J.


    Leadership development for faculty often is designed as training for administration, but faculty demonstrate leadership in the classroom, in their departments, college-wide, and beyond. To fully realize and leverage this leadership potential, colleges must design opportunities for faculty to hone their knowledge and skills as active participants…

  8. Characteristics, satisfaction, and engagement of part-time faculty at U.S. medical schools. (United States)

    Pollart, Susan M; Dandar, Valerie; Brubaker, Linda; Chaudron, Linda; Morrison, Leslie A; Fox, Shannon; Mylona, Elza; Bunton, Sarah A


    To describe the demographics of part-time faculty at U.S. medical schools and to examine their satisfaction with and perceptions of their workplace. Faculty from 14  Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited U.S. medical schools participated in the 2011-2012 Faculty Forward Engagement Survey. The authors calculated descriptive statistics of part-time faculty respondents and used ANOVA and t test analyses to assess significant differences between and among demographic groups. The survey yielded an overall response rate of 62% (9,600/15,490). Of the part-time faculty respondents, most had appointments in clinical departments (634/674; 94%) and were female (415/674; 62%). Just over 80% (384/474) reported a full-time equivalent of 0.5 or higher. The majority of part-time faculty respondents reported satisfaction with their department and medical school as a place to work (372/496 [75%] and 325/492 [66%]); approximately half agreed that their institution had clear expectations for part-time faculty (210/456; 46%) and provided the resources they needed (232/457; 51%). Significant differences existed between part- and full-time faculty respondents regarding perceptions of growth opportunities and compensation and benefits, with part-time faculty respondents feeling less satisfied in these areas. As institutions work to improve the satisfaction of full-time faculty, they should do the same for part-time faculty. Understanding why faculty choose part-time work is important in encouraging the recruitment and retention of the most talented faculty. The findings of this study indicate multiple opportunities to improve the satisfaction and engagement of part-time faculty.

  9. Curriculum content in geriatric dentistry in USA dental schools. (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang


    The aim of this study was to re-examine the teaching of geriatric dentistry in the USA dental schools, to identify curriculum content and compare the findings to previous reports. All dental schools in the United States were contacted via email with a questionnaire to assess the teaching of geriatric dentistry. Non-responding schools were sent a minimum of three reminder emails to complete the survey. A statistical analysis was performed. Descriptive statistics were conducted to profile the variables of interest. Bivariate analysis was performed to explore if any of the variables were related using Fisher's exact test, non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Fifty-six of the 67 dental schools completed the questionnaire. Geriatric dentistry was taught in all dental schools; for 92.8%, the course was compulsory. We found that 62.5% were teaching it as an independent course, 25% as an organised series of lectures and 8.9% as occasional lectures in parts of other courses. Clinically, 84.2% have some form of compulsory education in geriatric dentistry. Public schools were marginally associated with an increased interest in expanding the geriatric dentistry curriculum (P = .078). No differences were found between these variables and school location. Geriatric dentistry is now required in 92.8% of dental schools. The teaching of traditional topics has not changed much; however, the number of gerontological topics has increased. Clinical teaching needs to be expanded, as in only 57.1% of schools was it a requirement. The ageing imperative will require research to determine the impact of teaching on services to the geriatric community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 'Uncrunching' time: medical schools' use of social media for faculty development. (United States)

    Cahn, Peter S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Shanahan, Christopher W


    The difficulty of attracting attendance for in-person events is a problem common to all faculty development efforts. Social media holds the potential to disseminate information asynchronously while building a community through quick, easy-to-use formats. The authors sought to document creative uses of social media for faculty development in academic medical centers. In December 2011, the first author (P.S.C.) examined the websites of all 154 accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada for pages relevant to faculty development. The most popular social media sites and searched for accounts maintained by faculty developers in academic medicine were also visited. Several months later, in February 2012, a second investigator (C.W.S.) validated these data via an independent review. Twenty-two (22) medical schools (14.3%) employed at least one social media technology in support of faculty development. In total, 40 instances of social media tools were identified--the most popular platforms being Facebook (nine institutions), Twitter (eight institutions), and blogs (eight institutions). Four medical schools, in particular, have developed integrated strategies to engage faculty in online communities. Although relatively few medical schools have embraced social media to promote faculty development, the present range of such uses demonstrates the flexibility and affordability of the tools. The most popular tools incorporate well into faculty members' existing use of technology and require minimal additional effort. Additional research into the benefits of engaging faculty through social media may help overcome hesitation to invest in new technologies.

  11. Scholarly Productivity of School Psychology Faculty Members in Specialist-Level Programs: 2002-2011 (United States)

    Laurent, Jeff; Runia, Elizabeth


    The scholarly productivity of school psychology faculty members in specialist-level only programs was examined. Information was gathered from the School Psychology Program Information portion of the website for the National Association of School Psychologists. A total of 137 specialist-level only school psychology programs were identified.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami Kannan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a universal health problem with involving the people globally of all regions and society. The agonising fact is that despite several efforts towards total eradication, dental caries is still prevalent. As the prevalence of dental caries is very high among school children and there is a paucity of such data in Coimbatore and the literature review does not reveal many such studies from this area, the study was conducted in the school going children in Sulur. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. A health screening camp was conducted for the students in private school, Sulur, February 20-25, 2017, by a team of doctors from PSG UHTC. A total of 1945 students were screened. The students health details have been entered in their health card and those requiring further evaluation have been counseled and the nursing staff at school has been requested to facilitate and guide for followup. All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. All the students who were present in school during 20th to 25th were screened and considered as the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were the absentees during this period. The students were made to sit in an ordinary chair in broad daylight facing away from the sunlight and examined in their school. Data were compiled in an excel worksheet and the percentage calculated. RESULTS A total of 1945 students were screened, of which, 541 students were found to have dental problems that is about 28% of the total screening done. The percentage of dental caries were found to be higher compared to other dental diseases like deep caries, malalignment, malocclusion and calculus. The percentage of dental caries was found to be higher in the females about 78% than the male for whom it was about 72%. The percentage of deep

  13. Sexual harassment in Dentistry: prevalence in dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.

  14. Sexual harassment in dentistry: prevalence in dental school. (United States)

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Garbin, Artênio José Insper; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba


    Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611)]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.

  15. Radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskandarlou, A.; Ghazi-khanlou Sani, K.; Mehdizadeh, A. R.


    In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire, based on National Radiation Protection Board and European Commission guidelines, was conducted. The radiology departments of all dental school (18 schools) were surveyed in this study. The questionnaire was consisted of 3 sections including intraoral radiography, extra oral radiography and implementation of quality control programs. Results: In the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities (such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls) the use of high speed films and existence of automatic processor in dental schools, there was a proper condition. The main problem was related to lack of regular quality control and quality assurance programs. Digital radiography systems were employed in none of the schools and it was occasionally used for research purposes at some of them. Conclusions: This study has emphasized on the need for further consideration of radiation protection principles in dental schools, especially on the field of quality control and quality assurance programs.

  16. The Dental School Interview As a Predictor of Dental Students' OSCE Performance. (United States)

    Park, Sang E; Price, Mirissa D; Karimbux, Nadeem Y


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the dental school admissions interview score as a noncognitive indicator of performance in predoctoral dental education, with specific attention to whether a correlation existed between the admissions interview scores and performance on the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The study population consisted of all 175 students in the Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) DMD Classes of 2012 through 2016. Data on students' gender and age on entering dental school were self-reported using their applications for admission to the HSDM DMD program. Data on students' OSCE scores for three examination sessions were collected from the Office of Dental Education. The results showed that the students' interview scores did not significantly correlate with OSCE performance on any of the three exams. Performance on the first and second OSCEs did, however, correlate with performance on the third OSCE (pinterview score. These results suggest that although the admissions interview scores can serve as an important resource in student selection, with the lack of association between interview and OSCE scores, it is possible that the communication skills required for the interview do not directly overlap with those required for OSCE success.

  17. [Family involvement in dental health education of school children]. (United States)

    Cărăuşu, Elena Mihaela; Mihăilă, C B; Indrei, L L


    Education for oral-dental health in children is that component of general health education aimed at creating cultural health models, cultivating in the young generation a healthy hygienic behaviour and outlying the opinions about the ways dental disorders can be prevented and treated. The most important goal of health education is to contribute to the preservation/improvement of children's oral health status. This study has two main goals: to assess the exact health education knowledge of the questioned parents and to evaluate their involvement in the oral health education and promotion. This study included 95 parents, aged between 25 and 49 years, with children in primary schools. For data collection a questionnaire was used. The questions were grouped on common features: food habits and healthy diet, causes of oral disease, prevention of oral disease, dental visit habits, oral hygiene habits. The study revealed that parents have a moderate knowledge about dental health education and dental caries prevention, no significant sex differences being found, and poor knowledge about periodontal diseases prevention. As to food hygiene, parents proved a sound knowledge about healthy and unhealthy diet. Our conclusions at the end of this study is that the family with children in primary schools do not get involved in oral/dental health education.

  18. Embryology and histology education in North American dental schools: the Basic Science Survey Series. (United States)

    Burk, Dorothy T; Lee, Lisa M J; Lambert, H Wayne


    As part of the Basic Science Survey Series (BSSS) for Dentistry, members of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Anatomical Sciences Section surveyed faculty members teaching embryology and histology courses at North American dental schools. The survey was designed to assess, among other things, curriculum content, utilization of laboratories, use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and recent curricular changes. Responses were received from fifty-nine (88.1 percent) of the sixty-seven U.S. and Canadian dental schools. Findings suggest the following: 1) a trend toward combining courses is evident, though the integration was predominantly discipline-based; 2) embryology is rarely taught as a stand-alone course, as content is often covered in gross anatomy, oral histology, and/or in an integrated curriculum; 3) the number of contact hours in histology is decreasing; 4) a trend toward reduction in formal laboratory sessions, particularly in embryology, is ongoing; and 5) use of CAI tools, including virtual microscopy, in both embryology and histology has increased. Additionally, embryology and histology content topic emphasis is identified within this study. Data, derived from this study, may be useful to new instructors, curriculum and test construction committees, and colleagues in the anatomical sciences, especially when determining a foundational knowledge base.

  19. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?


    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Villablanca, Amparo C.


    Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school.

  20. Evolving workplace flexibility for U.S. medical school tenure-track faculty. (United States)

    Bunton, Sarah A; Corrice, April M


    The academic workplace has seen dramatic changes in recent decades, including growing faculty workloads, an increasingly demographically diverse faculty population, and changing expectations about workplace climate. Despite these significant changes, a typical medical faculty's career trajectory is often still quite linear and follows decades-old tenure policies. The authors describe the existence of flexible faculty policies related to tenure at U.S. medical schools to understand better the ways in which institutions are responding. Data primarily reflect responses from faculty affairs leaders at medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education to a 2008 faculty personnel policies survey. These data are supplemented with results from the same survey fielded in previous years. The number of medical schools that have lengthened their probationary periods for faculty has increased over time, and, in 2008, nearly half of the institutions offered a probationary period length of eight years or more to faculty. Over three-fourths of the schools in 2008 had a tenure-clock-stopping policy available, and a third had a policy allowing faculty to work less than full-time while remaining on a tenure-eligible track. Findings suggest that many medical schools have made progress in making policy additions and modifications that acknowledge the changing academic workplace culture by adding flexibility to traditional tenure policies. Despite those efforts, significant opportunities remain for continued adoption of flexible policies so that faculty can achieve productive academic careers while balancing work, life, and family, and institutions can continue to recruit and retain high-quality faculty members. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  1. Evolution of faculty affairs and faculty development offices in U.S. medical schools: a 10-year follow-up survey. (United States)

    Sonnino, Roberta E; Reznik, Vivian; Thorndyke, Luanne A; Chatterjee, Archana; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Mylona, Elza; Nelson, Kathleen G; Weisman, Carol S; Morahan, Page S; Wadland, William C


    To determine how U.S. MD-granting medical schools manage, fund, and evaluate faculty affairs/development functions and to determine the evolution of these offices between 2000 and 2010. In December 2010, the authors invited faculty affairs designees at 131 U.S. MD-granting medical schools to complete a questionnaire developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges Group on Faculty Affairs, based on a 2000 survey. Schools were asked about core functions, budget, staffing, and performance metrics. The authors analyzed the data using descriptive statistics. A total of 111 schools (84.7%) responded. Fifty percent of the offices were established since 2000. Seventy-eight percent reported their top core function as administrative support for appointments, promotions, and tenure, as in 2000. Faculty policies, appointments, databases, governance support, grievance proceedings, management issues, and annual trend analyses continued as major functions. All 11 core functions identified in 2000 remain predominantly provided by central offices of faculty affairs, except support of major leadership searches. Web site communication emerged as a new core function. Similar to 2000, several other offices were responsible for some faculty development functions. Office size and budget correlated positively with size of the faculty and age of the office (P schools (31.5%) reported formally evaluating their faculty affairs office. The number of faculty affairs offices and their responsibilities have substantially increased since 2000. Most major core functions have not changed. These offices are now an established part of the central administration of most medical schools.

  2. Administrative trends in U.S. dental schools. (United States)

    Fu, Martin M; Rodriguez, Angel; Chen, Rebecca Y; Fu, Earl; Liao, Shu-Yi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y


    The aims of this study were to analyze the administrative trends in U.S. dental schools at the beginning and end of a thirteen-year period and to identify the predictive factors for those changes. Administrative trends were measured by the difference in the number of major administrative positions for 1997 and 2010 reported in American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and American Dental Association (ADA) publications. Secondary measures (program length, student enrollment, and tuition) were also gathered. The mean numbers of administrative positions per school significantly increased over the study period, while the mean number of clinical science departments per school significantly decreased. The change in the number of directors was positively correlated with the change in student enrollment, but inversely correlated with the change in number of vice/associate/assistant deans. The change in the number of clinical science departments was positively correlated with changes in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but inversely correlated with the change in in-state tuition. The number of all departments per U.S. dental school significantly decreased in this period. The schools that had consolidation of clinical science departments were less likely to have increases in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but more likely to have increases in in-state tuition.

  3. The role of school-based dental programme on dental caries experience in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amalia, Rosa; Schaub, Rob M. H.; Widyanti, Niken; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness of a school-based dental programme (SBDP) in controlling caries by measuring the relationship between the SBDP performance and caries experience in children aged 12 in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, by taking into account influencing factors. Methods. A

  4. Evaluation of a Crisis-Preparedness Training Program for the Faculty of a Private Elementary School (United States)

    Boyle, Marybeth N.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a training program for the faculty of a private elementary school on executing the protocols, roles, and responsibilities defined in the institution's crisis-management plan. A formal training program for the faculty had not been developed, and administrators had no measure by which…

  5. Tobacco Prevention Education in Schools for the Deaf: The Faculty Perspective (United States)

    Berman, Barbara A.; Guthmann, Debra S.; Liu, Weiqing; Streja, Leanne


    We report results of a survey of tobacco education practices and perspectives among faculty at four Schools for the Deaf participating in the trial of a tailored tobacco prevention curriculum. Few faculty (20.4%) included tobacco use among the three most important health problems facing their students, although 88.8% considered tobacco education…

  6. Faculty Prayer in Catholic Schools: A Survey of Practices and Meaning (United States)

    Mayotte, Gail


    This article presents a research study that utilized a web-based survey to gather data about the communal prayer experiences of faculty members in Catholic elementary and secondary schools in the United States and the meaning that such prayer holds to its participants. Key findings show that faculty prayer experiences take place readily, though…

  7. Law Schools and Disabled Faculty: Toward a Meaningful Opportunity to Teach. (United States)

    Mikochik, Stephen L.


    This article briefly reviews prohibitions of the Americans with Disabilities Act concerning discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, suggests reasons why there are few law school faculty with disabilities, and notes the minimal accommodations most faculty with disabilities require. (DB)

  8. An Assessment of Business Schools' Student Retention, Accreditation, and Faculty Scholarship Challenges (United States)

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.


    Business schools' curriculum, faculty and graduates have become a target for many critics as they link the ethical lapses of senior executives to major scandals that have partially led to the financial challenges that the world is facing today. Some claim that business faculty research is not practical and mainly theoretical. This paper discusses…

  9. Effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates in Vikarabad town: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadde Praveen


    Full Text Available Background: The school dental screening program has been in existence from the beginning of 20 th century. Its value in encouraging attendance among school children is not fully established. Aim: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates among school children in Vikarabad town. Objectives: (a To compare the dental attendance rates between 6-9 and 10-13 years old age groups, among male and female school children in Vikarabad town. (b To identify the type of dental treatment received by the school children. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among school children aged 6-13 years old from 16 schools that were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Eight schools had a dental screening program (study group = 300 children and had blanket referral cards and 8 schools that did not have the intervention (control group = 300. The dental attendance rates were determined after 3 months of follow-up period by evaluating the blanket referral cards for the study group and by an oral questionnaire for the control group. Results: The dental attendance rate was 27% for the study group and 18% for the control group which is statistically significant. The attendance rate was higher among 10-13 years of children both in test group and control groups. Among the children who visited the dentist, 53% in the control group and 69% from the test group got simple amalgam and glass ionomer cement restorations. Conclusion: The dental attendance rates were improved following school dental screening.

  10. Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools. (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna


    The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum.

  11. Pharmaceutical science faculty publication records at research-intensive pharmacy colleges and schools. (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Nahata, Milap C


    To determine yearly (phase 1) and cumulative (phase 2) publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. The publication records of pharmaceutical science faculty members at research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy were searched on Web of Science. Fifty colleges and schools of pharmacy were randomly chosen for a search of 1,042 individual faculty members' publications per year from 2005 to 2009. A stratified random sample of 120 faculty members also was chosen, and cumulative publication counts were recorded and bibliometric indices calculated. The median number of publications per year was 2 (range, 0-34). Overall, 22% of faculty members had no publications in any given year, but the number was highly variable depending on the faculty members' colleges or schools of pharmacy. Bibliometric indices were higher for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics, with pharmacology ranking third and social and administrative sciences fourth. Higher bibliometric indices were also observed for institution status (ie, public vs private) and academic rank (discipline chairperson vs non-chairperson and professor vs junior faculty member) (ppharmaceutical science disciplines and academic ranks within research-intensive colleges and schools of pharmacy. These data may be important for benchmarking purposes.

  12. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology. (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980


    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  13. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools. (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana


    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  14. Publication Rates of Social and Administrative Sciences Pharmacy Faculty in Non-Research Intensive Pharmacy Schools. (United States)

    Weathers, Trenna; Unni, Elizabeth


    Objective. To assess the level of publication rates from 2011 through 2015 by Social and Administrative Sciences (SAS) faculty at non-research intensive pharmacy schools. Methods. The Web of Science database was searched using faculty names identified from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) faculty and professional staff roster. Publication rates of SAS faculty were calculated and compared using several demographic subcategories such as public/private school, part of an academic health center, schools with PhD program, funding status, etc. Results. The 208 SAS faculty members from 59 colleges contributed to 478 publications with a mean of 95.6 publications per year and 1.62 publications per institution per year. The number of publications increased 45% over the five years from 67 publications in 2011 to 122 in 2015.The average number of publications was 0.92 per year per SAS faculty compared to 0.82 publications per year per faculty from other basic pharmaceutical sciences divisions. The most commonly published research was research articles in the area of scholarship of teaching and learning. The significant predictors of publications were being part of an academic health center, having a PhD program, and higher percent of faculty members who are SAS faculty. Conclusion. Despite being affiliated with institutions with missions less targeted on research, this study showed SAS faculty members at non-research intensive institutions consistently contribute to published literature. Further studies are needed to examine reasons for the lack of publishing by almost half of the SAS faculty and ways to increase research and publication in the field of SAS.

  15. Comparing student and staff perceptions of the "Educational Climate" in Spanish Dental Schools using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure. (United States)

    Tomás, I; Aneiros, A; Casares-de-Cal, M A; Quintas, V; Prada-López, I; Balsa-Castro, C; Ceballos, L; Gómez-Moreno, G; Llena, C; López-Jornet, P; Machuca, M C; Palés, J


    To compare the perceptions of students and teachers of the "Educational Climate" (EC) in Spanish public dental schools. A group of 1064 students and 354 teachers from six Spanish public dental schools responded to the DREEM questionnaire. This has 50 items grouped into five subscales: perception of learning (Learning); perception of teachers (Teachers); academic self-perceptions (Academic); perception of the atmosphere in the faculty (Atmosphere); and social self-perceptions (Social). The DREEM scale provides results for each item, each subscale and the overall EC. The EC scores were 123.2 (61.6%) for the students and 134.1 (67.0%) for the teachers (Peducational aspects. Both groups agreed on the need to: improve support systems for students who suffer from stress and reduce teaching based on "factual learning." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Faculty Development for Medical School Community-Based Faculty: A Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance Study Exploring Institutional Requirements and Challenges. (United States)

    Drowos, Joanna; Baker, Suzanne; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard; Minor, Suzanne; Chessman, Alexander W; Baker, Dennis


    Community-based faculty play a large role in training medical students nationwide and require faculty development. The authors hypothesized that positive relationships exist between clerkships paying preceptors and requiring faculty development, and between protected clerkship directors' time and delivering face-to-face preceptor training, as well as with the number or length of community-based preceptor visits. Through under standing the quantity, delivery methods, barriers, and institutional support for faculty development provided to community-based preceptors teaching in family medicine clerkships, best practices can be developed. Data from the 2015 Council of Academic Family Medicine's Educational Research Alliance survey of Family Medicine Clerkship Directors were analyzed. The cross-sectional survey of clerkship directors is distributed annually to institutional representatives of U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools. Survey questions focused on the requirements, delivery methods, barriers, and institutional support available for providing faculty development to community-based preceptors. Paying community-based preceptors was positively correlated with requiring faculty development in family medicine clerkships. The greatest barrier to providing faculty development was community-based preceptor time availability; however, face-to-face methods remain the most common delivery strategy. Many family medicine clerkship directors perform informal or no needs assessment in developing faculty development topics for community-based faculty. Providing payment to community preceptors may allow schools to enhance faculty development program activities and effectiveness. Medical schools could benefit from constructing a formal curriculum for faculty development, including formal preceptor needs assessment and program evaluation. Clerkship directors may consider recruiting and retaining community-based faculty by employing innovative faculty development delivery

  17. Work-life policies for faculty at the top ten medical schools. (United States)

    Bristol, Mirar N; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Cappola, Anne R; Sonnad, Seema S


    There exists a growing consensus that career flexibility is critical to recruiting and retaining talented faculty, especially women faculty. This study was designed to determine both accessibility and content of work-life policies for faculty at leading medical schools in the United States. The sample includes the top ten medical schools in the United States published by U.S. News and World Report in August 2006. We followed a standardized protocol to collect seven work-life policies at each school: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of the probationary period for family responsibilities, part-time faculty appointments, job sharing, and child care. A review of information provided on school websites was followed by e-mail or phone contact if needed. A rating system of 0-3 (low to high flexibility) developed by the authors was applied to these policies. Rating reflected flexibility and existing opinions in published literature. Policies were often difficult to access. Individual scores ranged from 7 to 15 out of a possible 21 points. Extension of the probationary period received the highest cumulative score across schools, and job sharing received the lowest cumulative score. For each policy, there were important differences among schools. Work-life policies showed considerable variation across schools. Policy information is difficult to access, often requiring multiple sources. Institutions that develop flexible work-life policies that are widely promoted, implemented, monitored, and reassessed are likely at an advantage in attracting and retaining faculty while advancing institutional excellence.

  18. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies among School Going Children in India. (United States)

    Kathariya, Mitesh D; Nikam, Atul Pralhad; Chopra, Kirti; Patil, Namrata N; Raheja, Hitesh; Kathariya, Renuka


    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies according to gender among children. This cross-sectional study was conducted a group of 600 children, of them 293 (48.8%) were males and 275 (45.8%) females which were taken with proper sampling technique. Type III clinical examination was done to know the prevalence of dental anomalies. The Statistical software namely SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Chi-square test was used at p value of 0.05 or less. Impactions (39.2%) were the most common anomaly in this study and most of the impacted teeth were related to maxilla. A significant difference was seen in case of hypodontia, microdontia and talons cusp according to gender in which first two anomalies were more among females and last one among males. Children with one dental anomaly were 25.8%, and 13.4% were having more than one. The percentage of dental anomalies were high specially impaction and rotated teeth. So these anomalies should be treated earlier to avoid further complications. How to cite this article: Kathariya MD, Nikam AP, Chopra K, Patil NN, Raheja H, Kathariya R. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies among School Going Children in India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):10-4.

  19. Exploration of a leadership competency model for medical school faculties in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seok; Oh, Dong Keun; Kim, Myungun; Lee, Yoon Seong; Shin, Jwa Seop


    To adapt to rapid and turbulent changes in the field of medicine, education, and society, medical school faculties need appropriate leadership. To develop leadership competencies through education, coaching, and mentoring, we need a leadership competency model. The purpose of this study was to develop a new leadership competency model that is suitable for medical school faculties in Korea. To collect behavioral episodes with regard to leadership, we interviewed 54 subjects (faculties, residents, nurses) and surveyed 41 faculties with open-ended questionnaires. We classified the behavioral episodes based on Quinn and Cameron's leadership competency model and developed a Likert scale questionnaire to perform a confirmatory factor analysis. Two hundred seven medical school faculties responded to the questionnaire. The competency clusters that were identified by factor analysis were professionalism, citizenship, leadership, and membership to an organization. Accordingly, each cluster was linked with a dimension: self, society, team (that he/she is leading), and organization (to which he/she belongs). The clusters of competencies were: professional ability, ethics/morality, self-management, self-development, and passion; public interest, networking, social participation, and active service; motivating, caring, promoting teamwork, nurturing, conflict management, directing, performance management, and systems thinking; organizational orientation, collaboration, voluntary participation, and cost-benefit orientation. This competency model that fits medical school faculties in Korea can be used to design and develop selection plans, education programs, feedback tools, diagnostic evaluation tools, and career plan support programs.

  20. Psychological distress and its correlates among dental students: a survey of 17 Colombian dental schools. (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Mafla, Ana Cristina; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sánchez-Molina, Marisol; Gallego-Gómez, Clara Liliana; Vélez-Jaramillo, Luis Fernando; Tamayo-Cardona, Julián Andrés; Pérez-Cepeda, David; Vergara-Mercado, Martha Ligia; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Ángel; Polychronopoulou, Argy


    Links between the demanding nature of studies in the health sciences, students' personality traits and psychological distress have been well-established. While considerable amount of work has been done in medicine, evidence from the dental education arena is sparse and data from Latin America are lacking. The authors conducted a large-scale investigation of psychological distress among dental students in Colombia and sought to determine its curriculum and student-level correlates. The Spanish version of the Derogatis' Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R) was administered to all students officially registered and attending classes or clinics in 17 dental schools in 4 geographic districts of Colombia between January and April 2012. Additional information was collected on participants' socio-demographic information and first career choice, as well as school's characteristics such as class size. The Global Severity Index (GSI) score, a measure of overall psychological distress, served as the primary analytical endpoint. Analyses relied on multilevel mixed-effects linear and log-binomial regression, accounting for study design and sample characteristics. A total of 5700 dental students completed the survey, a response rate of 67%. Pronounced gradients were noted in the association between socio-economic status and psychological distress, with students in higher strata reporting fewer problems. After adjustment for all important covariates, there was an evident pattern of increasing psychological distress corresponding to the transition from the didactic, to the preclinical and clinical phases of training, with few differences between male and female students. Independent of other factors, reliance on own funds for education and having dentistry as the first career choice were associated with lower psychological distress. Levels of psychological distress correlated with students' socio-economic and study-level characteristics. Above and beyond the influence of person

  1. Law School Faculty Hiring under Title VII: How a Judge Might Decide a Disparate Impact Case. (United States)

    Redlich, Norman


    A judicial opinion concerning law school violations of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in faculty hiring is presented. The case concerns a black candidate rejected for an entry-level tenure-track position. Issues cited include the law school's mission and stated reasons for not hiring the candidate. (MSE)

  2. A Survey of Faculty Mentoring Programs in AACSB Schools of Business (United States)

    Raymond, Bruce C.; Kannan, Vijay R.


    The human resources management literature offers considerable evidence that mentoring programs can positively influence a variety of measures of both individual and organizational performance. This study examines the use and effectiveness of faculty mentoring programs at business schools in the United States. A survey of 118 schools accredited by…

  3. The Lived Experience of Black Nurse Faculty in Predominantly White Schools of Nursing. (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such; Zoucha, Richard; Alexander, Rumay


    This study explored the experiences of Black nurse faculty employed in predominantly White schools of nursing. High attrition rates of this group were noted in previous literature. Understanding their experiences is important to increase nurse diversity. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the experiences of 15 Black nurse faculty using interviews. Four themes were extracted as the following: cultural norms of the workplace, coping with improper assets, life as a "Lone Ranger," and surviving the workplace environment. The study provided insight to understand the meaning that Black faculty members give to their experiences working in predominantly White schools of nursing. Findings exemplify the need to improve culturally competent work environments and mentoring programs. Results suggest that better communication and proper respect from students, colleagues, and administrators are necessary. The limited research on this topic illustrates that Black nurse faculty remain under investigated; research is necessary to determine effective change strategies.

  4. Distance education in dental hygiene bachelor of science degree completion programs: As perceived by students and faculty (United States)

    Tsokris, Maureen

    This study investigated student and faculty perceptions of their experiences with online learning in dental hygiene Bachelor of Science degree completion programs on the dimensions of: quality of learning, connectedness to the learning environment, technology factors and student satisfaction. The experiences of dental hygiene students who took their core BS dental hygiene (BSDH) courses completely online were compared and contrasted with the perceptions of dental hygiene students who had taken a portion of the BSDH courses online and a portion in a traditional face-to-face classroom setting. Furthermore, this study compared and contrasted the perceptions of faculty on these same four dimensions based on the position held by the faculty member and the course format they are teaching in: online or a combination of online and a traditional face-to-face classroom setting. This study revealed several important differences and similarities between students who had taken their courses online and those who had taken a portion of the BSDH courses online and a portion in a traditional face-to-face classroom setting. The results showed students who had taken their courses online described factors related to the instructor as important to the quality of the learning experience such as: the experience and qualifications of the professor, the examples they provided and the instructors prompt response to questions. Students who had taken courses in both formats described factors related to the amount of effort they put into the course, their classmates' preparedness, the course materials and assignments as important to the quality of the learning experience. Although students who completed courses online reported difficulty participating in group activities, they were more positive regarding the level of interaction they experienced with their classmates online Findings indicated students who had taken their courses in both formats would have liked more opportunities to interact

  5. Factors influencing students' performance in a Brazilian dental school. (United States)

    Silva, Erica Tatiane da; Nunes, Maria de Fátima; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Cláudio R


    Comprehensive assessment of students' academic performance plays an important role in educational planning. The aim of this study was to investigate variables that influence student's performance in a retrospective sample including all undergraduate students who entered in a Brazilian dental school, in a 20-year period between 1984 and 2003 (n=1182). Demographic and educational variables were used to predict performance in the overall curriculum and course groups. Cluster analysis (K-means algorithm) categorized students into groups of higher, moderate or lower performance. Clusters of overall performance showed external validity, demonstrated by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Lower performance groups had the smallest number of students in overall performance and course groups clusters, ranging from 11.8% (clinical courses) to 19.2% (basic courses). Students' performance was more satisfactory in dental and clinical courses, rather than basic and non-clinical courses (pstudent's performance was predicted by lower time elapsed between completion of high school and dental school admission, female gender, better rank in admission test, class attendance rate and student workload hours in teaching, research and extension (R(2)=0.491). Findings give evidence about predictors of undergraduate students' performance and reinforce the need for curricular reformulation focused on with improvement of integration among courses.

  6. Faculty Stress at Higher Education: A Study on the Business Schools of Pakistan


    Aqsa Akbar; Waheed Akhter


    Job stress is one of the most important concepts for the today-s corporate as well as institutional world. The current study is conducted to identify the causes of faculty stress at Higher Education in Pakistan. For the purpose, Public & Private Business Schools of Punjab is selected as representative of Pakistan. A sample of 300 faculty members (214 males, 86 females) responded to the survey. Regression analysis shows that the Workload, Student Related issues and Role Co...

  7. Medical school faculty discontent: prevalence and predictors of intent to leave academic careers. (United States)

    Lowenstein, Steven R; Fernandez, Genaro; Crane, Lori A


    Medical school faculty are less enthusiastic about their academic careers than ever before. In this study, we measured the prevalence and determinants of intent to leave academic medicine. A 75-question survey was administered to faculty at a School of Medicine. Questions addressed quality of life, faculty responsibilities, support for teaching, clinical work and scholarship, mentoring and participation in governance. Of 1,408 eligible faculty members, 532 (38%) participated. Among respondents, 224 (40%; CI95: 0.35, 0.44) reported that their careers were not progressing satisfactorily; 236 (42%; CI95: 0.38, 0.46) were "seriously considering leaving academic medicine in the next five years." Members of clinical departments (OR = 1.71; CI95: 1.01, 2.91) were more likely to consider leaving; members of inter-disciplinary centers were less likely (OR = 0.68; CI95: 0.47, 0.98). The predictors of "serious intent to leave" included: Difficulties balancing work and family (OR = 3.52; CI95: 2.34, 5.30); inability to comment on performance of institutional leaders (OR = 3.08; CI95: 2.07, 4.72); absence of faculty development programs (OR = 3.03; CI95: 2.00, 4.60); lack of recognition of clinical work (OR = 2.73; CI95: 1.60, 4.68) and teaching (OR = 2.47; CI95: 1.59, 3.83) in promotion evaluations; absence of "academic community" (OR = 2.67; CI95: 1.86, 3.83); and failure of chairs to evaluate academic progress regularly (OR = 2.60; CI95: 1.80, 3.74). Faculty are a medical school's key resource, but 42 percent are seriously considering leaving. Medical schools should refocus faculty retention efforts on professional development programs, regular performance feedback, balancing career and family, tangible recognition of teaching and clinical service and meaningful faculty participation in institutional governance.

