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Sample records for dental pulp tissues

  1. Regenerative medicine in dental and oral tissues: Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality using cell, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies. Purpose. To describe the regenerative capacity of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell. Review. In dentistry, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies develop incredibly and attract great interest, due to the capacity to facilitate innovation in dental material and regeneration of dental and oral tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, periodontal ligament and dental follicle, can be isolated, cultured and differentiated into various cells, so that can be useful for regeneration of dental, nerves, periodontal and bone tissues. Tissue engineering is a technology in reconstructive biology, which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biological mediators to facilitate regeneration or reconstruction of a particular tissue. The multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility, make dental pulp as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. Revitalized dental pulp and continued root development is the focus of regenerative endodontic while biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum is the focus of regenerative periodontic. Conclucion. Dentin-derived morphogens such as BMP are known to be involved in the regulation of odontogenesis. The multipotency and angiogenic capacity of DPSCs as the regenerative capacity of human dentin / pulp complex indicated that dental pulp may contain progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. The human periodontal ligament is a viable alternative source for possible primitive precursors to be used in stem cell therapy.

  2. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  3. Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Tissue Under Oscillatory Shear and Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Burak; Bayrak, Ece; Erisken, Cevat

    2016-06-01

    Availability of material as well as biological properties of native tissues is critical for biomaterial design and synthesis for regenerative engineering. Until recently, selection of biomaterials and biomolecule carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been done randomly or based on experience mainly due to the absence of benchmark data for dental pulp tissue. This study, for the first time, characterizes the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of human dental pulp tissue harvested from wisdom teeth, under oscillatory shear and compression. The results revealed a gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps. Uniaxial compression tests generated peak normal stress and compressive modulus values of 39.1 ± 20.4 kPa and 5.5 ± 2.8 kPa, respectively. Taken collectively, the linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the human dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the better tailoring of biomaterials or biomolecule carriers to be employed in dental pulp regeneration.

  4. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

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    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  6. Human dental pulp stem cells derived from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease demonstrate hepatic-like differentiation.

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    Chen, Y K; Huang, Anderson H C; Chan, Anthony W S; Lin, L M

    2016-06-01

    Reviewing the literature, hepatic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease has not been studied. This study is aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease could possess potential hepatic differentiation. Forty vital extracted teeth with disease recruited for hDPSCs isolation, stem cell characterization and hepatic differentiation were randomly and equally divided into group A (liquid nitrogen-stored dental pulp tissues) and group B (freshly derived dental pulp tissues). Samples of hDPSCs isolated from groups A and B but without hepatic growth factors formed negative controls. A well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cell line was employed as a positive control. All the isolated hDPSCs from groups A and B showed hepatic-like differentiation with morphological change from a spindle-shaped to a polygonal shape and normal karyotype. Differentiated hDPSCs and the positive control expressed hepatic metabolic function genes and liver-specific genes. Glycogen storage of differentiated hDPSCs was noted from day 7 of differentiation-medium culture. Positive immunofluorescence staining of low-density lipoprotein and albumin was observed from day 14 of differentiation-medium culture; urea production in the medium was noted from week 6. No hepatic differentiation was observed for any of the samples of the negative controls. We not only demonstrated the feasibility of hepatic-like differentiation of hDPSCs from cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of vital extracted teeth with disease but also indicated that the differentiated cells possessed normal karyotype and were functionally close to normal hepatic-like cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  8. Biomimetic extracellular matrix mediated somatic stem cell differentiation: applications in dental pulp tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most widely prevalent infectious diseases in the world. It affects more than half of the world's population. The current treatment for necrotic dental pulp tissue arising from dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality making it prone for secondary infections. Over the past decade, several tissue-engineering approaches have attempted regeneration of the dental pulp tissue. Although several studies have highlighted the potential of dental stem cells, none have transitioned into a clinical setting owing to limited availability of dental stem cells and the need for growth factor delivery systems. Our strategy is to utilize the intact ECM of pulp cells to drive lineage specific differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. From a clinical perspective, pulp ECM scaffolds can be generated using cell lines and patient specific somatic stem cells can be used for regeneration. Our published results have shown the feasibility of using pulp ECM scaffolds for odontogenic differentiation of non-dental mesenchymal cells. This focused review discusses the issues surrounding dental pulp tissue regeneration and the potential of our strategy to overcome these issues. PMID:25954205

  9. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Pulp Tissues Obtained from Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekfar, Azin; Valli, Kusum S; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are becoming an attractive target for therapeutic purposes because of their neural crest origin and propensity. Although DPSCs can be successfully cryopreserved, there are hardly any reports on cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues obtained from teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment and isolation and characterization of DPSCs from such cryopreserved pulp. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve the said pulp tissues to propagate and characterize isolated DPSCs. A medium consisting of 90% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used for cryopreservation of pulp tissues. DPSCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved pulp tissues using an enzymatic method. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. DPSC migration and interaction were analyzed with the wound healing assay. Mesenchymal characteristics of DPSCs were verified by flow cytometric analysis of cell surface CD markers. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DPSCs was shown by von Kossa and oil red O staining methods, respectively, and the polymerase chain reaction method. We found no significant difference in CD marker expression and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained from fresh and cryopreserved dental pulp tissue. Our study shows that dental pulp can be successfully cryopreserved without losing normal characteristics and differentiation potential of their DPSCs, thus making them suitable for dental banking and future therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A hyaluronan-based scaffold for the in vitro construction of dental pulp-like tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Piattelli, Adriano; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-03-02

    Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue.

  12. A Hyaluronan-Based Scaffold for the in Vitro Construction of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Ferroni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue.

  13. Suitability of Different Natural and Synthetic Biomaterials for Dental Pulp Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin M; Brandl, Ferdinand P; Kirchhof, Susanne; Widbiller, Matthias; Eidt, Andreas; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Göpferich, Achim; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2018-02-01

    Dental pulp tissue engineering is possible after insertion of pulpal stem cells combined with a scaffold into empty root canals. Commonly used biomaterials are collagen or poly(lactic) acid, which are either difficult to modify or to insert into such a narrow space. New hydrogel scaffolds with bioactive, specifically tailored functions could optimize the conditions for this approach. Different synthetic and natural hydrogels were tested for their suitability to engineer dental pulp. Two functionalized modifications of polyethylene glycol were developed in this study and compared to a self-assembling peptide, as well as to collagen and fibrin. Cell viability of dental pulp stem cells in test materials was assessed over two weeks. Cells in selected test materials laden with dentin-derived growth factors were inserted into human tooth roots and implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. In vitro cell culture exhibited distinct differences between scaffold types, where viability was significantly higher in natural compared to synthetic materials. In vivo experiments showed considerable differences regarding scaffold degradation, soft tissue formation, vascularization, and odontoblast-like cell differentiation. Fibrin appeared most suitable to enable generation of a pulp-like tissue and differentiation of cells into odontoblasts at the cell-dentin interface. In conclusion, natural materials, especially fibrin, proved to be superior compared to synthetic scaffolds regarding cell viability and dental pulp-like tissue formation.

  14. Action of nitric oxide on healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leopoldo Penteado Nucci; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida

    2008-10-01

    Irreversible pulpitis has been associated with pain and an increase in the number of pulp inflammatory cells. Based on the action of nitric oxide (NO) elsewhere, NO may possibly participate in the sensory and autonomic innervation of the dental pulp, and may influence local inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to analyze normal and inflamed human dental pulp for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), as an index of NO system activity. Six non-carious second premolar pulp tissue samples were obtained from young patients who required extractions for orthodontic reasons and six inflamed samples were obtained from symptomatic carious second premolars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Pulp tissue was carefully removed, fixed by immersion in a cold 4% PFA buffered solution for 120 min, rinsed in cold phosphate buffer, and quickly-frozen for cryostat sectioning. Pulp tissue was sectioned perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the tooth at 20 microm and processed for histochemistry. Sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and other sections were subjected to histochemical NADPH-d detection. Results indicated the presence of NADPH reactivity within the pulps of both normal and carious teeth. In the normal teeth NADPH-d activity was detected in a small number of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The inflammatory response of the pulp from carious premolars was detected in connective tissue by the presence of an increased number of fibroblasts, angioblasts and collagen fibers. It was possible to determine the extent of odontoblast reactivity since the odontoblast layer was usually absent in these split-peel preparations. There were no obvious signs of stained pulpal nerve fibers. Overall NADPH-d staining was significantly more intense within inflamed pulp tissues compared to normal healthy samples (Mann-Whitney test, pfunctions of NO in human dental pulp in pathophysiological situations.

  15. Dental pulp stem cells. Biology and use for periodontal tissue engineering.

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    Ashri, Nahid Y; Ajlan, Sumaiah A; Aldahmash, Abdullah M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors.

  16. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

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    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  17. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  18. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and red...

  19. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  20. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  1. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  2. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental p...

  3. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  4. A Novel Strategy to Engineer Pre-Vascularized Full-Length Dental Pulp-like Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athirasala, Avathamsa; Lins, Fernanda; Tahayeri, Anthony; Hinds, Monica; Smith, Anthony J; Sedgley, Christine; Ferracane, Jack; Bertassoni, Luiz E

    2017-06-12

    The requirement for immediate vascularization of engineered dental pulp poses a major hurdle towards successful implementation of pulp regeneration as an effective therapeutic strategy for root canal therapy, especially in adult teeth. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to engineer pre-vascularized, cell-laden hydrogel pulp-like tissue constructs in full-length root canals for dental pulp regeneration. We utilized gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels with tunable physical and mechanical properties to determine the microenvironmental conditions (microstructure, degradation, swelling and elastic modulus) that enhanced viability, spreading and proliferation of encapsulated odontoblast-like cells (OD21), and the formation of endothelial monolayers by endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). GelMA hydrogels with higher polymer concentration (15% w/v) and stiffness enhanced OD21 cell viability, spreading and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell spreading and monolayer formation. We then fabricated pre-vascularized, full-length, dental pulp-like tissue constructs by dispensing OD21 cell-laden GelMA hydrogel prepolymer in root canals of extracted teeth and fabricating 500 µm channels throughout the root canals. ECFCs seeded into the microchannels successfully formed monolayers and underwent angiogenic sprouting within 7 days in culture. In summary, the proposed approach is a simple and effective strategy for engineering of pre-vascularized dental pulp constructs offering potentially beneficial translational outcomes.

  5. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each o...... of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp....... of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type...

  6. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  7. Cell-derived micro-environment helps dental pulp stem cells promote dental pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuexin; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Luo, Xiangyou; Yang, Hefeng; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-10-01

    The function of the dental pulp is closely connected to the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, and ECM has received significant attention due to its biological functions for regulating cells. As such, the interaction between the ECM niche and cells is worth exploring for potential clinical uses. In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-derived ECM (DPM) was prepared through cell culture and decellularization to function as the cell niche, and changes in DPSC behaviour and histological analysis of dental pulp tissue regeneration were evaluated following the DPM culture. DPM promoted the replication of DPSCs and exhibited retention of their mineralization. Then, the DPM-based culture strategy under odontogenic culture medium was further investigated, and the mineralization-related markers showed that DPSCs were regulated towards odontogenic differentiation. Dental pulp-like tissue with well-arranged ECM was harvested after a 2-month subcutaneous implantation in nude mice with DPM application. Additionally, DPSCs cultured on the plastic culture surface showed the up-regulation of mineralization makers in vitro, but there was a disorder in matrix formation and mineralization when the cells were cultured in vivo. DPM-based cultivation could serve as a cell niche and modulate DPSC behaviour, and this method also provided an alternative to harvest tissue-specific ECM and provided a strategy for ECM-cell interaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  9. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Farges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  10. Potential Role of Dentin Sialoprotein by Inducing Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mineralization for Dental Tissue Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentin sialoprotein (DSP is a dentin extracellular matrix protein, a unique marker of dentinogenesis and plays a vital role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin mineralization. Recently, studies have shown that DSP induces differentiation and mineralization of periodontal ligament stem cells and dental papilla mesenchymal cells in vitro and rescues dentin deficiency and increases enamel mineralization in animal models.The hypothesis: DSP as a nature therapeutic agent stimulates dental tissue repair by inducing endogenous dental pulp mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells into odontoblast-like cells to synthesize and to secrete dentin extracellular matrix forming new tertiary dentin as well as to regenerate a functional dentin-pulp complex. As DSP is a nature protein, and clinical procedure for DSP therapy is easy and simple, application of DSP may provide a new avenue for dentists with additional option for the treatment of substantially damaged vital teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Dental caries is the most common dental disease. Deep caries and pulp exposure have been treated by various restorative materials with limited success. One promising approach is dental pulp stem/progenitor-based therapies to regenerate dentin-pulp complex and restore its functions by DSP induction in vivo.