  8. Faculty Research Productivity and Organizational Structure in Schools of Nursing. (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Eileen Mieras


    A sample of 128 of 221 nursing faculty completed a scholarly productivity index and organizational inventory, which did not yield significant relationships between productivity and organizational structure. Productivity and prepublication research activities varied positively with procedural specifications in a highly bureaucratic organizational…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov


    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, especially after Bulgaria accession to the EU on 1st January 2007, new scientific horizons have appeared in front of the academic community in our country. Medical universities work in a really competitive environment both on a national and global scale, where the high quality of lecturing, research and medical activities is a key factor for success.Aim: The purpose of this study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to define the most distinctively expressed lecturers’ opinions regarding the research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The questionnaire including 13 questions was completed by 75 lecturers from Faculties of Dental Medicine in Sofia, Varna and Plovdiv. The questionnaire was anonymous so that maximum objectivity and reliability of the collected information can be achieved. The questionnaires were filled in between January and May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion:Lecturers from all three faculties of dental medicine are partially aware of the procedures and various types of project financing. They express their willingness to participate in research project activities although their implementation is rather difficult. Lecturers estimate the advantages and disadvantages of participation in projects and in their opinion the unit in charge of project activities at the relevant Faculty of Dental Medicine should comprise of various experts who are to ensure up-to-date information on current or future projects.

  10. A Survey of Faculty Mentoring Programs in AACSB School of Business


    Raymond, B. C.; Raymond, B. C.; Kannan, Vijay R.


    The human resources management literature offers considerable evidence that mentoring programs can positively influence a variety of measures of both individual and organizational performance. This study examines the use and effectiveness of faculty mentoring programs at business schools in the United States. A survey of 118 schools accredited by the Association for the Advancement of Collegiate Schools of Business found that mentoring programs are the exception rather than the rule. Moreover...

  11. 50(th) Anniversary of the Central Dental Library of School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb. (United States)

    Borić, Vesna


    Libraries have an exceptional place in the history, culture, education and scientific life of a nation. They collect all aspects of our linguistics and literacy, all out theoretical assumptions as well as all the results of experience and practice. The importance of a library is not mirrored only in the national and historical role and heritage, but in a more permanent, informational role, since a modern library must, above all, be an effective information system. Since a library of a university operates as a part of its matrix, it is easily shadowed by other forms of educational and scientific infrastructure. 50(th) anniversary of the Central Dental Library of the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb is an excellent opportunity to make a call to the institution and public to its unique and irreplaceable role.

  12. The Impact of Research and Technological Advances on Dental Education. (United States)

    Loe, Harald


    To arrive at a learning situation conducive to a scientific approach in dental school teaching of diagnosis, treatment, prescription, and judgment of prognosis, it is necessary to strengthen the scientific environment in dental schools, increase scientifically trained faculty, and guarantee student involvement in research. (MLW)

  13. Reflections on a decade of research by ASEAN dental faculties: analysis of publications from ISI-WOS databases from 2000 to 2009. (United States)

    Sirisinha, Stitaya; Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Phantumvanit, Prathip; Wittayawuttikul, Ruchareka


    This communication analyzed research publications in dentistry in the Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science databases of 10 dental faculties in the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) from 2000 to 2009. The term used for the "all-document types" search was "Faculty of Dentistry/College of Dentistry." Abstracts presented at regional meetings were also included in the analysis. The Times Higher Education System QS World University Rankings showed that universities in the region fare poorly in world university rankings. Only the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University appeared in the top 100 in 2009; 19 universities in the region, including Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, appeared in the top 500. Data from the databases showed that research publications by dental institutes in the region fall short of their Asian counterparts. Singapore and Thailand are the most active in dental research of the ASEAN countries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. e-Assessment in a Limited-Resources Dental School Using an Open-Source Learning Management System. (United States)

    El Tantawi, Maha M A; Abdelsalam, Maha M; Mourady, Ahmed M; Elrifae, Ismail M B


    e-Assessment provides solutions to some problems encountered in dental students' evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of a limited-resources dental school with e-assessment provided through an open-source learning management system (LMS). Data about users' access and types of e-assessment activities at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, were obtained from the web-based LMS Moodle. A questionnaire developed to assess students' perceptions of the e-assessment was also sent to students registered in two courses (undergraduate and postgraduate) with the same instructor. The results showed that most e-courses at the school had one form of e-assessment (82%) and, of these, 16.7% had summative assessment activities. There were significant differences among departments in the number of e-courses with e-assessment. One-quarter of e-courses with e-assessment used Moodle quizzes. Of 285 students registered in the two courses that included the questionnaire, 170 responded (response rate=59.6%). The responding students positively perceived the impact of e-assessment on learning and its reliability and security, whereas technical issues and related stresses were negatively perceived. This study suggests that e-assessment can be used at minimal cost in dental schools with limited resources and large class sizes with the least demands on faculty members and teaching staff time. For these schools, an open-source LMS such as Moodle provides formative e-assessment not available otherwise and accommodates various question formats and varying levels of instructors' technical skills. These students seemed to have a positive impression of the e-assessment although technical problems and related stresses are issues that need to be addressed.

  15. Elements related to attrition of women faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine: A case study (United States)

    Gandhi, Pooja

    Recent studies have shown that the number of women faculty in academic medicine is much lesser than the number of women that are graduating from medical schools. Many academic institutes face the challenge of retaining talented faculty and this attrition from academic medicine prevents career advancement of women faculty. This case study attempts to identify some of the reasons for dissatisfaction that may be related to the attrition of women medical faculty at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. Data was collected using a job satisfaction survey, which consisted of various constructs that are part of a faculty's job and proxy measures to gather the faculty's intent to leave their current position at the University of Pittsburgh or academic medicine in general. The survey results showed that although women faculty were satisfied with their job at the University of Pittsburgh, there are some important factors that influenced their decision of potentially dropping out. The main reasons cited by the women faculty were related to funding pressures, work-life balance, mentoring of junior faculty and the amount of time spent on clinical responsibilities. The analysis of proxy measures showed that if women faculty decided to leave University of Pittsburgh, it would most probably be due to better opportunity elsewhere followed by pressure to get funding. The results of this study aim to provide the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh with information related to attrition of its women faculty and provide suggestions for implications for policy to retain their women faculty.

  16. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

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    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the


    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima


    healthy dietary habits are considered to improve oral health and tooth quality. Caries treatment comprises tooth restoration with dental composites and sealants, almost all (> 90%) of which contain bisphenol A (BPA). Study hypotheses were: a) breakfast and oral hygiene habits are important factors in dental caries development; and b) dental caries treatment with epoxy-resins entails a risk of oral exposure to monomers migrating from the polymeric material. We evaluated caries in the teeth of a Spanish school population and determined the percentage treated with dental composites. to relate consumption of breakfast components and oral hygiene habits to dental caries and determine the presence of sealants/composites as potential sources of BPA exposure. subjects: 582 schoolchildren from Granada city (Southern Spain) aged 7 yrs; mean (SD) of 7.55 (0.64) yrs. caries was detected in 21.7% of their teeth. Mean breakfast quality index (BQI) score, based on nutritional questionnaires, was 5.18 (1.29). Breakfast with foods rich in simple sugars representing > 5% of total daily energy was consumed by 24% of the population and was significantly associated with caries frequency in binary logistic regression analysis. Biscuit consumption was reported by 35.8% and significantly associated with caries frequency. Breakfast intake of bakery products/ cereals and of dairy products showed a significant inverse association with caries frequency. No significant relationship was observed between caries and BQI score or oral hygiene factors. further research is required to elucidate the role of diet in caries and the associated risk of exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics such as BPA. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. How do medical schools use measurement systems to track faculty activity and productivity in teaching? (United States)

    Mallon, William T; Jones, Robert F


    The authors describe their findings from a study that (1) identified 41 medical schools or medical school departments that used metric systems to quantify faculty activity and productivity in teaching and (2) analyzed the purposes and progress of those systems. Among the reasons articulated for developing these systems, the most common was to identify a "rational" method for distributing funds to departments. More generally, institutions wanted to emphasize the importance of the school's educational mission. The schools varied in the types of information they tracked, ranging from a selective focus on medical school education to a comprehensive assessment of teaching activity and educational administration, committee work, and advising. Schools were almost evenly split between those that used a relative-value-unit method of tracking activity and those that used a contact-hour method. This study also identified six challenges that the institutions encountered with these metric systems: (1) the lack of a culture of data in management; (2) skepticism of faculty and chairs; (3) the misguided search for one perfect metric; (4) the expectation that a metric system will erase ambiguity regarding faculty teaching contributions; (5) the lack of, and difficulty with developing, measures of quality; and (6) the tendency to become overly complex. Because of the concern about the teaching mission at medical schools, the number of institutions developing educational metric systems will likely increase in the coming years. By documenting and accounting financially for teaching, medical schools can ensure that the educational mission is valued and appropriately supported.

  19. A One-Day Dental Faculty Workshop in Writing Multiple-Choice Questions: An Impact Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlFaris, E.; Naeem, N; Irfan, F.; Qureshi, R.; Saad, H.; Sadhan, R. Al; Abdulghani, H.M.; Vleuten, C. van der


    Long training workshops on the writing of exam questions have been shown to be effective; however, the effectiveness of short workshops needs to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a one-day, seven-hour faculty development workshop at the College of Dentistry, King

  20. Occupational accidents in dental school: a 10-year retrospective

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    Viviane Maia Araújo


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate occupational accidents that occurred during the first 10 years of Fortaleza University (UNIFOR Dental School. Methods: A documental study based on secondary data from the Notification Center of Occupational Accidents of UNIFOR Dental School, reported in the last 10 years. The variables included characteristics of the accidents and of the injured, besides the type of instrument and the resulting injury. Results: Were recorded 160 occupational accidents divided by location, function of the injured and type of accident. It was observed that 63.1% of cases occurred in the Multidisciplinary Clinic, 23.1% in the Integrated Clinic, 8.8% in the laboratories, 1.9% at home, 1.25% in the Surgical Center, 1.25% in the Material Sterilization Central and 0.6% during the training outside university. Concerning the injured, 90.6% of the victims were undergraduates, 5.0% staff, 3.8% teachers and 0.6% patients. Regarding the injury, 40.6% were penetrating bloody injuries, 11.9% cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% cutting non-bloody injuries, 5% burns, 5% penetrating bloody injuries/cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% were injuries with maceration, 1.9% injuries causing ocular trauma and 0.6% of an incident of dog bite. Conclusion: It was concluded that penetrating injuries were prevalent and these occurred mostly in the multidisciplinary clinic, where students of earlier periods of dental course work, indicating that the experience in dental practice generates more care with safety.

  1. Dental education in Kuwait. (United States)

    Behbehani, J M


    For a long time there has been a need to establish a dental school in Kuwait, due to the fact that the majority of dentists working in Kuwait are expatriates from various countries. An Amiri decree in 1996 made it possible, and the first dental students were admitted to the Kuwait University Faculty of Dentistry in 1998. The mission of the Faculty of Dentistry is 'to promote oral health in Kuwait through education, research and cooperation with other professional health care institutions as well as the community at large'. A 6.5-year dental curriculum was completed after 2 years of committee work and was accepted by the University Council in 2001. This curriculum incorporates current trends in medical and dental education, such as the evidence-based and community-based approaches, problem-solving methodology for outcome-based learning, and competency achieved through comprehensive patient care. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. An investigation on the frequency of partial prosthesis classification in dental faculty, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

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    Zand S


    Full Text Available Tooth loss is a kind of handicap and losing a number of teeth makes an individual susceptible to this disability. Having knowledge about the prevalence of partial tooth loss, provides us with a better understanding of social hygiene. On the other hand, having access to such an information, students can be led properly to treat more prevalent cases. The goal of this retrospective study is to investigate the frequency of partial prosthesis classifications, among patients, referred to Shiraz dental faculty. Sexuality, tooth loss classification and its reason and the presence of additional space were studied about all patients (371 females, 205 males from (97-98 to the end of (99-2000. The results showed that females were more than males (64.4%, the lower jaw was treated more than the upper jaw (67.9%, dental caries were the most important reason for extraction (55.5%, class I among females (28.79% and class II mod I among males (29.73% had the most frequency, meaning that the most cases were free end, so more attention should be paid for the education of free end partial prosthesis, however, preventive steps should be taken to retain abutment teeth.

  3. Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective. (United States)

    Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M


    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (pskills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs.

  4. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung


    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  5. Article Publications, Journal Outlets, and Article Themes for Current Faculty in APA-Accredited School Psychology Programs: 1995?1999 (United States)

    Carper, Robin M.; Williams, Robert L.


    The study addressed three major questions regarding the 1995?1999 journal publications of faculty at school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) as of Sept. 1, 2000: (a) Which program faculties had the strongest records of article publications for 1995?1999? (b) What were the major school psychology and…

  6. Follow the Leaders? An Analysis of Convergence and Innovation of Faculty Recruiting Practices in US Business Schools (United States)

    Finch, David; Deephouse, David L.; O'Reilly, Norm; Massie, Tyler; Hillenbrand, Carola


    The debate associated with the qualifications of business school faculty has raged since the 1959 release of the Gordon-Howell and Pierson reports, which encouraged business schools in the USA to enhance their legitimacy by increasing their faculties' doctoral qualifications and scholarly rigor. Today, the legitimacy of specific faculty…

  7. Content and goals of preclinical prosthodontic programs at german-language dental schools. (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Hirsch, Christian; Beuer, Florian


    The Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE) makes recommendations regarding the skills graduates of European dental schools need to achieve and advises dental schools regarding necessary changes to be made to the curriculum. In 2010 to 2011, a survey was conducted in German-language dental schools to validate the curricula and goals of preclinical prosthodontic programs with regard to laboratory work. The survey was mailed to the course instructors of the preclinical programs at 37 dental schools. Of these, 35 schools returned the completed survey, resulting in a response rate of 95%. Bent wire, wax-up exercises, metal-ceramic single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, cast metal single crowns, temporary removable dental prostheses, and full dentures were part of the dental laboratory work at most schools; however, most instructors considered laboratory work as less important, and there were few similarities among the programs in this area. According to the instructors responsible for preclinical education, honing of fine motor skills, realistic self-assessment, and the ability to work independently were the main goals of the programs. The results of this survey show that with regard to laboratory work, there were more differences than similarities among preclinical prosthodontic programs at German-language dental schools, contrary to the recommendations of the ADEE. These findings should be taken into account when program reforms are planned. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Dental pain, oral impacts and perceived need for dental treatment in Tanzanian school students: a cross-sectional study

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    Åstrøm Anne N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems influence people's oral quality of life and thus their perceived need for dental care. So far there is scant information as to the psychosocial impacts of dental diseases and the perceived treatment need in child populations of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives Focusing on primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania, a district deprived of dental services and with low fluoride concentration in drinking water, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental pain and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP, and to describe the distribution of OIDP by socio-demographics, dental caries, dental pain and reported oral problems. The relationship of perceived need estimates with OIDP was also investigated. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 1745 students (mean age 13.8 yr, sd = 1.67 completed an extensive personal interview and under-went clinical examination. The impacts on daily performances were assessed using a Kiswahili version of the Child-OIDP instrument and caries experience was recorded using WHO (1997 criteria. Results A total of 36.2% (41.3% urban and 31.4% rural, p Conclusion Substantial proportions of students suffered from untreated dental caries, oral impacts on daily performances and perceived need for dental care. Dental pain and reported oral problems varied systematically with OIDP across the eight impacts considered. Eating and tooth cleaning problems discriminated between subjects who perceived need for dental treatment and those who did not.

  9. The Effect of School Culture on Faculty Self-Efficacy in Distance Education in Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tsu


    This project examined higher education distance education, school culture, and teacher self-efficacy in Taiwan by using the modified existing instruments associated with Bandura's triadic reciprocal social cognition theory. Faculty were surveyed who are working on or interested in distance education in national universities and private…

  10. A Study of Organizational Identification of Faculty Members in Hong Kong Business Schools (United States)

    Tsui, Po Yung; Ngo, Hang-Yue


    The authors examine how four organizational antecedents affect the organizational identification (OI) and in-role and extra-role performance of Hong Kong business school faculty. OI was tested to be a mediator. The survey results indicated a high level of OI, consistent with the collectivist cultural value of Chinese employees. However, OI was…

  11. African American Faculty in Social Work Schools: A Citation Analysis of Scholarship (United States)

    Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.


    Purpose: This study assessed the research productivity of African American faculty in the top 25 ranked schools of social work cited in the 2012 U.S. News and World Report. Method: Four citation metrics ("h"-index, "g"-index, age-weighted citation rate, and per author age-weighted citation rate) were examined. Results: Scholar…

  12. Scholarly Productivity and Impact of School Psychology Faculty in APA-Accredited Programs (United States)

    Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.


    The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…

  13. Practical radiology education in South African Dental Schools, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, A.G.; Nortje, C.J.


    The current position of practical preclinical and clinical training in dento-maxillo-facial radiography for dental students and oral hygiene students in South Africa is reviewed. Special attention is given to factors in methodology which have an influence on radiation protection. Results indicate that there is a fairly high degree of standardization in dento-maxillo-facial radiography instruction in South Africa. The preference for the lead-lined or shielded open-ended cones is in keeping with the tenets of radiation protection. The use of pointed cones for intraoral radiography is not a good choice, as this causes scatter radiation. The wide use of the Rinn XCP(R) filmholding device in South African dental schools for the parallelling technique lessens the chance of cone cutting, and hence reduces the likelihood of needing to reexpose the patient due to that technical error. Additionally, the parallelling technique allows a more accurate assessment of alveolar bone loss from periodontal disease, and allows a better judgement of the relationship between the roots of maxillary teeth and the floor of the maxillary sinus, than does the bisecting angle technique. During the past decade, fiarly consistent parameters have been developed in dento-maxillo-facial radiography concerning preclinical and clinical training of dental and oral hygiene students [af

  14. Assessing School Effects on Dental Hygiene and Nutrition Behaviors of Canadian Adolescents (United States)

    Ma, Xin


    This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross-national Survey on Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males.…

  15. A Comparison of Urban School- and Community-Based Dental Clinics (United States)

    Larsen, Charles D.; Larsen, Michael D.; Handwerker, Lisa B.; Kim, Maile S.; Rosenthal, Murray


    Background: The objective of the study was to quantitatively compare school- and community-based dental clinics in New York City that provide dental services to children in need. It was hypothesized that the school-based clinics would perform better in terms of several measures. Methods: We reviewed billing and visit data derived from encounter…

  16. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min


    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  17. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S


    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  18. Flexibility in faculty work-life policies at medical schools in the Big Ten conference. (United States)

    Welch, Julie L; Wiehe, Sarah E; Palmer-Smith, Victoria; Dankoski, Mary E


    Women lag behind men in several key academic indicators, such as advancement, retention, and securing leadership positions. Although reasons for these disparities are multifactorial, policies that do not support work-life integration contribute to the problem. The objective of this descriptive study was to compare the faculty work-life policies among medical schools in the Big Ten conference. Each institution's website was accessed in order to assess its work-life policies in the following areas: maternity leave, paternity leave, adoption leave, extension of probationary period, part-time appointments, part-time benefits (specifically health insurance), child care options, and lactation policy. Institutions were sent requests to validate the online data and supply additional information if needed. Each institution received an overall score and subscale scores for family leave policies and part-time issues. Data were verified by the human resources office at 8 of the 10 schools. Work-life policies varied among Big Ten schools, with total scores between 9.25 and 13.5 (possible score: 0-21; higher scores indicate greater flexibility). Subscores were not consistently high or low within schools. Comparing the flexibility of faculty work-life policies in relation to other schools will help raise awareness of these issues and promote more progressive policies among less progressive schools. Ultimately, flexible policies will lead to greater equity and institutional cultures that are conducive to recruiting, retaining, and advancing diverse faculty.

  19. Building the Minority Faculty Development Pipeline. (United States)

    Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.


    Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…

  20. Pediatric obesity-related curricular content and training in dental schools and dental hygiene programs: systematic review and recommendations. (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; McGraw, Kathleen A


    The authors conducted a systematic review to determine: a) What dental schools and dental hygiene programs are doing to promote knowledge and skills related to addressing childhood obesity and to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and b) What else these schools and programs could do to better equip future oral health professionals to address childhood obesity and reduce consumption of SSBs. The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, Education Full Text (EBSCOHost), and ERIC (EBSCOHost) to identify peer-reviewed publications reporting on obesity or dietetic-related curricula in dental and dental hygiene education within the last 20 years. Three studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Outcomes of the identified studies were abstracted and summarized independently by two investigators. The first study describes a 2009 survey of pediatric dentistry residents. Approximately, half had received formal training yet they lacked essential knowledge or skills for managing children who were obese. The second study describes nutrition-related coursework offered in the second year of a predoctoral dental school curriculum in Saudi Arabia, and the third study reports on the development of an "oral health rotation" dietetic internship in a pediatric dentistry clinic, in the context of interprofessional education (IPE). Evidence of dental schools' and dental hygiene programs' efforts to address obesity and SSB consumption in children in their curricula is scant, while Commission on Dental Accreditation standards make sporadic mentions of diet and nutrition. Opportunities exist to leverage existing resources and innovative, experiential approaches, including IPE, to formally, and effectively address this important issue in predoctoral oral health education. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran: dealing with role conflict

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    Brommels Mats


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate

  2. Impact on Junior Faculty of Teaching Opportunities During Predoctoral Education: A Survey-Based Study. (United States)

    Hum, Lauren; Park, Sang E


    Dental schools have addressed full-time faculty shortages by utilizing part-time faculty and postdoctoral students as teachers. Studies have also shown that peer tutors in dental schools can be used effectively in addition to or in place of faculty, but there has been little research on whether the peer tutoring experience influences tutors to pursue academic careers. This study surveyed junior faculty at 60 U.S. dental schools about their predoctoral tutoring and teaching experiences. Data from 122 respondents were analyzed. The results indicated that more recent graduates had more peer tutoring opportunities available than those who graduated prior to the 1980s and that the teaching experiences influenced the respondents' decisions to pursue academic careers. Additionally, those peer tutoring programs that placed more responsibility on the peer tutors, signifying trust from the institution, were the most successful in influencing respondents' decisions to pursue academia. Finally, when comparing their predoctoral teaching experiences to faculty development of teaching skills at their current institutions, the majority of the respondents reported that the faculty development was better. However, the peer tutoring programs considered equal to or better than faculty development were more influential in stimulating participants' academic career interest. These results suggest that dental schools can look to peer tutoring and teaching programs to stimulate students' interest in academia that can help reduce faculty shortages in the long term, but only if programs are developed that place greater responsibility and trust in students and that equal the quality of faculty development programs.

  3. Student perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy. (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Yaneva, Krassimira; Hottel, Timothy L; Proctor, Hannah L


    In this study, 491 dental students at one dental school in the United States and one in Bulgaria were surveyed to assess their perceptions about the mission of dental schools to advance global dentistry and philanthropy. The study included questions about prior involvement in charitable dental missions. Many respondents felt that their dental school does not advance global dentistry nor adequately teaches students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. The majority agreed, however, that dental schools have a moral obligation to raise the level of oral health care worldwide and help underserved communities access basic dental care. They reported that an opportunity to spend a semester at a foreign dental school would enhance their dental education in ways that are not presently fulfilled; help them better understand cultural diversity; and teach them about philanthropy and volunteerism. In their opinion, international exchange programs that provide clinical rotations and field experiences in economically challenged and underserved areas of the world would a) foster the global advancement of dentistry; b) promote an appreciation for cultural diversity and socioeconomic disparity in the communities that graduates will be serving; and c) teach students the virtues of philanthropy and volunteerism. This study may contribute to understanding factors affecting student involvement in programs to advance global dentistry.

  4. Health Information Technology Systems profoundly impact users: a case study in a dental school. (United States)

    Hill, Heather K; Stewart, Denice C L; Ash, Joan S


    The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of Health Information Technology Systems (HITS) on dental school users when the systems are integrated into chair-side patient care. We used qualitative research methods, including interviews, focus groups, and observations, to capture the experiences of HITS users at a single institution. Users included administrators, clinical faculty members, predoctoral students, support staff, and residents. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach, and nine themes emerged: 1) HITS benefits were disproportionate among users; 2) communicating about the HITS was challenging; 3) users experienced a range of strong emotions; 4) the instructor persona diminished; 5) there were shifts in the school's power structure; 6) allocation of end-users' time shifted; 7) the training and support needs of end-users were significant; 8) perceived lack of HITS usability made documentation cumbersome for clinicians; and 9) clinicians' workflow was disrupted. HITS integration into patient care impacts the work of all system users, especially end-users. The themes highlight areas of potential concern for implementers and users in integrating a HITS into patient care.

  5. An Assessment of Global Oral Health Education in U.S. Dental Schools. (United States)

    Sung, Janet; Gluch, Joan I


    Dental schools need to produce graduates who are adequately prepared to respond to the complex needs and challenges of the increasingly diverse and interconnected world in which they will practice dentistry. To enhance discussions about the coverage of global oral health competencies in dental education, the aims of this study were to assess how global health education is currently incorporated into predoctoral dental training in the U.S. and which global oral health competencies are being covered. Surveys were emailed to all 64 accredited U.S. dental schools during the 2015-16 academic year. Respondents from 52 schools completed the survey (response rate 81%). The results showed that social determinants of oral diseases and conditions, how to identify barriers to use of oral health services, and how to work with patients who have limited dental health literacy were covered in the greatest number of responding schools' curricula. Key areas of global health curricula that were covered rarely included global dental infrastructure, data collection design, and horizontal and vertical programming approaches to health improvement. Despite current dialogue on the addition of global oral health competencies to dental curricula, only 41% of the responding schools were currently planning to expand their global oral health education. Based on these results, the authors conclude that it may be most feasible for dental schools to add recommended global oral health competencies to their curricula by incorporating didactic content into already established courses.

  6. Comparison of clinical practice education in dental hygiene schools in eight countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inukai, Junko; Sakurai, Miwa; Nakagaki, Haruo


    OBJECTIVES: The profession of dental hygienist is one of the few in which the primary function of the practitioner is to prevent oral disease and to promote the well-being of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical training conditions in schools of dental hygiene in eight coun...... are trained to perform local anaesthesia and to fill and extract deciduous teeth although the country does not have a specific qualification system. CONCLUSIONS: The contents of clinical training and education in schools of dental hygiene differ greatly among countries....... countries (the USA, Canada, the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Thailand, South Korea and Japan). METHODS: In 2006, we sent out a questionnaire in which we asked dental hygiene schools about how they educate dental hygiene students. RESULTS: The techniques taught to students in schools in Western industrialised...

  7. The Use of Professionalism Scenarios in the Medical School Interview Process: Faculty and Interviewee Perceptions

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    James Kleshinski, MD


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of professionalism scenarios on the medical school admissions process from applicant and faculty perspectives. Specifically, do completing professionalism scenarios as part of the medical school interview process have an impact on both the interviewee’s and the faculty’s perception of the process and outcome?Method: Ninety-one faculty interviewed 199 applicants from January 2007 through April 2007 at The University of Toledo College of Medicine. All applicants were asked one standard professionalism scenario in each of their two interviews. A total of six scenarios were used for the entire interviewing season in rotation every two months. A survey was administered by an admissions office staff member to both the interviewed applicants as well as faculty who conducted interviews about how these scenarios impacted their interview experience.Results: Asking applicants to respond to professionalism scenarios during the interview was described as having a positive influence on their interview experience. This was also associated with leaving an impression on the applicant about what our institution values in its students and contributed an element of personal reflection about what will be expected of them in the medical profession. Applicants more often reported that asking questions about professionalism was an important aspect of the interview than did faculty. Overall, there was an association between the interviewer’s perception of the applicant’s response and the interviewer’s assessment of professionalism.Conclusions: Professionalism scenarios can be a worthwhile tool for use in the admissions process. The interview process should encourage participation from faculty who value this as an important component in the evaluation of an applicant. Determinants of faculty perception of the role of assessing professionalism in the interview process should be investigated in future

  8. The experience of minority faculty who are underrepresented in medicine, at 26 representative U.S. medical schools. (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T; Gibbs, Brian K; Krupat, Edward; Brennan, Robert T; Civian, Janet T


    A diverse medical school faculty is critical to preparing physicians to provide quality care to an increasingly diverse nation. The authors sought to compare experiences of underrepresented in medicine minority (URMM) faculty with those of non-URMM faculty in a nationally representative sample of medical schools. In 2007-2009, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 4,578 MD and PhD full-time faculty from 26 U.S. medical schools. Multiple regression models were used to test for differences between URMM and other faculty on 12 dimensions of academic culture. Weights were used to adjust for oversampling of URMM and female faculty. The response rate was 52%, or 2,381 faculty. The analytic sample was 2,218 faculty: 512 (23%) were URMM, and 1,172 (53%) were female, mean age 49 years. Compared with non-URMM faculty, URMM faculty endorsed higher leadership aspirations but reported lower perceptions of relationships/inclusion, gave their institutions lower scores on URMM equity and institutional efforts to improve diversity, and more frequently engaged in disparities research. Twenty-two percent (115) had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination. For both values alignment and institutional change for diversity, URMM faculty at two institutions with high proportions (over 50%) of URMM faculty rated these characteristics significantly higher than their counterparts at traditional institutions. Encouragingly, for most aspects of academic medicine, the experiences of URMM and non-URMM faculty are similar, but the differences raise important concerns. The combination of higher leadership aspirations with lower feelings of inclusion and relationships might lead to discouragement with academic medicine.

  9. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty? (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis


    Abstract Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Methods: Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health–funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Results: Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work–life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work–life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work–life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. Conclusion: This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work–life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles. PMID

  10. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work-Life Balance for Medical School Faculty? (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Villablanca, Amparo C


    Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work-life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health-funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work-life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work-life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work-life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work-life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles.

  11. Provisional crown failures in dental school predoctoral clinics. (United States)

    Hyde, Jeffrey D; Bader, James A; Shugars, Daniel A


    Following a preliminary study indicating that at least 10 percent of single-unit crown temporary restorations failed in patients who received treatment by predoctoral students, a comprehensive examination of provisional crown failure was initiated to identify strategies to reduce the failure rate. For all provisionalized, natural tooth, single-unit crown preparations in University of North Carolina School of Dentistry predoctoral clinics for one year (N=1008), we noted tooth type, type of crown, student level, faculty coverage experience, treatment clinic, temporary material and luting agent, and retreatment (failure) of the provisional restoration. For failures, we also noted the stage of crown preparation at failure and the time since initial placement of the temporary. We analyzed these data using simple cross-tabs and logistic regression on need for retreatment (alpha =0.05). The failure rate was 18.75 percent (N=189). The median time to failure was twelve days; the 25(th) and 75(th) percentiles were six and twenty-six days. Significant risk factors, in order of odds ratio estimates, were molar tooth, second- or third-year student, and inexperienced faculty. Most provisional failures occurred during the final preparation phase of treatment. Provisional restoration failure is more frequent than was initially suspected from preliminary studies. Strategies for institutional intervention to reduce provisional restoration failure include greater attention to evaluating provisional crowns placed by inexperienced students (sophomores and juniors) and placing more emphasis on the retentiveness of provisional restorations reused following the final impression. Review of provisional evaluation procedures is also indicated for faculty who do not routinely supervise these procedures.

  12. Educational Problems of Kermanshah Medical School: View Points of Students, Graduates and Faculty Members

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    soraia Siabani


    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In recent years although the number of students registering for medicines has decreased in Kermanshah University of Medical sciences parallel to other universities of medical sciences the quality of educational services has not improved the informal reports suggests that the competency of medical graduates is not satisfactory Since any intervention needs situation analysis this study was conducted to obtain viewpoints of three main groups of stockholders including faculty members, students and graduates on medical school problems and insufficiencies.Methods: In this qualitative study faculty members of medical schools, medical graduated of 2005-6, and medical students of different phases participated. With participation of these subjects Focus Group Discussion (FGD sessions were carried out. The goals of the projects were first explained for participants. In the end of each discussion session the discussions were careful transcribed. The sessions continued till the sessions get saturated. The transcript of discussion was thoroughly reviewed by researchers and codified. The problems were classified in 7 areas of management, planning, education goals, evaluation, ethics, teaching, and students.Results: The subjects believed that the most important problems in Kermanshah medical school include neglecting the student evaluation, no educational objectives or being inattentive to them, unwanted effects of pay for service plan, too much duties for interns (students, overload of medical duties and insufficiency in the number of faculty members, no rewarding system for teachers, inattention to needed outcomes, shortage of facilities for student in hospital and being negligent about mutual respect between students and teachers.Conclusion: some of the problems such as the effects of pay for service plan and insufficiency in the number of faculty members have solutions stemming beyond the university at Ministry of Health level

  13. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies. (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryo


    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  14. A survey of social media policies in U.S. dental schools. (United States)

    Henry, Rachel K; Webb, Chadleo


    Since social media sites began to appear in the 1990s, their popularity has increased dramatically, especially among younger individuals. With this widespread use of social media, institutions of higher education are finding the need to implement social media policies. The purpose of this study was to gather information from accredited U.S. dental schools on their social media policies. A survey sent to academic deans asked questions related to social media policies and violations of policies. The survey yielded a 35.9 percent (n=23) response rate. Social media policies at the university level were reported by 47.8 percent (n=11) of respondents, and 34.8 percent (n=8) had social media policies specifically in the dental school. Schools that had an institutional social media policy were more likely to have a social media policy in the dental school (p=0.01), and dental schools were more likely to have a policy if the academic dean had been in the position less than five years (p=0.01). All twenty-three responding dental schools have official social media pages. Dental educators and administrators may want to look for opportunities to raise awareness of social media professionalism in their dental schools.

  15. Factors influencing patients seeking oral health care in the oncology dental support clinic at an urban university dental school setting. (United States)

    Corrigan, Dale M; Walker, Mary P; Liu, Ying; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando


    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations. Fifty percent of participants, 100 females and 119 males, identified their primary medical diagnosis as cancer. Total household income (p dental care (p dental health. Perceived overall health (p Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The National Institute of Dental Research Clinical Dental Staff Fellowship. (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.; And Others


    A program in one of the National Institutes of Health offers clinical training fellowships as a means of training potential dental school faculty by providing both unique clinical skills and high-quality research experience. The program was developed in response to a perceived need for change in academic dentistry. (MSE)

  17. Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in dental treatment at a school of dentistry. (United States)

    Broadbent, J M; Theodore, R F; Te Morenga, L; Thomson, W M; Brunton, P A


    Health services should be targeted toward those most in need of health care. Poor oral health disproportionately affects Māori, Pacific Island, and socioeconomically deprived New Zealanders of all ages, and oral health care services should be prioritised to such groups. In New Zealand, free oral health care is available for all children up to the age of 17. On the other hand, adult dental services are provided on a user-pays basis, except for a limited range of basic services for some adults, access to which varies regionally. This study investigated the extent of dental treatment inequalities among patients at New Zealand's only School of Dentistry. Data were audited for all treatments provided at the University of Otago Faculty of Dentistry from 2006 to 2011 for patients born prior to 1990. Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the provision of dental extractions, endodontic treatment, crowns, and preventive care were investigated. Differences were expressed as the odds of having received one or more treatments of that type during the six-year period 2006 to 2011. Data were analysed for 23,799 individuals, of whom 11,945 (50.2%) were female, 1,285 (5.4%) were Māori and 479 (2.0%) were Pacific, 4,040 (17.0%) were of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 2,681 (11.3%) were beneficiaries or unemployed. After controlling for SES, age, and sex, Māori had 1.8 times greater odds of having had a tooth extracted than NZ European patients, while Pacific Islanders had 2.1 times the odds. Furthermore, after controlling for ethnicity, age, and sex, low-SES patients had 2.4 times greater odds of having had a tooth extracted than high-SES patients, and beneficiaries had 2.9 times the odds. Conversely, these groups were less likely to have had a tooth treated with a crown or endodontics or receive preventive care. Existing policies call for the reduction of inequalities. There is a need for a strategy to monitor changes in treatment inequality over time which includes

  18. Experience, Adoption, and Technology: Exploring the Phenomenological Experiences of Faculty Involved in Online Teaching at One School of Public Health (United States)

    Kidd, Terry; Davis, Trina; Larke, Patricia


    Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and Dewey's Theory of Experience, this phenomenological study explored the experiences of faculty who engaged in online teaching at one school of public health. Findings revealed that the experiences of public health faculty, who engaged in online teaching, are similar and…

  19. Evaluation of dental erosion prevalence and contributing factors in patients referring to yazd dental school in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Farahat


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental erosion refers to the loss of tooth structure by being scratched chemically without bacterial involvement which needs to care about due to its prevalence and treatment problems. This study was designed with the aim of evaluation of the frequency of dental erosion and its causing factors in patients referring to yazd dental school in 2012-2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 400 patients referring to yazd dental school were randomly selected. All of their teeth were evaluated in three surfaces (buccal, lingual and occlusal. The BEWE score was used for classification the extent of damages. Also, patients were given a questionnaire that included patient demographic information and questions to investigate the causes of dental erosion. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and Mann-Whiney, Fisher exact, and Chi-square tests. Results: In this study, 138 men and 261 women were participated with the mean age of 33.26±10.83. 84 persons (21.1% had erosion. There was a direct and significant relationship between the dental erosion and patient's age (P >0.001. Also, there was a direct relationship between the dental erosion and reflux and consumption of lemon and pickle, beverages, soft beer and juice (P>0.001. Conclusion: Consumption of lemon and pickle, beverages, soft beer and juice increases the risk of erosion. Considering the prevalence of dental erosion in about 21% of patients, it is necessary to pay more attention to the knowledge of the causes of erosion and reduction strategies of it.

  20. Effectiveness of school dental screening on dental visits and untreated caries among primary schoolchildren: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Alayadi, Haya; Sabbah, Wael; Bernabé, Eduardo


    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases affecting children in Saudi Arabia despite the availability of free dental services. School-based dental screening could be a potential intervention that impacts uptake of dental services, and subsequently, dental caries' levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative approaches for school-based dental screening in promoting dental attendance and reducing untreated dental caries among primary schoolchildren. This is a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing referral of screened-positive children to a specific treatment facility (King Saud University Dental College) against conventional referral (information letter advising parents to take their child to a dentist). A thousand and ten children in 16 schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, will be recruited for the trial. Schools (clusters) will be randomly selected and allocated to either group. Clinical assessment for dental caries will be conducted at baseline and after 12 months by dentists using the World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. Data on sociodemographic, behavioural factors and children's dental visits will be collected through structured questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome is the change in number of teeth with untreated dental caries 12 months after referral. Secondary outcomes are the changes in the proportions of children having untreated caries and of those who visited the dentist over the trial period. This project should provide high level of evidence on the clinical benefits of school dental screening. The findings should potentially inform policies related to the continuation/implementation of school-based dental screening in Saudi Arabia. , ID: NCT03345680 . Registered on 17 November 2017.

  1. Predictors of workplace satisfaction for U.S. medical school faculty in an era of change and challenge. (United States)

    Bunton, Sarah A; Corrice, April M; Pollart, Susan M; Novielli, Karen D; Williams, Valerie N; Morrison, Leslie A; Mylona, Elza; Fox, Shannon


    To examine the current state of satisfaction with the academic medicine workplace among U.S. medical school faculty and the workplace factors that have the greatest influence on global satisfaction. The authors used data from the 2009 administration of a medical school faculty job satisfaction survey and used descriptive statistics and χ analyses to assess levels of overall satisfaction within faculty subgroups. Multiple regressions used the mean scores of the 18 survey dimensions and demographic variables to predict three global satisfaction measures. The survey was completed by 9,638 full-time faculty from 23 U.S. medical schools. Respondents were mostly satisfied on global satisfaction measures including satisfaction with their department (6,506/9,128; 71.3%) and medical school (5,796/9,124; 63.5%) and whether they would again choose to work at their medical school (5,968/8,506; 70.2%). The survey dimensions predicted global satisfaction well, with the final models explaining 51% to 67% of the variance in the dependent measures. Predictors across models include organization, governance, and transparency; focus of mission; recruitment and retention effectiveness; department relationships; workplace culture; and nature of work. Despite the relatively unpredictable environmental challenges facing medical schools today, leaders have opportunities to influence and improve the workplace satisfaction of their faculty. Examples of opportunities include fostering a culture characterized by open communication and occasions for faculty input, and remaining vigilant regarding factors contributing to faculty burnout. Understanding what drives faculty satisfaction is crucial for medical schools as they continue to seek excellence in all missions and recruit and retain high-quality faculty.

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped. (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984


    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…

  3. A School-Based Dental Program Evaluation: Comparison to the Massachusetts Statewide Survey. (United States)

    Culler, Corinna S; Kotelchuck, Milton; Declercq, Eugene; Kuhlthau, Karen; Jones, Kari; Yoder, Karen M


    School-based dental programs target high-risk communities and reduce barriers to obtaining dental services by delivering care to students in their schools. We describe the evaluation of a school-based dental program operating in Chelsea, a city north of Boston, with a low-income and largely minority population, by comparing participants' oral health to a Massachusetts oral health assessment. Standardized dental screenings were conducted for students in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades. Outcomes were compared in bivariate analysis, stratified by grade and income levels. A greater percentage of Chelsea students had untreated decay and severe treatment need than students statewide. Yet, fewer Chelsea third graders had severe treatment need, and more had dental sealants. There was no significant difference in the percentage of Chelsea students having severe treatment need or dental sealants by income level. Students participating in our program do not have lower decay levels than students statewide. However, they do have lower levels of severe treatment need, likely due to treatment referrals. Our results confirm that school-based prevention programs can lead to increased prevalence of dental sealants among high-risk populations. Results provide support for the establishment of full-service school-based programs in similar communities. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries among school children of Bharatpur city, India. (United States)

    Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul


    Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into focus of the mankind. To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 year old government and private school children of Bharatpur city. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on total 1400 school children, of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental caries according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Significant Caries Index was also used to assess the prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among government school children, that is, 53%, when compared to private school children, that is, 47% and this difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth were found to be higher in government school children (7.61 ± 2.86) as compared to private school children (4.76 ± 2.42). Dental caries was found to be the major public health problems among both the government and private school children of Bharatpur city, which need immediate attention. Regular dental checkups and practice of routine oral hygiene procedures will enable them to lead a healthier life.

  5. Students' perceptions of vertical and horizontal integration in a discipline-based dental school. (United States)

    Postma, T C; White, J G


    Integration is a key concern in discipline-based undergraduate dental curricula. Therefore, this study compared feedback on integration from students who participated in different instructional designs in a Comprehensive Patient Care course. The study was conducted at the University of Pretoria (2009-2011). Third-year cohorts (Cohorts A, B and C) participated in pre-clinical case-based learning, whilst fourth-year cohorts (Cohorts D and E) received didactic teaching in Comprehensive Patient Care. Cohorts A, D and E practised clinical Comprehensive Patient Care in a discipline-based clinic. Cohort B conducted their Comprehensive Patient Care patient examinations in a dedicated facility supervised by dedicated faculty responsible to teach integration. Students had to indicate on visual analogue scales whether the way they were taught at the school helped them to integrate knowledge from the same (horizontal integration) and preceding (vertical integration) year of study. The end-points of the scales were defined as 'definitely' and 'not at all'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to measure the differences between cohorts according to the year of study. Third-year case-based learning cohorts rated the horizontal integration close to 80/100 and vertical integration ranging from 64 to 71/100. In year four, Cohort B rated vertical and horizontal integration 9-15% higher (ANOVA, P horizontal integration 11-18% higher (ANOVA, P integration in the discipline-based undergraduate dental curriculum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pilot survey on dental health in 5-12-year-old school children in Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, S.; Ngonephady, S.; van Wijk, A.J.


    Aim The burden of dental caries in young Lao children is high. As a result, these children suffer from toothache, and school absenteeism is high. There is a need for the Lao Government to develop a strategy to prevent dental disease, such as caries. The aim of this study was to collect data on the

  7. [Prevalence of caries and dental erosion among school children in The Hague from 1996-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Mulder, J.; Kootwijk, A.J.; Jong, E. de


    In 2005 a dental survey of the prevalence of caries among 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in The Hague was carried out. In the case of the 12-year-olds, the prevalence of dental erosion was also studied. The sample consisted of 814 students in twelve primary schools in The Hague. The results

  8. Clinical and Individual Variables in Children's Dental Fear: A School-Based Investigation. (United States)

    Silveira, Ethieli Rodrigues da; Goettems, Marília Leão; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Azevedo, Marina Sousa


    This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of dental fear and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years old, in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Schoolchildren enrolled in 20 public and private schools were selected using a multi-stage sample design. Sociodemographic characteristics, children's dental visit and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires. The Dental Anxiety Question was used to measure dental fear prevalence. Children's clinical examination evaluated presence of dental caries (DMFT/dmft index) and gingival bleeding. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance (prevalence ratio; 95% confidence interval). One thousand two hundred and two children were included. Dental fear prevalence was 24.6%. After the adjustment, girls [PR=1.71 (CI 95%: 1.31-2.22)], children from poorer families [PR=1.96 (CI 95%: 1.36-2.83)], those who had decayed teeth (D/d index>0)[PR=1.32 (CI 95%: 1.01-1.72), and who had never been at the dentist [PR=1.85 (CI 95%: 1.42-2.41) remained significantly associated with dental fear. The prevalence of dental fear indicates that it is a common problem among schoolchildren. Early dental care and dental caries prevention are important factors to prevent dental fear.

  9. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of Reasons for Replacement of Metal- Ceramic Fixed Dental Prostheses in Patients Referring to Dental School. (United States)

    Al Refai, Roa'a; Saker, Samah


    The expected length of service and reasons for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) replacement are a frequent inquiry by patients while the answers were mainly based on studies reports that was conducted outside the middle east region. This clinical and radiographic survey was constructed to assess and survey clinically and radiographically the reasons of replacement of metal-ceramic fixed dental prostheses, amongst patients reporting at dental school in Taibah University. Between January and May 2016, 151 patients were recruited for this study. Interview (include questions pertained to the length of service of the prosthesis, the nature of complaint as told by patient in her own words), clinical examination, intra-oral photographs, and periapical radiographs, were done by the researchers. The parameters assessed were secondary caries, open margins, loss of retention, failure of endodontic treatment of the abutment and periodontal diseases. A total number of 249 failed fixed dental prostheses were evaluated. Of which 180 (39.7%) were single crowns, 159 (35.0%) were retainers and 117 (25.8%) were pontics in 69 fixed partial denture. The most common reason for replacement of fixed restorations was periodontal diseases affecting 92.8% of all types' restorations, followed by defective margin in 90.4% of examined restoration, poor aesthetic in 88% of restorations, while periapical involvement was found in 85.5% of fixed dental prosthesis. The survival rates of fixed prostheses were not predictable, and no association was found between number of years in service and the number of restorations. The most common reasons for replacing single unit fixed dental prostheses are periodontal diseases and periapical involvement, while defective margins and poor aesthetic mainly associated with multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. Key words: Failure, Fixed dental prosthesis, Survival, Replacement.

  10. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Designing the Interventional Strategies for School Children in Rural Konkan Region


    Asawari Modak; Maruti Desai


    School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1) Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result...

  11. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement. (United States)

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey


    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  12. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Designing the Interventional Strategies for School Children in Rural Konkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asawari Modak


    Full Text Available School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1 Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result in toothache, permanent cavitations and children with active disease become adult with tooth decay. Also poor dentition and malocclusion decreases the masticatory performance effecting oral health and quality of life. Fortunately dental caries is both preventable and treatable with effective home care and regular access to preventive dental services. The present study was carried out in the rural area of Konkan region to assess the awareness regarding oral hygiene, prevalence of dental caries, to assess the masticatory performance.

  13. Faktor pendorong motivasi orang tua merawatkan gigi anak di klinik Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Unair (Stimulating factor of parents' motivation to take their children's dental health for treatment in the Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Anggriana


    Full Text Available Children dental health is very beneficial for children's growth Parent’s motivation for taking their children dental for treatment before more serious dental damage can help to decrease the prevalence of children's dental damage, especially for patients who came to pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University. This study aimed to know the parents' motivation to take their children dental for treatment in Pedodontia clinic in the faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University by giving questionnaire to 42 patient’s parents. The result of this study suggested that clinic’s facilities (scored: 2.86 as the stimulating factor had the biggest influence in motivating patient’s parents.

  14. Financial conflicts of interest and the ethical obligations of medical school faculty and the profession. (United States)

    Austad, Kirsten; Brendel, David H; Brendel, Rebecca W


    Despite their potential benefits, relationships linking medical school faculty and the pharmaceutical and device industries may also challenge the professional value of primacy of patient welfare, a point highlighted in a recent Institute of Medicine report. Academic medical centers and professors have the added professional obligation to ensure the unbiased, evidence-based education of future doctors. This essay argues that faculty financial conflicts of interest may threaten this obligation by propagating the bias introduced by these relationships to students. This could occur directly through the process of curriculum determination and delivery, and also indirectly through the "hidden curriculum," which deserves particular attention, as its lessons may conflict with those professed in the formal curriculum. The essay concludes with guiding principles to consider when developing a conflict of interest policy at academic medical centers.

  15. Anti-racist pedagogy: challenges faced by faculty of color in predominantly white schools of nursing. (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena


    Despite the significant effects of systems of oppression on health, nursing education tends not to include anti-racist pedagogy in its curricula, preferring instead to focus more narrowly on culture. This narrow focus allows nurses to depoliticize discussions of race and other social differences, largely ignoring the influence that systems of oppression, imperialism, and historical trauma have had on health in marginalized populations. In contrast, anti-racist pedagogy educates students in ways that make racialized power relations explicit, deconstruct the social construction of race, and analyze interlocking systems of oppression that serve to marginalize and exclude some groups while privileging others. This article describes anti-racist pedagogy from the perspective of a faculty member of color, drawing on personal experience and a review of the anti-racist pedagogical literature. Specifically, this article highlights some of the personal and professional challenges faced by faculty of color when engaged in anti-racist pedagogy in predominantly white schools of nursing.

  16. Implementation of new technologies in U.S. dental school curricula. (United States)

    Brownstein, Sheri A; Murad, Aseel; Hunt, Ronald J


    With dentistry rapidly evolving as new technologies are developed, this study aimed to identify the penetration of emerging dental technologies into the curricula of U.S. dental schools and to explore whether certain school characteristics affected adoption of these technologies. A 19-question survey was sent to the academic deans of all 62 U.S. dental schools. In addition to questions about characteristics of the school, the survey asked respondents to indicate where in their curricula the technology was incorporated: preclinical didactic, preclinical laboratory, clinical didactic, and/or clinical patient experience. Of 62 eligible schools, 33 useable responses were received, for a 52% response rate. The results showed that the greatest overall penetration of dental technologies was in preclinical didactic courses and the lowest was in the preclinical laboratory. Specific technologies implemented in the largest percentage of responding schools were digital radiography and rotary endodontics. The technologies with the lowest penetration were CAD/CAM denture fabrication and hard tissue lasers. These results suggest that the incorporation of technology into dental schools is following that of private practice as the most widely adopted technologies were those with the greatest acceptance and use in private practice. Among the respondents, factors such as class size and age of the school had greater impact on incorporation of technology than funding source and geographic location.

  17. Graduate and Undergraduate Geriatric Dentistry Education in a Selected Dental School in Japan (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noboru; Sato, Yuji; Komabayashi, Takashi


    Geriatric dentistry and its instruction are critical in a rapidly aging population. Japan is the world’s fastest-aging society, and thus geriatric dentistry education in Japan can serve as a global model for other countries that will soon encounter the issues that Japan has already confronted. This study aimed to evaluate geriatric dental education with respect to the overall dental education system, undergraduate geriatric dentistry curricula, mandatory internships, and graduate geriatric education of a selected dental school in Japan. Bibliographic data and local information were collected. Descriptive and statistical analyses (Fisher and Chi-square test) were conducted. Japanese dental schools teach geriatric dentistry in 10 geriatric dentistry departments as well as in prosthodontic departments. There was no significant differences found between the number of public and private dental schools with geriatric dentistry departments (p = 0.615). At Showa University School of Dentistry, there are more didactic hours than practical training hours; however, there is no significant didactic/practical hour distribution difference between the overall dental curriculum and fourth-year dental students’ geriatric dental education curriculum (p=0.077). Graduate geriatric education is unique because it is a four-year Ph.D. course of study; there is neither a Master’s degree program nor a certificate program in Geriatric Dentistry. Overall, both undergraduate and graduate geriatric dentistry curricula are multidisciplinary. This study contributes to a better understanding of geriatric dental education in Japan; the implications of this study include developing a clinical/didactic curriculum, designing new national/international dental public health policies, and calibrating the competency of dentists in geriatric dentistry. PMID:21985207

  18. Valuing the delivery of dental care: Heterogeneity in patients' preferences and willingness-to-pay for dental care attributes. (United States)

    Sever, Ivan; Verbič, Miroslav; Sever, Eva Klaric


    To examine the amount of heterogeneity in patients' preferences for dental care, what factors affect their preferences, and how much they would be willing to pay for improvement in specific dental care attributes. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit patients' preferences. Three alternative dental care services that differed in the type of care provider, treatment explanation, dental staff behavior, waiting time and treatment cost were described to patients. Patients (n=265) were asked to choose their preferred alternative. The study was conducted at a public dental clinic of the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb. Mixed logit and latent class models were used for analysis. On average, the patients would be willing to pay €45 for getting a detailed explanation of treatment over no explanation. This was the most valued attribute of dental care, followed by dental staff behavior with marginal willingness-to-pay (WTP) of €28. Dental care provided by the faculty members and private dental care were valued similarly, while student-provided care was valued €23 less. Patients also disliked longer waiting time in the office, but this was the least important attribute. Four classes of patients with distinct preferences for dental care were identified. Older and/or more educated patients tended to give relatively less importance to treatment explanation. Higher education was also associated with a higher propensity to substitute faculty dental care with the private care providers. Large heterogeneity in patients' preferences was detected. Understanding their preferences may improve the delivery of dental care. Dental care providers should pay particular attention to providing a detailed treatment explanation to their patients. Dental care for older and/or more educated patients should be more attentive to interpersonal characteristics. Faculty dental care provided by faculty members could be price competitive to private care, and student

  19. Dental education and evidence-based educational best practices: bridging the great divide. (United States)

    Masella, Richard S; Thompson, Thomas J


    Research about educational best practices is negatively perceived by many dental faculty. Separation between teaching and learning strategies commonly employed in dental education and evidence-based educational techniques is real and caused by a variety of factors: the often incomprehensible jargon of educational specialists; traditional academic dominance of research, publication, and grantsmanship in faculty promotions; institutional undervaluing of teaching and the educational process; and departmentalization of dental school governance with resultant narrowness of academic vision. Clinician-dentists hired as dental school faculty may model teaching activities on decades-old personal experiences, ignoring recent educational evidence and the academic culture. Dentistry's twin internal weaknesses--factionalism and parochialism--contribute to academic resistance to change and unwillingness to share power. Dental accreditation is a powerful impetus toward inclusion of best teaching and learning evidence in dental education. This article will describe how the gap between traditional educational strategies and research-based practices can be reduced by several approaches including dental schools' promotion of learning cultures that encourage and reward faculty who earn advanced degrees in education, regular evaluation of teaching by peers and educational consultants with inclusion of the results of these evaluations in promotion and tenure committee deliberations, creating tangible reward systems to recognize and encourage teaching excellence, and basing faculty development programs on adult learning principles. Leadership development should be part of faculty enrichment, as effective administration is essential to dental school mission fulfillment. Finally, faculty who investigate the effectiveness of educational techniques need to make their research more available by publishing it, more understandable by reducing educational jargon, and more relevant to the day

  20. Rethinking Dental School Admission Criteria: Correlation Between Pre-Admission Variables and First-Year Performance for Six Classes at One Dental School. (United States)

    Rowland, Kevin C; Rieken, Susan


    Admissions committees in dental schools are charged with the responsibility of selecting candidates who will succeed in school and become successful members of the profession. Identifying students who will have academic difficulty is challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of pre-admission variables for the first-year performance of six classes at one U.S. dental school. The authors hypothesized that the variables undergraduate grade point average (GPA), undergraduate science GPA (biology, chemistry, and physics), and Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores would predict the level of performance achieved in the first year of dental school, measured by year-end GPA. Data were collected in 2015 from school records for all 297 students in the six cohorts who completed the first year (Classes of 2007 through 2013). In the results, statistically significant correlations existed between all pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the associations were only weak to moderate. Lower performing students at the end of the first year (lowest 10% of GPA) had, on average, lower pre-admission variables than the other students, but the differences were small (≤10.8% in all categories). When all the pre-admission variables were considered together in a multiple regression analysis, a significant association was found between pre-admission variables and first-year GPA, but the association was weak (adjusted R 2 =0.238). This weak association suggests that these students' first-year dental school GPAs were mostly determined by factors other than the pre-admission variables studied and has resulted in the school's placing greater emphasis on other factors for admission decisions.

  1. Faculty performance evaluation in accredited U.S. public health graduate schools and programs: a national study. (United States)

    Gimbel, Ronald W; Cruess, David F; Schor, Kenneth; Hooper, Tomoko I; Barbour, Galen L


    To provide baseline data on evaluation of faculty performance in U.S. schools and programs of public health. The authors administered an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire using PHP Surveyor. The invited sample consisted of individuals listed in the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) Directory of Accredited Schools and Programs of Public Health. The authors explored performance measures in teaching, research, and service, and assessed how faculty performance measures are used. A total of 64 individuals (60.4%) responded to the survey, with 26 (40.6%) reporting accreditation/reaccreditation by CEPH within the preceding 24 months. Although all schools and programs employ faculty performance evaluations, a significant difference exists between schools and programs in the use of results for merit pay increases and mentoring purposes. Thirty-one (48.4%) of the organizations published minimum performance expectations. Fifty-nine (92.2%) of the respondents counted number of publications, but only 22 (34.4%) formally evaluated their quality. Sixty-two (96.9%) evaluated teaching through student course evaluations, and only 29 (45.3%) engaged in peer assessment. Although aggregate results of teaching evaluation are available to faculty and administrators, this information is often unavailable to students and the public. Most schools and programs documented faculty service activities qualitatively but neither assessed it quantitatively nor evaluated its impact. This study provides insight into how schools and programs of public health evaluate faculty performance. Results suggest that although schools and programs do evaluate faculty performance on a basic level, many do not devote substantial attention to this process.

  2. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.


    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  3. Is our medical school socially accountable? The case of Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University. (United States)

    Hosny, Somaya; Ghaly, Mona; Boelen, Charles


    Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University (FOM/SCU) was established as community oriented school with innovative educational strategies. Social accountability represents the commitment of the medical school towards the community it serves. To assess FOM/SCU compliance to social accountability using the "Conceptualization, Production, Usability" (CPU) model. FOM/SCU's practice was reviewed against CPU model parameters. CPU consists of three domains, 11 sections and 31 parameters. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with the main stakeholders and documents review since 2005 to 2013. FOM/SCU shows general compliance to the three domains of the CPU. Very good compliance was shown to the "P" domain of the model through FOM/SCU's innovative educational system, students and faculty members. More work is needed on the "C" and "U" domains. FOM/SCU complies with many parameters of the CPU model; however, more work should be accomplished to comply with some items in the C and U domains so that FOM/SCU can be recognized as a proactive socially accountable school.

  4. Radiation Protection at the dental clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala in the year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiente, Dalsy


    In this thesis the procedures of radiation protection used by students of dentistry, also the infrastructure of equipment, protective barriers and protective devices at the clinic of the faculty was evaluated. A sample of 76 students and two technicians were evaluated, also 7 dental units with x-ray tubes were evaluated. The conclusions are that only 2 equipment of x-rays meets the requirements of radiation safety and radiology techniques used by the students need to be improved to obtain good image quality and therefore better diagnostic by the students could be made

  5. Prevalence of dental erosion in Greek minority school children in Istanbul. (United States)

    Caglar, E; Sandalli, N; Panagiotou, N; Tonguc, K; Kuscu, O O


    To evaluate the prevalence and aetiology of dental erosion in Greek minority school children living in Istanbul (Turkey). The present study was initiated in four Greek minority elementary schools in Istanbul where a total of 83 children (46 girls, 37 boys) between ages 7-14 years old were examined. Children were categorised into 7-11 and 12-14 ages groups. Data were obtained by clinical examination, questionnaire and standard data records. All tooth surfaces were examined, dental erosion was recorded per tooth and classified according to the index of Lussi et al. [1996] In the 7-11 yrs old group, 47.4% (n:18) of the children exhibited dental erosion while in 12-14 yrs old group, 52.6% (n:20) of the children exhibited dental erosion. There were no statitistical differences between age, gender groups and findings of dental erosion (p>0.05). However prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 yrs old was twice that of the 7-11 years old children. In general, an unusual drinking pattern of slow swallowing of beverages significantly affected the prevalence of dental erosion (p=0.03). Multiple regression analysis revealed no relationship between dental erosion and related erosive sources such as medical conditions, brushing habits, swimming, and the consumption of acidic fruit juices and beverages (p>0.05). However it should be noted that the sample size in the current study was small.

  6. Profile of accidents with biological material at a dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aragão de Almeida Sasamoto


    Full Text Available Current research characterizes the epidemiological profile of accidents with biological material (BM that occurred in a government-run dental school and identifies the post-exposure behavior taken by the injured subjects. The cross-sectional retrospective study comprises professors, students and technical-administration personnel who worked in the laboratory from 2001 to 2008 (n = 566. An electronic questionnaire, prepared by software developed for this purpose, was sent to subjects between May and August 2008 for data collection. Ninety-one (34.2% out of 266 participants reported some type of exposure to BM. There was no difference between the occurrence of accidents according to the subjects’ category (p = 0.496 and sex (p = 0.261. Most of the subjects reported cutaneous exposure (76.9% comprising saliva (68.1% and blood (48.3%. The fingers were the body members most affected. Accidents occurred mostly during clinical (34.1% and surgical (30.8% procedures. Although the use of protection equipments was high (82.9%, only 26.4% of subjects reported the accident and only 28.6% sought immediate help. Most of the injured subjects failed to report the accidents and did not comply with the guidelines. Others trivialized basic behavior such as the interruption of the procedure to seek medical assistance.

  7. Efficiency of light curing units in a government dental school. (United States)

    Nassar, Hani M; Ajaj, Reem; Hasanain, Fatin


    The light intensity of a light-curing unit is a crucial factor that affects the clinical longevity of resin composites. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of light-curing units in use at a local governmental dental school for curing conventional and bulk-fill resin materials. A total of 166 light-curing units at three locations were examined, and the brand, type, clinic location, diameter of curing tip, tip cleanliness (using a visual score), and the output (in mW/cm 2 using a digital radiometer) were recorded. Only 23.5% of the units examined had clean tips, with the graduate student clinical area containing the highest percentage of clean tips. Further, tips with poor cleanliness score values were associated with significantly lower output intensities. A small percentage (9.4%) of units was capable of producing intensities higher than 1,200 mW/cm 2 and lower than 600 mW/cm 2 (7.6%). The majority of the low intensity units were located in the undergraduate student area, which also contained the highest number of units with intensities between 900 and 1,200 mW/cm 2 . The output of all the units in service was satisfactory for curing conventional resin composites, and most units were capable of curing bulk-fill resin materials.

  8. Trends in Basic Sciences Education in Dental Schools, 1999-2016. (United States)

    Lantz, Marilyn S; Shuler, Charles F


    The purpose of this study was to examine data published over the past two decades to identify trends in the basic sciences curriculum in dental education, provide an analysis of those trends, and compare them with trends in the basic sciences curriculum in medical education. Data published from the American Dental Association (ADA) Surveys of Dental Education, American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Surveys of Dental School Seniors, and two additional surveys were examined. In large part, survey data collected focused on the structure, content, and instructional strategies used in dental education: what was taught and how. Great variability was noted in the total clock hours of instruction and the clock hours of basic sciences instruction reported by dental schools. Moreover, the participation of medical schools in the basic sciences education of dental students appears to have decreased dramatically over the past decade. Although modest progress has been made in implementing some of the curriculum changes recommended in the 1995 Institute of Medicine report such as integrated basic and clinical sciences curricula, adoption of active learning methods, and closer engagement with medical and other health professions education programs, educational effectiveness studies needed to generate data to support evidence-based approaches to curriculum reform are lacking. Overall, trends in the basic sciences curriculum in medical education were similar to those for dental education. Potential drivers of curriculum change were identified, as was recent work in other fields that should encourage reconsideration of dentistry's approach to basic sciences education. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  9. Deprivation and dental health. The benefits of a child dental health campaign in relation to deprivation as estimated by the uptake of free meals at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C; Wohlgemuth, B


    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the overall effect of the 1989 Lothian dental health education campaign on 8-year-old school children's dental health knowledge and behaviour and to examine the relationship between free meals and the children's benefit from the campaign....... Altogether 874 children were randomly selected and included in the study. Sugar-free meals and drinks were provided in all primary schools throughout the campaign week. Dental officers held 30-minute information sessions with each class and encouraged teachers to continue dental health activities. Dental...... knowledge and behaviour were evaluated by interviews immediately before and after the campaign. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge about diet and dental health and a significantly higher proportion of children claimed to choose non-cariogenic foods and drinks as a result of the campaign...

  10. Factors affecting student participation in extra-curricular activities: A comparison between two Middle Eastern dental schools. (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Asim; Al-Harbi, Fahad; AbdelAziz, Wafaa; AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha M; ElRefae, Ismail


    This study was conducted to assess the level of participation of dental undergraduate students in extracurricular activities (ECAs) and the factors affecting this participation. The study included dental students enrolled in undergraduate programs at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, and the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed to collect background information about students, their participation in ECAs, and time allocated for these activities. Students were asked about their perceptions of the relationship between ECAs and academic studies, and their reasons for participating in and satisfaction with ECAs. The study included 199 students from Alexandria and 146 students from Dammam, with response rates of 99.5% and 73%, respectively. The percentages of those reporting ECA participation were 27.1% and 43.8%, respectively, mostly in community service, sports, and social activities. About 60% of students did not think that ECAs affected their studies, although the perceived difficulty of balancing ECAs and academics was associated with lower odds of participation (odds ratio = 0.51). Most students participated in ECAs to socialize and make friends, and the majority was dissatisfied with school-organized ECAs (52% and 59%, respectively). Gender and/or perceived relation between ECAs and academic studies affected actual participation in ECAs in one school but not the other. ECA participation among these students was low. Gender and perception of ECAs in relation to academic studies affected ECA participation differently in the two schools. Better planning and management of ECAs that incorporate students' preferences and reasons for participation is needed. Gender issues and the relationship between ECAs and academic performance should be addressed in relation to school and social characteristics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Pavlin


    Full Text Available Physical Education (PE as new profesion based on physical activity entered in Slovenian and south slavic millieu in the second half of 19 th century. The roots are in gymnastic societies and paralelly in school system. In austrian part of Habsburg Empire in 1869 new school's law was adopted. It proclaimed 2 obligatory hours of PE. With institunalization of PE soon arrised the problem of profesional PE staff and opened the question of profesional physical educational courses or even study for PE trainers and teachers. The problem was firstly solving or by gymnastic courses or later with establishment of special high schools for physical education. In Slovenia important steps in solving the PE profesional problem were done after the second world war by organising new PE study. Despite stereotypes of nonacademism or nonscientism PE gained political and social suport and in the fithtieth of 20. Century Institut for PE was established. Institut was the begginer of High School for Physical Culture, established in 1960. The purpose of new School was to educate and prepare profesionals of PE for the needs of school system and civil-society. On the other side, the establishmet meant also the start of new science – kinesiology. In the paper we will on the basis of sources focused on cruical steps in the process of the educational institutionalization of PE and formation of Faculty of Sport, which in 2010 celebrated its 50 th anniversary.