  11. Potential Role of Dentin Sialoprotein by Inducing Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mineralization for Dental Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guo-Hua; Yang, Guo-Bin; Wu, Li-An; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) is a dentin extracellular matrix protein, a unique marker of dentinogenesis and plays a vital role in odontoblast differentiation and dentin mineralization. Recently, studies have shown that DSP induces differentiation and mineralization of periodontal ligament stem cells and dental papilla mesenchymal cells in vitro and rescues dentin deficiency and increases enamel mineralization in animal models. THE HYPOTHESIS: DSP as a nature therapeutic agent stimulates dental tissue repair by inducing endogenous dental pulp mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells into odontoblast-like cells to synthesize and to secrete dentin extracellular matrix forming new tertiary dentin as well as to regenerate a functional dentin-pulp complex. As DSP is a nature protein, and clinical procedure for DSP therapy is easy and simple, application of DSP may provide a new avenue for dentists with additional option for the treatment of substantially damaged vital teeth. EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Dental caries is the most common dental disease. Deep caries and pulp exposure have been treated by various restorative materials with limited success. One promising approach is dental pulp stem/progenitor-based therapies to regenerate dentin-pulp complex and restore its functions by DSP induction in vivo.

  12. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  13. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  14. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  15. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  16. Semaphorin 3A Induces Odontoblastic Phenotype in Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Wada, N; Hasegawa, D; Miyaji, H; Mitarai, H; Tomokiyo, A; Hamano, S; Maeda, H

    2016-10-01

    In cases of pulp exposure due to deep dental caries or severe traumatic injuries, existing pulp-capping materials have a limited ability to reconstruct dentin-pulp complexes and can result in pulpectomy because of their low potentials to accelerate dental pulp cell activities, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic agents has been anticipated for direct pulp capping. Dental pulp tissues are enriched with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, the authors investigated the effects of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on various functions of human DPSCs in vitro and reparative dentin formation in vivo in a rat dental pulp exposure model. Immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of Sema3A and its receptor Nrp1 (neuropilin 1) in rat dental pulp tissue and human DPSC clones. Sema3A induced cell migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. In addition, Sema3A treatment of DPSC clones increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, upregulated expression of the FARP2 gene (FERM, RhoGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 2), and activated Rac1 in DPSC clones. Furthermore, in the rat dental pulp exposure model, Sema3A promoted reparative dentin formation with dentin tubules and a well-aligned odontoblast-like cell layer at the dental pulp exposure site and with novel reparative dentin almost completely covering pulp tissue at 4 wk after direct pulp capping. These findings suggest that Sema3A could play an important role in dentin regeneration via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sema3A might be an alternative agent for direct pulp capping, which requires further study. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  17. The application of lesion sterilization and tissue repair 3Mix-MP for treating rat's dental pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Nugroho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP are three broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are mixed with propylene glycol or macrogol. There is the possibility ofthe healing process that marked proliferation ofnew blood vessels and proliferation offibroblasts in the treatment ofirreversible pulpitis by pulp capping LSTR 3MixMP because of  the principle of the method LSTR 3Mix-MP is to kill bacteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study to prove the effect of LSTR 3Mix-MP on chronic inflammation and the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue in vivo. Methods: Rattus norvegicus anaesthetized by using ketamine and xylazine dissolved in sterile isotonic saline solution (0.2 ml/50gr mm on the upper right thigh. Cavity preparation class I to perforation by using a low speed tapered diamond round bur. In the treatment group, rats were treated 3Mix-MP at a dose of10 mg and then covered with glass ionomer cement for 7 days on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. The control group treated with saline irrigation on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. Rats were killed after seven days, and then made preparations pulp tissue to count the number oflymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, blood vessels, and fibroblasts Results: There is an increase in the average number ofmacrophage cells, plasma, and fibroblasts; and decreased lymphocytes and blood vessels in the treated group exposure LSTR 3Mix-MP. Conclusion:LSTR 3Mix-MP can reduce chronic inflammation process and enhance the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue.

  18. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  19. Microarray evaluation of age-related changes in human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranasi, Michelangelo; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Zizzari, Vincenzo; D'Apolito, Giuseppe; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Salini, Luisa; Stuppia, Liborio; Tetè, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    The dental pulp undergoes age-related changes that could be ascribed to physiological, defensive, or pathological irritant-induced changes. These changes are regulated by pulp cell activity and by a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules, playing important roles in growth regulation, tissue differentiation and organization, formation of calcified tissue, and defense mechanisms and reactions to inflammatory stimuli. The aim of this research was to better understand the genetic changes that underlie the histological modification of the dental pulp in aging. The gene expression profile of the human dental pulp in young and older subjects was compared by RNA microarray analysis that allowed to simultaneously analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes. Data were statistically analyzed by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Semiquantitative and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to confirm the results. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes that were categorized in growth factors, transcription regulators, apoptosis regulators, and genes of the ECM. The comparison analysis showed a high expression level of the biological functions of cell and tissue differentiation, development, and proliferation and of the immune, lymphatic, and hematologic system in young dental pulp, whereas the pathway of apoptosis was highly expressed in older dental pulp. Expression profile analyses of human dental pulp represent a sensible and useful tool for the study of mechanisms involved in differentiation, growth and aging of human dental pulp in physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. Tissue Engineering of Necrotic Dental Pulp of Immature Teeth with Apical Periodontitis in Dogs: Radiographic and Histological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashiry, Eman A; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; El Ashiry, Mahmoud K; Bastawy, Hagar A; El Derwi, Douaa A; Atta, Hazem M

    2018-05-15

    To evaluate tissue engineering technology to regenerate pulp-dentin like tissues in pulp canals of immature necrotic permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs. The study was performed on 36 teeth in 12 dogs. The experiment was carried out using split mouth design. In each dog 3 teeth were selected for implementing the study procedure. Apical periodontitis was induced in Group A and B teeth. Group (A): immature upper left 2 nd permanent incisors that were transplanted with a construct of autologous dental pulp stem cells with growth factors seeded in a chitosn hydrogel scaffold. Group (B): immature upper right 2 nd permanent incisor that received only growth factors with scaffold. A third tooth in each dog was selected randomly for isolation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Both groups were closed with a double coronal seal of white MTA (Mineral trioxide aggregate) and glass ionomer cement. Both groups were monitored radiographically for 4 months and histologically after sacrificing the animals. There was no statistically significant difference in radiographic findings between group (A) and group (B) for healing of radiolucencies, while there was statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) regarding radicular thickening, root lengthening and apical closure. Histologically, group (A) teeth showed regeneration of pulp-dentin like tissue while group (B) teeth did not show any tissue regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells and growth factors incorporated in chitosan hydrogel are able to regenerate pulp-dentine like tissue and help in complete root maturation of non-vital immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs.

  1. Autoradiographic study of 3H-proline incorporation by rat periodontal ligament, gingival connective tissue and dental pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the rat periodontal ligament, the gingival connective tissue and the dental pulp were studied by autoradiography. The rate of 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was 2.8 times higher than by the gingival connective tissue and 5 times higher than by the dental pulp. These differences were significant (p 3 H-proline incorporation by the periodontal ligament was significantly different (p 3 H-proline incorporation. The ratio of the rates of 3 H-proline incorporation by the three tissues did not correlate with the ratio of the cellular densities in the same three tissues. (author)

  2. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Derakhshani, Ali; Kamal-Abadi, Ali Mohammadi; Ebrahimi, Behnam; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2014-03-01

    Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1) digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2) outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3) digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS) in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2. The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  3. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  4. Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Rémi; Mekni, Rania; Levasseur, Anthony; Chabrière, Eric; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Human proteins consisted of conjunctive tissue and blood proteins including IgA immunoglobulins. Four peptides were indicative of three presumable Yersinia pestis proteins detected in 3/8 dental pulp specimens from the plague-positive site but not in the eight dental pulp specimens collected in the plague-negative site. Paleoproteomics applied to the dental pulp is a new and innovative approach to screen ancient individuals for the detection of blood-borne pathogens and host inflammatory response.

  5. Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Human Dental Pulp Tissues Sequentially Differentiate into Definitive Endoderm and Hepatocyte-Like Cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Jin; Kang, Young-Hoon; Shivakumar, Sarath Belame; Bharti, Dinesh; Son, Young-Bum; Choi, Yong-Ho; Park, Won-Uk; Byun, June-Ho; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Park, Bong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    We previously described a novel tissue cryopreservation protocol to enable the safe preservation of various autologous stem cell sources. The present study characterized the stem cells derived from long-term cryopreserved dental pulp tissues (hDPSCs-cryo) and analyzed their differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) and hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) in vitro . Human dental pulp tissues from extracted wisdom teeth were cryopreserved as per a slow freezing tissue cryopreservation protocol for at least a year. Characteristics of hDPSCs-cryo were compared to those of stem cells from fresh dental pulps (hDPSCs-fresh). hDPSCs-cryo were differentiated into DE cells in vitro with Activin A as per the Wnt3a protocol for 6 days. These cells were further differentiated into HLCs in the presence of growth factors until day 30. hDPSCs-fresh and hDPSCs-cryo displayed similar cell growth morphology, cell proliferation rates, and mesenchymal stem cell character. During differentiation into DE and HLCs in vitro , the cells flattened and became polygonal in shape, and finally adopted a hepatocyte-like shape. The differentiated DE cells at day 6 and HLCs at day 30 displayed significantly increased DE- and hepatocyte-specific markers at the mRNA and protein level, respectively. In addition, the differentiated HLCs showed detoxification and glycogen storage capacities, indicating they could share multiple functions with real hepatocytes. These data conclusively show that hPDSCs-cryo derived from long-term cryopreserved dental pulp tissues can be successfully differentiated into DE and functional hepatocytes in vitro . Thus, preservation of dental tissues could provide a valuable source of autologous stem cells for tissue engineering.

  6. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  7. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  8. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Jeon, Mijeong; Song, Je-Seon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Choi, Byung-Jai; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok Jun; DenBesten, Pamela K; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1), leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1) were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  9. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1 digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2 outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3 digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2 . The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results indicated that by the first method a few cell colonies with homogenous morphology were detectable after 4 days, while in the outgrowth method more time was needed (10-12 days to allow sufficient numbers of heterogeneous phenotype stem cells to migrate out of tissue. Interestingly, with the improved third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. Conclusion: This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  10. Influence of different types of light on the response of the pulp tissue in dental bleaching: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Francine; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; de Oliveira Gallinari, Marjorie; Terayama, Amanda Miyuki; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; de Castilho Jacinto, Rogério; Sivieri-Araújo, Gustavo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2018-05-01

    This systematic review (PROSPERO register: CRD42016053140) investigated the influence of different types of light on the pulp tissue during dental bleaching. Two independent authors conducted a systematic search and risk of bias evaluations. An electronic search was undertaken (PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other databases) until May 2017. The population, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICO) question was: "Does the light in dental bleaching change the response of the pulp to the bleaching procedure?" The intervention involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching with light, while the comparison involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching without light. The primary outcome was the inflammation/cytotoxicity observed in pulp after bleaching. Out of 2210 articles found, 12 articles were included in the review; four were in vivo studies (one study in dogs/others in human), and eight were in vitro studies (cell culture/with artificial pulp chamber or not). The light source used was halogen, light-emitting diode (LED), and laser. Only one in vivo study that used heat to simulate light effects showed significant pulp inflammation. Only two in vitro studies demonstrated that light influenced cell metabolism; one using halogen light indicated negative effects, and the other using laser therapy indicated positive effects. Given that animal and in vitro studies have been identified, there remain some limitations for extrapolation to the human situation. Furthermore, different light parameters were used. The effects of dental bleaching on the pulp are not influenced by different types of light, but different light parameters can influence these properties. There is insufficient evidence about the influence of different types of light on inflammation/cytotoxicity of the pulp.