  12. Developing a Medical School Curriculum for Psychological, Moral, and Spiritual Wellness: Student and Faculty Perspectives. (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D; Bandini, Julia; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea; Noveroske, Sarah; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy; Balboni, Michael J


    Although many studies have addressed the integration of a religion and/or spirituality curriculum into medical school training, few describe the process of curriculum development based on qualitative data from students and faculty. The aim of this study is to explore the perspectives of medical students and chaplaincy trainees regarding the development of a curriculum to facilitate reflection on moral and spiritual dimensions of caring for the critically ill and to train students in self-care practices that promote professionalism. Research staff conducted semiscripted and one-on-one interviews and focus groups. Respondents also completed a short and self-reported demographic questionnaire. Participants included 44 students and faculty members from Harvard Medical School and Harvard Divinity School, specifically senior medical students and divinity school students who have undergone chaplaincy training. Two major qualitative themes emerged: curriculum format and curriculum content. Inter-rater reliability was high (kappa = 0.75). With regard to curriculum format, most participants supported the curriculum being longitudinal, elective, and experiential. With regard to curriculum content, five subthemes emerged: personal religious and/or spiritual (R/S) growth, professional integration of R/S values, addressing patient needs, structural and/or institutional dynamics within the health care system, and controversial social issues. Qualitative findings of this study suggest that development of a future medical school curriculum on R/S and wellness should be elective, longitudinal, and experiential and should focus on the impact and integration of R/S values and self-care practices within self, care for patients, and the medical team. Future research is necessary to study the efficacy of these curricula once implemented. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The teaching of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain at undergraduate level in Brazilian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner SIMM


    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the way the topics for the study of pain mechanisms in general, and Orofacial Pain (OFP and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs more specifically, are addressed in undergraduate courses curricula, and also to verify the existence of specialist OFP/TMD teachers in Brazilian dental schools. Methods: Between July 2010 and January 2011, course Coordinators/Directors of all dental schools duly registered at the Ministry of Education were invited to answer a questionnaire on topics related to OFP/TMD teaching in their institutions. Results: Fifty-three dental schools representatives answered the questionnaire. The study of pain mechanisms was found to cover an average of less than 10% of the courses' total time. Pharmacology, Endodontics and Physiology were identified as the departments usually responsible for addressing pain mechanisms in dental courses. Psychosocial aspects were found to occupy a very small proportion in the syllabi, while most of the content referred to biological or somatic aspects. OFP/TMD is addressed by a specific department in only 28.4% of the participating dental schools, while in most cases (46.3%, OFP/TMD is under the responsibility of the Prosthodontics department. Only 38.5% of respondents indicated that they had a specialist OFP/TMD teacher in their Schools. Conclusion: Among the Brazilian dental schools participating in the study, the teaching of OFP/TMD was found to be insufficient, segmented or with an extremely restricted focus. This initial assessment indicates that Curricular Guidelines for the study of OFP/TMD at undergraduate dental schools should be developed and implemented to facilitate their appropriate inclusion into the curricula and in specific pedagogical projects.

  14. Quantifying Appointments, Treatment Time, Impressions, and Diagnostic Data of Cases Staffed by General Dentists and Prosthodontists in a Dental School Clinic. (United States)

    Imbery, Terence A; Greenfield, Kristy; Diaz, Nicholas; Janus, Charles; Best, Al M


    The aim of this retrospective study was to quantify differences between general dentists and prosthodontists regarding appointments, treatment time, impressions, and preoperative diagnostic data in teaching predoctoral clinical fixed prosthodontics. Electronic dental records (n=356) of patients treated at one dental school in academic year 2012 were randomly selected for review to obtain the following data: faculty and student demographics, number of appointments and treatment time from preparation to cementation, number of impressions made, completion of oral disease control treatment (ODCT), and presence of preoperative periapical radiographs and diagnostic casts. The results showed that ODCT was completed in 78%, preoperative radiographs were present in 76%, and diagnostic casts made in 53% of the cases reviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in number of appointments, treatment time, or number of final impressions when students were staffed by general dentists or prosthodontists. When students were supervised by multiple faculty members, there was generally an increase in treatment time and number of appointments and final impressions. Although this study found no statistically significant differences between general dentists and prosthodontists regarding the criteria evaluated, the results suggest that faculty development and calibration are needed to ensure ODCT is completed and preoperative radiographs are present prior to initiating fixed prosthodontic procedures.

  15. Profiling alumni of a Brazilian public dental school

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    Nunes Maria F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up studies of former students are an efficient way to organize the entire process of professional training and curriculum evaluation. The aim of this study was to identify professional profile subgroups based on job-related variables in a sample of former students of a Brazilian public dental school. Methods A web-based password-protected questionnaire was sent to 633 registered dentists who graduated from the Federal University of Goias between 1988 and 2007. Job-related information was retrieved from 14 closed questions, on subjects such as gender, occupational routine, training, profits, income status, and self-perception of professional career, generating an automatic database for analysis. The two-step cluster method was used for dividing dentists into groups on the basis of minimal within-group and maximal between-group variation, using job-related variables to represent attributes upon which the clustering was based. Results There were 322 respondents (50.9%, predominantly female (64.9% and the mean age was 34 years (SD = 6.0. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 289 cases (89.8% in 3 natural clusters. Clusters 1, 2 and 3 included 52.2%, 30.8% and 17.0% of the sample respectively. Interpretation of within-group rank of variable importance for cluster segmentation resulted in the following characterization of clusters: Cluster 1 - specialist dentists with higher profits and positive views of the profession; Cluster 2 - general dental practitioners in small cities; Cluster 3 - underpaid and less motivated dentists with negative views of the profession. Male dentists were predominant in cluster 1 and females in cluster 3. One-way Anova showed that age and time since graduation were significantly lower in Cluster 2 (P Conclusions Cluster analysis was a valuable method for identifying natural grouping with relatively homogeneous cases, providing potentially meaningful information for

  16. Exploring Electronic Communication Modes Between Iraqi Faculty and Students of Pharmacy Schools Using the Technology Acceptance Model. (United States)

    Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed D; Alsawad, Oday S; Allela, Omer Q B; Carnahan, Ryan; Saaed, Hiwa; Naqishbandi, Alaadin; Kadhim, Dheyaa J; Sorofman, Bernard


    Objective. To explore for the first time the extent to which Iraqi pharmacy students and faculty use Facebook and university email for academic communications, and to examine factors influencing utilization within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Methods. An electronic survey was administered to convenience samples of students and faculty of six Iraqi public schools and colleges of pharmacy in 2015. Results. Responses included 489 student and 128 faculty usable surveys. Both students and faculty use Facebook more than university email for academic communications. Less than a third of the faculty used university email. Students used Facebook for academic purposes twice as much as faculty. Conclusion. Absence of university email in Iraqi schools and colleges of pharmacy makes Facebook essential for faculty-student communications. The majority (71.1% to 82%) of respondents perceived that Facebook was easy to use. Three TAM variables (intention to use, attitude toward use and perceived usefulness) had significant positive associations with actual use of both Facebook messaging and university email.

  17. Assessment of full-time faculty preceptors by colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Harold L; Zerilli, Tina


    To identify the manner in which colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico assess full-time faculty preceptors. Directors of pharmacy practice (or equivalent title) were invited to complete an online, self-administered questionnaire. Seventy of the 75 respondents (93.3%) confirmed that their college or school assessed full-time pharmacy faculty members based on activities related to precepting students at a practice site. The most commonly reported assessment components were summative student evaluations (98.5%), type of professional service provided (92.3%), scholarly accomplishments (86.2%), and community service (72.3%). Approximately 42% of respondents indicated that a letter of evaluation provided by a site-based supervisor was included in their assessment process. Some colleges and schools also conducted onsite assessment of faculty members. Most colleges and schools of pharmacy assess full-time faculty-member preceptors via summative student assessments, although other strategies are used. Given the important role of preceptors in ensuring students are prepared for pharmacy practice, colleges and schools of pharmacy should review their assessment strategies for full-time faculty preceptors, keeping in mind the methodologies used by other institutions.

  18. Confronting shibboleths of dental education. (United States)

    Masella, Richard S


    Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.

  19. Survey of career satisfaction, lifestyle, and stress levels among pharmacy school faculty. (United States)

    Lindfelt, Tristan A; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J


    U.S. pharmacy school faculty were surveyed to assess their career satisfaction, lifestyle, and stress levels. A 48-item survey, administered through Qualtrics (Provo, UT), was sent to current members of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and included questions regarding respondents' academic institution and appointment status; lifestyle traits; career satisfaction; work-life balance; neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses; use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; and stress levels. of the 4787 faculty invited to participate in the survey, 811 usable surveys were collected (16.9% response rate). Nearly all respondents (95.0%) reported working 40 or more hours per week. The majority had an average daily one-way commute of less than 30 minutes (64.2%), slept 5.5-7.5 hours per night (74.8%), and exercised for no more than 120 minutes per week (61.8%). A majority of respondents (63.7%) reported being very or extremely satisfied with their current position in academia. Only 36.9% reported being very or extremely satisfied with their work-life balance. Mean perceived stress scores were near those found in the general adult population. Although most respondents reported seeing a primary care provider and dentist annually, other findings regarding preventive health measures were not as encouraging. A survey of pharmacy faculty in the United States revealed high levels of job satisfaction among respondents, but lower levels of satisfaction with work-life balance and comparable levels of stress to the general population were found. Administrators and stakeholders should explore options to improve lifestyle factors to decrease potential burnout among faculty. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dynamics of tooth decay prevalence in children receiving long-term preventive program in school dental facilities]. (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F


    The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.

  1. Annual ADEA Survey of Dental School Seniors: 2001 Graduating Class. (United States)

    Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.


    An annual survey of graduating seniors by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) obtained data about their financing of dental education, graduating indebtedness, practice and postdoctoral education plans following graduation, and impressions of the adequacy of time directed to various areas of predoctoral instruction. Also related…

  2. Quality assurance and benchmarking: an approach for European dental schools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, M.L.; Hobson, R.S.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Gundersen, S.; Dummer, P.; Roger-Leroi, V.; Sidlauskas, A.; Hamlin, J.


    This document was written by Task Force 3 of DentEd III, which is a European Union funded Thematic Network working under the auspices of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE). It provides a guide to assist in the harmonisation of Dental Education Quality Assurance (QA) systems across

  3. Use of social media in dental schools: pluses, perils, and pitfalls from a legal perspective. (United States)

    Parkinson, Joseph W; Turner, Sharon P


    One of the ways dental education is changing the way it is preparing the next generation of learners is through efficient utilization of interactive social media. Social media, which facilitates interaction and sharing of new ideas, is being utilized to educate students, residents, and faculty. Unfortunately, as with most improvements in technology, there are growing pains. Faculty, student, and patient interaction on social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, can lead to inappropriate or embarrassing situations. Striking the appropriate balance between free speech rights of students and faculty and the need for colleges and universities to have efficient operations is often left to the judicial system. The concepts of free speech and contract law and how each is applied in educational settings should be understood by students, faculty, and administrators. This article provides a review of legal cases that led to current social media policies, as well as present-day cases that exemplify the application of these principles, to help dental educators gain a greater understanding of the boundaries of protected speech. It also provides a set of sample guidelines for communicating through these media.

  4. Social Media in the Dental School Environment, Part B: Curricular Considerations. (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem


    The goal of this article is to describe the broad curricular constructs surrounding teaching and learning about social media in dental education. This analysis takes into account timing, development, and assessment of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors needed to effectively use social media tools as a contemporary dentist. Three developmental stages in a student's path to becoming a competent professional are described: from undergraduate to dental student, from the classroom and preclinical simulation laboratory to the clinical setting, and from dental student to licensed practitioner. Considerations for developing the dental curriculum and suggestions for effective instruction at each stage are offered. In all three stages in the future dentist's evolution, faculty members need to educate students about appropriate professional uses of social media. Faculty members should provide instruction on the beneficial aspects of this communication medium and help students recognize the potential pitfalls associated with its use. The authors provide guidelines for customizing instruction to complement each stage of development, recognizing that careful timing is not only important for optimal learning but can prevent inappropriate use of social media as students are introduced to novel situations.

  5. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral). (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert


    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  6. Association between BMI and Dental Caries among School Children and Adolescents in Jiangsu Province, China. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hussein Musa, Taha; Gao, Rong; Li, Xiao Shan; Wang, Wei Xiang; Hong, Lei; Wei, Ping Min


    Obesity and dental caries are increasing epidemics, especially among children and adolescents. This epidemiological observational cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the possible association between body mass index (BMI) and dental caries among 111,792 school children and adolescents in Jiangsu Province. We found that 13.14% participants of the study sample were overweight, and 7.37% were obese. The prevalence of dental caries was 12.95% in overweight and 7.89% in obese students. There were significant differences in caries prevalence by sex, region, age group, and BMI. Overweight and obesity statuses were associated with dental caries among the study population. BMI and dental caries present a continuous health problem. Thus, we recommend that oral health promotion be used for caries prevention and control. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. State-of-the-art techniques in operative dentistry: contemporary teaching of posterior composites in UK and Irish dental schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, C D


    Advances of composite systems and their application have revolutionised the management of posterior teeth affected by caries, facilitating a minimally invasive approach. Previous surveys have indicated that the teaching of posterior composites within dental schools was developing, albeit not keeping pace with clinical evidence and the development of increasingly predictable techniques and materials. Concurrently, surveys of dental practice indicate that dental amalgam still predominates as the \\'material of choice\\' for the restoration of posterior teeth within UK general dental practice. In light of such considerations, the aim of this study was to investigate current teaching of posterior composites in Irish and UK dental schools.

  8. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  9. Education and training in dental schools in Spain, Sevilla University experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, J. C.; Carrera, F.; Gomez, A.; Luis, J.; Rodriguez, M.; Herrador, M.


    The ICRP, in its publication 73 entitled Radiological Protection and Safety in Medicine states (paragraph 128) that one important need is to provide adequate resources for the education and training in radiological protection for future professional and technical staff in medical practice. The training programme should include initial training for all incoming staff and regular updating retraining. The European Directive 97/743/EURATOM on Medical Exposure (MED) lays down requirements for education and training. The document RP 116 published by the European commission give guidelines on Education and Training in Radiation Protection and in its paragraph 51 establish that Members States shall encourage the introduction of a course on radiation protection in the basic curriculum of medical and dental schools according to the EC Medical Exposure Directive (MED). In the Spanish legislation RD 815/2001 referred to the medical exposures, it is encourage the need for the introduction of Radiological Protection courses in Medicine and Dental schools with the objective of patient protection. In this study it has been analysed the actual situation of the education and training in Radiation Protection in Dental Schools in Spain. In addition it is described the experience of the University of Sevilla. The results of the study shows that only 4 from 9 dental schools have disciplines of Radiation Protection in its curriculum. In one of them the course is mandatory and has a content of 2 credits (20 hours). In the rest of dental schools the discipline has an optional character with an average of 4 credits. The discipline of Radiation Protection of the curriculum of Dental School at Sevilla university has 4 credits and it is configured as a course with the necessary requirements from the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council to obtain the Radiological Accreditation of Responsible of Dental Radiodiagnostic Installations. This diploma is given once the students have finished the Bachelor

  10. Implementation and evaluation of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine leadership program for women faculty. (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B; González-Fernández, Marlís; Bodurtha, Joann; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Fivush, Barbara


    Women continue to be underrepresented in top leadership roles in academic medicine. Leadership training programs for women are designed to enhance women's leadership skills and confidence and increase overall leadership diversity. The authors present a description and evaluation of a longitudinal, cohort-based, experiential leadership program for women faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. We compared pre- and post-program self-assessed ratings of 11 leadership skills and specific negotiation behaviors from 3 cohorts of leadership program participants (n=134) from 2010 to 2013. Women reported significant improvements in skills across 11 domains with the exceptions of 2 domains, Public Speaking and Working in Teams, both of which received high scores in the pre-program assessment. The greatest improvement in rankings occurred within the domain of negotiation skills. Although women reported an increase in their negotiation skills, we were not able to demonstrate an increase in the number of times that women negotiated for salary, space, or promotion following participation in the program. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Leadership Program for Women Faculty has demonstrable value for the professional development of participants and addresses institutional strategies to enhance leadership diversity and the advancement of women.

  11. Emergency management of dental trauma: knowledge of Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers. (United States)

    Young, Cecilia; Wong, K Y; Cheung, L K


    OBJECTIVES. To investigate the level of knowledge about emergency management of dental trauma among Hong Kong primary and secondary school teachers. DESIGN. Questionnaire survey. SETTING. A teachers' union that unites 90% of teachers in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. Randomly selected primary and secondary school teachers. RESULTS. Only 32.8% of respondents correctly stated that a person sustaining dental trauma should go to dentists directly. In all, 73.1% of teachers correctly stated that a dental trauma patient should go for treatment immediately. Only 32.5% knew that a fractured tooth should be put in liquid. Even fewer (23.2%) realised that the displaced tooth should be repositioned back to the original position. Relatively more respondents (74.7%) understood that an avulsed baby tooth should not be put back. Disappointingly, only 16.3% of teachers knew that an avulsed permanent tooth should be replanted. Furthermore, only 29.6% of teachers thought that they were able to distinguish between deciduous teeth and permanent teeth, whilst 20.4% correctly identified at least one of the appropriate mediums: milk, physiological saline or saliva, for storing an avulsed tooth. Teachers who previously received first-aid training with dental content or acquired dental injury information from other sources, scored significantly higher than teachers without such training or acquired information. CONCLUSION. The knowledge on emergency management of dental trauma among primary and secondary school teachers in Hong Kong is insufficient, particularly on the handling of permanent tooth avulsion and the appropriate storage medium for avulsed teeth. Receipt of first-aid training with dental contents and acquisition of dental injury information from other sources were positively correlated with knowledge in managing dental trauma.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov


    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  13. Assessment of self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Shikha


    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 217 teaching faculty from four Visveswarapura Group of Institutions namely Arts and Commerce, Law, Science College and Engineering College. The study population was subjected to a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire inquiring about their socioeconomic status, Oral health status and treatment needs. Clinical examinations, employing WHO dentition status and community periodontal index were performed to determine normative status and needs. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using Kappa statistics. Results: The degree of agreement (κ values and sensitivity was seen in filled teeth (0.839, 80%, missing teeth (0.696, 85.2%, and mobile teeth (0.57, 55.6%. However, the disagreement was seen with all other questions with average κ = 0.20. Regarding overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self-perceived and normative needs for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusion: Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status and treatment needs compared with clinical examination.

  14. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study. (United States)

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S


    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy.

  15. Postdoctoral Teaching of Geriatric Dentistry in U.S. Dental Schools. (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang


    The aim of this study was to determine the number and size of postdoctoral teaching programs in geriatric dentistry in U.S. dental schools and other health professions educational institutions and those programs with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funding. In 2015, all 67 U.S. dental schools were contacted via email with a questionnaire to ask if they had a postdoctoral program in geriatric dentistry; if they did, they were asked to report the length and size of the program. Directors of all 16 HRSA-funded geriatric fellowships were also invited to participate in the survey. Fifty-six of the 67 (83.6%) dental schools and 15 of the 16 (93.8%) HRSA-funded programs completed the questionnaire. Postdoctoral geriatric dentistry programs were reported in 12 dental schools and six medical institutions, although only six programs were currently accepting fellows. The length of the programs was 12-36 months. The maximum number of residents in any program was ten. The oldest program was in Minnesota; it began in 1981. The newest program was beginning in 2017 at Boston University as a revised version of its previous HRSA-funded program. The loss of HRSA funding has had a major negative impact on the number of training programs. Future research is needed to determine how the loss of HRSA-funded programs has affected the availability of educators in geriatric dentistry for dental schools and the services provided to the geriatric community.

  16. Clinical experiences of undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry at Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Christopher J


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the number and range of clinical procedures completed by undergraduate dental students in pediatric dentistry in Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Ireland, and to compare the number of procedures undertaken with the subsequent examination scores. The work comprised a retrospective audit of clinical logbooks for all of the undergraduate dental students in one cohort through their fourth and fifth clinical years between 2004 and 2006. Thirty-four quantitative logbooks were audited. Students had seen a total of 1,031 patients, and each student had completed a full course of dental treatment for an average of twenty-two children. Students completed means of 30.2 restorative procedures for children, fourteen in deciduous dentition (range six to twenty-eight), and seventeen in permanent dentition (range seven to twenty-eight). Continuity of education and care (measured through children having their treatment fully completed by the same student) was 72 percent. A moderate positive correlation between levels of clinical experience and exam score was identified. All students gained experience in management of child patients with students providing care for an average of thirty children and a minimum of nineteen.

  17. Motivation and Career Perceptions of Dental Students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia. (United States)

    Kobale, Mihaela; Klaić, Marija; Bavrka, Gabriela; Vodanović, Marin


    Health care studies are usually considered to be complex, demanding and time consuming. The right motivation toward choosing a career in the health field is of utmost importance for the successful completion of studies. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors motivating students at the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia and, also, to examine their career perceptions. Based on specific questions from available literature, a questionnaire was designed and a total of 270 questionnaires were distributed to the first year students during 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 206 students responded, for a response rate of 76.3%. 26.9% of students enrolled in dental studies because it was their first career choice; 16.4% of them believed that it is easy to find a regular job in dentistry. 9.9% of students thought that salaries are high in the field of dental medicine. 45.4% of the first year students were interested in a career in private practice after graduation. These results provide interesting clues to motivation and give additional insights into the expectations of students regarding their studies and profession. The obtained data can be used for the further improvements in the quality of dental study curricula and teaching process.

  18. Community-Based Dental Education Models: An Analysis of Current Practices at U.S. Dental Schools. (United States)

    Mays, Keith A


    Community-based dental education (CBDE) enhances students' clinical expertise, improves their cultural competence, increases access to care, and fosters community engagement. As emphasis on CBDE has increased over the last decades, the aim of this survey study was to determine how CBDE is currently being implemented in U.S. dental schools. The study used a 20-item, author-designed survey emailed in April to August 2015 to 60 of the 65 U.S. dental schools, excluding those that had been recently established. Of the 60 schools, representatives of 33 responded, resulting in a 55% response rate: 70% public and 30% private. These respondents reported that the extramural sites being used the most were community clinics (90.9%), Federally Qualified Health Clinics (66.7%), public health clinics (54.5%), and Indian Health Service clinics (42.4%). The majority of responding schools (63.6%) had ten or more sites available for rotations, and the rotation lengths were 1-2 weeks (29%), 2-4 weeks (25%), 4-6 weeks (29%), 6-8 weeks (3.2%), and 8-10 weeks (12.9%). Most of the respondents (78.8%) reported that their students were unable to be assessed for clinical competencies at external clinical sites, but roughly half allowed students to receive clinical credit. After students completed their rotations, the majority of the respondents (81.8%) reported that students were required to produce a reflection, and 87.9% reported that students completed a post-rotation survey. Considering the benefits of CBDE for students' education and for improving access to oral health care, it is encouraging that over 45% of the responding schools required their students to spend four weeks or longer on external rotations.

  19. [Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University]. (United States)

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki


    It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.

  20. A collaboration among health sciences schools to enhance faculty development in teaching. (United States)

    Sicat, Brigitte L; O'Kane Kreutzer, Kathy; Gary, Judy; Ivey, Carole K; Marlowe, Elizabeth P; Pellegrini, Joan M; Shuford, Veronica P; Simons, Dianne F


    Those involved in providing faculty development may be among only a few individuals for whom faculty development is an interest and priority within their work setting. Furthermore, funding to support faculty development is limited. In 2010, an interprofessional, self-formed, faculty learning community on faculty development in teaching was established to promote collaboration on faculty development initiatives that have transference to faculty members across disciplines and to share expertise and resources for wider impact. The organic structure and processes of the faculty learning community created an environment that has not only resulted in an increased offering of faculty development opportunities and resources across the health science campus, but has created a rich environment that combines the knowledge, innovation, and experience to promote collaborative efforts that benefit all. The background, structure, processes, successes, and lessons learned of the interprofessional faculty learning community on faculty development in teaching are described.

  1. Educational intervention about oral piercing knowledge among dental students and adolescents at schools. (United States)

    Junco, Pilar; Barrios, Rocío; Ruiz, María José; Bravo, Manuel


    Oral piercing can lead to complications and dentists are in a unique position to detect such complications. The purpose of this study was: (i) to assess the immediate and the long-term effects, on dental students, of a training programme about oral piercing knowledge; and (ii) to assess the immediate effect, on adolescents, of a single educational intervention session about oral piercing. A training programme for dental students (n = 66) was carried out in three phases. The last phase consisted of preparing and giving talks about oral piercing at schools, which was delivered by a random selection of dental students involved in the training programme. Dental students answered a questionnaire about oral piercing knowledge, before, immediately after (only the dental students included in the last phase) and 12 months after the training programme. Adolescents (n = 347) answered a survey about oral piercing knowledge before and after the talks. There were statistically significant differences in all comparison groups, except for the results in the 'before intervention' and in the '12 months after intervention' groups among dental students who had not prepared and given the talks to adolescents. Knowledge about oral piercing significantly improved among adolescents when comparing results before (mean questionnaire score = 3.0) and after (mean questionnaire score = 6.2) the talks. Oral piercing educational intervention had a favourable impact on adolescents and dental students, particularly among those who were more involved in the learning process. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Should Lecture Recordings Be Mandated in Dental Schools? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Lecture Recordings Should Be Mandatory in U.S. Dental Schools and Viewpoint 2: Lecture Recordings Should Not Be Mandatory in U.S. Dental Schools. (United States)

    Zandona, Andrea Ferreira; Kinney, Janet; Seong, WookJin; Kumar, Vandana; Bendayan, Alexander; Hewlett, Edmond


    Transcription or recording of lectures has been in use for many years, and with the availability of high-fidelity recording, the practice is now ubiquitous in higher education. Since technology has permeated education and today's tech-savvy students have expectations for on-demand learning, dental schools are motivated to record lectures, albeit with positive and negative implications. This Point/Counterpoint article addresses the question of whether lecture recording should be mandatory in U.S. dental schools. Viewpoint 1 supports the statement that lecture recording should be mandatory. Proponents of this viewpoint argue that the benefits-notably, student satisfaction and potential for improvement in student performance-outweigh concerns. Viewpoint 2 takes the opposite position, arguing that lecture recording decreases students' classroom attendance and adversely affects the morale of educators. Additional arguments against mandatory lecture recordings involve the expense of incorporating technology that requires ongoing support.

  3. Results of an academic promotion and career path survey of faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia A; Diener-West, Marie; Canto, Marcia I; Martin, Don R; Post, Wendy S; Streiff, Michael B


    Clinician-educator faculty are increasing in numbers in academic medical centers, but their academic advancement is slower than that of research faculty. The authors sought to quantify the magnitude of this difference in career advancement and to explore the characteristics of faculty that might explain the difference. In 1999, a questionnaire was administered to all MD faculty at the rank of instructor and above (259) in the Department of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. A total of 180 (69%) faculty returned questionnaires. Of these, 178 identified with one of four career paths: basic researcher (46), clinical researcher (69), academic clinician (38), or teacher-clinician (25). Career path did not differ by age, gender, rank, years on faculty, hours worked per week, family responsibility, or global work satisfaction. After adjusting for age, gender, time at rank, and work satisfaction, the odds of being at a higher rank were 85% less for academic clinicians (odds ratio,.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.40) and 69% less for teacher-clinicians (odds ratio,.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.88) than for basic researchers. Clinical researchers did not differ from basic researchers in the likelihood of being at higher rank. Similarly, compared with basic research faculty, the adjusted odds of being more satisfied with progress towards academic promotion were 92% lower for academic clinicians and 87% lower for teacher-clinicians. Clinician-educator faculty were less likely to be at higher rank at this institution than were faculty in research paths. Differences in rank may be explained by lower rank at hire for faculty in these career paths, time available for scholarly activities, or other resources available to support scholarship. Retaining clinician-educators will require further exploration of barriers to promotion inherent to these career paths and methods of modifying these barriers.

  4. Dental erosion among 12-14 year old school children in Khartoum: a pilot study. (United States)

    El Karim, I A; Sanhouri, N M; Hashim, N T; Ziada, H M


    To investigate dental erosion among 12-14 year old Sudanese school children and evaluate the associated risk factors. Cross sectional survey in secondary schools in Khartoum city, Sudan. A sample of 157 school children was obtained from both private and public schools. Erosion on the labial and palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors was measured by criterion based on the Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index. Dietary intake and other related factors were assessed using a questionnaire. The overall erosion prevalence in this group was 66.9%, of which 45.2% was mild and 21.7% was moderate erosion. A strong association was found between erosion and private schooling (higher socioeconomic groups), carbonated drinks, herbal hibiscus drink and traditional acidic food consumption. There was a high prevalence of dental erosion among Sudanese school children which was mild to moderate in severity and was strongly associated with acidic dietary intake

  5. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues. (United States)

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés


    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  6. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andres Cartes-Velasquez


    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below, city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34 that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800, a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  7. Perceptions from Library School Faculty on Meaningful Matters to Academic Librarians: Additional Degrees, Sabbaticals, Evaluation, and Governance.A Review of: Wyss, P. A. (2010. Library school faculty member perceptions regarding faculty status for academic librarians. College & Research Libraries, 71(4, 375-388.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Young


    Full Text Available Objective – To survey the faculty members of American Library Association (ALA-accredited library schools to gain insight into their perceptions on academic librarians obtaining faculty status and how the library school curricula prepare academic librarians for faculty roles.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – An e-survey was distributed online to 57 ALA-accredited library schools during April 2007, using Zoomerang.Subjects – The population consisted of 906 tenure-track or tenured faculty members.Methods – The 24 item survey was designed to answer eight specific research questions and evoke responses scored on a five-point Likert scale that corresponded to (1 Strongly Disagree, (2 Disagree, (3 Neutral, (4 Agree, and (5 Strongly Agree. For the analysis of data in questions 1 and 3 through 8, the perceptions of faculty members of ALA-accredited library schools were determined by calculating the mean and standard deviation. For the analysis of question 2 a t test was used to determine differences in faculty members’ perceptions based on gender and tenure. A one-way analysis of variance, or ANOVA, was used to determine library school faculty members’ perceptions based on academic rank. Main Results – A total of 906 individuals were sent the link to the survey, and 187 individuals completed the survey, making the response rate 20.6%. Of the respondents, 38.5% were professors, 25.7% were associate professors, 33.7% were assistant professors, and 2.1% were lecturers. The majority of respondents were female (60.0% and tenured (65.0%.Faculty members of the ALA-accredited library schools agreed that courses in statistical concepts, procedures, and research (both experimental and non-experimental should be required of those seeking a master’s or doctoral degree. They agreed that the Master of Library Science (MLS degree is insufficient in preparing librarians for faculty status, and that additional graduate degrees improve performance

  8. Institutional Oversight of Faculty-Industry Consulting Relationships in U.S. Medical Schools: A Delphi Study. (United States)

    Morain, Stephanie R; Joffe, Steven; Campbell, Eric G; Mello, Michelle M


    The conflicts of interest that may arise in relationships between academic researchers and industry continue to prompt controversy. The bulk of attention has focused on financial aspects of these relationships, but conflicts may also arise in the legal obligations that faculty acquire through consulting contracts. However, oversight of faculty members' consulting agreements is far less vigorous than for financial conflicts, creating the potential for faculty to knowingly or unwittingly contract away important rights and freedoms. Increased regulation could prevent this, but it is unclear what forms of oversight universities view as feasible and effective. In this article, we report on a Delphi study to evaluate several approaches for oversight of consulting agreements by medical schools. The panel was comprised of 11 senior administrators with responsibility for oversight of faculty consulting relationships. We found broad agreement among panelists regarding the importance of institutional oversight to protect universities' interests. There was strong support for two specific approaches: providing educational resources to faculty and submitting consulting agreements for institutional review. Notwithstanding the complexities of asserting authority to regulate private consulting agreements between faculty members and companies, medical school administrators reached consensus that several approaches to improving institutional oversight are feasible and useful. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic


    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi; Peterson Cadore; Andrea Gallon; Soraia Almeida Watanabe Imanishi


    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the cross-contamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tes...

  10. Predoctoral Teaching of Geriatric Dentistry in U.S. Dental Schools. (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Goettsche, Zachary S; Qian, Fang


    The aim of this study was to assess the current teaching of geriatric dentistry in U.S. dental schools and compare the findings to previous reports. Academic deans at all 67 U.S. dental schools were contacted in November 2015 via email, asking them to complete a questionnaire about the teaching of geriatric dentistry or gerodontology at their institution. Questionnaires were received from 56 of the 67 schools (84% response rate). The results showed that geriatric dentistry was taught in all responding schools; for 92.8% of the respondents, the instruction was compulsory. Among the responding schools, 62.5% were teaching it as an independent course, 25% as an organized series of lectures, and 8.9% as occasional lectures in parts of other courses. In addition, 57.1% had some form of compulsory clinical education in geriatric dentistry. Public schools, as opposed to private schools, were marginally associated with an increased interest in expanding geriatric dentistry teaching (p=0.078). No differences were found between any teaching variables and school location. This study found that the form of education in geriatric dentistry in U.S. dental schools differed in many ways, but the teaching of geriatric dentistry had increased among all respondents and had been increasing for over 30 years. Future research is needed to determine the impact of this teaching on services to the geriatric community.

  11. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N


    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  12. Knowledge of elementary school teachers in Tel-Aviv, Israel, regarding emergency care of dental injuries. (United States)

    Fux-Noy, Avia; Sarnat, Haim; Amir, Erica


    Immediate management of traumatized teeth is often critical to the prognosis of the teeth. Most of the traumatic dental injuries occur at home, followed by school. There is a high probability that first aid would be given by lay people such as parents, teachers, or coaches. Knowledge of those people regarding emergency management of dental trauma is crucial for better prognosis. To investigate: (i) the knowledge of elementary school teachers regarding traumatic dental injuries to permanent teeth and emergency treatment, (ii) their source of information, and (iii) the demand for more education in dental trauma. A three-part questionnaire comprised of questions regarding demographic data, attitude, and knowledge about dental injuries was distributed to teachers in 12 elementary schools in the Tel-Aviv area, Israel. The average knowledge score was 4.59 (in a scale of 0-10). Three individual predictors significantly improved the respondents' knowledge: being in the 35-49-year age group (P-value = 0.042), those who had children themselves (P-value = 0.002) and those who had previous experience with trauma (P-value = 0.049). There was no correlation between the demand for further education in dental trauma and knowledge score. The knowledge regarding management of traumatic dental injuries in a group of teachers in the Tel-Aviv area is inadequate. Educational programs as well as addition to the curriculum are necessary to improve their emergency management of traumatic dental injuries and provide better protection to the students. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Community-based dental education: history, current status, and future. (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L


    This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.