  11. Inhibition of odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by dental resin monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Chul; Zhu, Tingting; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental resin monomers that are leached from the resin matrix due to incomplete polymerization can affect the viability and various functions of oral tissues and cells. In this study, the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were examined. To mimic clinical situations, dental pulp cells were treated with resin monomers for 24?h prior to the analysis of alkaline p...

  12. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor

  13. Hard tissue formation in a porous HA/TCP ceramic scaffold loaded with stromal cells derived from dental pulp and bone marrow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Dolder, J. van den; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ability of hard tissue regeneration of four types of stem cells or precursors under both in vitro and in vivo situations. Primary cultures of rat bone marrow, rat dental pulp, human bone marrow, and human dental pulp cells were seeded onto a porous ceramic

  14. Recruitment of dental pulp cells by dentine and pulp extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether dentine tissue and preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM), and breakdown products, influenced pulp cell migration. Chemotaxis transwell and agarose spot assays demonstrated that both dentine and pulp ECM molecules acted as chemoattractants for primary pulp cells. Chemoattractant activities of dECM and pECM were enhanced when subjected to acid and enzymatic breakdown, respectively. This enhanced activity following physiologically relevant breakdown may be pertinent to the disease environment. Pulp cell migration in response to dental ECMs was dependent on an active rho pathway. Recruited cells exhibited increased stem cell marker expression indicating that dental ECMs and their breakdown products selectively attract progenitor cells that contribute to repair processes. In conclusion, combined these results indicate that ECM molecules contribute to cell recruitment necessary for regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs, the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs, the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs, and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR. The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.

  16. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Kmc; Kırıcı, D Ö; Evcil, M S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens. The specimens were collected during endodontic treatment or by longitudinally grooving and splitting the teeth (if extracted). Catalase activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods and an independent sample t-test assessed the significance of differences between the groups. There was statistically a difference between healthy pulp tissue and inflamed pulp tissue (P catalase activity of healthy group was significantly lower than inflamed pulp groups. The present study has shown that a significant increase in catalase activity is determined in inflamed dental pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp.

  17. Osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells under the influence of three different materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajlan, S. A.; Ashri, N. Y.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regeneration of periodontal tissues is a major goal of periodontal therapy. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) show mesenchymal cell properties with the potential for dental tissue engineering. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are examples of materi......Background: Regeneration of periodontal tissues is a major goal of periodontal therapy. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) show mesenchymal cell properties with the potential for dental tissue engineering. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are examples...

  18. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwinté, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-11-05

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  19. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  20. Comparison of Gingiva, Dental Pulp, and Periodontal Ligament Cells From the Standpoint of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, Koji; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Suda, Hideaki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The specific properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in oral tissues still remain unknown though their existence has been previously reported. We collected gingiva, dental pulp, and periodontal ligament tissues from removed teeth and isolated MSCs. These MSCs were compared in terms of their yields per tooth, surface epitopes, and differentiation potentials by patient-matched analysis. For in vivo calcification analysis, rat gingival and dental pulp cells mounted on β-tricalcium phospateTCP were transplanted into the perivertebral muscle of rats for 6 weeks. Gingival cells and dental pulp cells showed higher yield per tooth than periodontal ligament cells (n=6, ppulp cells expressed MSC markers such as CD44, CD90, and CD166. Gingival and dental pulp cells obtained phenotypes of chondrocytes and adipocytes in vitro. Approximately 60% of the colonies of gingival cells and 40% of the colonies of dental pulp cells were positively stained with alizarin red in vitro, and both gingival and dental pulp cells were calcified in vivo. We clarified properties of MSCs derived from removed teeth. We could obtain a high yield of MSCs with osteogenic potential from gingiva and dental pulp. These results indicate that gingiva and dental pulp are putative cell sources for hard tissue regeneration. PMID:26858852

  1. Histological transformations of the dental pulp as possible indicator of post mortem interval: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricio A; Brizuela, Claudia I; Rodriguez, Ismael A; Muñoz, Samuel; Godoy, Marianela E; Inostroza, Carolina

    2017-10-01

    The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days. The tooth is the hardest organ of the human body, and within is confined dental pulp. The pulp morphology is defined as a lax conjunctive tissue with great sensory innervation, abundant microcirculation and great presence of groups of cell types. The aim of this study is to describe the potential use of pulp post mortem alterations to estimate PMI, using a new methodology that will allow obtainment of pulp tissue to be used for histomorphological analysis. The current study will identify potential histological indicators in dental pulp tissue to estimate PMI in time intervals of 24h, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. This study used 26 teeth from individuals with known PMI of 24h, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months. All samples were manipulated with the new methodology (Carrasco, P. and Inostroza C. inventors; Universidad de los Andes, assignee. Forensic identification, post mortem interval estimation and cause of death determination by recovery of dental tissue. United State patent US 61/826,558 23.05.2013) to extract pulp tissue without the destruction of the tooth. The dental pulp tissues obtained were fixed in formalin for the subsequent generation of histological sections, stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Masson's Trichrome. All sections were observed under an optical microscope using magnifications of 10× and 40×. The microscopic analysis of the samples showed a progressive transformation of the cellular components and fibers of dental pulp along PMI. These results allowed creating a

  2. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  3. Potential dental pulp revascularization and odonto-/osteogenic capacity of a novel transplant combined with dental pulp stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Jin; Zhao, Yin-Hua; Zhao, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nan-Xia; Lv, Xin; Li, Qiang; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zhang, Min

    2015-08-01

    Our aim is to investigate the cytobiological effects of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and to explore the ectopic and orthotopic possibilities of dental pulp revascularization and pulp-dentin complex regeneration along the root canal cavities of the tooth by using a novel tissue-engineered transplant composed of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules. Canine DPSCs were isolated and characterized by assaying their colony-forming ability and by determining their cell surface markers and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential. The biological effects of autologous PRF on DPSCs, including cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and odonto-/osteogenic gene expression, were then investigated and quantified. A novel transplant consisting of cell-sheet fragments of DPSCs and PRF granules was adopted to regenerate pulp-dentin-like tissues in the root canal, both subcutaneously in nude mice and in the roots of canines. PRF promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced the differentiation of DPSCs to odonto-/osteoblastic fates by increasing the expression of the Alp, Dspp, Dmp1 and Bsp genes. Transplantation of the DPSC/PRF construct led both to a favorable regeneration of homogeneous and compact pulp-like tissues with abundantly distributed blood capillaries and to the deposition of regenerated dentin along the intracanal walls at 8 weeks post-operation. Thus, the application of DPSC/PRF tissue constructs might serve as a potential therapy in regenerative endodontics for pulp revitalization or revascularization.

  4. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Keller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  5. Concomitant multipotent and unipotent dental pulp progenitors and their respective contribution to mineralised tissue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dimitrova-Nakov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon in vitro induction or in vivo implantation, the stem cells of the dental pulp display hallmarks of odontoblastic, osteogenic, adipogenic or neuronal cells. However, whether these phenotypes result from genuine multipotent cells or from coexistence of distinct progenitors is still an open question. Furthermore, determining whether a single cell-derived progenitor is capable of undergoing a differentiation cascade leading to tissue repair in situ is important for the development of cell therapy strategies. Three clonal pulp precursor cell lines (A4, C5, H8, established from embryonic ED18 first molars of mouse transgenic for a recombinant plasmid adeno-SV40, were induced to differentiate towards the odonto/osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic programme. Expression of phenotypic markers of each lineage was evaluated by RT-PCR, histochemistry or immunocytochemistry. The clones were implanted into mandibular incisors or calvaria of adult mice. The A4 clone was capable of being recruited towards at least 3 mesodermal lineages in vitro and of contributing to dentin-like or bone formation, in vivo, thus behaving as a multipotent cell. In contrast, the C5 and H8 clones displayed a more restricted potential. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that isolated monopotent and multipotent clones could be distinguished by a differential expression of CD90. Altogether, isolation of these clonal lines allowed demonstrating the coexistence of multipotential and restricted-lineage progenitors in the mouse pulp. These cells may further permit unravelling specificities of the different types of pulp progenitors, hence facilitating the development of cell-based therapies of the dental pulp or other cranio-facial tissues.

  6. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp and follicle tissue of human third molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadegary Z

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: In the last decade, several studies have reported the isolation of stem cell population from different dental sources, while their mesenchymal nature is still controversial. The aim of this study was to isolate stem cells from mature human dental pulp and follicle and to determine their mesenchymal nature before differentiation based on the ISCT (International Society for Cellular Therapy criteria."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, intact human third molars extracted due to prophylactic or orthodontic reasons were collected from patients aged 18-25. After tooth extraction, dental pulp and follicle were stored at 4°C in RPMI 1640 medium containing antibiotics. Dental pulp and follicle were prepared in a sterile condition and digested using an enzyme solution containing 4mg/ml collagenase I and dispase (ratio: 1:1. The cells were then cultivated in α-MEM medium. Passage-3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD34, CD45, CD 73, CD90 and CD105 surface markers."nResults: Dental pulp and follicle were observed to grow in colony forming units, mainly composed of a fibroblast-like cell population. Flow cytometry results showed that dental pulp and follicle are highly positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 (mesenchymal stem cell markers and are negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD34 and CD 45."nConclusion: In this study we were able to successfully confirm that dental pulp and follicle stem cells isolated from permanent third molars have a mesenchymal nature before differentiation. Therefore, these two sources can be considered as an easy accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells for stem cell research and tissue engineering.

  7. Human Dental Pulp-Derived Cells Produce Bone-Like Tissue and Exhibit Bone Cell-Like Responsiveness to Mechanical Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt

    2010-01-01

    and characterize cell lines from human 3rd molar dental pulp tissue to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) are osteogenic and responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. Methods: Human DPCs used for this study were characterized by measuring proliferation....... We also assessed bone formation by DPCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Results: We found that DPCs are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. Implantation of DPCs resulted...... remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for regenerative dentistry, for example mineralized tissue engineering to restore bone defects in relation to periodontitis, periimplantatis and orofacial surgery. Experiments in progress have proven that DPCSs are also useful for assessing...

  8. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase production by human dental pulp stromal cells is enhanced by high density cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Dennis, Caitriona; Yang, Xuebin B; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The cell surface hydrolase tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (also known as MSCA-1) is used to identify a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with high mineralising potential and is found on subsets of cells within the dental pulp. We aim to determine whether TNAP is co-expressed by human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) alongside a range of BMSC markers, whether this is an active form of the enzyme and the effects of culture duration and cell density on its expression. Cells from primary dental pulp and culture expanded hDPSCs expressed TNAP. Subsequent analyses revealed persistent TNAP expression and co-expression with BMSC markers such as CD73 and CD90. Flow cytometry and biochemical assays showed that increased culture durations and cell densities enhanced TNAP expression by hDPSCs. Arresting the hDPSC cell cycle also increased TNAP expression. These data confirm that TNAP is co-expressed by hDPSCs together with other BMSC markers and show that cell density affects TNAP expression levels. We conclude that TNAP is a potentially useful marker for hDPSC selection especially for uses in mineralised tissue regenerative therapies.