  14. Concordance Between Clinical Practice and Published Evidence: Findings From Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry. (United States)

    Chiang, Harmeet K; Best, Al M; Sarrett, David C


    To evaluate the concordance between clinical practice and published evidence by dental faculty and graduating students of the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry. A questionnaire previously developed by the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network with 12 clinical scenarios was administered to VCU faculty and graduating students. Responses were scored as either consistent or inconsistent with published evidence and then analyzed for differences between dental faculty, graduating students, and the national results. There were 43 dental faculty members with at least half-time student contact who responded to the survey. Faculty concordance ranged from 33% to 100%, and general practice faculty had the highest concordance (82%). Eighty-five of the graduating class of 98 responded to the survey, and student concordance ranged from 18% to 92% and averaged 67%. General practice faculty had higher concordance with published evidence than recently graduated dental students. Graduating students and dental faculty demonstrated higher concordance with evidence-based practice than practitioners in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. General practice dental faculty demonstrated adequate concordance, but students demonstrated only a medium-level concordance. Practitioners involved in teaching dental students are better able to keep up with evolving evidence and are better able to demonstrate evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dental erosion in 12-year-old school children living in Jakarta (United States)

    Septalita, A.; Bahar, A.; Agustanti, A.; Rahardjo, A.; Maharani, D. A.; Rosalien, R.


    This study assesses the dental erosion status of 12-year-old Indonesian children and studies the determinants of dental erosion of these children. The survey was performed in 2016 with ethics approval. A multistage cluster proportional to size random sampling method was adopted to select 12-year-old children in 24 primary schools in Jakarta. The parents were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning their children’s diet and oral health habits. The children were examined by a single calibrated examiner. Detection of dental erosion followed basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) criteria. A total of 487 children participated in the survey. Most children (88%) had at least some signs of erosion (BEWE > 0), with dentin being involved in 50% of the cases (BEWE = 2). Dental erosion was significantly related to gender, the frequencies of citric tea consumption, parent’s dental knowledge, father’s education, and dental caries (OR = 3.148). The 12-year-old Indonesian school children who lived in Jakarta had signs of erosion, although severe erosion was not found. Screening programs should be provided to identify risk groups so early preventive measures can be taken.

  16. Stress predictors in two Asian dental schools with an integrated curriculum and traditional curriculum. (United States)

    Nguyen, T T T; Seki, N; Morio, I


    This study explored stress predictors and the role of instructional methods and institutional differences in perceived stress levels amongst students at two Asian dental schools. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate dental students at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP), Hochiminh City, Vietnam in 2016. Data concerning the students' demographic information and grades, and responses to the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES) were collected. The questionnaires were prepared in English and translated into Japanese and Vietnamese following a forward-backward translation process. Altogether 684 students answered the questionnaire with a response rate of 97% for TMDU and 89% for UMP. The mean DES score of UMP students was significantly higher than TMDU (P stress scores in several areas than UMP preclinical students. Having dentistry as their first choice of educational programme was a significant stress predictor for Japanese students whilst the clinical practicum was a significant stress predictor for Vietnamese students. Previous academic performance was not a significant stress predictor for students at either dental school. Dental students of an integrated, active-learning curriculum reported lower stress levels than students of a traditional, discipline-based curriculum. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Predictors of dental visits among primary school children in the rural Australian community of Lithgow. (United States)

    John, James Rufus; Mannan, Haider; Nargundkar, Subrat; D'Souza, Mario; Do, Loc Giang; Arora, Amit


    Regular dental attendance is significant in maintaining and improving children's oral health and well-being. This study aims to determine the factors that predict and influence dental visits in primary school children residing in the rural community of Lithgow, New South Wales (NSW), Australia. All six primary schools of Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementing water fluoridation in 2014. Children aged 6-13 years (n = 667) were clinically examined for their oral health status and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on fluoride history, diet, last dental visit, and socio-demographic characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the independent predictors of a 6-monthly and a yearly dental visit. Overall, 53% of children visited a dentist within six months and 77% within twelve months. In multiple logistic regression analyses, age of the child and private health insurance coverage were significantly associated with both 6-monthly and twelve-month dental visits. In addition, each serve of chocolate consumption was significantly associated with a 27% higher odds (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.05-1.54) of a 6-monthly dental visit. It is imperative that the socio-demographic and dietary factors that influence child oral health must be effectively addressed when developing the oral health promotion policies to ensure better oral health outcomes.

  18. [A contribution to the needs assessment of faculty development measures in medical schools]. (United States)

    Raupach, Tobias; Spering, Christopher; Bäumler, Christine; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Trümper, Lorenz; Pukrop, Tobias


    In addition to patient care and research activity, physicians working in medical school hospitals serve as teachers in undergraduate medical education. However, teaching qualifications of German university hospital physicians have not been studied in great detail. In January 2009, medical students as well as physicians involved in medical teaching at Göttingen Medical School, Germany, were invited to complete an online survey addressing their views on clinical teachers' educational skills. In addition, physicians' motivation to engage in pedagogical training was assessed. During a 12-day period, 359 students and 126 physicians involved in undergraduate medical education completed the survey. The latter did not feel well prepared for their teaching activities. At the same time, they expressed the willingness to improve their teaching skills. Students felt that, across all instructional methods, teachers would benefit from teacher training programs. In order to improve undergraduate education for future physicians, politicians and local representatives alike must set the scene for the implementation of faculty development measures in German medical schools.

  19. Dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe district, South Africa. (United States)

    Nemutandani, M S; Adedoja, D; Nevhuhlwi, D


    To determine the prevalence of dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe districts. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January to June 2012 among disabled individuals receiving special care in four specialised schools of Vhembe District. The research protocol had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Limpopo, Polokwane Campus. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants and from the respective school principals. Oral health examinations took place at the school under natural light, with participants seated on an ordinary chair/wheelchair. Dental caries examinations were carried out, using a mirror and wooden spatula in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria and methods. Decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft, DMFT) were recorded. All disabled individuals who were available during a screening period, were included. Those who were not available, as well as those whose health conditions could be compromised by dental examinations, were excluded. The number of decayed teeth ranged from 0-7 in children below 6 years, 0-12 in children below 11 years; and 0-17 among young adults. The mean decay scores and the numbers of missing teeth increased with age. Only 3 (0.04%) individuals had dental fillings. The mean dmft score of children under 6 years was 5.51 (+/- 2.1), ranging from zero to 8. The mean DMFT's of the 11-18 and 19 years and older groups were 7.38 (+/- 3.22) and 10.24 (+/- 2.97) respectively. Disabled individuals exhibited higher caries prevalence and unmet dental needs than the same age general population in Limpopo. Preventive measures and dental treatment should be considered urgent requirements at special needs schools in the Vhembe District.

  20. Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun Sang; Choi, Kun Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the peri apical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter; Unifors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). The median dose was 491.2 {mu}Gy for digital radiography and 1,205.0 {mu}Gy for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital peri apical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

  1. Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Sang; Choi, Kun Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol


    This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the peri apical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter; Unifors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). The median dose was 491.2 μGy for digital radiography and 1,205.0 μGy for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital peri apical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

  2. The status of undergraduate implant education in dental schools outside the United States. (United States)

    Seckinger, R J; Weintraub, A M; Berthold, P; Weintraub, G S


    Over the past 20 years the incorporation of implant dentistry into academia has been documented in some detail for North American dental schools but has not been pursued on an international level. In June of 1993, we surveyed 51 dental schools outside of the United States affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine's Office of International Relations concerning their teaching involvement with implant dentistry. Results from the 44 (86 percent) responding schools suggest that implant dentistry is being incorporated into predoctoral curriculums. Industrialized countries were more inclined to provide implant education. Insufficient time and the thought that the predoctoral level was not the place for implant dentistry were cited as some of the reasons for not incorporating implant dentistry into the curriculum. Oral surgery, prosthodontics, and periodontics departments developed and administered the implant curriculum. Formats varied among schools with respect to allotted time, curricular placement, laboratory experience, and clinical participation. Didactic material most frequently presented included a historical overview, diagnosis and treatment planning, classification of dental implants, and surgical and prosthetic concepts. Clinical involvement varied from actual implant placement to observation of prosthodontic procedures. Results were categorized based on the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) classification of countries in six regions.

  3. Perceptions of University Mission Statement and Person-Environment Fit by Osteopathic Medical School Faculty and Staff (United States)

    Poppre, Beth Anne Edwards


    Understanding how university medical school faculty and staff perceive the institution's mission statement, in conjunction with their person-environment fit, can provide administration with useful insight into: employee's match to the institution's mission statement, employee level of organizational commitment, and reasons for retention. This…

  4. Dental trauma management awareness among primary school teachers in the Emirate of Ajman, United Arab Emirates. (United States)

    Hashim, R


    To assess, by means of self-administered structured questionnaire, the level of knowledge of primary schools teachers in Ajman with regards to the immediate emergency management of dental trauma. The questionnaire was sent to teachers in randomly selected primary schools in Ajman. A total of 161 teachers responded (response rate 84.4%). The questionnaire surveyed teachers' background, knowledge and management of tooth fracture, avulsion, and also investigated teachers' attitudes and self-assessed knowledge. Ninety-one percent of the teachers were females, 51.6% in their thirties and 61.5% had university qualification. Fifty teachers had received formal first aid training, and only thirteen of them recalled that they had received training on the management of dental trauma. Concerning the management of tooth fracture, 138 respondents (85.8%) gave the appropriate management for fractured tooth. One hundred twenty-one (75%) of the respondents indicated that is very urgent to seek professional assistance if a permanent tooth is avulsed, but they had little knowledge on the correct media for transporting the avulsed tooth. Most teaches were unsatisfied with their level of knowledge for dental trauma and the majority were interested in having further education on the topic. The findings revealed that the level of knowledge of management of dental trauma (especially tooth avulsion) among school teachers in Ajman is inadequate, and education campaigns are necessary to improve their emergency management of dental injuries.

  5. Dental Erosion and its Associated Factors In 11-16-Year Old School Children. (United States)

    Kirthiga, M; Poornima, P; Praveen, R; Sakeena, B; Disha, P


    Dental erosion currently stands as a great challenge for the clinician, regarding the diagnosis, identification of the etiological factors, prevention and execution of an adequate treatment. To evaluate the prevalence, severity, and associated factors on dental erosion in 11-16-years old. A cross sectional study was conducted among 2000 school children who were randomly selected. A questionnaire was given to the children that included personal demographic details and habit of consuming acidic foods and drinks. An index specific for dental erosion given by O Sullivan was used to assess every affected tooth. The values were subjected to chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 1.4%. Females (1.6%) were slightly more affected than males (1.3%). Public school children (2.1%) were found to be affected a little more than private children (0.7%). Chi square test showed significant association between type of school and erosion prevalence (p = 0.015). Most commonly affected teeth were lateral incisor (59.72%). The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low when compared to various studies done all over the world.

  6. A survey of dental school applicants' career intentions and the balance with family life. (United States)

    Stewart, F M J; Drummond, J R; Carson, L; Hoad Reddick, G


    To investigate the career plans of prospective dental students and how they foresee their work life balance. Applicants to Dundee and Manchester dental schools completed anonymous questionnaires when they attended for interview. The useable response rate was 94% (n=436). The majority of the respondents (91.3%) intended working full time when they enter the workforce, with no significant variation detected between males and females. The cohort anticipated their mean salary to be just over 28,000 UK pounds, five years into their career, although the males felt they would be earning 5,000 UK pounds more than the females. Individuals of Pakistani and Indian origin thought they would earn most, and Asians least. Sixty-five per cent would enter general dental practice and, of these, only 2.8% expected to work exclusively within the NHS. Fifteen per cent intended to go into the hospital dental service, with orthodontics the most popular choice of subspecialty (43.7%), followed by oral surgery (31.1%). Significant variation was seen between ethnic groups, with the hospital and community dental services being more popular with those who identified themselves as of non-white ethnic origin, although the majority would still plan on entering general dental practice. Almost half (44.5%) would take time out of their career to concentrate on childcare when children were of pre-school age, with a further 11% taking longer. Ninety per cent of females and 70% of males anticipated taking time out, of a varying duration. Half of the respondents indicated that they felt a child would affect their career to a moderate extent. The dental profession will be severely affected if both males and females take time out of their careers in the future. As well as a work force shortage, the problems of accessibility to NHS dental services will be exacerbated if fewer dentists choose to provide NHS care.

  7. Dental knowledge and attitude toward school dental-health programs among parents of kindergarten children in Winterthur. (United States)

    Gläser-Ammann, Patricia; Lussi, Adrian; Bürgin, Walter; Leisebach, Teresa


    The current study investigated the attitudes and knowledge regarding diet and oral hygiene of parents with kindergarten children. The parents' statements were evaluated in terms of their socioeconomic background and were compared with the annual clinical examination of the children. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the school dental-health program and adapt it to today's societal needs. Of those who participated in the interview, 61% were Swiss, 16% were from former Yugoslavia or Turkey, and 12% each from the EU or other countries. Of the children examined, 39% already had caries, and 18% of those showed more than two lesions. The parents' knowledge correlated with the severity of the child's caries as well as with the parents' income, country of origin, and education. There was a correlation between the child's dental decay and lower income, as well as lower education and non-Swiss nationality of the parents. Parents with higher income and better education more often participated in the preschool's preventive program. Parents from former Yugoslavia or Turkey participated less frequently than parents from other countries. The study demonstrated that parents who especially needed instruction and prophylaxis are contacted too late or not at all through the dental-health program at kindergarten and that new approaches to prevention should be implemented to more effectively reach the parents.

  8. Costs of a school-based dental mobile service in South Africa. (United States)

    Molete, M P; Chola, L; Hofman, K J


    The burden of untreated tooth decay remains high and oral healthcare utilisation is low for the majority of children in South Africa. There is need for alternative methods of improving access to low cost oral healthcare. The mobile dental unit of the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) has been operational for over 25 years, providing alternative oral healthcare to children and adults who otherwise would not have access. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-analysis of a school based oral healthcare program in the Wits mobile dental unit. The objectives were to estimate the general costs of the school based program, costs of oral healthcare per patient and the economic implications of providing services at scale. In 2012, the Wits mobile dental unit embarked on a 5 month project to provide oral healthcare in four schools located around Johannesburg. Cost and service use data were retrospectively collected from the program records for the cost analysis, which was undertaken from a provider perspective. The costs considered included both financial and economic costs. Capital costs were annualised and discounted at 6 %. One way sensitivity tests were conducted for uncertain parameters. The total economic costs were R813.701 (US$76,048). The cost of screening and treatment per patient were R331 (US$31) and R743 (US$69) respectively. Furthermore, fissure sealants cost the least out of the treatments provided. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the Wits mobile dental unit was cost efficient at 25 % allocation of staff time and that a Dental Therapy led service could save costs by 9.1 %. Expanding the services to a wider population of children and utilising Dental Therapists as key personnel could improve the efficiency of mobile dental healthcare provision.

  9. Teaching and assessment of professional attitudes in UK dental schools - commentary. (United States)

    Field, J; Ellis, J; Abbas, C; Germain, P


    The General Dental Council expects professionalism to be embedded and assessed through-out the undergraduate dental programme. Curricula need therefore to accommodate these recommendations. A stroll poll of UK dental schools provided a basis for understanding the current methods of teaching and assessing professionalism. All respondent schools recognised the importance of professionalism and reported that this was taught and assessed within their curriculum. For most the methods involved were largely traditional, relying on lectures and seminars taught throughout the course. The most common form of assessment was by grading and providing formative feedback after a clinical encounter. Whilst clinical skills and knowledge can perhaps be readily taught and assessed using traditional methods, those involved in education are challenged to identify and implement effective methods of not only teaching, but also assessing professionalism. A variety of standalone methods need to be developed that assess professionalism and this will, in turn, allow the effectiveness of teaching methods to be assessed.

  10. New leaders in dentistry: dental students. (United States)

    Hammer, Dan


    Leadership opportunities for dental students have opened dramatically in recent decades because of the humanistic approach to education that shares responsibility for learning between students and faculty and that values mutual respect. Technology has also had an effect because it creates instant access and global communities. This new student leadership is most apparent in the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), which recently developed a White Paper on ethics, assisted in the establishment of Student Professionalism and Ethics Clubs at schools, and is developing a policy on unsupervised dental care. Students are also demonstrating leadership in research; in dual degrees that enhance teaching and policy; and in community service and outreach.

  11. Undergraduate degree projects in the Swedish dental schools: a documentary analysis. (United States)

    Franzén, C; Brown, G


    Undergraduate degree projects have currently been introduced into courses in the four Swedish dental schools. The rationale for research projects is that they enable students to develop research expertise skills and to show their ability to apply and develop knowledge relevant to professional practice. This paper reports a qualitative analysis of the curriculum documents and handbooks including the criteria used to assess the students' research reports. The aim was to investigate commonalities and differences in the design of degree projects between the four Swedish dental schools and to explore any inconsistencies within the documents. The documentary analysis was based on the constant comparison method. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis: (i) developing scientific expertise, (ii) developing professional expertise, (iii) following rules and (iv) fostering creativity. The documents from the four dental schools revealed similar views on the purposes of the projects and provided similar assessment criteria. The students were requested to formulate an odontological problem, apply a relevant scientific method, analyse texts and empirical data, express critical reflections and write a short thesis. The students were free to choose topics. There were differences between the dental schools on the emphasis placed on practical uses of the projects and theoretical background of the projects. Two of the schools insisted on rigid rules of completing and writing the project yet paradoxically emphasised creativity. There were wide variations in the required length of the project report. The report may prove useful to dental schools in other countries who are about to design undergraduate research projects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Prevalent Bacterial Isolates Of Dental Caries In School Age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at the dental clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife. A total of 100 carious samples were collected from children of varying age and sexes. The bacteria isolated were S. mutans: 45.6%, Lactobacillus spp: 41.2% and S. aureus: 13.2%. Out of the 100 samples, 88(5) ...

  13. Recruitment of Journalism Faculty: Do Schools Travel the Ethical High Road? (United States)

    Sneed, Don; And Others

    A study examined the perceptions of journalism educators regarding ethical conduct in the faculty recruitment process of journalism faculty. Data were gathered by means of a mail survey to a national sample of journalism faculty. Questionnaires were mailed to 490 journalism and mass communication educators with 407 responding. Every third name was…

  14. Integrating student feedback during "Dental Curriculum Hack-A-thon". (United States)

    Saffari, Shawheen S; Frederick Lambert, R; Dang, Lucy; Pagni, Sarah; Dragan, Irina F


    The future of dental education is at crossroads. This study used the parameter of the 2016 Dental Curriculum Hack-a-Thon to assess intra- and inter-institutional agreement between student and faculty views regarding dental curriculums to determine if there is an impact in student perceptions towards dental education from before and after the event. This exploratory, cross-sectional study involved two surveys, with Survey 1 being distributed among four faculty-student pairs of the four participating dental schools answering 14 questions. Survey 2 assessed the views of 20 participating dental students through 26 questions in a pre- and post- event survey design. Descriptive statistics were used to explore differences in perceptions towards dental education across both instrument surveys. The results revealed valuable student insights regarding intra- and inter-institutional agreement relevant for the change in dental curriculum that needs to occur. Survey 2 revealed that mandatory attendance in didactic courses, electronic based examination preferences, and the preference of preclinical courses being held in the first and second years of a four-year dental curriculum were of particular importance to student participants. The results of this study indicate that exposure and participation in subjects pertaining to dental education can be influential on student preferences and opinions on how dental education should be delivered in a four-year curriculum.

  15. Does a selection interview predict year 1 performance in dental school? (United States)

    McAndrew, R; Ellis, J; Valentine, R A


    It is important for dental schools to select students who will complete their degree and progress on to become the dentists of the future. The process should be transparent, fair and ethical and utilise selection tools that select appropriate students. The interview is an integral part of UK dental schools student selection procedures. This study was undertaken in order to determine whether different interview methods (Cardiff with a multiple mini interview and Newcastle with a more traditional interview process) along with other components used in selection predicted academic performance in students. The admissions selection data for two dental schools (Cardiff and Newcastle) were collected and analysed alongside student performance in academic examinations in Year 1 of the respective schools. Correlation statistics were used to determine whether selection tools had any relevance to academic performance once students were admitted to their respective Universities. Data was available for a total of 177 students (77 Cardiff and 100 Newcastle). Examination performance did not correlate with admission interview scores at either school; however UKCAT score was linked to poor academic performance. Although interview methodology does not appear to correlate with academic performance it remains an integral and very necessary part of the admissions process. Ultimately schools need to be comfortable with their admissions procedures in attracting and selecting the calibre of students they desire. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The status of mineral trioxide aggregate in endodontics education in dental schools in Turkey. (United States)

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapinar-Kazandag, Meriç; Ersev, Handan; Bayirli, Gündüz


    The aim of this study was to assess the current status of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an educational material in dental schools in Turkey. A survey was sent to senior members of the endodontic departments of seventeen dental schools; fourteen responded. All respondents reported that they used MTA in their clinical practice, with apexification, perforations, retrograde fillings, and root resorptions being the most frequently occurring treatment procedures. All reported that information was given to students regarding MTA mainly as part of the curriculum. The third and fourth years were the periods when MTA was introduced to students in most of the schools. Twelve schools reported that students had the opportunity to observe procedures in which MTA was used, but students had the chance to use the material in a very minor proportion of the schools, mainly under the supervision of clinical instructors. Ten schools agreed that MTA should be included in the regular endodontic curriculum. Financial constraints seemed to be the predominant reason for those who answered this question negatively, followed by difficult handling properties and low radiopacity of the material. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that ways should be sought to prevent financial difficulties from depriving dental students of the opportunity to receive information about contemporary methodologies such as MTA utilization.

  17. Teaching Skill Acquisition and Development in Dental Education. (United States)

    Lyon, Lucinda J; Hoover, Terry E; Giusti, Lola; Booth, Mark T; Mahdavi, Elham


    Development of dental faculty members is paramount to providing outstanding education and role modeling for students. With the large number of second career educators in dental schools, an efficient method of acquiring teaching skills is important for new faculty members. Knowing the skill progression and learning experiences identified by dental educators of varying rank may lead to more efficient, effective faculty development. The aims of this study were to identify the perceptions of a group of faculty members about the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and learning experiences that contribute to developing teaching expertise and to compare and contrast the perceptions of new and more senior faculty members on these subjects. The Dreyfus skill acquisition continuum of novice to expert performance was used as a construct reference. The study used a mixed-methods approach in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently in an electronic survey of faculty members at one U.S. dental school. Of the 492 total faculty members, 80 survey responses were received, for a 16% response rate. Open coding and analysis of responses revealed some common themes. Building rich content knowledge and learning varied methodologies for teaching and assessment, supported by an awareness of peer role models, were perceived to be features of early growth. Content prioritization, clarity, and customization appropriate for the learner characterized mid growth. As theorized in the Dreyfus model, more experienced faculty members described a fluid, less structured teaching process, increased reflection, and appreciation of the strength of the educational community. The results of this study may help increase dental educators' understanding of teaching skill acquisition and inform faculty development and support.

  18. A four-tier problem-solving scaffold to teach pain management in dental school. (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L


    Pain constitutes a major reason patients pursue dental treatment. This article presents a novel curriculum to provide dental students comprehensive training in the management of pain. The curriculum's four-tier scaffold combines traditional and problem-based learning to improve students' diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and assessment skills to optimize decision making when treating pain. Tier 1 provides underpinning knowledge of pain mechanisms with traditional and contextualized instruction by integrating clinical correlations and studying worked cases that stimulate clinical thinking. Tier 2 develops critical decision making skills through self-directed learning and actively solving problem-based cases. Tier 3 exposes students to management approaches taken in allied health fields and cultivates interdisciplinary communication skills. Tier 4 provides a "knowledge and experience synthesis" by rotating students through community pain clinics to practice their assessment skills. This combined teaching approach aims to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assist dental graduates in better management of pain throughout their careers. Dental curricula that have moved to comprehensive care/private practice models are well-suited for this educational approach. The goal of this article is to encourage dental schools to integrate pain management into their curricula, to develop pain management curriculum resources for dental students, and to provide leadership for change in pain management education.

  19. Dental caries and weight among children in Nuuk, Greenland, at school entry. (United States)

    Madsen, Signe Sloth; Wetterstrand, Vicky Jenny Rebecka; Pedersen, Michael Lynge


    To explore the possible association between weight class and prevalence of caries among children born 2005-2007, living in Nuuk, Greenland, at time of school entry. A cross-sectional register study based on data from electronic medical records(EMR) and oral health data from public health and dental care facilities. Data from routine examinations of children at time of primary school entry, including height and weight, were obtained from the EMRs. Dental charts recording oral health and caries were collected from public dental healthcare service. The prevalence of caries was calculated as the proportion of included children with dft score (decayed and/or filled non-permanent teeth) ≥1. 55%(373/681) had relevant data recorded in EMRs and dental charts, and could be included in the study. The prevalence of dental caries was 57.1%(213/373). The prevalence of caries increased with higher weight class,but no statistically significant trend was observed(p=0.063). Increasing prevalence of caries with increasing weight class was observed in this study. A linear trend could not be confirmed statistically. The high prevalence of caries and overweight indicate the need for continued focus on preventative initiatives and monitoring. A combined strategy targeting both caries and overweight may be considered.

  20. School of Ice: An Advanced Professional Development Program for Geoscience Faculty at Minority-Serving Institutions (United States)

    Huffman, L. T.


    The School of Ice (SOI) program from the US Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) is designed for college faculty who teach at minority-serving institutions or historically black colleges and universities, but lessons learned transfer easily to any science course based on current research. The institute builds participants' background knowledge about ice core science and climate change while also providing experiences with activities and labs for transferring information to their students. After three years of highly successful workshops, our model has provided valuable lessons for creating powerful experiences for participants. This presentation will identify some of the key ideas including pairing researchers and educators as presenters; creating leadership teams capitalizing on partner strengths; building a science community willing to participate in education and outreach; and building participants' science content background knowledge and confidence while providing them with teaching models for transferring the knowledge to their students. Another important element is to demand teacher buy-in to ensure replication and dissemination. Also, IDPO's drilling technologies make it an ideal platform for intertwining engineering concepts and practices with science research to meet new science standards. In this session, we will share results of the institute evaluations including the impact on the educators as well as longitudinal analysis of data from interviews with past participants concerning continued impacts on their teaching, their courses and their students. Faculty who have attended this institute in the last three years have reported increases in their understanding of the content and how to teach it. They also report increased confidence in their ability to teach ice core science and climate change concepts. Elements of these successful workshops can inform both the development of college professional development and student courses, as well as the creation of

  1. Perceptions of business skill development by graduates of the University of Michigan Dental School. (United States)

    Barber, Michael; Wiesen, Robert; Arnold, Sara; Taichman, Russell S; Taichman, Linda Susan


    Many graduating dentists leave dental school feeling that they are not prepared to start and run a dental practice. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge and perceptions dental graduates have in the area of practice management. A twenty-item survey was mailed in the fall of 2008 to nearly half of the University of Michigan dental school alumni who had graduated between the years of 1997 and 2007. Respondents were asked about their demographics, practice characteristics, and perceptions of knowledge/experience regarding practice management skills at the present time as well as at graduation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The majority of respondents were general practitioners (84 percent) aged thirty to thirty-nine practicing between six and ten years with practice incomes reported to be greater than $300,000 per year (79 percent). Most dentists reported being either an owner or co-owner of the practice (57 percent), and 33 percent reported being an associate in the practice. Upon graduation, 7 percent of the respondents felt that they had a strong knowledge of accounting or human resource issues; this perception increased to 47 percent at the present time. Similarly, less than 6 percent of respondents felt they understood issues pertaining to dental insurance upon graduation; this perception increased to 68 percent after having spent time in the workforce. In contrast to the large increase in knowledge/experience in business aspects of dentistry that had accrued since graduation, most alumni reported only a 7 percent increase in their knowledge of the legal aspects of dental practice. Results from this study indicate that interventions are needed to increase graduating dentists' knowledge of practice management and close the gap between their knowledge and its application in real life. The majority of alumni believed there is a need to improve the curriculum focused on these aspects of dental practice.

  2. Determination of Prevalence of Dental Erosion in 12 - 14 Years School Children and Its Relationship with Dietary Habits. (United States)

    Shahbaz, Uzma; Quadir, Fauzia; Hosein, Tasleem


    To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95% CI. The results showed a high frequency of (46%) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion.

  3. Teaching style beliefs among U.S. and Israeli faculty. (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Notzer, Netta; Penfield, Randy; Eli, Ilana


    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-reported teaching style beliefs were different among faculty at a U.S. and an Israeli dental school. Teacher-centered practices refer to beliefs that the teacher holds the subject matter expertise and students are generally passive learners who must be told what to think. Student-centered practices refer to beliefs that students must learn how to construct their own understanding. Student-centered teaching is directed towards enabling students to think about complex issues. Twenty-seven of fifty-eight (47.37 percent) faculty at a dental school in the United States and thirty of thirty-four (88 percent) Israeli dental faculty teaching in basic science courses completed the Teaching Behavior Preferences Survey (TBPS). The TBPS is a thirty-item instrument that measures two domains of teaching styles--teacher-centered (TC) and student-centered (SC)--and four subdomains: methods of instruction (MI), classroom milieu (CM), use of questions (UQ), and use of assessment (UA). Findings revealed that there were no significant differences in student-centered and teacher-centered teaching practices and methods of instruction, classroom milieu, and use of questions. There was a significant difference between the U.S. and Israeli groups in their reported use of assessment. The U.S. faculty reported a greater preference for student-centered assessment practices than did the Israeli faculty.

  4. Psychometric assessment of anxiety with the Modified Dental Anxiety scale among central Indian adults seeking oral health care to a dental school

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    Suryakant C Deogade


    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety toward dental treatment can cause people to delay or avoid seeking oral health care despite being in need of treatment. Therefore, recognizing such anxious patients and their appropriate management plays important aspects in clinical practice. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of dental anxiety (DA, factors affecting it, and anxiety toward dental extraction among adults seeking dental care to a dental school in Central India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1360 consecutive patients aged 18–70 years. Participants completed a questionnaire while in the waiting room, which included the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS to assess the level of DA. An additional item was included which asked participants to rate the anxiety felt on having a tooth extracted. Results: Among the study group, 65.1% were men and 34.9% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 41.8% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 53.2% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 5% were suffering from dental phobia. Female participants and younger patients were more anxious (P = 0.0008. Patients who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P = 0.0008. Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P = 0.03. Nearly, 83% reported anxiety toward extraction procedure. A significant association was observed between anxiety toward dental extraction and the patients' gender (P = 0.03, age (P = 0.0007, education level (P = 0.03, employment status (P = 0.0006, income (P = 0.0007, self-perceived oral health status (P = 0.03, and their history of visit to dentist (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Majority of patients in this population revealed high levels of DA. Factors such as age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influence DA to various levels. Extraction followed by injection of local anesthetics and drilling of tooth provoked more anxiety.

  5. Organizational climate and family life: how these factors affect the status of women faculty at one medical school. (United States)

    Shollen, S Lynn; Bland, Carole J; Finstad, Deborah A; Taylor, Anne L


    To compare men and women faculty's family situations and perceptions of organizational climate. In 2005, the authors sent an electronic survey to full-time faculty at the University of Minnesota Medical School to assess their perceptions of professional relationships, mentoring, obstacles to satisfaction, policies, circumstances that contribute to departure, gender equality, family situations, and work life. Of 615 faculty, 354 (57%) responded. Women and men were equally productive and worked similar total hours. Women were less likely to have partners/spouses, were more likely to have partners/spouses who were employed, and devoted more time to household tasks. Compared with men, women reported more experience with obstacles to career success and satisfaction and with circumstances that contribute to departure. More women than men perceived that they were expected to represent the perspective of their gender, that they were constantly under scrutiny by colleagues, that they worked harder than colleagues worked in order to be perceived as legitimate, and that there were "unwritten rules" and bias against women. Few faculty reported overt discrimination; however, more women than men perceived gender discrimination in promotion, salary, space/resources, access to administrative staff, and graduate student/fellow assignment. Work-life and family-life factors served as obstacles to satisfaction and retention of the women faculty studied. Many of these factors reflect challenges attributable to subtle gender bias and the intersection of work and family life. The authors provide examples showing that medical schools can implement policy changes that support faculty who must balance work and family responsibilities. Identification and elimination of gender bias in areas such as promotion, salary, and resource allocation is essential.

  6. Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Staff to Management of Dental Trauma in North-east of Iran in 2015

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    Armita Rouhani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of primary Knowledge among school staffs in Iran with regards to the immediate management of dental trauma. Methods: The data, from 160 participants, were collected using questionnaire, which surveyed staff’s background, attitude and knowledge of dental trauma management. Results: The total number of school staff who responded to all of the questions in the questionnaire was 138; the response rate was 86%. 91.3% of the participants had more than 10 years of teaching experience. Only 24 cases (17.4% have participated in training courses in regards to the dental trauma. 46.4% of the participants estimated their level of knowledge regarding the dental trauma as moderate and 42.8% as low and 7.2% without knowledge, however, 56.5% of them were highly interested in attending the training courses. Overall, the teachers’ knowledge on emergency management of the dental trauma cases presented in this study was deficient, especially in avulsed tooth management. Chi-square test showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the responses to the knowledge part of the questionnaire on age, gender, teaching experience and responsibility in school. Conclusion: The present report indicated the lack of knowledge among school staff on dental injuries managements. Organizing educational courses to improve the knowledge and awareness of school staff, as the first encounters of dental trauma in schools, seems necessary.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for dental erosion among 11- to 14-year-old school children in South India. (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Mishra, Prashant; Debnath, Nitai; Vasthare, Ramprasad


    This cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion and to determine the potential risk factors for dental erosion among 11- to 14-year-old school children in South India. The total sample size for the study was 605, of which 303 school children were from private schools and 302 from public schools. A questionnaire was designed to record information about socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and risk factors for dental erosion. Chi square test, bivariate analysis and Logistic regression analysis were performed to analyse the data. The children who consumed lemon several times a day (OR = 13.41, P dental erosion. The overall prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low (8.9%). Erosion was found to be greater in posterior teeth (65.6%) than anterior teeth (34.4%). Loss of enamel only with loss of surface contour was observed in most (94.8%) of the cases. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low in school children. Private school children were affected more by dental erosion. Frequency of lemon consumption and consumption of carbonated drinks were identified as risk factors.

  8. Hip-Hop High School: A Study of the Attitudes, Beliefs and Perceptions of Suburban High School Faculty towards Representation of the Hip-Hop Culture (United States)

    Rowland, Ronald K.


    Research historically has demonstrated that a generational disconnect between the popular cultures from which students and teachers define normative behavior can impact classroom management and student learning. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of high school faculty toward the hip-hop culture and its…

  9. Low sugar nutrition policies and dental caries: A study of primary schools in South Auckland. (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger; Reynolds, Gary; Koopu, Pauline; Sundborn, Gerhard; Schofield, Grant


    The study assessed whether a healthy food policy implemented in one school, Yendarra Primary, situated in a socio-economically deprived area of South Auckland, had improved student oral health by comparing dental caries levels with students of similar schools in the same region with no such policy. Records of caries of the primary and adult teeth were obtained between 2007 and 2014 for children attending Yendarra, and were compared to those of eight other public schools in the area, with a similar demographic profile. Children were selected between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Linear regression models were used to estimate the strength of association between attending Yendarra school and dental caries. During the study period, 3813 records were obtained of children who attended dental examinations and the schools of interest. In a linear model, mean number of carious primary and adult teeth were 0.37 lower (95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.65) in Yendarra school children, compared to those in other schools, after adjustment for confounders. Pacific students had higher numbers of carious teeth (adjusted β coefficient: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.46) than Māori. This nutrition policy, implemented in a school in the poorest region of South Auckland, which restricted sugary food and drink availability, was associated with a marked positive effect on the oral health of students, compared to students in surrounding schools. We recommend that such policies are a useful means of improving child oral health. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Knowledge of postgraduate students of dental faculty of Tabriz university of medical sciences about oral cancer in 2015-2016

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    Solmaz Pourzare Mehrbani


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out with an aim to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of dental postgraduate students about risk factors, signs, and treatment plan of oral cancer in Tabriz dental college. Method and material: A questionnaire comprised of 10 questions was designed to assess the knowledge of 87 postgraduate students regarding their knowledge on oral examination, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment of oral cancer. Result: 20 out of 87 post graduate students refused to participate in the study. The response rate is 77%.The students had acceptable knowledge about risk  factors, signs and symptoms, most common oral sites and dental management of cancer patient, however  their practice about clinical provisional detection of cancerous lesions  at primary stages is  low (only 22.4%  were sure. Conclusion: Theoretical knowledge of post graduate students regarding oral cancer examination is good, however their knowledge about clinical diagnosis of early lesions is low and needed to be improved. It seems necessary to conduct educational courses systematically which helps them to diagnose precancerous lesions more confidently.   Keywords: oral cancer; Knowledge; early detection;

  11. Students' perceptions of materials and techniques used at European dental schools in the education of fixed prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Kamell, H.; Kharbanda, A.; Dozic, A.


    The aim of this study was to explore the materials and procedures used by students in dental schools across Europe for teaching fixed prosthodontics. An online questionnaire, containing twenty-eight dichotomous, multiple-choice, and Likert scale rating questions, was sent to students in forty dental

  12. Epidemiology of dental caries in Chandigarh school children and trends over the last 25 years

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    Goyal A


    Full Text Available The prevalence of dental caries in 6, 9, 12 and 15-year-old school children of Chandigarh, selected on a randomized basis was evaluated using Moller′s criteria (1966 and correlated with the various risk factors. The mean deft was found to be 4.0 ± 3.6 in 6 year old and 4.61 ± 3.14 in 9 year old, whereas the mean DMFT in 12 and 15 year old was found to be 3.03 ± 2.52 and 3.82 ± 2.85 respectively. The high prevalence of dental caries in these children was attributed to the lack of use of fluoride toothpaste (80% children, lack of knowledge about etiology of dental caries (98% and frequency of sugar exposures up to more than five times per day (30%.

  13. TOWARDS DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: An Initiative of an American Medical School in Lebanon. (United States)

    Rahal, Boushra; Mansour, Nabil; Zaatari, Ghazi


    The American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine (AUB-FM) strategy is to develop faculty members (fm) skills by sponsoring local and international scientific activities has been in place for over three decades, and remains dependent on individuals' efforts. In 2011-2012, Faculty Development Program (FDP) was introduced to develop faculty leadership, business skills in medicine, fulfill personal and professional goals, followed by a five-year plan to cover five themes: Management/Leadership, Marketing, Finance, Strategic Planning and Communications with the purpose of integrating these themes in medical practice. A survey was sent to all departments at AUB-FM in 2011 to assess needs and determine themes. Nine workshops were conducted, followed by post-workshop evaluation. 117 fm responded to needs assessment surveys. Respondents had on average 15 years in clinical practice, 50% with extensive to moderate administrative experience; 71% assumed administrative responsibilities at least once, 56% in leadership positions. Faculty attendance dropped midway from 69 to 19, although workshops were rated very good to excellent. Although faculty were interested in FDP, the drop in attendance might be attributed to: challenges to achieve personal and professional goals while struggling to fulfill their roles, satisfy promotion requirements and generate their income. FDP has to be aligned with FM strategic goals and faculty objectives, be complimentary to a faculty mentoring program, provide rewards, and be supported by a faculty progression tool.

  14. Educational theory and medical education practice: a cautionary note for medical school faculty. (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A


    Educational theory is routinely cited as justification for practice in medical education, even though the justification for the theory itself is unclear. Problem-based learning (PBL), for example, is said to be based on powerful educational principles that should result in strong effects on learning and performance. But research over the past 20 years has produced little convincing evidence for the educational effectiveness of PBL, which naturally raises doubts about the underlying theory. This essay reflects on educational theory, in particular cognitive theory, and concludes that the theory is little more than metaphor, not rigorous, tested, confirmed scientific theory. This metaphor/theory may lead to ideas for basic and applied research, which in turn may facilitate the development of theory. In the meantime, however, the theory cannot be trusted to determine practice in medical education. Despite the intuitive appeal of educational theory, medical educators have a responsibility to set aside their enthusiasm and make it clear to medical school faculty and administrators that educational innovations and practice claims are, at best, founded on conjecture, not on evidence-based science.

  15. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school. (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A


    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  16. Education Status of Oral Genetics at the Fourth Military Medical University and other Chinese Dental Schools. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Li; Wang, Chang Ning; Fan, Zhi Peng; Jiao, Yang; Duan, Xiao Hong

    To investigate the current state of genetics education at the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) and compare it with other dental schools of China. Detailed information about the history and current education status of Oral Genetics in the FMMU were collected and questionnaires were completed to acquire the feedback of twenty-seven students on the course. In the other thirty-five dental schools including the capitals of twenty-five provinces and four municipalities in China, information about the oral genetic course were collected by a telephone survey. The contents of survey included whether or not the Oral Genetic course is offered and some basic information about the curriculum (such as the content, hours, teachers' background and teaching methods). Among a total of thirty-six dental schools investigated, six of them (16.7%) offered the Oral Genetic course or related lectures/seminars. The length and contents of the curriculum vary among these schools. The FMMU offered the oral genetic curriculum both to undergraduates and graduated students. Their teachers had a broad range of backgrounds, such as dentistry, biology, genetics, and biochemistry. The students considered the Oral Genetics course to be helpful for their future professional careers. Genetic education in dentistry in China is still at a preliminary stage. More effort must be paid to spread the knowledge of Oral Genetics in China. In addition, domestic and international communications and networks for Oral Genetics should be set up in the near future.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh. (United States)

    Prabakar, Jayashri; John, Joseph; Srisakthi, D


    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood that interferes with normal nutrition intake, speech, and daily routine activities. Dental caries is a lifetime disease, and the highest priority risk group is school children. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh. A cross-sectional study was done among school going children of Chandigarh in the age group of 3-17 years. The subjects were selected from four randomly selected schools. All the children from the selected schools were examined. A total of 4493 subjects formed the sample size. Dentition status was assessed using dft index by Gruebbel for primary dentition and DMFT index by Klein, Palmer, Knutson for permanent dentition, respectively. Chi-square test was used to find an association between the study variables. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the mean difference. Among the 4493 study subjects, caries prevalence was found to be 47.3%. Mean dft and DMFT score of the population was 1.06 ± 1.995 and 0.41 ± 1.022, respectively. When analyzing the treatment needs among various age groups 42.6% of the study subjects required oral prophylaxis and 45% required restorative procedures. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.

  18. Knowledge and performance of dental students with regard to infection control guidelines in Dental School of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2015

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    Alireza Ebrahimpour


    Full Text Available Dentists are at risk of infectious diseases and dental offices can serve as a source of infection transmission if the infection control guidelines are not properly implemented. Adherence to infection control principles can help prevent disease transmission. This study sought to assess the level of knowledge and performance of dental students with regard to infection control principles in dental clinics of School of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted on 87 dental students. Data were collected using a 9-question questionnaire and a 16-item checklist. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and descriptive statistics by calculation of mean and standard deviation (SD, t-test, Chi square test, Kruskal Wallis test and the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Level of significance was set at P=0.05.Of subjects, 100% were wearing sterile gloves and changed them for each patient, collected and disposed wastes after examination or treatment of each patient, capped the needle after anesthetic injection and changed the dental suction tip; 94% were wearing a mask and changed it for each patient; 89% were wearing clean white coats. The level of knowledge of students was found to be moderate. Also, the performance of students with regard to infection control principles was found to be very good probably due to the rules and regulations set by the dental school departments.

  19. Does the Structure of Dental Hygiene Instruction Impact Plaque Control in Primary School Students? (United States)

    Colaizzi, Lynda R; Tomar, Scott L; Urdegar, Steven M; Kass, Susan H


    A 6-month pilot study was conducted to test the assumption that an interactive, contextualized tooth brushing education program would impact the oral hygiene of low income students. The intervention consisted of an educational program focused on tooth brushing that included interactive sessions with dental professionals and teachers. School 1 students received instruction, toothbrushes, and encouragement to brush their teeth daily after lunch. School 2 students received instruction only. School 3 students only received toothbrushes to remove plaque. Children in all 3 schools were examined by trained dental hygiene students who used plaque disclosing liquid to score the amount of plaque. A predictive correlational design was used to determine the extent that different intervention types and/or demographic/hygiene practices predicted differences in post intervention plaque level, once baseline plaque level was taken into account. A total of 254 first and second grade students in 3 public elementary schools in Miami participated in the study. Overall, mean plaque scores were significantly lower at the 6 month follow-up. Between-group comparisons of the mean follow-up scores, adjusted for the effect of the baseline scores, revealed greater but non-significant plaque reduction at School 1 compared to the other schools, and the presence of significant age and ethnic effects. The most intensive intervention instruction accompanied by repeated practice may lead to improved oral hygiene when compared to instruction alone, when oral hygiene practices and demographic characteristics are taken into account. Design changes intended to increase statistical power may help to explicate these effects. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. Dental pain as the predictor for caries experience among school children of Udupi district, south India

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    Sravan Kumar Y


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate child-Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child‐ DPQ as the predictor for caries experience. Methods: We conducted a cross‐sectional survey among 10‐15 year old school children of Udupi district, Karnataka. Prior consent from parents and verbal consent from school children was obtained. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the school authorities. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Manipal University. All the eligible school children completed self-administered Child-DPQ followed by clinical examination for dental caries as per the WHO guidelines under natural day light within the school premises. Results: A total of 306 children participated in the study, of them 56.5% were ≤ 12 years old, 58.8% were males, 50.7% were in government school and 54.9 % were from urban areas. Around 45.1% of the children were caries experienced and the mean child-DPQ was significantly higher among caries experienced children than caries free children (p=0.017. The Area Under the Curve (AUC was 0.567 (p=0.043 and was above the reference line which was suggestive that the curve predicted individuals with disease (caries experience. The optimal cut-off point was considered as 3 points on child –DPQ score with sensitivity of 41.3% and specificity of 70.2% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Conclusion: The Child–Dental Pain Questionnaire showed to be an acceptable instrument to predict the caries experience among school children.

  1. Dental pain as the predictor for caries experience among school children of Udupi district, south India

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    Sravan Kumar Y


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate child-Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child - DPQ as the predictor for caries experience. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 10-15 year old school children of Udupi district, Karnataka. Prior consent from parents and verbal consent from school children was obtained. Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the school authorities. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Manipal University. All the eligible school children completed self- administered Child-DPQ followed by clinical examination for dental caries as per the WHO guidelines under natural day light within the school premises. Results: A total of 306 children participated in the study, of them 56.5% were ≤ 12 years old, 58.8% were males, 50.7% were in government school and 54.9 % were from urban areas. Around 45.1% of the children were caries experienced and the mean child-DPQ was significantly higher among caries experienced children than caries free children (p=0.017. The Area Under the Curve (AUC was 0.567 (p=0.043 and was above the reference line which was suggestive that the curve predicted individuals with disease (caries experience. The optimal cut-off point was considered as 3 points on child –DPQ score with sensitivity of 41.3% and specificity of 70.2% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.39. Conclusion: The Child – Dental Pain Questionnaire showed to be an acceptable instrument to predict the caries experience among school children.

  2. Technical Quality of Root Canal Treatment Performed by Undergraduate Clinical Students of Isfahan Dental School. (United States)

    Saatchi, Masoud; Mohammadi, Golshan; Vali Sichani, Armita; Moshkforoush, Saba


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of RCTs performed by undergraduate clinical students of Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this cross sectional study, records and periapical radiographs of 1200 root filled teeth were randomly selected from the records of patients who had received RCTs in Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 2013 to 2015. After excluding 416 records, the final sample consisted of 784 root-treated teeth (1674 root canals). Two variables including the length and the density of the root fillings were examined. Moreover, the presence of ledge, foramen perforation, root perforation and fractured instruments were also evaluated as procedural errors. Descriptive statistics were used for expressing the frequencies of criteria and chi square test was used for comparing tooth types, tooth locations and academic level of students ( P students was not satisfactory and incidence of procedural errors was considerable.

  3. Dental Services Satisfaction and Perceived Quality in a School-Based Clinic in Cartagena, Colombia


    Lora-Salgado, Irene Margarita; Tirado-Amador, Lesbia Rosa; Montoya-Mendoza, Jorge Luis; Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Angel


    Objective: to describe the level of quality and perception of satisfaction in attended users from a school-based dental clinic in Cartagena, Colombia. Methods: we performed a cross-sectional study in 277 patients. For data collection we applied a structured and self-administered survey asking for demographic, clinic attention topics and specific questions regarding quality and services satisfaction. Data analysis was performed through descriptive statistics with frequencies, proportions and 9...

  4. Dental traumatology children of younger school age and the importance of oral hygiene after these situations


    KRÁLOVÁ, Stanislava


    Set of teeth in children younger school age going through big changes, and any unwanted interference with healthy dentition in has an impact on the further development of the teeth. When the accident shall be decided by an early and correct diagnosis of injured tissue, suitably elected procedures, periodic inspection of the injured area and thorough dental hygiene, which affects the process of therapy. In the theoretical part describes the development of the dentition and the differences betw...

  5. Barriers to standard precautions adherence in a dental school in Iran: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Hedayati, Hamidreza; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Askarian, Mehrdad


    Setting up good infection control practices in educational institutions is crucial in shaping future health professionals. The implementation of standard precautions (SPs) in Iranian dental schools has not been explored qualitatively to identify barriers to good practice. Twelve focus group discussions and 8 semistructured interviews were conducted with students, residents, and staff members (n = 83) of the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Dental School. The interview guide addressed performance, subjective norms, and behavioral control domains of SP-related behaviors. Thematic analysis was performed manually to identify barriers to SP practices. Proximal factors of poor SP adherence were a lack of knowledge and technical difficulties. These factors were compounded by intermediate factors in the work environment: lack of facilities, heavy workload, patient expectations, interprofessional conflicts, and lack of good role models. Two underlying distal factors were financial issues and unsupportive organizational culture. The social constructionism theory was useful in analyzing the situation and suggesting an educational approach as part of the solution. Complex and intertwined barriers of SP adherence were found in this dental school. A social construction approach may assist in addressing these problems by shifting the culture through education to construct a contextual new knowledge. Further research in medical sociology of SP practices would be useful. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relating mentor type and mentoring behaviors to academic medicine faculty satisfaction and productivity at one medical school. (United States)

    Shollen, S Lynn; Bland, Carole J; Center, Bruce A; Finstad, Deborah A; Taylor, Anne L


    To examine relationships among having formal and informal mentors, mentoring behaviors, and satisfaction and productivity for academic medicine faculty. In 2005, the authors surveyed full-time faculty at the University of Minnesota Medical School to assess their perceptions of variables associated with job satisfaction and productivity. This analysis focused on perceptions of mentoring as related to satisfaction with current position and productivity (articles published in peer-reviewed journals [article production] and role as a primary investigator [PI] or a co-PI on a grant/contract). Of 615 faculty, 354 (58%) responded. Satisfied faculty were not necessarily productive, and vice versa. Outcomes differed somewhat for mentor types: Informal mentoring was more important for satisfaction, and formal mentoring was more important for productivity. Regardless of mentor type, the 14 mentoring behaviors examined related more to satisfaction than productivity. Only one behavior-serves as a role model-was significantly, positively related to article production. Although participants reported that formal and informal mentors performed the same mentoring behaviors, mentees were more satisfied or productive when some behaviors were performed by formal mentors. The results emphasize the importance of having both formal and informal mentors who perform mentoring behaviors associated with satisfaction and productivity. The results provide a preliminary indication that mentor types and specific mentoring behaviors may have different effects on satisfaction and productivity. Despite the differences found for some behaviors, it seems that it is more essential that mentoring behaviors be performed by any mentor than by a specific type of mentor.

  7. Job satisfaction and its influential factors in dental academic members in tehran, iran. (United States)

    Seraj, B; Ghadimi, S; Mirzaee, M; Ahmadi, R; Bashizadeh, H; Ashofteh-Yazdi, K; Sahebjamee, M; Kharazi, Mj; Jahanmehr, M


    Assessment of job satisfaction of the faculty members and its underlying factors may increase career fulfillment and raise the educational and research productivity, leading to higher quality of dental services at the community level, ultimately improving public oral health status. This study assessed job satisfaction and its influential factors in dental academic members in Tehran. The job satisfaction level of 203 faculty members was assessed using a Likert scale questionnaire from 0 to 4, with 4 representing very satisfied and 0 not at all satisfied. The analysis of variance was used to compare the responses among dental faculty members of three different universities. The impact of age, gender, academic rank, employment status and the date of employment on the overall faculty job satisfaction was identified by multiple linear regression analysis. The mean professional satisfaction score among faculty members was 1.5 (0.5) out of four. Among the studied underlying factors, only the date of employment was seen to have a statistically significant impact on the faculties' overall job satisfaction (P= 0.05). There was no difference in job compensation observed between the three dental faculties. Dissatisfying aspects of the academic work included educational and research policies, monetary strategies, quality of leadership and administration, promotion and tenure policies, job security, educational environment, equipments, and facilities. The only satisfying factor was the interaction between faculty colleagues and students. Faculty members of Tehran Dental Schools are dissatisfied with their work environments in Tehran Dental Schools. Issues such as salary and remuneration, facilities, equipments, promotion and tenure policies are strongly believed to account for the dissatisfaction.

  8. Institutional Variation in the Promotion of Racial/Ethnic Minority Faculty at US Medical Schools (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Sandoval-Schaefer, Teresa; Elumn, Johanna; Castillo-Page, Laura; Peduzzi, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H.


    Objectives. We compared faculty promotion rates by race/ethnicity across US academic medical centers. Methods. We used the Association of American Medical College's 1983 through 2000 faculty roster data to estimate median institution-specific promotion rates for assistant professor to associate professor and for associate professor to full professor. In unadjusted analyses, we compared medians for Hispanic and Black with White faculty using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. We compared institution-specific promotion rates between racial/ethnic groups with data stratified by institutional characteristic (institution size, proportion racial/ethnic minority faculty, and proportion women faculty) using the χ2 test. Our sample included 128 academic medical centers and 88 432 unique faculty. Results. The median institution-specific promotion rates for White, Hispanic, and Black faculty, respectively, were 30.2%, 23.5%, and 18.8% (P climates that support the successful development of racial/ethnic minority trainees, ultimately improving healthcare access and quality for all patients. PMID:22420820

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Dental Clinic on the Oral Health of Children Who Lack Access to Dental Care: A Program Evaluation (United States)

    Carpino, Rachel; Walker, Mary P.; Liu, Ying; Simmer-Beck, Melanie


    This program evaluation examines the effectiveness of a school-based dental clinic. A repeated-measures design was used to longitudinally examine secondary data from participants (N = 293). Encounter intensity was developed to normalize data. Multivariate analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to investigate the effect of encounter…

  10. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.


    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  11. Recruiting Faculty Leaders at U.S. Medical Schools: A Process Without Improvement? (United States)

    Marsh, James D; Chod, Ronald


    Recruiting faculty leaders to work in colleges of medicine is a ubiquitous, time-consuming, costly activity. Little quantitative information is available about contemporary leadership recruiting processes and outcomes. In this article, the authors examine current recruiting methods and outcomes in colleges of medicine and compare academic search approaches with the approaches often employed in intellectual-capital-rich industries.In 2015, the authors surveyed chairs of internal medicine at U.S. medical schools regarding their recruiting practices and outcomes-specifically their selection methods, the duration of searches, the recruitment of women and minorities underrepresented in medicine (URM), and their satisfaction with search outcomes.The authors found that department chairs were extensively engaged in numerous searches for leaders. The recruitment process most commonly required 7 to 12 months from initiation to signed contract. Interestingly, longer searches (19+ months) were much more frequently associated with a recruitment outcome that chairs viewed as unsatisfactory or very unsatisfactory. Most leadership searches produced very few women and URM finalists. The biggest perceived hurdles to successful recruitment were the need to relocate the candidate and family and the shortage of good candidates.The process of recruiting leaders in academic medicine has changed little in more than 25 years. Process improvement is important and should entail carefully structured search processes, including both an overhaul of search committees and further emphasis on leadership development within the college of medicine. The authors propose specific steps to enhance recruitment of members of URM groups and women to leadership positions in academic medicine.

  12. Prevalence of dental caries among school-going children in Namakkal district: A cross-sectional study

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    Ramachandran Karunakaran


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth among 4-6 years old school going children in the Namakkal District. Materials and Methods: The study covered a total of 850 school going children in a total of 26 schools in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The age group selected for this study ranged from 4 to 6 years of age. Each child was examined in their respective schools by one of the four calibrated examiners and decay, missing and filled teeth (dmft index was recorded along with demographic details. This study was done in September-October 2013 in a span of 1 month duration. Results: Of 850 children examined, 560 (65.88% children had dental caries. Mean dmft score was 2.86. Prevalence of dental caries was higher in boys (69.6% than in girls (61.5%. The untreated decay teeth accounted for 92.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries among 4-6 years old children is high in the Namakkal district. The need for the creation of dental awareness among children and their primary caregivers is crucial and the need for developing immediate oral health promotion strategies including an increase in school dental health programs is recommended.

  13. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine. (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y


    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  14. Patients' Perceptions of Dehumanization of Patients in Dental School Settings: Implications for Clinic Management and Curriculum Planning. (United States)

    Raja, Sheela; Shah, Raveena; Hamad, Judy; Van Kanegan, Mona; Kupershmidt, Alexandra; Kruthoff, Mariela


    Although the importance of empathy, rapport, and anxiety/pain awareness in dentist-patient relations has been well documented, these factors continue to be an issue with patients in many dental school clinics. The aim of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how patients at an urban, university-affiliated medical center and its dental school's clinic experienced oral health care and to generate ideas for improving the dental school's clinical curriculum and management of the clinic. Although patient satisfaction surveys are common, in-depth patient narratives are an underutilized resource for improving dental education. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 uninsured or underinsured dental patients at these sites, and the results were analyzed using content analysis. Major phenomena that participants discussed were the importance of empathy and good rapport with their oral health providers and provider awareness of dental pain and anxiety. Many patients also discussed feeling dehumanized during dental visits. Based on their positive and negative experiences, the participants made suggestions for how oral health professionals can successfully engage patients in treatment.

  15. Do school break-time policies influence child dental health and snacking behaviours? An evaluation of a primary school programme. (United States)

    Freeman, R; Oliver, M


    The aim of the two-year controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Boosting Better Breaks' (BBB) break-time policy to reduce obvious decay experience and sugar snacking in a cohort of nine-year-old children attending intervention and control primary schools. A matched controlled prospective trial design. Children in Year 5 were invited with their parents/guardians to take part. The children were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up. One hundred and eighty-nine children attended intervention schools and 175 attended control schools which were matched for socio-economic status (SES), school location and co-education status. The outcome variables were obvious decay experience and evidence of sugar snacks found in the children's rubbish bags. All children were asked to complete a questionnaire and keep evidence of the snacks they consumed starting from school-time break to when they retired for bed in a numbered and coded 'rubbish bag' on a specific collection day at baseline and 24-month follow-up. All children had a dental examination at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Sixty percent of children at baseline and all of the children at follow-up had at least one sugar snack in their rubbish bag. The most popular snacks at follow-up were sweets, chocolate, crisps and carbonated drinks. In the school environment children attending BBB policy schools had significantly lower mean scores for sugar snacks scores at baseline but equivalent mean sugar snacks scores at follow-up compared with children attending control schools. In the outside school environment there was no effect of school intervention on sugar snack scores. Decay into dentine at follow-up was predicted by school intervention status and evidence of sugar snacks consumption outside school and at home. The BBB break-time policy did not achieve its health promotion goals of promoting child dental health or encouraging children to adopt healthier dietary habits in school or in the wider

  16. Teaching mandibular implant-Supported overdentures in dental schools in North America - a survey. (United States)

    Ben-Gal, G; Ziv, Y; Weiss, E I; Zabrovsky, A


    Mandibular two-implant overdentures are considered the minimum standard of care for edentulous patients and provide an excellent performance, as well as satisfaction to the patients. Dental schools are required to promote the teaching of current treatment options in order to enable students to master state-of-the-art procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine how the theoretical and practical aspects of mandibular two-implant overdentures are taught in dental schools in North America. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included questions regarding the theoretical and clinical courses, surgical procedure and imaging method. Of 75 schools, 36 responded to the survey. Almost all the schools teach the subject theoretically, but it is not mandatory for students to perform in most of the schools. Only a minority (23%) of the mandibular dentures made by students are implant-supported. Almost all of the schools (94%) use two implants to support overdentures, and Locator abutment is used almost exclusively. The prevalent imaging for the surgical procedure is CT scans, although 30% of the schools use panoramic radiograph. None of the schools loads the implants immediately after surgery. Some clear trends are apparent in the current survey: the use of two implants, no use of bar connectors and delayed loading of the implants. It is likely that graduates will not have sufficient clinical skills and will need continuing education to be familiar with the required procedures, both surgical and prosthetic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The emerging dental workforce: short-term expectations of, and influences on dental students graduating from a London dental school in 2005. (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Clarke, Wendy; Wilson, Nairn H F


    The aim of this research was to identify short-term career aspirations and goals of final-year dental students at a London dental school and the perceived factors that influenced these aspirations. Two methods were used to collect data on final-year students' short-term career plans and influences. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups and analysed using 'framework methodology'. These findings informed a questionnaire survey of all students at the end of their final undergraduate year. Data were entered into and analysed using a statistical software package. Thirty-five students participated in focus groups, with recruitment continuing until data were saturated. Ninety per cent (n=126) of the total population (140) responded to the questionnaire survey; the majority were Asian (70%), female (58%), and aged 23 years (59%). Short-term professional expectations focused around 'achieving professional status within a social context', 'gaining professional experience', 'developing independence' and 'achieving financial stability'. 'Achieving financial stability' was ranked as the most important influence in decision-making about their career in the short term (77%), followed by 'balance of work and other aspects of life' (75%) and 'good lifestyle' (75%). Four out of ten intended to work towards membership of a Royal College and/or becoming a specialist. Proximity to family (81%) and friends (79%) was an important or very important influence on location in the short term. Asian students were significantly more likely to rate 'proximity to family' (p=0.042), working in an 'urban area' (p=0.001) and 'opportunities for private care' (p=0.043) of greater importance than their White counterparts. Short-term aspirations involve 'achieving professional status within a social context', and personal, social, professional and financial goals. Location of future practice was significantly associated with ethnicity.

  18. Evaluation of patients' satisfaction from dental care services: TUMS, school of dentistry, 1385-86

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    Seidi D


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Association between patient satisfaction and success of the treatment determines the quality of health care. Measuring the level of satisfaction is an important factor for improving the quality of services provided by a system, so it is necessary to determine the expectations of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patient satisfaction from services provided by the dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, 385 patients were randomly selected from different departments of dental faculty including prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics, operative dentistry, radiology and oral medicine. A two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics of patients and satisfaction from reception process, infection control, student and personnel behavior, and the outcome of treatment was filled out by patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software."nResults: The most dissatisfying factor was the time wasted in paying the cost and the most satisfying factor was student behavior. General satisfaction form the process was evaluated (complete satisfaction 51.9%, partial satisfaction 38.4% and dissatisfaction 9.6%, and 62.9% of patients were completely agree with introducing dental faculty to others."nConclusion: The most satisfying item was student behavior which indicates that this factor is of great importance in increasing the quality of treatment. The deficiencies determined by patient can provide reliable data for determination and regulation of health care policies.

  19. Linking medical faculty stress/burnout to willingness to implement medical school curriculum change: a preliminary investigation. (United States)

    Arvandi, Zeinab; Emami, Amirhossein; Zarghi, Nazila; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Shirazi, Mandana; Parikh, Sagar V


    Balancing administrative demands from the medical school while providing patient support and seeking academic advancement can cause personal hardship that ranges from high stress to clinically recognizable conditions such as burnout. Regarding the importance of clinical faculties' burnout and its effects on different aspects of their professional career, this study was conducted and aimed to evaluate the relationship between willingness to change teaching approaches as characterized by a modified stage-of-change model and measures of stress and burnout. This descriptive analytic study was conducted on 143 clinical faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires: a modified stages of change questionnaire the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire. Data were analysed by SPSS: 16 using non-parametric statistical tests such as multiple regression and ICC (intra-class coefficient) and Spearman correlation coefficient test. A significant relationship was found between faculty members' readiness to change teaching approaches and the subscales of occupational burnout. Specifically, participants with low occupational burnout were more likely to be in the action stage, while those with high burnout were in the attitude or intention stage, which could be understood as not being ready to implement change. There was no significant correlation between general health scores and stage of change. We found it feasible to measure stages of change as well as stress/burnout in academic doctors. Occupational burnout directly reduces the readiness to change. To have successful academic reform in medical schools, it therefore would be beneficial to assess and manage occupational burnout among clinical faculty members. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of knowledge and attitude of school teachers about emergency management of traumatic dental injury. (United States)

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod


    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are widespread in the population and are a serious dental public health problem among children. Dental trauma may cause both functional and esthetic problems, with possible impacts on the patient's quality of life. To investigate teacher's knowledge and attitudes of Mathura city about emergency management of TDIs in children. A total of 352 teachers from total 23 schools of Mathura city were included in the study. Data were collected through a survey, which included a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three major parts containing multiple-choice questions. Among the teachers 51.1% were males and 48.9% were females. Majority of the respondents, that is, 33.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age. Most respondents (34%) had more than 10 years of teaching experience. Majority of the teachers (39.2%) had educational qualification other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. degrees. Physical education teachers comprised the largest group of school teachers. Regarding knowledge and attitude, the teachers with 10-20 years of teaching experience, physical education teachers, and the teachers other than B.Ed. and M.Ed. qualifications had given more correct answers to the questions when compared with other groups. For the teachers having a low level of knowledge, there is a need for greater awareness to improve teachers' knowledge and attitudes related to the emergency management of TDIs in children by organizing educative and motivational programs.

  1. Adequacy of patient pools to support predoctoral students' achievement of competence in pediatric dentistry in U.S. dental schools. (United States)

    Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue


    The aim of this study was to characterize the current status of predoctoral pediatric dentistry patient pools in U.S. dental schools and compare their status to that in 2001. A 2014 survey of school clinic-based and community-based dental patient pools was developed, piloted, and sent to pediatric predoctoral program directors in 57 U.S. dental schools via SurveyMonkey. Two follow-up contacts were made to increase the response rate. A total of 49 surveys were returned for a response rate of 86%. The responding program directors reported that their programs' patient pools had declined in number and had changed in character with more diversity and fewer procedures. They attributed the changes to competition, cost, and location of the dental school. The respondents reported that community-based dental education clinical sites continued to provide additional service experiences for dental students, with contributions varying by the nature of the site. A large number of the respondents felt that their graduates lacked some basic pediatric dentistry clinical skills and were not ready for independent practice with children. The results of this study suggest that the predoctoral pediatric dentistry patient pool has changed and general dentists may be graduating with inadequate experiences to practice dentistry for children.

  2. Awareness in Primary School Teachers regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in Children and Their Emergency Management: A Survey in South Jaipur. (United States)

    Nirwan, Mitakshara; Syed, Ather Ahmed; Chaturvedi, Shefali; Goenka, Puneet; Sharma, Swati


    Trauma to primary and permanent teeth and their supporting structures is one of the most common dental problems seen in children. The prognosis of traumatized teeth depends on timely attention with prompt and appropriate treatment, which often relies on knowledge of the teachers who may be present at the place of accidents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate via a questionnaire the knowledge level of primary school teachers in South Jaipur regarding dental trauma. Questionnaire survey. A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 300 primary school teachers from 20 randomly selected private and semi-aided schools of South Jaipur. A total of 278 teachers responded to the survey. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that most of the respondents had accepted poor knowledge regarding dental trauma, with a mean knowledge of 10.56 ± 2.58. This study highlighted inadequate knowledge regarding emergency management of traumatic dental injuries, and teachers felt the need for training in the management of dental trauma as part of their training program. How to cite this article: Nirwan M, Syed AA, Chaturvedi S, Goenka P, Sharma S. Awareness in Primary School Teachers regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in Children and Their Emergency Management: A Survey in South Jaipur. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):62-66.