  9. A First Step in De Novo Synthesis of a Living Pulp Tissue Replacement Using Dental Pulp MSCs and Tissue Growth Factors, Encapsulated within a Bioinspired Alginate Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoj, Manasi; Zhang, Chengfei; Green, David W

    2015-07-01

    A living, self-supporting pulp tissue replacement in vitro and for transplantation is an attractive yet unmet bioengineering challenge. Our aim is to create 3-dimensional alginate-based microenvironments that replicate the shape of gutta-percha and comprise key elements for the proliferation of progenitor cells and the release of growth factors. An RGD-bearing alginate framework was used to encapsulate dental pulp stem cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a ratio of 1:1. The alginate hydrogel also retained and delivered 2 key growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 and fibroblast growth factor, in a sufficient amount to induce proliferation. A method was then devised to replicate the shape of gutta-percha using RGD alginate within a custom-made mold of thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide. Plugs of alginate containing different permutations of growth factor-based encapsulates were tested and evaluated for viability, proliferation, and release kinetics between 1 and 14 days. According to scanning electron microscopic and confocal microscopic observations, the encapsulated human endothelial cells and dental pulp stem cell distribution were frequent and extensive throughout the length of the construct. There were also high levels of viability in all test environments. Furthermore, cell proliferation was higher in the growth factor-based groups. Growth factor release kinetics also showed significant differences between them. Interestingly, the combination of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor synergize to significantly up-regulate cell proliferation. RGD-alginate scaffolds can be fabricated into shapes to fill the pulp space by simple templating. The addition of dual growth factors to cocultures of stem cells within RGD-alginate scaffolds led to the creation of microenvironments that significantly enhance the proliferation of dental pulp stem cell/human umbilical vein endothelial cell combinations. Copyright

  10. Characterization of stem and progenitor cells in the dental pulp of erupted and unerupted murine molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Aguila, H. Leonardo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Francone, Victor P.; Mina, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years there have been significant advances in the identification of putative stem cells also referred to as “mesenchymal stem cells” (MSC) in dental tissues including the dental pulp. It is thought that MSC in dental pulp share certain similarities with MSC isolated from other tissues. However, cells in dental pulp are still poorly characterized. This study focused on the characterization of progenitor and stem cells in dental pulps of erupted and unerupted mice molars. Our study showed that dental pulps from unerupted molars contain a significant number of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45-, Sca-1+/CD45- and little if any CD45+ cells. Our in vitro functional studies showed that dental pulp cells from unerupted molars displayed extensive osteo-dentinogenic potential but were unable to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dental pulp from erupted molars displayed a reduced number of cells, contained higher percentage of CD45+ and lower percentage of cells expressing CD90+/CD45-, CD117+/CD45- as compared to unerupted molars. In vitro functional assays demonstrated the ability of a small fraction of cells to differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. There was a significant reduction in the osteo-dentinogenic potential of the pulp cells derived from erupted molars compared to unerupted molars. Furthermore, the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of pulp cells from erupted molars was dependent on a long induction period and infrequent. Based on these findings we propose that the dental pulp of the erupted molars contain a small population of multipotent cells, whereas the dental pulp of the unerupted molars does not contain multipotent cells but is enriched in osteo-dentinogenic progenitors engaged in the formation of coronal and radicular odontoblasts. PMID:20193787

  11. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.

  12. Cryopreserved Dental Pulp Tissues of Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Is a Feasible Stem Cell Resource for Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Hoshino, Yoshihiro; Song, Guangtai; Kukita, Toshio; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Shi, Songtao; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been considered to be a promising source for regenerative therapy because they contain unique postnatal stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) with self-renewal capacity, multipotency and immunomodulatory function. However preservation technique of deciduous teeth has not been developed. This study aimed to evaluate that cryopreserved dental pulp tissues of human exfoliated deciduous teeth is a retrievable and practical SHED source for cell-based therapy. SHED isolated from the cryopreserved deciduous pulp tissues for over 2 years (25–30 months) (SHED-Cryo) owned similar stem cell properties including clonogenicity, self-renew, stem cell marker expression, multipotency, in vivo tissue regenerative capacity and in vitro immunomodulatory function to SHED isolated from the fresh tissues (SHED-Fresh). To examine the therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo on immune diseases, SHED-Cryo were intravenously transplanted into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) model MRL/lpr mice. Systemic SHED-Cryo-transplantation improved SLE-like disorders including short lifespan, elevated autoantibody levels and nephritis-like renal dysfunction. SHED-Cryo amended increased interleukin 17-secreting helper T cells in MRL/lpr mice systemically and locally. SHED-Cryo-transplantation was also able to recover osteoporosis bone reduction in long bones of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, SHED-Cryo-mediated tissue engineering induced bone regeneration in critical calvarial bone-defect sites of immunocompromised mice. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-Cryo transplantation on immune and skeletal disorders was similar to that of SHED-Fresh. These data suggest that cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues of deciduous teeth provide a suitable and desirable approach for stem cell-based immune therapy and tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. PMID:23251621

  13. [Changes of dentin, dental pulp and periodontium tissue in tail-suspended rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin-tian; Wen, Ling-ying; Luo, Ya-ning; Hu, Pei-zhen; Jiang, Wei-zhong; Wu, Xing-yu

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the metabolic changes of calcium and phosphorus in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium in tail-suspended rats, and the functions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium. Relative percentage contents of Ca, P in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium were measured with scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum analytical system in 3 groups of rats. The expression of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV were also observed. In the suspension group, the relative percentage content of Ca declined significantly, while P increased slightly. There were no significant differences of Ca, P in alveolar bone. The expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I declined, but the expression of collagen-IV in pulp vessel increased. There were no significant changes of expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen-IV in the vicinity of PDL. After adopting artificial countermeasures, the above expressions restored partly. Weightlessness might cause abnormal mineralization in dentin, and 1.5 G artificial countermeasures could eliminate the above changes of mineral metabolism. The poor mineralization of dentin might be associated with the reduced secretion of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I in tail-suspended rats.

  14. Dental pulp stem cells immobilized in alginate microspheres for applications in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanafi, M M; Ramesh, A; Gupta, P K; Bhonde, R R

    2014-07-01

    To immobilize dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) in alginate microspheres and to determine cell viability, proliferation, stem cell characteristics and osteogenic potential of the immobilized DPSCs. Human DPSCs isolated from the dental pulp were immobilized in 1% w/v alginate microspheres. Viability and proliferation of immobilized DPSCs were determined by trypan blue and MTT assay, respectively. Stem cell characteristics of DPSCs post immobilization were verified by labelling the cells with CD73 and CD90. Osteogenic potential of immobilized DPSCs was assessed by the presence of osteocalcin. Alizarin red staining and O-cresolphthalein complexone method confirmed and quantified calcium deposition. A final reverse transcriptase PCR evaluated the expression of osteogenic markers - ALP, Runx-2 and OCN. More than 80% of immobilized DPSCs were viable throughout the 3-week study. Proliferation appeared controlled and consistent unlike DPSCs in the control group. Presence of CD73 and CD90 markers confirmed the stem cell nature of immobilized DPSCs. The presence of osteocalcin, an osteoblastic marker, was confirmed in the microspheres on day 21. Mineralization assays showed high calcium deposition indicating elevated osteogenic potential of immobilized DPSCs. Osteogenic genes- ALP, Runx-2 and OCN were also upregulated in immobilized DPSCs. Surprisingly, immobilized DPSCs in the control group cultured in conventional stem cell media showed upregulation of osteogenic genes and expressed osteocalcin. Dental pulp stem cells immobilized in alginate hydrogels exhibit enhanced osteogenic potential while maintaining high cell viability both of which are fundamental for bone tissue regeneration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  16. The Experimental Study of the Performance of Nano-Thin Polyelectrolyte Shell for Dental Pulp Stem Cells Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeczkowicz, A; Granicka, L H; Maciejewska, I; Strawski, M; Szklarczyk, M; Borkowska, M

    2015-12-01

    Carious is the most frequent disease of mineralized dental tissues which might result in dental pulp inflammation and mortality. In such cases an endodontic treatment is the only option to prolong tooth functioning in the oral cavity; however, in the cases of severe pulpitis, especially when complicated with periodontal tissue inflammation, the endodontic treatment might not be enough to protect against tooth loss. Thus, keeping the dental pulp viable and/or possibility of the reconstruction of a viable dental pulp complex, appears to become a critical factor for carious and/or pulp inflammation treatment. The nowadays technologies, which allow handling dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), seem to bring us closer to the usage of dental stem cells for tooth tissues reconstruction. Thus, DPSC immobilized within nano-thin polymeric shells, allowing for a diffusion of produced factors and separation from bacteria, may be considered as a cover system supporting technology of dental pulp reconstruction. The DPSC were immobilized using a layer-by-layer technique within nano-thin polymeric shells constructed and modified by nanostructure involvement to ensure the layers stability and integrity as well as separation from bacterial cells. The cytotoxity of the material used for membrane production was assessed on the model of adherent cells. The performance of DPSC nano-coating was assessed in vitro. Membrane coatings showed no cytotoxicity on the immobilized cells. The presence of coating shell was confirmed with flow cytometry, atomic force microscopy and visualized with fluorescent microscopy. The transfer of immobilized DPSC within the membrane system ensuring cells integrity, viability and protection from bacteria should be considered as an alternative method for dental tissues transportation and regeneration.

  17. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  18. Morphological evaluation during in vitro chondrogenesis of dental pulp stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo-Ryung Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim was to confirm the stem cell-like properties of the dental pulp stromal cells and to evaluate the morphologic changes during in vitro chondrogenesis. Materials and Methods Stromal cells were outgrown from the dental pulp tissue of the premolars. Surface markers were investigated and cell proliferation rate was compared to other mesenchymal stem cells. Multipotency of the pulp cells was confirmed by inducing osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. The morphologic changes in the chondrogenic pellet during the 21 day of induction were evaluated under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. TUNEL assay was used to evaluate apoptosis within the chondrogenic pellets. Results Pulp cells were CD90, 105 positive and CD31, 34 negative. They showed similar proliferation rate to other stem cells. Pulp cells differentiated to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic tissues. During chondrogenesis, 3-dimensional pellet was created with multi-layers, hypertrophic chondrocyte-like cells and cartilage-like extracellular matrix. However, cell morphology became irregular and apoptotic cells were increased after 7 day of chondrogenic induction. Conclusions Pulp cells indicated mesenchymal stem cell-like characteristics. During the in vitro chondrogenesis, cellular activity was superior during the earlier phase (within 7 day of differentiation.

  19. Perspectives for Cell-homing Approaches to Engineer Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin M; Widbiller, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Sufficient proof is available today to demonstrate that dental pulp tissue engineering is possible. The body of evidence was generated mainly on cell transplantation; however, because of several severe problems afflicted with this approach, it might not be feasible for a clinical setting in the near future. More recently, cell homing has been proposed as a viable alternative. We suggest a modification of the tissue engineering paradigm, where resident cells are attracted by endogenous, dentin-derived growth factors that further induce cell proliferation and differentiation and a bioactive scaffold material laden with these growth factors that serves as a template for tissue formation. This article highlights the latest developments regarding scaffold materials, stem cells, and dentin-derived growth factors specifically for a cell-homing approach to engineer dental pulp and summarizes new ideas. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Different expressions of connexin 43 and 32 in the fibroblasts of human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, N; Yamaoka, Y; Sawa, Y; Kawasaki, T; Yoshida, S

    2002-06-01

    The expression and localization of gap junctional proteins connexin (Cx) 26, 32, and 43 was examined in human dental pulp. Dental pulp tissues were obtained from human third molars immediately after extraction. Some pulp tissues were used for cell culture, and the rest for histological observations. Immunostaining for cultured dental pulp fibroblasts (DPFs) showed that Cx32 and 43 were expressed in human DPFs, and proteins corresponding to 27 (Cx32) and 43kDa (Cx43) were identified by Western blot analysis. Immunostaining for tissue sections showed that the expression of Cx32 and 43 was observed in the entire region of the pulp and further strong expression of Cx32 was established beneath the cell-rich zone. Considering the close relationship between Cx types and cell functions, the results indicate that DPFs beneath the cell-rich zone may have specific, Cx32-related functions. The cell rich zone is thought to contain progenitor odontoblasts that can be induced to differentiate into mature odontoblasts in response to wounding. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that DPFs just beneath the cell-rich zone produce proteins and induce odontoblast differentiation from the cells in the cell-rich zone.

  1. Transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 inhibits odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serita, Suguru; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Hamano, Sayuri; Sugii, Hideki; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Mizumachi, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Hiromi; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Wada, Naohisa; Maeda, Hidefumi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate transforming growth factor-β-induced gene product-h3 (βig-h3) expression in dental pulp tissue and its effects on odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). A rat direct pulp capping model was prepared using perforated rat upper first molars capped with mineral trioxide aggregate cement. Human DPCs (HDPCs) were isolated from extracted teeth. βig-h3 expression in rat dental pulp tissue and HDPCs was assessed by immunostaining. Mineralization of HDPCs was assessed by Alizarin red-S staining. Odontoblast-related gene expression in HDPCs was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of βig-h3 was detected in rat dental pulp tissue, and attenuated by direct pulp capping, while expression of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was increased in exposed pulp tissue. βig-h3 expression was also detected in HDPCs, with reduced expression during odontoblastic differentiation. The above cytokines reduced βig-h3 expression in HDPCs, and promoted their mineralization. Recombinant βig-h3 inhibited the expression of odontoblast-related genes and mineralization of HDPCs, while knockdown of βig-h3 gene expression promoted the expression of odontoblast-related genes in HDPCs. The present findings suggest that βig-h3 in DPCs may be involved in reparative dentin formation and that its expression is likely to negatively regulate this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pulp regeneration by transplantation of dental pulp stem cells in pulpitis: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Yayoi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Matsushita, Kenji

    2017-03-09

    Experiments have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) for complete pulp regeneration. The aim of the present pilot clinical study is to assess the safety, potential efficacy, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of MDPSCs in pulpectomized teeth. Five patients with irreversible pulpitis were enrolled and monitored for up to 24 weeks following MDPSC transplantation. The MDPSCs were isolated from discarded teeth and expanded based on good manufacturing practice (GMP). The quality of the MDPSCs at passages 9 or 10 was ascertained by karyotype analyses. The MDPSCs were transplanted with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in atelocollagen into pulpectomized teeth. The clinical and laboratory evaluations demonstrated no adverse events or toxicity. The electric pulp test (EPT) of the pulp at 4 weeks demonstrated a robust positive response. The signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the regenerated tissue in the root canal after 24 weeks was similar to that of normal dental pulp in the untreated control. Finally, cone beam computed tomography demonstrated functional dentin formation in three of the five patients. Human MDPSCs are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration in humans in this pilot clinical study.

  3. Putative Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control group) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased group). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased group demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain putative cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426

  4. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethy SP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth,the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAPhave the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4.This multipotential ability of DPSCs is being researched for clinical application for treating a variety of diseases like myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, neuro-degenerative disorders, cartilage replacement, tooth regeneration and for repair of bone defects to mention a few. Moreover, the isolation of stem cells from teeth is minimally invasive, readily accessible and the non immunogenic characteristic of dental stem cells has paved the way for efforts to store the exfoliated deciduous teeth or milk teeth which is usually discarded, for use in the future. In this study we have isolated and expanded in vitro, the cells obtained from human dental pulp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining written informed consent, 24 teeth that were extracted for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons from 16 patients were used in this study. The specimens were transported from the clinic to NCRM lab taking 6 to 48 Hrs. For removal of the pulp tissue, the teeth were split obliquely at the Cementoenamel junction and the pulp tissue was isolated using brooches. The extracted pulp tissues were subjected to digestion using Collagenase type-I and type II at 37˚C for 15- 30 minutes. The digested cells were filtered with 70µm filter and centrifuged at 1800 rpm for 10 minutes. The pellet was then suspended in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM/Ham’s F12 supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum , 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 µg/ml streptomycin,2 m M L -glutamine, and 2 m M nonessential amino

  5. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  6. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Von Böhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  7. Contribution of the Collagen-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans to Bacterial Colonization of Inflamed Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Ogaya, Yuko; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of dental caries. Collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) (approximately 120 kDa), termed Cnm and Cbm, are regarded as important cell surface antigens related to the adherence of S. mutans to collagenous tissue. Furthermore, CBP-positive S. mutans strains are associated with various systemic diseases involving bacteremia, such as infective endocarditis. Endodontic infection is considered to be an important cause of bacteremia, but little is known regarding the presence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissue. In the present study, the distribution and virulence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissues were investigated by focusing on CBPs. Adhesion and invasion properties of various S. mutans strains were analyzed using human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs). CBP-positive strains had a significantly higher rate of adhesion to HDPFs compared with CBP-defective isogenic mutant strains (Ppulp. This could be a possible virulence factor for various systemic diseases.

  8. The Angiogenic Potential of DPSCs and SCAPs in an In Vivo Model of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hilkens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vascularization, a restricting factor for the survival of engineered tissues, is often promoted by the addition of stem cells or the appropriate angiogenic growth factors. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs were applied in an in vivo model of dental pulp regeneration in order to compare their regenerative potential and confirm their previously demonstrated paracrine angiogenic properties. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing DPSCs and/or SCAPs were subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice. After twelve weeks, histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the regeneration of vascularized pulp-like tissue as well as mineralized tissue formation in all stem cell constructs. Despite the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro, the stem cell constructs did not display a higher vascularization rate in comparison to control conditions. Similar results were found after eight weeks, which suggests both osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of the transplanted stem cells and the promotion of angiogenesis in this particular setting. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate the successful formation of vascularized pulp-like tissue in 3D-printed scaffolds containing dental stem cells, emphasizing the promising role of this approach in dental tissue engineering.

  9. Hard tissue deposition in dental pulp canal by {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Toda, T. [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Endodontics; Mandai, Y. [Bio-Chemical Lab. of Nitta Gelatin Inc., Yao (Japan); Oonishi, H. [Osaka Minami National Hospital, Kawachi (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Canal closure by hard tissue proliferation in the pulp canal and/or apical foramen is the most ideal healing after pulp removal. Generally, Ca(OH){sub 2} may induce secondary dentine or dentine-bridge on the amputated pulp surface. However, Ca(OH){sub 2} shows strong alkalinity and may cause severe inflammatory responses in the residual pulp. Moreover, completely formed dentine-bridge at the orifice will disturb further treatment of residual pulp because of the difficulty in localizing the pathway. The purpose of this study was to see hard tissue induction using newly developed {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement and to recognize the morphological difference of hard tissue from that of Ca(OH){sub 2}. (orig.)

  10. [Ru(bipy)3]2+ nanoparticle-incorporate dental light cure resin to promote photobiomodulation therapy for enhanced vital pulp tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Young, Nicholas; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2018-02-01

    The use of nanoparticle on dental light cure resin is not new, currently several compounds (nanoadditives) are used to promote better communication between the restorative material and biological tissues. The interest for this application is growing up to enhance mechanical proprieties to dental tissue cells regeneration. Bioactive nanoparticles and complex compounds with multiple functions are the major target for optimizing the restorative materials. In this work, we incorporate [Ru(bipy)3]2+ nanoparticles, that absorbs energy at 450 nm (blue-light) and emits strongly at 620 nm (red-light), in PLGA Microspheres and insert it in Dental Light Cure Resin to promote the Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBM) effects to accelerate dental pulp repair by in vitro using cytotoxicity and proliferation assay.

  11. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An experimental study on the effect of irradiation on deciduous dental pulp and periodontal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Takehiko

    1986-01-01

    Left mandibular third deciduous molars of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray and the effect on the dental pulp and periodontal membrane was investigated histopathologically. 1. From 3rd to 7th days after irradiation, localized inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in part in the dental pulp tissue. No abnormal findings were observed in the periodontal membrane. 2. On 14th day after irradiation in the coronal dental pulp, cells decreased; karyopycnosis occurred; cells were connected only by cellular processes, and large and small reticular networks were formed. In the periodontal membrane, fibers ran irregularly although in part and findings of atrophy were seen. Fibroblasts showed a decreasing tendency. 3. In the cases from 1 to 2 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue showed marked atrophy of odontoblasts and the dental pulp showed hyalinization-like changes. In the periodontal membrane, Sharpey's fibers ran irregularly or became indistinct, and fibroblasts decreased extensively. The periodontal membrane in general showed hyalinization. 4. In the cases of 4 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue on the whole showed marked atrophy and disappearance of odontoblast layers. In the periodontal membrane, inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in part and membrane fibers, as those in 2nd month, showed marked atrophy, became enlarged, and presented findings of hyalinization. 5. At 8th month, the necleoli nearly disappeared in the pulp tissue from the crown to the root and the cells were connected like filaments by cellular processes. Nearly all the blood vessels and fibers disappeared. In the periodontal membrane, most of Sharpey's fibers disappeared. Fibroblasts showed marked atrophy and disappearance, and few normal fibloblasts could be found. (J.P.N.)

  13. Microarray evaluation of gene expression profiles in inflamed and healthy human dental pulp: the role of IL1beta and CD40 in pulp inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, V; Zizzari, V L; Dd ' Amico, V; Salini, L; D' Aurora, M; Franchi, S; Antonucci, I; Sberna, M T; Gherlone, E; Stuppia, L; Tetè, S

    2012-01-01

    Dental pulp undergoes a number of changes passing from healthy status to inflammation due to deep decay. These changes are regulated by several genes resulting differently expressed in inflamed and healthy dental pulp, and the knowledge of the processes underlying this differential expression is of great relevance in the identification of the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the gene expression profile of inflamed and healthy dental pulps were compared by microarray analysis, and data obtained were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. This analysis allows to focus on a variety of genes, typically expressed in inflamed tissues. The comparison analysis showed an increased expression of several genes in inflamed pulp, among which IL1β and CD40 resulted of particular interest. These results indicate that gene expression profile of human dental pulp in different physiological and pathological conditions may become an useful tool for improving our knowledge about processes regulating pulp inflammation.

  14. Influence of mechanical environment on the engineering of mineralized tissues using human dental pulp stem cells and silk fibroin scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woloszyk, A.; Holsten Dircksen, S.; Bostanci, N.; Müller, R.; Hofmann, S.; Mitsiadis, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells

  15. Bibliographic update work. Dental pulp sensory function. Pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Natanael

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a soft connective tissue type that thanks to its components can fulfill a number of vital functions to the tooth. Within these, the sensory function is of great interest since there is a close relationship between histomolecular tissue changes and clinical manifestations of odontogenic pain. To think about the painful history that the patient reports, knowing the tissue level events, helps to arrive to a correct diagnosis, treatment plan and prognosis. The aim of thi...