  3. Developing Partnerships between Higher Education Faculty, K-12 Science Teachers, and School Administrators via MSP initiatives: The RITES Model (United States)

    Caulkins, J. L.; Kortz, K. M.; Murray, D. P.


    The Rhode Island Technology Enhanced Science Project (RITES) is a NSF-funded Math and Science Partnership (MSP) project that seeks to improve science education. RITES is, at its core, a unique partnership that fosters relationships between middle and high school science teachers, district and school administrators, higher education (HE) faculty members, and science education researchers. Their common goal is to enhance scientific inquiry, increase classroom technology usage, and improve state level science test scores. In one of the more visible examples of this partnership, middle and high school science teachers work closely with HE science faculty partners to design and teach professional development (PD) workshops. The PD sessions focus on technology-enhanced scientific investigations (e.g. use of probes, online simulations, etc.), exemplify inquiry-based instruction, and relate expert content knowledge. Teachers from these sessions express substantial satisfaction in the program, report increased comfort levels in teaching the presented materials (both via post-workshop surveys), and show significant gains in content knowledge (via pre-post assessments). Other benefits to this kind of partnership, in which K-12 and HE teachers are considered equals, include: 1) K-12 teachers are empowered through interactions with HE faculty and other science teachers in the state; 2) HE instructors become more informed not only about good pedagogical practices, but also practical aspects of teaching science such as engaging students; and 3) the PD sessions tend to be much stronger than ones designed and presented solely by HE scientists, for while HE instructors provide content expertise, K-12 teachers provide expertise in K-12 classroom practice and implementation. Lastly, the partnership is mutually beneficial for the partners involved because both sides learn practical ways to teach science and inquiry at different levels. In addition to HE faculty and K-12 science teacher

  4. Dental caries prevalence in children attending special needs schools in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa. (United States)

    Nqcobo, C B; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Thekiso, M; Joosab, Z


    Anecdotal evidence from clinical data in Johannesburg suggests that there is a high burden of dental caries among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Johannesburg. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and Unmet Treatment Needs in children with cerebral palsy, hearing, learning and mental disabilities attending special needs schools in Johannesburg and to compare these with data from the National Children's Oral Health Survey (NCOHS) METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 882 children attending five special needs schools in Johannesburg. Stratified randomised sampling of the participating schools was done and the schools were stratified by disability. Caries status was recorded via the dmft/DMFT index using WHO criteria and guidelines. The mean age of the participants was 10.5 years; with a caries prevalence of 27.55% and 33.56% in the primary and permanent dentition respectively. The highest unmet treatment need of 100% was found in the permanent dentition of the hearing impaired group followed by 90.77% in the primary dentition of the cerebral palsy group. In general no significant difference was found when the dmft/DMFT for CSHCN and NCOHS were compared except in the hearing impaired age groups four to five and six (both primary dentition) where significantly higher dmft scores (3.58 vs. 2.4; 3.85 vs. 2.9; p special health care needs had lower caries prevalence compared with the general population and higher unmet treatment needs regardless of the type of disability.

  5. What do faculty feel about teaching in this school? assessment of medical education environment by teachers. (United States)

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Arifulla, Mohamed; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Gomathi, Kadayam Guruswami


    Faculty members are major stakeholders in curriculum delivery, and positive student learning outcomes can only be expected in an educational environment (EE) conducive to learning. EE experienced by teachers includes all conditions affecting teaching and learning activities. As the EE of teachers indirectly influences the EE of students, assessment of teachers' perceptions of EE can highlight issues affecting student learning. These perceptions can also serve as a valuable tool for identifying faculty development needs. In this study, we have used the Assessment of Medical Education Environment by Teachers (AMEET) inventory as a tool to assess medical teachers' perceptions of the EE. The AMEET inventory was used to assess perceptions regarding various domains of EE by teachers teaching undergraduate students at the College of Medicine, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Median total, domain, and individual statement scores were compared between groups using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Teaching-learning activities, learning atmosphere, collaborative atmosphere, and professional self-perceptions were identified as strengths of the EE while time allocated for various teaching-learning activities, preparedness of students, levels of student stress, learning atmosphere in hospital, and support system for stressed faculty members were areas necessitating improvement. The scores of faculty members teaching in basic medical sciences were found to be significantly higher than those in clinical sciences. The EE of this medical college was generally perceived as being positive by faculty although a few areas of concern were highlighted. Strengths and weaknesses of the EE from the teachers' point of view provide important feedback to curriculum planners, which can be used to improve the working environment of the faculty as well as facilitate a better direction and focus to faculty development programs being planned for the future.

  6. The Impact of Dietary and Tooth-Brushing Habits to Dental Caries of Special School Children with Disability (United States)

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Chun-Chih; Hu, Wen-Chia; Tang, Ru-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te


    The daily oral activities may severely influence oral health of children with disabilities. In this survey, we analyzed the impact of dietary and tooth-brushing habits to dental caries in special school children with disabilities. This cross-sectional survey investigated 535 special school children with disabilities aged 6-12 years, 60.93% males,…

  7. Investigation of musculoskeletal disorders and its related factors in dentists by REBA method among dental clinics faculties in Tehran in 2014

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    Sara Koosha


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Constant dynamic and static activities are considered as the main cause of musculoskeletal problems among dentists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal problems and related factors among dentists in specialized clinics and dental schools in Tehran in 2014 using the REBA method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the dentists from clinics of dental schools in Tehran were selected as individual targets. Nordic anddemopghrphic questionnaire were completed through interview from dentists. In order to assess the musculoskeletal disorders, REBA method (Rapid Entire Body Assessment was used. In this method, positions and postures of the dentists during their work was observed and recorded. Data was analyzed using Regression Logestic test. Results: The obtained results showed that among 100 dentist, 6% were in the very high risk (15-11 for musculoskeletal problems and 17% and 25% were in high-risk (10-8 and average risk (7-4, respectively. Based on the findings from Nordic questionnaire, the most skeletal- muscle travail were related to the neck (60%, lumbar (58% and rear (46% consequently. It seemed that factors such as gender, body mass index (BMI, height, specialty, body posture during the work (standing or sitting, smoking and using the direct or indirect vision, had an impact on the musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion: Findings from the final scoring of REBA showed that a high percentage of dentists were struggling with skeletal- muscle problems and they were in moderate to high range of risk for these type of disorders.

  8. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic. (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe


    More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting.

  9. Job requirements compared to dental school education: impact of a case-based learning curriculum. (United States)

    Keeve, Philip L; Gerhards, Ute; Arnold, Wolfgang A; Zimmer, Stefan; Zöllner, Axel


    Case-based learning (CBL) is suggested as a key educational method of knowledge acquisition to improve dental education. The purpose of this study was to assess graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL)-based curriculum as regards to key competencies required at their professional activity. 407 graduates from a patient-oriented, case-based learning (CBL) dental curriculum who graduated between 1990 and 2006 were eligible for this study. 404 graduates were contacted between 2007 and 2008 to self-assess nine competencies as required at their day-to-day work and as taught in dental school on a 6-point Likert scale. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. To determine whether dental education sufficiently covers the job requirements of physicians, we calculated the mean difference ∆ between the ratings of competencies as required in day-to-day work and as taught in medical school by subtracting those from each other (negative mean difference ∆ indicates deficit; positive mean difference ∆ indicates surplus). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to reveal statistical significance (statistical significance plearning/working" (∆+0.08), whereas "Problem-solving skills" (∆-0.07), "Psycho-social competence" (∆-0.66) and "Business competence" (∆-2.86) needed improvement in the CBL-based curriculum. CBL demonstrated benefits with regard to competencies which were highly required in the job of dentists. Psycho-social and business competence deserve closer attention in future curricular development.

  10. Intervention Research Productivity from 2005 to 2014: Faculty and University Representation in School Psychology Journals (United States)

    Villarreal, Victor; Umaña, Ileana


    The purpose of this study was to identify authors and training programs making the most frequent contributions to intervention research published in six school psychology journals ("School Psychology Review," "School Psychology Quarterly," "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools,"…


    Umer, Muhammad Farooq; Farooq, Umer; Shabbir, Arham; Zofeen, Shumaila; Mujtaba, Hasan; Tahir, Muhammad


    According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5%, 14.3%, and 45.9% respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p calculus (p calculus (p dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p calculus, and dental caries in primary (p dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p < 0.01) in children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores.

  12. Effective admissions practices to achieve greater student diversity in dental schools. (United States)

    Price, Shelia S; Grant-Mills, Donna


    In this chapter we describe the institutional and policy-level strategies that dental schools in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program used to modify their admissions practices to increase the diversity of their student bodies. Schools developed and used clear statements recognizing the value of diversity. They incorporated recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings regarding educational diversity into their revised admissions practices; these rulings cited diversity as both a "compelling interest" and its use in only "narrowly tailored" circumstances. We make a case for admissions decisions based on a comprehensive evaluation that balances the quantitative and qualitative qualities of a candidate. It refutes the practice of overreliance on standardized tests by detailing the whole-file review process to measure merit and professional promise. Also described is a range of noncognitive variables (e.g., leadership, ability to sustain academic achievement with competing priorities, volunteerism, communication, social background, and disadvantaged status) that schools can take into consideration in admissions decisions. Admissions committees can tie this comprehensive review of candidates into the case for promoting cross-cultural understanding and enhanced competence to provide care to patients from diverse backgrounds. In addition, the chapter reviews the challenges schools face in developing admissions policies and procedures that reflect the university's mission for diversity. It addresses the importance of a diverse composition of the admissions committee. It also describes how tailored workshops and technical assistance for admissions committees can help schools improve their student diversity and how admissions committees can engage in a process of periodic review of their diversity objectives in relationship to the school's mission.

  13. Use of social media by dental educators. (United States)

    Arnett, M R; Loewen, J M; Romito, L M


    Social networking applications have become an established means of communication; applications that did not exist ten years ago are now used daily. Social media can be used for a myriad of reasons including instructional tools to supplement learning. This project was designed to assess the usage of social media applications by dental school faculty members and identify the types of accounts they prefer. Four hundred forty-three full-time dental and dental hygiene faculty members from five U.S. dental schools were invited to complete a twelve-item online survey regarding their social media usage. The response rate was 50 percent (n=221). Of the respondents, nearly half were dentists, and 62 percent were ≥51 years of age. Facebook was the most popular social network, reportedly used by 111 respondents. The most often reported frequency of use was weekly (20.4 percent, n=221); users indicated utilizing a network primarily for personal rather than professional purposes. However, 37 percent of the respondents reported not using any social media. The most frequently cited barriers to the use of social media were time (48 percent) and privacy concerns (48 percent). Although few would dispute the influence social media has on today's students, the suitability and appropriateness of social media technology and its integration into dental curricula require further evaluation.

  14. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children. (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A


    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  15. Recent admissions trends at UNLV-SDM: perspectives on recruitment of female and minority students at a new dental school. (United States)

    Sewell, Jeremy; Hawley, Nathan; Kingsley, Karl; O'Malley, Susan; Ancajas, Christine C


    As the U.S. population continues to become more diverse, there has been a movement toward the recruitment of more diverse students into the dental profession. The purpose of this study was to assess the current and historical trends in diversity among dental school applicants and enrollees at a new dental institution, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Dental Medicine (UNLV-SDM). Applicant and enrollment data for the first four cohorts, sorted by gender and ethnicity, were retrieved and summarized by the Office of Admissions and Student Affairs at UNLV-SDM. The principal findings of this analysis revealed enrollment of females at UNLV-SDM was relatively consistent during this time interval, although significantly lower than the U.S. average of all dental schools. The enrollment of minorities at UNLV-SDM, however, was consistent and comparable to the U.S. average, although these percentages were disproportionately smaller than the percentage of minorities in the general population. Based upon these findings, a new model for outreach and recruitment of females and minorities was recently created, based in part upon evidence of successful strategies by dental educators at other institutions, in order to increase the enrollment of female and underrepresented minority students.


    Nassar, Usama; Fairbanks, Connor; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Kilistoff, Alan; Easton, Rick


    Comprehensive data on the characteristics and opinions of graduating dental students in Canada are lacking. Specifically, only minimal information is available on graduates' immediate career plans and factors that may influence their decisions regarding these plans. Our aim was to gather such data to allow better understanding of this issue and improve the design of future studies on this topic. The Career Development Committee at the school of dentistry, University of Alberta, designed a short survey to be administered to graduating students over 5 years to gain insight into their immediate career plans and opinions on career services at the school. Preliminary results from 2012-2014 are reported here. With a response rate of close to 90% (n = 99/111), the data reveal considerable differences in immediate career plans between the surveyed students and those in other schools in Canada and the United States. Of the students, 89% were planning to work in a general dental practice and only 9% were planning to enroll in advanced education, including general practice residency training. More research is needed to better understand the factors affecting career path decisions of students.

  17. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts (United States)

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen


    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  18. Present and Future of the E-Learning in Economics Schools and Faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Casasús Estellés


    The data used in the study correspond to those obtained for students of the degree of Tourism and the degree in International Business, two degrees with very different characteristics and that, therefore, reflect a great diversity of the students of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Valencia.

  19. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty (United States)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong


    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  20. Structured student-generated videos for first-year students at a dental school in Malaysia. (United States)

    Omar, Hanan; Khan, Saad A; Toh, Chooi G


    Student-generated videos provide an authentic learning experience for students, enhance motivation and engagement, improve communication skills, and improve collaborative learning skills. This article describes the development and implementation of a student-generated video activity as part of a knowledge, observation, simulation, and experience (KOSE) program at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It also reports the students' perceptions of an activity that introduced first-year dental students (n=44) to clinical scenarios involving patients and dental team aiming to improve professional behavior and communication skills. The learning activity was divided into three phases: preparatory phase, video production phase, and video-watching. Students were organized into five groups and were instructed to generate videos addressing given clinical scenarios. Following the activity, students' perceptions were assessed with a questionnaire. The results showed that 86 percent and 88 percent, respectively, of the students agreed that preparation of the activity enhanced their understanding of the role of dentists in provision of health care and the role of enhanced teamwork. In addition, 86 percent and 75 percent, respectively, agreed that the activity improved their communication and project management skills. Overall, the dental students perceived that the student-generated video activity was a positive experience and enabled them to play the major role in driving their learning process.

  1. Validity of Peer Evaluation for Team-Based Learning in a Dental School in Japan. (United States)

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Hayama, Rika; Omoto, Katsuhiro; Okura, Kazuo; Tajima, Toyoko; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Hosoki, Maki; Ueda, Mayu; Inoue, Miho; Rodis, Omar Marianito Maningo; Matsuka, Yoshizo


    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of peer evaluation for team-based learning (TBL) classes in dental education in comparison with the term-end examination records and TBL class scores. Examination and TBL class records of 256 third- and fourth-year dental students in six fixed prosthodontics courses from 2013 to 2015 in one dental school in Japan were investigated. Results of the term-end examination during those courses, individual readiness assurance test (IRAT), group readiness assurance test (GRAT), group assignment projects (GAP), and peer evaluation of group members in TBL classes were collected. Significant positive correlations were found between all combinations of peer evaluation, IRAT, and term-end examination. Individual scores also showed a positive correlation with group score (total of GRAT and GAP). From the investigation of the correlations in the six courses, significant positive correlations between peer evaluation and individual score were found in four of the six courses. In this study, peer evaluation seemed to be a valid index for learning performance in TBL classes. To verify the effectiveness of peer evaluation, all students have to realize the significance of scoring the team member's performance. Clear criteria and detailed instruction for appropriate evaluation are also required.

  2. Teaching with technology: learning outcomes for a combined dental and dental hygiene online hybrid oral histology course. (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R


    Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.

  3. Students' perceptions of effective learning experiences in dental school: a qualitative study using a critical incident technique. (United States)

    Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen; Hogan, Sarah


    Students' views of their educational experience can be an important source of information for curriculum assessment. Although quantitative methods, particularly surveys, are frequently used to gather such data, fewer studies have employed qualitative methods to examine students' dental education experiences. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of effective learning experiences in dental school using a qualitative method. All third-year (seventy) and fourth-year (seventy) dental students enrolled in one midwestern dental school were invited to participate. Fifty-three dental students (thirty-five male and eighteen female; thirty-two third-year and twenty-one fourth-year) were interviewed using a critical incident interview technique. Each student was asked to describe a specific, particularly effective learning incident that he or she had experienced in dental school and a specific, particularly ineffective learning incident, for comparison. Each interview was audiotaped. Students were assured that only the interviewer and one additional researcher would have access to the tapes. Data analysis resulted in identification of key themes in the data describing characteristics of effective learning experiences. The following characteristics of effective learning experiences were identified: 1) instructor characteristics (personal qualities, "checking-in" with students, and an interactive style); 2) characteristics of the learning process (focus on the "big picture," modeling and demonstrations, opportunities to apply new knowledge, high-quality feedback, focus, specificity and relevance, and peer interactions); and 3) learning environment (culture of the learning environment, technology). Common themes emerged across a wide variety of learning incidents. Although additional research is needed, the characteristics of effective learning experiences identified in this study may have implications for individual course design and for the dental school

  4. Prevalence of Dental Implants and Evaluation of Peri-implant Bone Levels in Patients Presenting to a Dental School: A Radiographic Cross-Sectional 2-Year Study. (United States)

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Mau, Lian Ping; Schoolfield, John; Guest, Gary F; Cochran, David L

    To evaluate the number of patients with dental implants who present to a dental school clinic for screening and to report the prevalence of peri-implant bone level change detected on digital panoramic radiographs of those subjects. Patient screening files for 9,422 patients over a 2-year period were examined to see how many patients presented with dental implants. Those patients with at least one implant were further evaluated by measuring the bone level on the mesial and distal sides of the implant using the screening radiograph. A total of 187 patients (2%) had at least one implant. In regard to implants, 423 were examined and 146 (33%) had no detectable bone loss defined as bone level below the top of the implant. When thresholds of bone loss were evaluated, 109 implants (25%) had ≥ 2 mm of bone loss on either the mesial or distal sides or both. The median bone loss was 1.74 mm for the 277 implants with detectable bone loss and 2.97 mm for the 109 implants that had ≥ 2 mm bone loss. Interestingly, patients who were ≥ 70 years of age had significantly (P = .03) more bone loss in the mandible compared with the maxilla, while patients who were 60 to 69 years of age had significantly greater loss in the maxilla. These data reveal that for patients presenting to the dental school for a screening over a 2-year period, 1.98% had one or more dental implants. Furthermore, those patients with implants had a minimum amount of bone loss as measured from the top of the implant.

  5. Determination of prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its relationship with dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, U.; Hosein, T.; Fauzia, Q.


    Objective: To determine the frequency of dental erosion in 12-14 years school children and its association with dietary habits. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, from January to June 2010. Methodology: School children aged between 12 - 14 years were included in this study. Dental erosion was detected by visual examination. Aself-developed questionnaire was used to assess the dietary habits of children. Acidic diet was considered a diet that has an acidic pH. The amount of consumption of acidic drinks and food per week was categorized into low consumption (1 - 7 times / week) and medium consumption (8 - 21 times / week). Chi-square test was applied to see any statistical difference between diet and tooth erosion at 95 percent CI. Results: The Results showed a high frequency of (46 percent) dental erosion in children, which was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in children with more acidic diet. Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of dietary habits on the prevalence of dental erosion in children. Acidic diets need to be controlled in frequency to prevent dental erosion. (author)

  6. Analysis of health behaviour change interventions for preventing dental caries delivered in primary schools. (United States)

    Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M


    To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Student apathy for classroom learning and need of repositioning in present andragogy in Indian dental schools. (United States)

    Dable, Rajani A; Pawar, Babita R; Gade, Jaykumar R; Anandan, Prasanth M; Nazirkar, Girish S; Karani, Jyoti T


    In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy), which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90%) and students (93.25%) feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%). P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.

  8. Student apathy for classroom learning and need of repositioning in present andragogy in Indian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dable Rajani A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the world of technology, when today's student is approaching the on-line /distance learning in the open universities and doing on-line self-assessment, the classroom learning is vanishing slowly. Globally, teachers are taking efforts to improve the pedagogy by implementing effective methods to retain the classroom teaching and student attendance. The present study aims at shedding some light on the need of changing the adult education strategies (andragogy, which can effectively improve the student attendance for lectures. Methods It is an observational study, and the conceptual framework of it is based on beliefs, opinions and personal experiences of the respondents. Triangulation method is used for collecting the data. The data is achieved from three groups of concerned population who could provide valid results to support the study. It is collected by interviewing 10 senior faculty members who are/were the 'education experts' in the universities, while the main concerned groups of present educational stream, i.e. 'institution-teachers' and the 'students', were given questionnaires. 570 teacher respondents and 200 student respondents are the main participants of this study. Results As per data, it has been observed that senior faculty (90% and students (93.25% feel need of student motivation more than the institutional teachers (52.44%. P-values were obtained using Chi-Square test for testing the significance of difference between agreement and disagreement for a specific question. Conclusions In India, Universities have already sensed the need of 'teacher development programmes'. But teachers in dental colleges, demand more efforts to be taken by universities and managements in this regard and expect better educational policies to give them accessibility to prove themselves.

  9. Common Positioning Errors in Digital Panoramic Radiographies Taken In Mashhad Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherpour


    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was aimed at evaluating common positioning errors on panoramic radiographs taken in the Radiology Department of Mashhad Dental School. Materials and methods: The study sample included 1,990 digital panoramic radiographs taken in the Radiology Department of Mashhad Dental School by a Planmeca Promax (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland, during a 2-year period (2010–2012. All radiographs, according to dentition and sex, were evaluated for positioning errors. Results: There were 1,927 (96.8% panoramic radiographs with one or more errors. While the number of errors in each image varied between one and five, most images had one error (48.4%. The most common error was that the tongue was not in contact with the hard palate (94.8%. "Open lips" was an error not seen in any patients. Conclusions:positioning errors are common in panoramic radiographies. The most common error observed in this study was a failure to place the tongue on the palate. This error and the other errors reported in this study can be reduced by training the technicians and spending little more time for patient positioning and more effective communication with the patients.

  10. Where is Leadership Training Being Taught in U.S. Dental Schools (United States)

    Taichman, Russell S.; Parkinson, Joseph W.


    Leadership is vital in all professions and organizations. Our purpose was to determine where in dental schools leadership is taught, and to what degree it is emphasized so that we could establish a base line from which to generate recommendations for best practices. Therefore we surveyed all US Deans of Academic Affairs in Dental Schools to determine where in the curriculum leadership is taught and emphasized. Our results showed that leadership training is delivered in many different parts of the curriculum, and at various levels. Generally, respondents indicated that leadership education is delivered either in the setting of practice management, community outreach or in public health settings. In some cases, specific training programs are dedicated specifically to leadership development. Thus several models for leadership development were identified showing design and flexibility to address regional and national needs. In the future it would be of value to assess the effectiveness of the different models and whether single or multiple pathways for leadership training are most beneficial. PMID:22659699

  11. Survey of e-learning implementation and faculty support strategies in a cluster of mid-European medical schools. (United States)

    Back, David Alexander; Behringer, Florian; Harms, Tina; Plener, Joachim; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm


    The use of electronic learning formats (e-learning) in medical education is reported mainly from individual specialty perspectives. In this study, we analyzed the implementation level of e-learning formats and the institutional support structures and strategies at an institutional level in a cluster of mid-European medical schools. A 49-item online questionnaire was send to 48 medical schools in Austria, Germany and Switzerland using SurveyMonkey®. Data were collected between February and September of 2013 and analyzed using quantities, statistical and qualitative means. The response rate was 71 %. All schools had implemented e-learning, but mainly as an optional supplement to the curriculum. E-learning involved a wide range of formats across all disciplines. Online learning platforms were used by 97 % of the schools. Full-time e-learning staff was employed by 50 %, and these had a positive and significant effect on the presence of e-learning in the corresponding medical schools. In addition, 81 % offered training programs and qualifications for their teachers and 76 % awarded performance-oriented benefits, with 17 % giving these for e-learning tasks. Realization of e-learning offers was rewarded by 33 %, with 27 % recognizing this as part of the teaching load. 97 % would use curriculum-compatible e-learning tools produced by other faculties. While all participating medical schools used e-learning concepts, this survey revealed also a reasonable support by institutional infrastructure and the importance of staff for the implementation level of e-learning offerings. However, data showed some potential for increasing tangible incentives to motivate teachers to engage in further use of e-learning. Furthermore, the use of individual tools and the distribution of e-learning presentations in various disciplines were quite inhomogeneous. The willingness of the medical schools to cooperate should be capitalized for the future, especially concerning the provision of e

  12. Can the development of new dental caries in Danish schoolchildren be predicted from surveillance data in the School Dental Service?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Berit Anna; Foldspang, Anders


    Background:  Dental screening programmes for Danish children generally target all children, irrespective of their individual caries risk. The standard screening interval is approximately 12 months. A valid systematic screening tool based on routine information sources is however indispensable......, if more selective screening strategies should be developed to target the children at highest risk. Objective:  To estimate the precision with which Danish schoolchildren at high risk for developing dental caries within 1 year can be identified based on information from routine registers. Methods:  Based...... on data from the Danish National Board of Health's Recording System for the Danish Child Dental Services and from the Central Office of Civil Registration, 3705 schoolchildren aged 7–12 years were followed through 1994–1996. Dental health information as of 1994 and changes 1994–1995 were applied...

  13. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education. (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen


    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials."

  14. Teaching atraumatic restorative treatment in U.S. dental schools: a survey of predoctoral pediatric dentistry program directors. (United States)

    Kateeb, Elham T; Warren, John J; Damiano, Peter; Momany, Elizabeth; Kanellis, Michael; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Ansley, Tim


    The International Dental Federation and World Health Organization have promoted the use of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in modern clinical settings worldwide. In the United States, the practice of ART is not believed to be widely used, which may be a result of little attention given to ART training in predoctoral pediatric dentistry curricula in U.S. dental schools. This study investigated the extent of clinical and didactic instruction on ART provided in U.S. dental schools by surveying the predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs in 2010. Of the fifty-seven directors asked to complete the survey, forty-four responded for a response rate of 77 percent. Of these forty-four programs, 66 percent reported providing clinical training on ART, though only 14 percent provide this training often or very often. The types of ART training provided often or very often included interim treatment (18 percent) and single-surface cavities (14 percent) in primary teeth. However, ART was said to be rarely taught as a definitive treatment in permanent teeth (2 percent). Attitude was a major predictor, for clinical training provided and using professional guidelines in treatment decisions were associated with a positive attitude towards ART. These predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs used ART mainly in primary, anterior, and single-surface cavities and as interim treatment. As ART increases access of children to dental care, the incorporation of the ART approach into the curricula of U.S. dental schools should be facilitated by professional organizations.

  15. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to the anterior teeth among three to thirteen-year-old school children of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Govindarajan


    Full Text Available Context: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health. The primary requisite before actively dealing with such problems is to describe the extent, distribution, and associated variables with the specific condition. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of traumatic dental injuries (TDI to anterior teeth among 3 to 13 years old Chidambaram school children. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was collected through a survey form and clinical examination. Materials and Methods: A total of 3200 school children in the age group of 3-13 years were selected from 10 schools of Chidambaram, Tamilnadu. Information concerning sex, age, cause of trauma, number of injured teeth, type of the teeth, lip competence, terminal plane relationship and the molar relationship were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical software EPIINFO (Version 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. In the present study, P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The trauma prevalence in the present study was 10.13%. Children with class I type 2 and mesial step molar relationship exhibited more number of dental injuries. Enamel fracture was the most common injury recorded. Only 3.37% of the children had undergone treatment. Conclusion: The high level of dental trauma and low percentage of children with trauma seeking treatment stresses the need for increased awareness in Chidambaram population.

  16. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India (United States)

    Sukhabogi, JR; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, BRC; Padma, CM; Rani, AS


    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). Results: The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4

  17. Dental caries prevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenous Chepang school children of Nepal. (United States)

    Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush


    Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3-5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5-16 -year-olds attending grade 1-5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Caries prevalence for 5-6 -year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5-6 -year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year

  18. [Management of dental records: an example of the Department of Restorative Dentistry of the School of Odonto-Stomatology in Abidjan]. (United States)

    Assoumou, N M; Gnagne-Agnéro Koffi, N D Y; Avoaka Boni, M C; Adou, J; Adiko, E F


    The patient's file is often mismanaged because of the crowd and the frequency of emergencies caused by pain. The practitioner is worrying about handling it in first place. The objective of this work is to recall the importance of a good management of the dental records and to suggest a charting system. The interest of the dental chart, fundamental part of the patient dental file, is described before developing the implications related to an adequate management. The charting system of the service of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics of Abidjan Dental school is described. It translates the target of a good dental records management, which presents appreciable assets for practitioner, patient and administration.

  19. Long-term effect of intensive prevention on dental health of primary school children by socioeconomic status. (United States)

    Winter, Julia; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Ladda, Annett; Pieper, Klaus


    Children in a German region took part in regular toothbrushing with fluoride gel during their time in primary school after having received a preventive program in kindergarten. The study aimed at determining the dental health of the students as a function of prevention in kindergarten and at school while taking into account their socioeconomic status and other confounders. The subjects were in six groups: groups 1 and 2, intensive prevention in kindergarten with and without fluoride gel at school; groups 3 and 4, basic prevention in kindergarten with and without fluoride gel at school; groups 5 and 6, no organized prevention in kindergarten with and without fluoride gel at school. Two dental examinations were performed for assessing caries experience and calculating caries increment from second grade (7-year-olds) to fourth grade (9-year-olds). A standardized questionnaire was used to record independent variables. To compare caries scores and preventive measures of various subgroups, non-parametric tests and a binary logistic regression analysis were performed. A significant difference was found in the mean decayed, missing, and filled tooth/teeth (DMFT) depending on socioeconomic status (no prevention in kindergarten, fluoride gel at school in children with low SES: DMFT = 0.47 vs. DMFT = 0.18 in children with high SES; p = 0.023). Class-specific differences were no longer visible among children who had taken part in an intensive preventive program combining daily supervised toothbrushing in kindergarten and application of fluoride gel in school. Early prevention, focusing on professionally supported training of toothbrushing in kindergarten and at school, has a positive effect on dental health and is able to reduce class-specific differences in caries distribution. Early training of toothbrushing and fissure sealing of first permanent molars are the most important factors for the dental health of primary school children.

  20. A Collaboration of School Administrators and a University Faculty to Advance School Administrator Practices Using Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond


    Purpose: An appreciative inquiry (AI) collaborative study with 11 school administrators in a highly diverse suburban school district sought to understand if observing and sharing successful school practices/events in a whole group setting led to change in their perceptions, attitudes, and administrative practice. The paper aims to discuss these…

  1. Job dissatisfaction in lecturers in School of Medical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia and Faculty of Medicine Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. (United States)

    Huda, B Z; Rusli, B N; Naing, L; Tengku, M A; Winn, T; Rampal, K G


    Job dissatisfaction in doctors and teachers is known to have direct consequences on the quality of service and teaching for patients and students respectively. A cross-sectional study to assess dissatisfaction in lecturers of School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) was undertaken between August 2001 and May 2002. The original English version of the Job Content Questionnaire (CQ) version 1.7 (revised 1997) by Robert Karasek was self-administered to 73 (response rate 58.4%) and 80 (response rate 41.7%) lecturers in the medical faculties of USM and UKM, respectively. The prevalence of job dissatisfaction in USM and UKM lecturers were 42.6% and 42.9%, respectively; the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Risk factors of job dissatisfaction in USM lecturers were decision authority (pjob demand (pjob dissatisfaction in UKM lecturers were skill discretion (pjob demand (pjob demand was a risk factor of job dissatisfaction in both USM and UKM lecturers; in USM, decision authority was protective, while in UKM, skill discretion was protective against job dissatisfaction.

  2. Perceptions of organizational culture and organizational citizenship by faculty in U.S. colleges and schools of pharmacy. (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Raja, Leela; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia


    (1) Describe perceptions of organizational culture and prevalence of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) among faculty at United States (U.S.) colleges/schools of pharmacy; (2) determine which aspects of those phenomena are strongest and which are most problematic; (3) evaluate the psychometric properties of measures for organizational culture and OCBs in academic pharmacy; and (4) identify any relationships between organizational culture and organizational citizenship among academic pharmacy faculty. A random sample of 600 U.S. academic pharmacists acquired from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy were distributed an email survey through the use of Qualtrics technology. The procedures closely resembled the Total Design Method advocated to maximize survey response, including use of a pre-notification letter, reminders, and a nominal financial inducement. In addition to demographic questions, the survey employed multiple-item measures of organizational culture and OCBs described previously in the literature and derived from Delphi consensus-building procedures. The analysis plan incorporated use of factor and item analyses to evaluate psychometric properties of the measure and elicit the inherent domains comprising these phenomena, along with descriptive statistics to describe facets of organizational culture and OCBs that were most prevalent. A total of 177 responses were delivered. Factor analysis of organizational culture revealed a five-factor solution emphasizing achievement orientation, professionalism, stability, supportiveness, and reflectiveness. OCB domains were along the possibility of faculty being virtuous, disrespectful, sportsmanlike, and benevolent/malevolent. Even while multi-faceted and avoiding a simple typological descriptor, academic pharmacy cultures were reportedly healthy. Sportsmanship, while still somewhat commonly observed, was seen less frequently than other behaviors. The measures demonstrated logical, cogent factor

  3. Raising Cultural Self-Efficacy among Faculty and Staff of a Private Native Hawaiian School System (United States)

    Fong, Randie Kamuela


    The Hawaiian cultural revitalization movement in Hawai`i is an important driver for many Hawaiian organizations as well as educational institutions that serve Native Hawaiians. One such organization is Kamehameha Schools, a private school system founded and endowed by Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop in 1887 to educate Native Hawaiian children. From…

  4. Distance Education Faculty and Librarian Collaboration: Developing Technological Skills of School Librarian Candidates (United States)

    Parrott, Deborah J.; Anderson, Joanna M.