  16. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) in rat dental pulp mediates the inflammatory response during pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhai, Shafei; Wang, Haijing; Jia, Qian; Jiang, Wenkai; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Ansheng; Liu, Jun; Ni, Longxing

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the inflammasome has been determined to play an important role in inflammatory diseases. However, the role of the inflammasome in pulpitis remains unclear. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a type of inflammasome that recognizes cytosolic double stranded DNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activating recruiting domain. In this study, we determined whether AIM2 was expressed in pulp cells and defined the role of AIM2 in the initiation of inflammation within the dental pulp. In the in vivo study, the right maxillary molars from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) were exposed to the pulp. In the in vitro study, the pulp cells isolated from the mandibular incisors of the Sprague-Dawley rats (2 weeks) were conventionally cultured. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the expression and distribution of AIM2 in the rat dental pulp tissues and cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory stimulation. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine whether there was a correlation between AIM2 expression levels and inflammation both in vivo and in vitro. In healthy dental pulp tissues and cells, AIM2 was only detected in the odontoblast layer. Stimulation significantly increased AIM2 expression in both the dental pulp tissues and cultured cells. The mRNA and protein levels of AIM2 were significantly up-regulated in response to inflammatory stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we also found that AIM2 expression correlated with interleukin-1 levels. These results reveal a direct relationship between the AIM2 inflammasome and pulpitis. Our study demonstrates that AIM2 is expressed in dental pulp tissues and mediates the inflammatory response during pulpitis. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing AIM2 expression may be beneficial in the treatment of pulpitis. Copyright © 2013 American Association of

  17. Dental Pulp: Correspondences and Contradictions between Clinical and Histological Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuroiu, Cristian Levente; Căruntu, Irina-Draga; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Melian, Anca; Vataman, Maria; Andrian, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp represents a specialized connective tissue enclosed by dentin and enamel, the most highly mineralized tissues of the body. Consequently, the direct examination as well as pathological evaluation of dental pulp is difficult. Within this anatomical context, our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between dental pulp lesions and clinical diagnosis. Pulpectomies were performed for 54 patients with acute and chronic irreversible pulpitides and for 5 patients (control group) with orthodontic extractions. The morphological features were semiquantitatively assessed by specific score values. The clinical and morphological correspondence was noted for 35 cases (68.62%), whereas inconsistency was recorded for 16 cases (31.38%). The results of the statistical analysis revealed the correlations between clinically and pathologically diagnosed acute/chronic pulpitides. No significant differences were established between the score values for inflammatory infiltrate intensity, collagen depositions, calcifications and necrosis, and acute, respectively chronic pulpitides. We also obtained significant differences between acute pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate and calcifications and between chronic pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate, collagen deposition, and calcifications. On the basis of the predominant pathological aspects, namely, acute and chronic pulpitis, we consider that the classification schemes can be simplified by adequately reducing the number of clinical entities. PMID:26078972

  18. Effects of bleaching agents and adhesive systems in dental pulp: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Antonieta Veloso Carvalho de; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Magalhães, Denildo; Biffi, João Carlos Gabrielli

    2012-01-01

    The dental pulp may be exposed to several irritants that are potentially noxious to the health and functions of this tissue. Each type of irritant or injury has different effects on the pulp, which are generally characterized by acute inflammation, chronic inflammation or necrosis. Common examples of irritants are dental caries, cavity preparation procedures, traumatic injuries, and chemical substances like bleaching agents and adhesive systems. The present study aimed to review the current k...

  19. Human dental pulp cell culture and cell transplantation with an alginate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumabe, Shunji; Nakatsuka, Michiko; Kim, Gi-Seup; Jue, Seong-Suk; Aikawa, Fumiko; Shin, Je-Won; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2006-02-01

    Many studies on tissue stem cells have been conducted in the field of regenerative medicine, and some studies have indicated that cultured dental pulp mesenchymal cells secrete dentin matrix. In the present study we used alginate as a scaffold to transplant subcultured human dental pulp cells subcutaneously into the backs of nude mice. We found that when beta-glycerophosphate was added to the culture medium, dentin sialophosphoprotein mRNA coding dentin sialoprotein (DSP) was expressed. An increase in alkaline phosphatase, which is an early marker for odontoblast differentiation, was also demonstrated. At 6 weeks after implantation the subcutaneous formation of radio-opaque calcified bodies was observed in situ. Immunohistochemical and fine structure studies identified expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, and DSP in the mineralizing transplants. Isolated odontoblast-like cells initiated dentin-like hard tissue formation and scattered autolyzing apoptotic cells were also observed in the transplants. The study showed that subcultured dental pulp cells actively differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and induce calcification in an alginate scaffold.

  20. Isolated rat dental pulp cell culture and transplantation with an alginate scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shiro; Kumabe, Shunji; Iwai, Yasutomo

    2006-05-01

    Many studies have been conducted on tissue stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine, and cultured dental pulp mesenchymal cells have been reported to secrete dentin matrix. In the present study we used alginate as a scaffold to transplant subcultured rat dental-pulp-derived cells subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. We found that when beta-glycerophosphate was added to the culture medium, the mRNA of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene coding dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) was expressed, and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, an early marker of odontoblast differentiation, was also demonstrated. Six weeks after implantation, subcutaneous formation of radiopaque calcified bodies was observed in situ. Immunohistochemical and fine structure studies identified expression of type I collagen, type III collagen, and DSP in the mineralizing transplants, and isolated odontoblast-like cells began to form dentin-like hard tissue formation. Scattered autolyzing apoptotic cells were also observed in the transplants. The study showed that subcultured rat dental-pulp-derived cells actively differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and induce calcification in an alginate scaffold.

  1. The induction of dentin bridge-like structures by constructs of subcultured dental pulp-derived cells and porous HA/TCP in porcine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yusuke; Honda, Masaki J; Ohshima, Hayato; Tonomura, Akiko; Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dentin-bridge formation in teeth following the transplantation of dental pulp-derived cells seeded on hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffolds. The dental pulp tissues were removed from the extracted first molar teeth of miniature pigs and single cell populations were subcultured. Second-passage cells that had alkaline phosphatase activity were combined with scaffolds. Cell-scaffold constructs were placed in contact with the exposed pulp tissue. The dimensions of the exposed pulp site were approximately 1-2.5 mm in diameter and 2-3 mm in depth from the tooth surface. After placing the constructs, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Six weeks after transplantation, hard tissue formation was observed on the pulp tissue in histology. Dentinal tubule-like structures were observed in most of the hard tissue generated, and columnar cells, which showed positive immunoreactions with dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and heat shock protein (HSP)-25, were aligned beneath the hard tissues. When only scaffolds were placed on the pulp tissues, particles of hard tissue were formed, however dentinal tubule-like structures and odontoblasts were not observed despite the formation of hard tissue. In conclusion, the implantation of dental pulp constructs into pulp exposed stimulates the formation of calcified dentin-like structures.

  2. [Temporal and spacial expression of perlecan in dental pulp after injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Sun, Hong; Pan, Yi-huai; Liu, Chuan-tong

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the temporal and special expressions and functions of perlecan in dental pulp of rats after injury. Specimens of one side of maxillary molars of 24 male SD rats were collected 1,3,5,7 days after injury, and the other side were used as controls. The specimens were decalcified and embedded in paraffin, sliced by longitudinal section and stained by immunohistochemistry. The staining of perlecan and β1 integrin were examined, and the average optical density (AOD) was compared. The measurement data were analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS 19.0 software package. The staining intensity of perlecan in dental pulp in the experimental group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group. The immunolocalization of perlecan in dental pulp was gradually progressed as the inflamed tissue was progressing after injury, and its AOD was significantly higher than that of control group (F=11.104,P>0.05), especially in the group of 1 d. The staining of β1 integrin was generally enhanced in the pulp 3 d after injury, and its AOD was significantly higher than that of control group (F=124.18,P>0.05). Perlecan may play an important role in tissue defense mechanism after injury through regulating angiogenesis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Supported by Science and Technology Research Project of Department of Education of Zhejiang Province (20051196) and Wenzhou City (Y20100015).

  3. EZH2 regulates dental pulp inflammation by direct effect on inflammatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Tianqian; A, Peng; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Jing; Ye, Ling; Wang, Chenglin

    2018-01-01

    Pulpitis is a multi-factorial disease that could be caused by complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors. We aimed to evaluate the role of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) in the inflammatory response of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and dental pulp tissues. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines in HDPCs treated by EZH2 complex or EZH2 siRNA with or without rhTNF-α were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). The levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, CCL2 and CXCL12 in culture supernatants were measured by Luminex assay. In rat pulpitis model, the effects of EZH2 on dental pulp tissues were verified by histology. We invested the mechanisms of the effect of EZH2 on the inflammatory factors by ChIP assay. EZH2 down-regulation inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, CCL2 and CXCL12 in HDPCs. EZH2 complex promoted the expression and secretion of these inflammatory factors in HDPCs, while EZH2 silencing could attenuate the promotion of inflammatory factors that were induced by rhTNF-α. In pulpitis models of rats, EZH2 down-regulation inhibited the inflammatory process of dental pulp while EZH2 complex showed no significant facilitation of pulpal inflammation. In addition, EZH2 could bind on the promoters of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2, but not IL-15 and CXCL12, to affect the transcription of these proinflammatory cytokines. In HDPCs, EZH2 could induce inflammation, while EZH2 down-regulation could attenuate the inflammatory responses. EZH2 plays an important role in this inflammatory process of dental pulp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

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    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  5. Exogenous nitric oxide stimulates the odontogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Mei, Yu-Feng; Atsuta, Ikiru; Danjo, Atsushi; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Hama, Shion; Nishida, Kento; Tang, Ronghao; Kyumoto-Nakamura, Yukari; Uehara, Norihisa; Kukita, Toshio; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2018-02-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to play a pivotal regulatory role in dental pulp tissues under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, little is known about the NO functions in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We examined the direct actions of a spontaneous NO gas-releasing donor, NOC-18, on the odontogenic capacity of rat DPSCs (rDPSCs). In the presence of NOC-18, rDPSCs were transformed into odontoblast-like cells with long cytoplasmic processes and a polarized nucleus. NOC-18 treatment increased alkaline phosphatase activity and enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation and the expression levels of several odontoblast-specific genes, such as runt related factor 2, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein, in rDPSCs. In contrast, carboxy-PTIO, a NO scavenger, completely suppressed the odontogenic capacity of rDPSCs. This NO-promoted odontogenic differentiation was activated by tumor necrosis factor-NF-κB axis in rDPSCs. Further in vivo study demonstrated that NOC-18-application in a tooth cavity accelerated tertiary dentin formation, which was associated with early nitrotyrosine expression in the dental pulp tissues beneath the cavity. Taken together, the present findings indicate that exogenous NO directly induces the odontogenic capacity of rDPSCs, suggesting that NO donors might offer a novel host DPSC-targeting alternative to current pulp capping agents in endodontics.

  6. A Miniature Swine Model for Stem Cell-Based De Novo Regeneration of Dental Pulp and Dentin-Like Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofei; Liu, Jie; Yu, Zongdong; Chen, Chao-An; Aksel, Hacer; Azim, Adham A; Huang, George T-J

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to establish mini-swine as a large animal model for stem cell-based pulp regeneration studies. Swine dental pulp stem cells (sDPSCs) were isolated from mini-swine and characterized in vitro. For in vivo studies, we first employed both ectopic and semi-orthotopic study models using severe combined immunodeficiency mice. One is hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) model for pulp-dentin complex formation, and the other is tooth fragment model for complete pulp regeneration with new dentin depositing along the canal walls. We found that sDPSCs are similar to their human counterparts exhibiting mesenchymal stem cell characteristics with ability to form colony forming unit-fibroblastic and odontogenic differentiation potential. sDPSCs formed pulp-dentin complex in the HA/TCP model and showed pulp regeneration capacity in the tooth fragment model. We then tested orthotopic pulp regeneration on mini-swine including the use of multi-rooted teeth. Using autologous sDPSCs carried by hydrogel and transplanted into the mini-swine root canal space, we observed regeneration of vascularized pulp-like tissue with a layer of newly deposited dentin-like (rD) tissue or osteodentin along the canal walls. In some cases, dentin bridge-like structure was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis detected the expression of nestin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, and bone sialoprotein in odontoblast-like cells lining against the produced rD. We also tested the use of allogeneic sDPSCs for the same procedures. Similar findings were observed in allogeneic transplantation. This study is the first to show an establishment of mini-swine as a suitable large animal model utilizing multi-rooted teeth for further cell-based pulp regeneration studies.

  7. An overview of the dental pulp: its functions and responses to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Abbott, P V

    2007-03-01

    The dental pulp is a unique tissue and its importance in the long-term prognosis of the tooth is often ignored by clinicians. It is unique in that it resides in a rigid chamber which provides strong mechanical support and protection from the microbial rich oral environment. If this rigid shell loses its structural integrity, the pulp is under the threat of the adverse stimuli from the mouth, such as caries, cracks, fractures and open restoration margins, all of which provide pathways for micro-organisms and their toxins to enter the pulp. The pulp initially responds to irritation by becoming inflamed and, if left untreated, this will progress to pulp necrosis and infection. The inflammation will also spread to the surrounding alveolar bone and cause periapical pathosis. The magnitude of pulp-related problems should not be underestimated since their most serious consequence is oral sepsis, which can be life threatening, and hence correct diagnosis and management are essential. Clinicians must have a thorough understanding of the physiological and pathological features of the dental pulp as well as the biological consequences of treatment interventions.