    LibGuides, as a method of creating pathfinders for instruction of information literacy and content management has long been used by academic libraries, but has not been widely used by school libraries. This article describes a collaborative plan between a distance education librarian and a professor of school library media using LibGuides to…

  5. Examining the Transition to a Four-Day School Week and Investigating Post-Change Faculty/Staff Work-Life Balance: A Community College Case Study (United States)

    Cardinale, Nelly


    This single descriptive embedded case study examined the process of implementing a four-day work/school week at a community college and investigated post-change faculty/staff work-life balance. All of the students attending this college live at home. The change was implemented due to state funding shortfalls, increasing college utility expenses…

  6. A qualitative interview study on the positive well-being of medical school faculty in their teaching role: job demands, job resources and role interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. W.; Verberg, C. P. M.; Berkhout, J. J.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.


    Attention for the well-being of medical school faculty is not only important for the prevention of attrition and burnout, but may also boost performance in their tasks in medical education. Positive well-being can be conceptualized as work engagement and this is associated with increased

  7. A qualitative interview study on the positive well-being of medical school faculty in their teaching role : job demands, job resources and role interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J W; Verberg, C P M; Berkhout, J J; Lombarts, M J M H; Scherpbier, A J J A; Jaarsma, A. D. C.


    BACKGROUND: Attention for the well-being of medical school faculty is not only important for the prevention of attrition and burnout, but may also boost performance in their tasks in medical education. Positive well-being can be conceptualized as work engagement and this is associated with increased

  8. The efficacy of treatment performed for temporomandibular joint patients at dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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    Sahebi Majid


    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Temporomandibular joint disorders are common problems among patients referring to dental schools and clinics. However appropriate treatment modalities are performed for the TMD patients in dental school, the results and success rate of these treatments are not studied distinctly. The aims of this study was to determine the treatment performed for temporomandibular patients at the TMJ department of Tehran University dental school in 2010-11 .   Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional trial, 85 TMD patients treated at the TMJ department of Tehran University dental school were examined at least 3 months after the treatments. The patients demographic data ,TMD signs and symptoms and the improvements occurred in TMD disorder were determined (complete, partial and no improvement. The patients satisfaction regarding the treatment results were investigated and data were analyzed regarding the presence of different TMD signs and symptoms before and after the treatment using Mann-Whitney U test .   Results: TMJ pain (35 cases, 42.2%, click (33 cases, 39.8% and muscle tenderness (26 cases, 31.3% were the most prevalent obtained signs and symptoms. The mean age of the patients were 32.3 years old while females were the predominant group (72 cases vs.11 one. 44 individuals (53.0% were treated by splint, 11 ones (13.3% with anterior repositioning splint and 17 individuals (92.5% were managed by physiotherapy plus splint. 65 patients (87.3% were satisfied with the results and 16 ones (19.3% were not. After the treatment, patients with TMJ pain (P0.05 .   Conclusion: The results showed that the treatments presented for the TMD patients at Tehran University dental school were successful and most patients received satisfactory treatment.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of dental caries, gingivitis and calculus deposits in school children of sargodha district, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umer, M.F.; Mujtaba, H.; Tahir, M.


    Background: According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. Results: The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5 percentage, 14.3 percentage, and 45.9 percentage respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p<0.001), gingivitis (p<0.01), and calculus (p<0.05) with the increase in age of children. More children living in urban area were detected with gingivitis (p<0.01), calculus (p<0.01), and dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p<0.05), calculus, and dental caries in primary (p<0.001) and permanent teeth were found higher in those children who were not brushing their teeth. Experience of dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p<0.01) in children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. Conclusions: The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores. (author)

  10. Shisha Smoking Habit among Dental School Students in the United Arab Emirates: Enabling Factors and Barriers

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    Natheer H. Al-Rawi


    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the present study was to assess shisha smoking among dental school students in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE. In addition, the role of suggested barriers and enabling factors in shisha smoking was also evaluated. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, between February and May 2016. The questions were adapted from previously published water pipe smoking studies. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between shisha smoking and sociodemographic characteristics. Relevant questions were further categorized as enabling factors and barriers for shisha smoking. Results. Three enabling questionnaire items related to social environment were significantly associated with an increased risk of being a current smoker. The most powerful is peer pressure (“friends smoke shisha”, which increased the odds ratio of shisha smoking 11.3 times, followed by smoker sibling with increase in odd ratio by 4.52 times, then the belief of social acceptance with increase in odd ratio by 4.31 times. Conclusion. Shisha smoking is a serious problem among university students. Any intervention program in the university curricula should consider teaching students that shisha is no less risky than cigarettes and is addictive.

  11. Students' perceptions of their education on graduation from a dental school in India. (United States)

    Shetty, Vittaldas B; Shirahatti, Ravi V; Pawar, Prakash


    This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing students' perceived learning experience at the time of graduation from a dental school in India. The domains appraised were undergraduate curriculum, student motivation and support services, institutional infrastructure, administrative services, components of teaching-learning programs, confidence level in carrying out specific clinical procedures, career choice, and postgraduate specialty preference after graduation. The authors surveyed forty-five dental interns at the end of their undergraduate course, a 100 percent response rate from the class. The results showed that over 95 percent of the graduates were satisfied with the curriculum and 60 to 95 percent reported that the various components of the teaching-learning process were adequate. Only 42 percent of the students were confident about setting up a practice; 65 percent wished to take a course on general dentistry; and 86 percent wanted to pursue postgraduate study. The principal conclusions were that although the program was satisfactory to the majority of participants, some areas of concern were identified that need improvement.

  12. How do diet and body mass index impact dental caries in Hispanic elementary school children? (United States)

    Creske, Mary; Modeste, Naomi; Hopp, Joyce; Rajaram, Sujatha; Cort, David


    The purpose of this observational study was to examine the association between body mass index and dental caries in Hispanic children. The research evaluated the influences of obesity, diet, parent education level, family acculturation, tooth brushing habits and gender as predictors of childhood caries. One examiner visually screened 177 third grade students from 3 elementary schools located in southern California's Coachella Valley. The children were screened for number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT). Height, weight, age and gender determined their body mass index. Primary caregivers completed a 30-point questionnaire for each participant. Multivariate analyses accessed the association between childhood dental caries and weight status and the influences of the measured variables. Results indicate that those in the obese category had a statistically significant lower rate of DMFT than did children in the healthy weight category. Overweight children showed a higher DMFT than healthy weight children but the results were not statistically significant. Covariates that significantly influenced this association were diet and socioeconomic status. Results from this study provide oral health professionals with baseline data and literature to support development of preventive programs for this population that concurrently address both obesity and oral health issues in scope and design.

  13. Integrated learning in dentistry: baseline data and first evaluation at the Dental School of Basel. (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Schegg, R; Krastl, G; Amato, M; Weiger, R; Walter, C


    Integrated learning modules were introduced and baseline information was collected, in order to identify the expectations regarding e-learning. Furthermore, first formative evaluation of fourth-year dental students was conducted and the experience gained with summative online assessment was reported. Questionnaires designed by Infratest dimap (Berlin, Germany) were distributed to undergraduate students (n = 72) of the School of Dentistry. The fourth-year dental students went through a preliminary evaluation process. An online test was evaluated and compared with a traditional examination. Sixty-three questionnaires were returned. Sixty-five per cent of the students were already familiar with e-learning. All but one student owned at least one personal computer or laptop. Ninety-one per cent of the students expected positive effects from the integration of online modules. Enhanced flexibility regarding time and location as well as comfortable access to learning materials were mentioned most frequently. Ninety per cent of the students expected to achieve better results by finding it easier to understand learning materials produced with multimedia tools. Sixty per cent of the students feared technical complications when using an online platform. The online test was successfully performed. A formative evaluation process demonstrated agreement between expectations and first experiences with e-learning. Most students expect the quality of their studies to improve by implementation of e-learning. Students appreciating regularly updated learning materials particularly emphasise the importance of its visualisation. Online tests might be an option for student's self-performance rating.

  14. Association of caries experience and dental plaque with sociodemographic characteristics in elementary school-aged children: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Bashirian, Saeed; Shirahmadi, Samaneh; Seyedzadeh-Sabounchi, Shabnam; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Vahdatinia, Farshid


    Dental caries among Iranian elementary school children aged 6-12 years continue to rise. To estimate treatment needs and guide health initiatives, current epidemiologic data are required. Such data are currently unavailable for dental health. The purpose of this study was to assess caries experience, dental plaque, and associated factors in elementary school-aged children from Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 988 elementary school children aged 7-12 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Dental caries was studied using the WHO criteria, dental plaque was examined according to O'Leary index. Data on parental education and occupation, living district, dental pain within the past year, and tooth brushing habits under parental supervision were collected through interviews based on questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic and linear regression. The mean (SD) age of the elementary school children was 9.64 (1.73) years. The highest dmft was seen in elementary school children aged 7-8 years 6.53 (4.37) and the highest DMFT and dental plaque was in 12 year olds recorded as 1.17 (1.77) and 51.97 (25.86), respectively. The proportion of decayed teeth in 7 years old elementary school based on dmft index was 80.36%, moreover, the proportion in 12 years old elementary school was 40.17% based on the DMFT index. Age, gender, and dental pain within the past year were significantly associated with DMFT and dmft. The odds of developing dental caries (DMFT) was 1.70 times higher in girls than in boys (p elementary school children in Hamadan were high and they were influenced by their sociodemographic factors. The associations found can be used as a helpful guide for planning accurate preventive programs for elementary school children in this region.

  15. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo


    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  16. A Study of Visible Tattoos in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs. (United States)

    Search, Kathryn R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle B; Arndt, Aaron


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey entry-level dental hygiene program directors in the United States (U.S.) to assess their perceptions of dental hygienists with visible tattoos as well as to determine current policies related to dress codes in U.S. dental hygiene programs. Methods: Data was collected with an online survey emailed to 340 dental hygiene program directors yielding a 43% (n=141) response rate. Participants indicated their opinions of visible tattoos on the basis of professionalism and school policy satisfaction. Results: Eighty percent of respondents reported their program as having dress code policies on visible tattoos, with the majority (97%) requiring visible tattoos to be covered. Results revealed both students (M=5.57, phygiene faculty should discuss the impact of visible tattoos on future employment opportunities, and that the community would view the school as less professional if students had visible tattoos (pPersonal tolerance toward tattoos (phygiene program dress code included policy on visible tattoos. Conclusion: Study results showed that visible tattoos were not perceived favorably and that personal perceptions of dental hygiene program directors may have influenced school dress code polices regarding visible tattoos. These findings provide evidence based information for dental hygienists, students, faculty, administrators and hiring managers for formulating policies relating to body art. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  17. Soft skills and dental education. (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z


    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Medical school deans' perceptions of organizational climate: useful indicators for advancement of women faculty and evaluation of a leadership program's impact. (United States)

    Dannels, Sharon; McLaughlin, Jean; Gleason, Katharine A; McDade, Sharon A; Richman, Rosalyn; Morahan, Page S


    The authors surveyed U.S. and Canadian medical school deans regarding organizational climate for faculty, policies affecting faculty, processes deans use for developing faculty leadership, and the impact of the Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) Program for Women. The usable response rate was 58% (n = 83/142). Deans perceived gender equity in organizational climate as neutral, improving, or attained on most items and deficient on four. Only three family-friendly policies/benefits were available at more than 68% of medical schools; several policies specifically designed to increase gender equity were available at fewer than 14%. Women deans reported significantly more frequent use than men (P = .032) of practices used to develop faculty leadership. Deans' impressions regarding the impact of ELAM alumnae on their schools was positive (M = 5.62 out of 7), with those having more fellows reporting greater benefit (P = .01). The deans felt the ELAM program had a very positive influence on its alumnae (M = 6.27) and increased their eligibility for promotion (M = 5.7). This study provides a unique window into the perceptions of medical school deans, important policy leaders at their institutions. Their opinion adds to previous studies of organizational climate focused on faculty perceptions. Deans perceive the organizational climate for women to be improving, but they believe that certain interventions are still needed. Women deans seem more proactive in their use of practices to develop leadership. Finally, deans provide an important third-party judgment for program evaluation of the ELAM leadership intervention, reporting a positive impact on its alumnae and their schools.

  19. Evaluating a Medical School's Climate for Women's Success: Outcomes for Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Promotion. (United States)

    Villablanca, Amparo C; Li, Yueju; Beckett, Laurel A; Howell, Lydia Pleotis


    Women are under-represented in academia. Causative factors include challenges of career-family integration. We evaluated factors reflecting institutional culture (promotion, retention, hiring, and biasing language in promotion letters) as part of an intervention to help shift culture and raise awareness of flexibility policies at the University of California, Davis (UCD). Data on faculty use of family-friendly policies were obtained at baseline, and surveys for policy awareness were conducted pre(2010)/post(2013) an NIH-funded study educational intervention. Data on hires, separations, and promotions were obtained pre(2007-2009, 2234 person-year data points)/post(2010-2012, 2384 person-year data points) intervention and compared by logistic regression and for gender differences. Department promotion letters (53) were also analyzed for biasing language. Policy use was overall low, highest for female assistant professors, and for maternity leave. Awareness significantly increased for all policies postintervention. Promotions decreased, likely because of increases in advancement deferrals or tenure clock extensions. Pre/postintervention, female and male hires were near parity for assistant professors, but female hires were substantially lower than males for associate (54% less likely, p = 0.03) and full professors (70% less likely, p = 0.002). Once hired, women were no more likely to separate than men. Fewer associate/full professors separated than assistant professors (p = 0.002, p work-life flexibility, an environment in which letters of recommendation show very few biased descriptions, and in which assistant professor hiring is gender equitable. At the same time, a decrease in number of faculty members applying for promotion and an imbalance of men over women at senior hires independent of policy awareness may challenge the assumption that family-friendly policies, while promoting flexibility, also have a positive impact on professional advancement.

  20. Caries risk assessment/treatment programs in U.S. dental schools: an eleven-year follow-up. (United States)

    Yorty, Jack S; Walls, Allan Todd; Wearden, Stanley


    The purpose of this survey was to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk assessment/treatment (CRA/ Tx) programs in U.S. dental schools in 2009 and compare the results to those of the 1998 survey. A survey of U.S. dental schools was conducted in 2009 using the same eleven-question survey instrument as in 1998. Results were analyzed using stratified random sampling and chi-square tests for six of the questions. Additionally, data from the other questions were directly compared. Two questions showed a statistically significant difference: an increase in programs supervised by one school department and the number of schools using CRA as a graduation requirement. Positive changes are occurring in the development of CRA/Tx programs in U.S. dental schools. A wide variety of approaches to teaching this subject, including use of terminology and treatment philosophies, is evident. The evolution of this subject has been slow and varied over the past eleven years. Changing from a mainly surgical approach model to a medical model is occurring, but a more integrated method is needed to clarify terminology, diagnosis, treatment, and communications with researchers, clinicians, teachers, patients, and third-party payers.

  1. Self-directed learning: Status of final-year students and perceptions of selected faculty leadership in a Nigerian medical school – a mixed analysis study

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    T E Nottidge


    Full Text Available Background. Self-directed learning (SDL is the essential mechanism of lifelong learning, which, in turn, is required for medical professionals to maintain competency because of advancing technology and constantly evolving disease care and contexts. Yet, most Nigerian medical schools do not actively promote SDL skills for medical students. Objective. To evaluate the status of SDL behaviour among final-year students, and the perceptions of faculty leadership towards SDL in a Nigerian medical school. Methods. A mixed research method was used, with a survey consisting of a validated Likert-based self-rating scale for SDL (SRSSDL to assess students’ SDL behaviour. Focus group discussions with selected faculty leaders were thematically analysed to assess their perceptions of SDL. Results. The medical students reported moderate SDL behaviour, contrary to faculty, who considered their students’ SDL behaviour to be low. Faculty leadership further defined SDL as the self-motivated student demonstrating initiative in learning under the guidance of teachers, who use interactive forums for teaching. Furthermore, teachers and students should partner towards the goal of ensuring that student learning takes place. Teachers expressed concerns about SDL methods in medical schools owing to the fear that this will require medical students to teach themselves medicine without expert guidance from teachers. Conclusion. This study suggests that final-year students have a low to moderate level of SDL behaviour. The index faculty are willing to develop teacherguided self-motivated learning for their students, rather than strict SDL. Faculty should be concerned about this behaviour and should encourage SDL in such a way that students realise its benefits to become lifelong learners. Further study of the perceptions about self-regulated learning are recommended.

  2. American Dental Association (United States)

    ... CE providers and find CE courses. Commission on Dental Accreditation Explore CODA's role and find accredited schools and programs Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations Learn about the examinations used in licensing ...

  3. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L


    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribut...

  4. Dental students' self-assessment of operative preparations using CAD/CAM: a preliminary analysis. (United States)

    Mays, Keith A; Levine, Eric


    The Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA)'s accreditation standards for dental schools state that "graduates must demonstrate the ability to self-assess." Therefore, dental schools have developed preclinical and clinical self-assessment (SA) protocols aimed at fostering a reflective process. This study comparing students' visual SA with students' digital SA and with faculty assessment was designed to test the hypothesis that higher agreement would occur when utilizing a digital evaluation. Twenty-five first-year dental students at one dental school participated by preparing a mesial occlusal preparation on tooth #30 and performing both types of SAs. A faculty evaluation was then performed both visually and digitally using the same evaluation criteria. The Kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between evaluators. The results showed statistically significant moderate agreement between the faculty visual and faculty digital modes of evaluation for occlusal shape (K=0.507, p=0.002), proximal shape (K=0.564, p=0.001), orientation (K=0.425, p=0.001), and definition (K=0.480, p=0.001). There was slight to poor agreement between the student visual and faculty visual assessment, except for preparation orientation occlusal shape (K=0.164, p=0.022), proximal shape (K=-0.227, p=0.032), orientation (K=0.253, p=0.041), and definition (K=-0.027, p=0.824). This study showed that the students had challenges in self-assessing even when using CAD/CAM and the digital assessment did not improve the amount of student/faculty agreement.

  5. Caries y pérdida dental en estudiantes preuniversitarios mexicanos Dental decay and tooth loss at the high school level in Mexican students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de la Fuente-Hernández


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Conocer la prevalencia de caries y pérdida dental para calcular las necesidades terapéuticas en estudiantes de educación media superior que ingresan a la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo en el que se obtuvo una muestra de 77 191 estudiantes correspondientes a las generaciones de ingreso al bachillerato 2003, 2004 y 2005. Los datos de salud bucal se obtuvieron a partir del índice CPOD incluido en el Examen Médico Automatizado (EMA, instrumento de autorrespuesta estandarizado que aplica la Dirección General de Servicios Médicos (DGSM. El análisis del EMA fue univariado con la finalidad de identificar la distribución y la frecuencia de las variables. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de caries y pérdida dental fue de 48.0 y 34.2%, respectivamente, con una cuantificación del índice CPOD de 5. Las necesidades de tratamiento para caries y pérdida dental se obtuvieron en al menos un diente por estudiante. CONCLUSIONES: Cerca de la mitad de los alumnos que ingresan al bachillerato de la UNAM requiere al menos la atención de una caries o prótesis dental. Lo anterior evidencia que las políticas en salud bucal instrumentadas no han alcanzado los índices en salud esperados en relación con los objetivos internacionales, así como la necesidad de impulsar nuevas líneas de investigación orientadas a identificar la gravedad de la enfermedad y factores vinculados con el deterioro de la salud bucal.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dental decay and tooth loss, and to consider the treatment needs for students at the Mexican National Autonomous University (UNAM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was designed including 77 191 students corresponding to the years of entrance to high school 2003, 2004 and 2005. Oral health data were obtained from the DMF-T index included in the Automatized Medical Exam (AME, a student self-answer instrument

  6. Caries With Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-year School Children In Moderate-fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, E.; Vichayanrat, T.; Satitvipawee, P.


    Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: A total of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Result: Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2 percent) with mean DMFT 0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6 percent of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5 percent). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Conclusion: Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries. (author)

  7. Management Practices of Cats Owned by Faculty, Staff, and Students at Two Midwest Veterinary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella


    Full Text Available Understanding cat owners’ housing, care, and management practices is important for promoting cat welfare. A survey study was conducted on the housing and management practices used for cats by students, faculty, and staff of The Ohio State University and Purdue University veterinary colleges. Subjects were 138 cat-owner dyads. Most cats (74% were housed strictly indoors in keeping with common US veterinary recommendations. However, many did not implement best practices outlined for behavior and other welfare needs of indoor cats. The percentage of respondents placing resources where cats could be disrupted while using them was 31%, 53%, and 30% for resting areas, food/water dishes, and litter boxes, respectively. Many cats were not provided a litter box in a private area (35%, in multiple areas of the house (51%, or that was regularly washed (73%. Horizontal scratching opportunities were not provided to 38% of cats; 32% were not provided toys that mimic prey and 91% of cats were fed a diet consisting of >75% dry food. These findings suggest a need for more concerted efforts to educate owners about meeting their cats’ welfare needs so as to attenuate risks and improve cat physical and behavioral welfare outcomes.

  8. Art Integration as School Culture Change: A Cultural Ecosystem Approach to Faculty Development (United States)

    Charland, William


    While much has been written about arts integration theory, and the various benefits of visual art in the curriculum, the literature is sparse regarding arts integration implementation, and the personal, professional, and school culture barriers to the persistence and dissemination of such interventions. Successful educational interventions are…

  9. The Perceived Relevance and Efficacy of a Graduate School Journal among Graduate Faculty and Training Directors (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M.; Antonius, Daniel; Brown, Adam D.; Kriss, Alexander; Lehr, Evangeline Y. C.; Evans, Jason; Steele, Howard


    A total of 35 psychology department members from 21 universities assessed the relevance and efficacy of the "New School Psychology Bulletin" ("NSPB"), a graduate student journal, to training in psychology. Overall, a small sample of psychology department members viewed "NSPB" as an effective vehicle for student training. Perceptions among faculty…

  10. Should Accountancy Schools and Departments Adopt Theory Z for Their Faculties? (United States)

    Rayburn, L. Gayle


    A study to determine if there are features within Japanese organizations that could be adapted to improve organization and working relations of schools of accountancy found university departments could not function with the job rotation found in Japanese organizations. However, there are other aspects of Theory Z management that could be adopted…

  11. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin


    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  12. Comparison of graduate-entry and direct school leaver student performance on an applied dental knowledge test. (United States)

    Ali, K; Zahra, D; Tredwin, C


    To compare the academic performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers in an undergraduate dental programme. This study examined the results of students in applied dental knowledge (ADK) progress tests conducted during two academic years. A mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers. ADK was treated as a repeated measures variable, and the outcome variable of interest was percentage score on the ADK. The results show statistically significant main effects for ADK [F (1,113) = 61.58, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.35], Cohort [F (1,113) = 88.57, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.44] and Entry [F (1,113) = 11.31, P = 0.001, η 2 p = 0.09]. That is, students do better on each subsequent test (main effect of ADK), students in later years of the programme perform better than those in earlier years (main effect of cohort), and graduate-entry students outperform direct school leavers. This is the first study to explore the differences in the academic performance of graduate-entry and direct school leavers in an undergraduate dental programme. The results show that the academic performance of graduate students was better than the direct school leavers in years 2 and 3. Further research is required to compare the performance of students longitudinally across the entire duration of undergraduate dental programmes and evaluate whether this difference persists throughout. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Caring for Kids Is Fighting Back by Giving Kids the Dental Care They Need at School. This Is How It Works... (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Public Health and Health Services.

    For more than 30 years, school-based health centers have been making an important difference in the health of millions of children by providing an array of medical and other health services at school. This brochure addresses school-based dental care as part of the Caring for Kids program, a multi-site grant program funded through the Robert Wood…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ortega-Díaz


    Full Text Available One of the policies in mainstream schools is the creation of academic bodies that promote the generation and application of knowledge to improve the quality of teacher education, which is why it is necessary to assess and analyze the experience in creating bodies academics in the State of Mexico, for this purpose a qualitative research on the phenomenological approach is performed in a case study, carried out in-depth interviews and surveys to a group of teachers. Among the results the complexity living normal for research processes unlike other IES schools observed, however the commitment of CA seen as an epistemic community affects the continuous improvement in the processes of initial teacher training education Basic.

  15. Periodontal and systemic diseases among Swedish dental school patients - a retrospective register study. (United States)

    Marjanovic, Marija; Buhlin, Kåre


    To investigate if patients with periodontitis attending the Dental School in Huddinge, Sweden presented with more signs of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases, compared to healthy and gingivitis patients. In this retrospective study, dental charts were examined where the periodontal diagnoses of patients were known. A total of 325 patients with severe periodontitis and 149 patients without periodontitis, born 1928 to 1968, were identified. Diagnosis regarding the systemic diseases was self-reported. Odds ratios for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases were calculated with a logistic regression model that was adjusted for age, gender and smoking. It was observed that more cases of periodontitis were found in older individuals than the controls (61.7 vs 56.2 years; P < 0.001). A total of 44.3% of patients with severe periodontitis also suffered from cardiovascular diseases, 19.1% respiratory diseases and 21.2% from diabetes mellitus. Among the controls, 30.9% had cardiovascular disease, 23.5% suffered from respiratory diseases and 6.7% had diabetes mellitus. Across both groups, hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis. There was a significant association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.86), but not between respiratory diseases and periodontitis (OR= 0.88, CI 0.53-1.47). The risk of diabetes mellitus was greater among those patients with periodontitis (OR= 2.95, CI 1.45- 6.01). This study found that patients with periodontitis presented with more systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus than control patients. However, no association was found between periodontitis and respiratory diseases. At the present time, the reasons for the associations or lack of association are unknown.

  16. A school-wide assessment of social media usage by students in a US dental school. (United States)

    Arnett, M R; Christensen, H L; Nelson, B A


    Social media sites have become an established means of communication due to the exponential growth in number of users across the world and the encouragement of interaction between users through site features. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which Loma Linda University School of Dentistry students use social media accounts, the types of accounts they prefer, their interest in incorporating social media into courses and their perceptions of the usefulness of social media in private practice. In addition, we wanted to determine the degree of student interest in the integration of these social tools into their instruction. One thousand one hundred and sixty-two students from Loma Linda University School of Dentistry were invited by e-mail to complete a confidential 18 item multiple choice survey through The overall response rate was 30% (n = 351) from the pooled response periods; the first in 2011 and the second in 2013. Similar to other studies, Facebook was used by 91% of the School of Dentistry students, and less than half used Google+, Twitter and LinkedIn. Of the respondents, 68% of students reported communicating on social media daily and 80% saw value for practising dentists to operate accounts. Time and privacy concerns were the largest barriers to usage at 16% and 12% respectively. One third of respondents were in favour of the incorporation of social media in their courses.

  17. Lodestar of the Faculty: The Increasingly Important Role of Dean of Faculty (United States)

    Zilian, Fred


    In the tight budget atmosphere of recent years, schools may have chosen to do without a dean of faculty or, at best, to double- hat another middle manager with this responsibility. This is a mistake. That all private schools do not have a dedicated dean of faculty suggests a lack of emphasis on the very component of the school--the faculty--that…

  18. Trends in Financing Dental Education, 2004-05 to 2011-12. (United States)

    Bailit, Howard L; Beazoglou, Tryfon


    This article examines dental school financial trends from 2004-05 to 2011-12, based on data from the American Dental Association (ADA) annual financial survey completed by all U.S. dental schools. For public schools, revenues from tuition and fees increased 68.6%, and state support declined 17.2% over the examined period. For private schools, revenues from tuition and fees increased 38.9%, and university indirect subsidies declined 77.9% over the same period. The major factors affecting dental school expenditures were the number of students and postdoctoral students, faculty practice, and research. The findings suggest that dental schools are now more dependent financially on tuition and fees than in the past. Schools have been able to pass on increases in operating costs to students and specialty postdoctoral students. Now that growth in dentists' incomes is slowing and student debt is at an all-time high, this financing strategy may not be sustainable in the long run. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  19. "You Get Beautiful Teeth Down There": Racial/Ethnic Minority Older Adults' Perspectives on Care at Dental School Clinics. (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Schenkel, Andrew B; Birenz, Shirley; Estrada, Ivette; Metcalf, Sara S; Wolff, Mark S


    To help eliminate reported racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in oral health care, listening to the perspectives of racial/ethnic minority older adults on their experiences with dental school clinics is needed. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican older adults who attend senior centers in upper Manhattan, New York City, regarding the care received at dental school clinics. Focus groups were conducted from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority men and women aged 50 years and older living in upper Manhattan. All of the 24 focus group sessions were digitally audiorecorded and transcribed for analysis. Groups conducted in Spanish were transcribed first in Spanish and then translated into English. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. Seven subthemes were manifest in the data related to these adults' positive experiences with dental school clinics: excellent outcomes and dentists, painless and safe treatment, affordable care, honest and reputable, benefits of student training, accepting and helpful, and recommended by family and friends. Negative experiences centered around four subthemes: multiple visits required for treatment, loss of interpersonal communication due to use of technology, inconvenient location, and perceived stigma with Medicaid. This study provided novel evidence of the largely positive experiences with dental schools of racial/ethnic minority senior center attendees. Interventions targeted at the organization and provider level, including organizational motivation, resources, staff attributes, climate, and teamwork plus payment programs and services, insurance and affordability, and provider- and system-level supports, may improve health care processes and patient experiences of care.

  20. Clinical Teaching of Prosthodontics in Undergraduate Courses in a German Dental School: Patients, Visits, Efforts, and Incentives. (United States)

    Huettig, Fabian; Behrend, Florian


    It is unknown what disadvantages are faced by patients deciding for a prosthodontic treatment by inexperienced students. Commonly, the related extra effort and time are compensated by cost reduction of treatment fees. Thereby, the dental schools subsidize treatments to teach clinical prosthodontics. The aim of this study was to clarify the benefits to patients as well as the efforts of the dental school. Data collected from three courses in a dental school in Germany were patient gender, age, occupation, zip code, number of visits, scope of treatment including costs, financial discount, and remaining copayment. Travel costs were calculated based on zip code. Balance of travel costs and treatment discount was defined as financial benefit. The results showed that 185 patients (95 male) aged 32 to 82 years (median=58) were treated with fixed restorations (FR, n=110), telescopic dentures (TD, n=87), complete dentures (CD, n=17), or other (RD, n=3). The mean number of visits was 11 for FR, 12 for TD, and 9 for CD. Single distance to the clinic ranged from 0.6 to 65 miles (median=12). Total costs of prosthodontics were reduced by 19% on average. The mean financial benefit was 429 USD (median=298, min=-482, max=4025). The financial benefits were found to differ widely, including additional expenditures of patients. Participation, travel burden, and copayment did not depend on age, gender, or occupation. The financial benefit was relativized because students needed at least twice the sessions of a dentist. As a result, the financial efforts of dental schools are significant and compromise a cost-covering education.

  1. Instant Messaging in Dental Education. (United States)

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien


    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  2. An Assessment of Teaching and Learning Practices: A Questionnaire Study for Dental Educators of Karnataka. (United States)

    Meenakshi, S; Raghunath, N; Shreeshyla, H S


    Faculty members of dental institutions are being asked to assume new academic duties for which they have received no formal training. To succeed in new teaching tasks, faculty development through assessment of teaching skills is essential. A Self-Assessment Questionnaire consisting 18 closed-ended questions was sent to various faculty members of dental colleges of Karnataka. A total of 210 faculty members volunteered to participate in the study. The response rate was 69.8%. Data gathered were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 16, Chi-square test, and descriptive statistics. In the present study, 27.3% of participants were unaware of andragogy, 33.3% were unaware of teachers development programs, 44.6% do not obtain student feedback after teaching, 52.6% were unaware of peer review of teaching skills, and 50% were unaware of interprofessional education initiatives. By incorporating teaching and learning skills, dental faculty could acquire competencies and academic credentials to become valuable contributors to the institution. This study emphasizes the areas of improvement in dental school learning environment, based on activation of prior knowledge, elaboration of new learning, learning in context, transfer of learning, and organization of knowledge toward learning.

  3. Aromatherapy benefits autonomic nervous system regulation for elementary school faculty in taiwan. (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Shen, Chuh-Wei


    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P gender variables) and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy.

  4. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ming Chang


    Full Text Available Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P<.001∗∗∗ after application of the aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy.

  5. Aromatherapy Benefits Autonomic Nervous System Regulation for Elementary School Faculty in Taiwan (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Shen, Chuh-Wei


    Workplace stress-related illness is a serious issue, and consequently many stress reduction methods have been investigated. Aromatherapy is especially for populations that work under high stress. Elementary school teachers are a high-stress working population in Taiwan. In this study, fifty-four elementary school teachers were recruited to evaluate aromatherapy performance on stress reduction. Bergamot essential oil was used for aromatherapy spray for 10 minutes. Blood pressure and autonomic nervous system parameters were recorded 5 minutes before and after the application of the aroma spray. Results showed that there were significant decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, LF power percentage, and LF/HF while there were increases in heart rate variability and HF power percentage (P aromatherapy spray. Further analysis was investigated by dividing subjects into three background variables (position variables, age variables, gender variables) and anxiety degree groups. All parameters were significantly different for most subgroups, except for the substitute teachers and the light-anxiety group. Parasympathetic nervous system activation was measured after aromatherapy in this study. It encouraged further study for other stress working population by aromatherapy. PMID:21584196

  6. Dental education in Peru. (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F


    This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.

  7. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries to Anterior Teeth of 12-Year-Old School Children in Kashmir, India. (United States)

    Ain, Tasneem S; Lingesha Telgi, Ravishankar; Sultan, Saima; Tangade, Pradeep; Ravishankar Telgi, Chaitra; Tirth, Amit; Kumar Pal, Sumit; Gowhar, Owais; Tandon, Vaibhav


    Traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth are a significant public health problem, not only because their prevalence is relatively high, but also because they have considerable impact on children's daily lives. Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) cause physical and psychological discomfort, pain and other negative impacts, such as tendency to avoid laughing or smiling, which can affect social relationships. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to anterior teeth among 12-year-old school children in Kashmir, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in private and government schools of India among 1600 schoolchildren aged 12 y