  8. [Lasers in dentistry. Part B--Interaction with biological tissues and the effect on the soft tissues of the oral cavity, the hard tissues of the tooth and the dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, J; Stabholz, A; Leopold, Y; Rosenberg, I; Stabholz, A

    2001-10-01

    The interaction of laser energy with target tissue is mainly determined by two non operator-dependent factors: the specific wavelength of the laser and the optical properties of the target tissues. Power density, energy density, pulse repetition rate, pulse duration and the mode of energy transferring to the tissue are dictated by the clinician. Combination of these factors enables to control optimal response for the clinical application. Four responses are described when the laser beam hits the target tissue: reflection, absorption, transmission and scattering. Three main mechanisms of interaction between the laser and the biological tissues exist: photothermic, photoacoustic and photochemical. The effect of lasers on the soft tissues of the oral cavity is based on transformation of light energy into thermal energy which, in turn heats the target tissue to produce the desirable effect. In comparison to the scalpel used in surgical procedures, the laser beam is characterized by tissue natural sterility and by minimum bleeding during the surgical procedures due to blood vessels welding. The various effects achieved by the temperature elevation during the laser application on the soft tissue are: I. coagulation and hemostasis II. tissue sterilization III. tissue welding IV. incision and excision V. ablation and vaporization Ablation and melting are the two basic modalities by which the effect of lasers on the hard tissues of the tooth is produced. When discussing the effect of laser on dental hard tissues, the energy absorption in the hydroxyapatite plays a major role in addition to its absorption in water. When laser energy is absorbed in the water of the hard tissues, a rapid volume expansion of the evaporating water occurs as a result of a substantial temperature elevation in the interaction site. Microexplosions are produced causing hard tissue disintegration. If pulp temperatures are raised beyond 5 degrees C level, damage to the dental pulp is irreversible

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its relationship with the dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando Mattuella, Leticia; Westphalen Bento, Leticia; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Nör, Jacques Eduardo; de Araujo, Fernando Borba; Fossati, Anna Christina Medeiros

    2007-05-01

    The dental pulp is a loose connective tissue located within rigid dentinal walls. Therefore, when subjected to a stimulus, the pulpal tissue has little expansion capacity. The defense mechanisms of this tissue include the formation of tertiary dentin as well as the production of signaling molecules that help in the repair. The dentin matrix is rich in growth factors (GFs) that, when diluted and diffused into the pulp tissue, aid the healing process of the dentinopulpar complex. The angiogenic GFs participate in this event. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, promotes endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis. Among its receptors, VEGFR-2 seems to be the most intimately associated with mitogenic activities, cell migration, vascular permeability, and survival of endothelial cells. This literature review addresses the cell-signaling process that occurs in response to a pulp stimulus up to its transduction in the target cell, describing the VEGF, as well as its characteristics and receptors. The reported studies have correlated the expression of VEGF and its potential functions that may have an impact on several dental specialties, thus indicating that further clinical investigations should be conducted in order to translate the results obtained until this moment primarily in laboratory experiments.

  10. Evidence of the protein content of bovine and human dental pulps by the action of endodontic irrigation solutions through electrophoretic patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis let to show the protein content of different tissues. Dental pulp contains connective tissue which is removed during the endodontic treatment. Many studies consider bovine rather than human pulp tissue because of its size. Aim: To evidence the protein content of bovine and human dental pulps and the action of endodontic irrigation solutions through electrophoretic patterns. Materials and Methods: Extracts of human and bovine dental pulps were prepared. Sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, chlorhexidine and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid were used as irrigating solutions. Results: Bovine and human pulps have a small difference in two bands of proteins present between 74 kDa and 80 kDa. The denaturizing capacity of sodium hypochlorite and the washing action of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine were evidenced. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid solution was shown to contain proteins continuously during the endodontic root canal washing. Conclusions: Differences in pulp tissues and the action of irrigating solutions on their protein content would help on the understanding of the biological process of the endodontic treatment.

  11. Therapeutic potential of dental pulp stem cells in regenerative medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gain an overview of the applications of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in the treatment of various medical diseases. Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate and regenerate into various tissues. DPSCs are the adult stem cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. These are the multipotent cells that can be explained by their embryonic origin from the neural crest. Owing to this multipotency, these DPSCs can be used in both dental and medical applications. A review of literature has been performed using electronic and hand-searching methods for the medical applications of DPSCs. On the basis of the available information, DPSCs appear to be a promising alternative for the regeneration of tissues and treatment of various diseases, although, long-term clinical trials and studies are needed to confirm their efficacy.

  12. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwint?, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be p...

  13. Mineralization Effect of Hyaluronan on Dental Pulp Cells via CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Lung, Jrhau; Yang, Yu-Chi; Yuan, Kuo

    2016-05-01

    CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in various cellular functions. Recent studies have suggested that CD44 is involved in early mineralization of odontoblasts. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the principal ligand for receptor CD44. Whether and how HA regulated the mineralization process of dental pulp cells were investigated. The effects of high-molecular-weight HA on differentiation and mineral deposition of dental pulp cells were tested by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and alizarin red S staining. Osteogenesis real-time polymerase chain reaction array, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting were performed to identify downstream molecules involved in the mineralization induction of HA. CD44 was knocked down and examined to confirm whether the mineralization effect of HA was mediated by receptor CD44. Immunohistochemistry was used to understand the localization patterns of CD44 and the identified downstream proteins in vivo. Pulse treatment of HA enhanced ALP activity and mineral deposition in dental pulp cells. Tissue-nonspecific ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), and type XV collagen (Col15A1) were upregulated via the HA-CD44 pathway in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of tooth sections showed that the staining pattern of BMP7 was very similar to that of CD44. Results of this study indicated that high-molecular-weight HA enhanced early mineralization of dental pulp cells mediated via CD44. The process involved important mineralization-associated molecules including tissue-nonspecific ALP, BMP7, and Col15A1. The findings may help develop new strategies in regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deciphering the Epigenetic Code in Embryonic and Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2016-01-01

    A close cooperation between chromatin states, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic modifications is required for establishing appropriate regulatory circuits underlying self-renewal and differentiation of adult and embryonic stem cells. A growing body of research has established that the epigenome topology provides a structural framework for engaging genes in the non-random chromosomal interactions to orchestrate complex processes such as cell-matrix interactions, cell adhesion and cell migration during lineage commitment. Over the past few years, the functional dissection of the epigenetic landscape has become increasingly important for understanding gene expression dynamics in stem cells naturally found in most tissues. Adult stem cells of the human dental pulp hold great promise for tissue engineering, particularly in the skeletal and tooth regenerative medicine. It is therefore likely that progress towards pulp regeneration will have a substantial impact on the clinical research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding epigenetic cues that have evolved to regulate the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells and the lineage determination of developing dental pulp progenitors. PMID:28018144

  15. Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells in Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue contains dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs. Dental pulp cells (also known as dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into multilineage cells including neuron-like cells. The aim of this study was to examine the capability of DPSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells without using any reagents or growth factors. DPSCs were isolated from teeth extracted from 6- to 8-week-old mice and maintained in complete medium. The cells from the fourth passage were induced to differentiate by culturing in medium without serum or growth factors. RT-PCR molecular analysis showed characteristics of Cd146+, Cd166+, and Cd31− in DPSCs, indicating that these cells are mesenchymal stem cells rather than hematopoietic stem cells. After 5 days of neuronal differentiation, the cells showed neuron-like morphological changes and expressed MAP2 protein. The activation of Nestin was observed at low level prior to differentiation and increased after 5 days of culture in differentiation medium, whereas Tub3 was activated only after 5 days of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation of the differentiated cells decreased in comparison to that of the control cells. Dental pulp stem cells are induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when cultured in serum- and growth factor-free medium.

  16. Successful isolation, in vitro expansion and characterization of stem cells from Human Dental Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Preethy SP; Srinivasan T; Tholcopiyan L; Thamaraikannan P; Srinivasan V; Murugan P; Manjunath S; Kannan TA; Shalini R; Sunil PM; Manikandhan R; Muthu MS; Abraham S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells isolated from post natal human dental pulp, (Dental pulp stem cells-DPSCs) which is from permanent teeth and SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth),the Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and Stem cells from root Apical papilla(SCAP)have the potential to differentiate into cells of a variety of tissues including heart, muscle, cartilage, bone, nerve, salivary glands, teeth etc(1,2,3,4).This multipotential a...

  17. TAILS N-terminomic and proteomic datasets of healthy human dental pulp

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    Ulrich Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Data described here provide the in depth proteomic assessment of the human dental pulp proteome and N-terminome (Eckhard et al., 2015 [1]. A total of 9 human dental pulps were processed and analyzed by the positional proteomics technique TAILS (Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates N-terminomics. 38 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS datasets were collected and analyzed using four database search engines in combination with statistical downstream evaluation, to yield the by far largest proteomic and N-terminomic dataset of any dental tissue to date. The raw mass spectrometry data and the corresponding metadata have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the PXD identifier ; Supplementary Tables described in this article are available via Mendeley Data (10.17632/555j3kk4sw.1.

  18. Imperative role of dental pulp stem cells in regenerative therapies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase using keywords like "dental pulp stem cells", "regeneration", "medical applications", "tissue engineering". DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective.

  19. Imperative role of dental pulp stem cells in regenerative therapies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ramchandra; Gupta, Manish; Aggarwal, Avanti; Sharma, Deepak; Sarin, Anurag; Kola, Mohammed Zaheer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase) using keywords like "dental pulp stem cells", "regeneration", "medical applications", "tissue engineering". DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective.

  20. Synthetic Light-Curable Polymeric Materials Provide a Supportive Niche for Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kyle H; Scherba, Jacob C; Bever, Alaina M; Alexander, Morgan R; Celiz, Adam D; Mooney, David J

    2018-01-01

    Dental disease annually affects billions of patients, and while regenerative dentistry aims to heal dental tissue after injury, existing polymeric restorative materials, or fillings, do not directly participate in the healing process in a bioinstructive manner. There is a need for restorative materials that can support native functions of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which are capable of regenerating dentin. A polymer microarray formed from commercially available monomers to rapidly identify materials that support DPSC adhesion is used. Based on these findings, thiol-ene chemistry is employed to achieve rapid light-curing and minimize residual monomer of the lead materials. Several triacrylate bulk polymers support DPSC adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro, and exhibit stiffness and tensile strength similar to existing dental materials. Conversely, materials composed of a trimethacrylate monomer or bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate, which is a monomer standard in dental materials, do not support stem cell adhesion and negatively impact matrix and signaling pathways. Furthermore, thiol-ene polymerized triacrylates are used as permanent filling materials at the dentin-pulp interface in direct contact with irreversibly injured pulp tissue. These novel triacrylate-based biomaterials have potential to enable novel regenerative dental therapies in the clinic by both restoring teeth and providing a supportive niche for DPSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Melatonin attenuates inflammation of acute pulpitis subjected to dental pulp injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Guo; Lin, Jia-Ji; Wang, Zhao-Ling; Cai, Wen-Ke; Wang, Pei-Na; Jia, Qian; Zhang, An-Sheng; Wu, Gao-Yi; Zhu, Guo-Xiong; Ni, Long-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Acute pulpitis (AP), one of the most common diseases in the endodontics, usually causes severe pain to the patients, which makes the search for therapeutic target of AP essential in clinic. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling is widely involved in the mechanism of pulp inflammation, while melatonin has been reported to have an inhibition for a various kinds of inflammation. We hereby studied whether melatonin can regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in the pulp tissue of AP and in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Two left dental pulps of the adult rat were drilled open to establish the AP model, and the serum levels of melatonin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), were assessed at 1, 3 and 5 d post injury. At the same time points, the expression of TLR4 signaling in the pulp was explored by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The AP rats were administered an abdominal injection of melatonin to assess whether melatonin rescued AP and TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling. Dental pulp injury led to an approximately five-day period acute pulp inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and a significant up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α in the serum. ELISA results showed that the level of melatonin in the serum decreased due to AP, while an abdominal injection of melatonin suppressed the increase in serum cytokines and the percentage of necrosis at the 5 d of the injured pulp. Consistent with the inflammation in AP rats, TLR4, NF-ĸB, TNF-α and IL-1β in the pulp were increased post AP compared with the baseline expression. And melatonin showed an inhibition on TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling as well as IL-1β and TNF-α production in the pulp of AP rats. Furthermore, melatonin could also regulate the expression of TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling in LPS-stimulated HDPCs. These data suggested that dental pulp injury induced AP and reduced the serum level of melatonin and that

  2. Inhibition of odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by dental resin monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Park, Hee Chul; Zhu, Tingting; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Dental resin monomers that are leached from the resin matrix due to incomplete polymerization can affect the viability and various functions of oral tissues and cells. In this study, the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were examined. To mimic clinical situations, dental pulp cells were treated with resin monomers for 24 h prior to the analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mRNA expression of genes related to pulp cell differentiation. To elucidate the underlying signaling pathways, regulation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by resin monomers was also investigated. The ALP activity of HDPCs was reduced by TEGDMA and HEMA at noncytotoxic concentrations. The mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN) was also downregulated by resin monomers. However, DSPP expression was not affected by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Among the MAP kinases examined, ERK activation (ERK phosphorylation) was not affected by either resin monomers or H2O2, whereas JNK was phosphorylated by TEGDMA and HEMA. Phospho-p38 was upregulated by HEMA, while TEGDMA and H2O2 suppressed p38 phosphorylation. Exposure to TEGDMA and HEMA for a limited period suppresses differentiation of HDPCs via different signaling pathways.

  3. [Correlation between PMI and DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping

    2005-08-01

    To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.

  4. CD44 is involved in mineralization of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Lung, Jrhau; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Yuan, Kuo

    2013-03-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions. Histologic studies have shown that CD44 is strongly expressed in odontoblasts at the appositional stage of tooth development. We investigated whether CD44 is involved in the mineralization of dental pulp cells. Ten human third molars with incomplete root formation were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD44. Dental pulp cells isolated from another 5 human third molars were assayed for their viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red staining in vitro after silencing stably their expression of CD44 by using the short hairpin RNA technique. The CD44 knockdown cells were cultured on a collagen sponge and transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surfaces of immunocompromised mice. After 6 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues were processed for alizarin red staining and immunohistochemistry of human specific antigen. The dental pulp cells transduced with control short hairpin RNA were used as the control in all assays. CD44 is expressed in odontogenic cells with active mineral deposition during tooth development. Odontoblasts in the root ends of immature teeth express a stronger CD44 signal compared with those in the crown portion. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in dental pulp cells, their mineralization activities were substantially decreased in both in vitro and in vivo assays. CD44 may play a crucial role in the initial mineralization of tooth-associated structures. However, further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

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    Paloma Dias Telles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin.

  6. CD146 positive human dental pulp stem cells promote regeneration of dentin/pulp-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mikiko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Tsutsui, Takeo W

    2018-04-01

    CD146 and STRO-1 are endothelial biomarkers that are co-expressed on the cellular membranes of blood vessels within human dental pulp tissue. This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146 + ) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146 - ) counterparts. DPSC populations were enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), yielding CD146 + and CD146 - cells, as well as mixtures composed of 25% CD146 + cells and 75% CD146 - cells (CD146 +/- ). Cell growth assays indicated that CD146 + cells exhibit an approximate 3-4 h difference in doubling time, compared with CD146 - cells. Cell cycle distributions were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The low percentage of CD146 + cells' DNA content in G 0 /G 1 phase were compared with CD146 - and non-separated cells. In contrast to CD146 - and non-separated cells, prompt mineralization was observed in CD146 + cells. Subsequently, qRT-PCR revealed high mRNA expression of CD146 and Alkaline phosphatase in mineralization-induced CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells were also observed high adipogenic ability by Oil red O staining. Histological examinations revealed an increased area of dentin/pulp-like structures in transplanted CD146 + cells, compared with CD146 - and CD146 +/- cells. Immunohistochemical studies detected dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), as well as human mitochondria, in transplanted DPSCs. Co-expression of CD146 and GFP indicated that CD146 was expressed in transplanted CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells may promote mineralization and generate dentin/pulp-like structures, suggesting a role in self-renewal of stem cells and dental pulp regenerative therapy.

  7. Transplantation of Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells or Differentiated Neuronal Cells from Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells Identically Enhances Regeneration of the Injured Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Park, Ju-Mi; Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geon; Kim, Joo-Heon; Kang, Dong-Ho; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Park, Bong-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the dental follicle, pulp, and root apical papilla of extracted wisdom teeth have been known to exhibit successful and potent neurogenic differentiation capacity. In particular, human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) stand out as the most prominent source for in vitro neuronal differentiation. In this study, to evaluate the in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration potential of hDPSCs and differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs), a total of 1 × 10 6 hDPSCs or DF-hDPSCs labeled with PKH26 tracking dye and supplemented with fibrin glue scaffold and collagen tubulization were transplanted into the sciatic nerve resection (5-mm gap) of rat models. At 12 weeks after cell transplantation, both hDPSC and DF-hDPSC groups showed notably increased behavioral activities and higher muscle contraction forces compared with those in the non-cell transplanted control group. In immunohistochemical analysis of regenerated nerve specimens, specific markers for angiogenesis, axonal fiber, and myelin sheath increased in both the cell transplantation groups. Pretransplanted labeled PKH26 were also distinctly detected in the regenerated nerve tissues, indicating that transplanted cells were well-preserved and differentiated into nerve cells. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the nerve regeneration potential between the hDPSC and DF-hDPSC transplanted groups. These results demonstrate that dental pulp tissue is an excellent stem cell source for nerve regeneration, and in vivo transplantation of the undifferentiated hDPSCs could exhibit sufficient and excellent peripheral nerve regeneration potential.

  8. The number of bleaching sessions influences pulp tissue damage in rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Ferreira, Luciana Louzada; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Ervolino, Edilson; Rahal, Vanessa; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching is claimed to cause alterations in dental tissue structures. This study investigated the influence of the number of bleaching sessions on pulp tissue in rats. Male Wistar rats were studied in 5 groups (groups 1S-5S) of 10 each, which differed by the number (1-5) of bleaching sessions. In each session, the animals were anesthetized, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel was applied to 3 upper right molars. Two days after the experimental period, the animals were killed, and their jaws were processed for light microscope evaluation. Pulp tissue reactions were scored as follows: 1, no or few inflammatory cells and no reaction; 2, session, necrotic tissue in the pulp horns and underlying inflammatory changes were observed. The extent and intensity of these changes increased with the number of bleaching sessions. After 5 sessions, the changes included necrotic areas in the pulp tissue involving the second third of the radicular pulp and intense inflammation in the apical third. The number of bleaching sessions directly influenced the extent of pulp damage. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stimulation of angiogenesis, neurogenesis and regeneration by side population cells from dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Ryo; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Murakami, Masashi; Yamamoto, Tsubasa; Fukuta, Osamu; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell therapy in various experimental disease models. However, the regenerative potential of MSCs from different tissue sources and the influence of the tissue niche have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the regenerative potential of dental pulp, bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived CD31(-) side population (SP) cells isolated from an individual porcine source. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells expressed the highest levels of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and had the highest migration activity. Conditioned medium from pulp CD31(-) SP cells produced potent anti-apoptotic activity and neurite outgrowth, compared to those from bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Transplantation of pulp CD31(-) SP cells in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model produced higher blood flow and capillary density than transplantation of bone marrow and adipose CD31(-) SP cells. Motor function recovery and infarct size reduction were greater with pulp CD31(-) SP cells. Pulp CD31(-) SP cells induced maximal angiogenesis, neurogenesis and pulp regeneration in ectopic transplantation models compared to other tissue sources. These results demonstrate that pulp stem cells have higher angiogenic, neurogenic and regenerative potential and may therefore be superior to bone marrow and adipose stem cells for cell therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo; Lacerda de Carvalho, Acácia Fernandes; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Pereira, Lygia da Veiga; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp is a source of mesenchymal stem cells. To better understand the biological properties of these cells we isolated and characterized stem cells from the dental pulp of EGFP transgenic mice. The pulp tissue was gently separated from the roots of teeth extracted from C57BL/6 mice, and cultured under appropriate conditions. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR, light microscopy (staining for alkaline phosphatase) and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of stem cell markers. The presence of chromosomal abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase. The karyotype was normal until the 5th passage. The Pou5f1/Oct-4 and ZFP42/Rex-1, but not Nanog transcripts were detected in mDPSC. Flow cytometry and fluorescence analyses revealed the presence of a heterogeneous population positive for embryonic and mesenchymal cell markers. Adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation was achieved after two weeks of cell culture under chemically defined in vitro conditions. In addition, some elongated cells spontaneously acquired a contraction capacity. Our results reinforce that the dental pulp is an important source of adult stem cells and encourage studies on therapeutic potential of mDPSC in experimental disease models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft, D.C.E.; Bindslev, D.A.; Melsen, B.; Abdallah, B.M.; Kassem, K.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2010-01-01

    For engineering bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed for bone (re)modelling. Local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which provokes a cellular response via loading-induced interstitial fluid flow. We studied whether human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem

  12. Dental Pulp Stem Cells as a multifaceted tool for bioengineering and the regeneration of craniomaxillofacial tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitane eAurrekoetxea

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells, or DPSC, are neural crest-derived cells with an outstanding capacity to differentiate along multiple cell lineages of interest for cell therapy. In particular, highly efficient osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of DPSC can be achieved using simple in vitro protocols, making these cells a very attractive and promising tool for the future treatment of dental and periodontal diseases. Among craniomaxillofacial organs, the tooth and salivary gland are two such cases in which complete regeneration by tissue engineering using DPSC appears to be possible, as research over the last decade has made substantial progress in experimental models of partial or total regeneration of both organs, by cell recombination technology. Moreover, DPSC seem to be a particularly good choice for the regeneration of nerve tissues, including injured or transected cranial nerves. In this context, the oral cavity appears to be an excellent testing ground for new regenerative therapies using DPSC. However, many issues and challenges need yet to be addressed before these cells can be employed in clinical therapy. In this review, we point out some important aspects on the biology of DPSC with regard to their use for the reconstruction of different craniomaxillofacial tissues and organs, with special emphasis on cranial bones, nerves, teeth, and salivary glands. We suggest new ideas and strategies to fully exploit the capacities of DPSC for bioengineering of the aforementioned tissues.

  13. Dentin and dental pulp regeneration by the patient's endogenous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahng G; Zheng, Ying; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Embree, Mildred C; Song, Karen; Jiang, Nan; Mao, Jeremy J

    2013-03-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the functions of the dental pulp-dentin complex. Two approaches are being applied toward dental pulp-dentin regeneration: cell transplantation and cell homing. The majority of previous approaches are based on cell transplantation by delivering ex vivo cultivated cells toward dental pulp or dentin regeneration. Many hurdles limit the clinical translation of cell transplantation such as the difficulty of acquiring and isolating viable cells, uncertainty of what cells or what fractions of cells to use, excessive cost of cell manipulation and transportation, and the risk of immune rejection, pathogen transmission, and tumorigenesis in associated with ex vivo cell manipulation. In contrast, cell homing relies on induced chemotaxis of endogenous cells and therefore circumvents many of the difficulties that are associated with cell transplantation. An array of proteins, peptides, and chemical compounds that are yet to be identified may orchestrate endogenous cells to regenerate dental pulp-dentin complex. Both cell transplantation and cell homing are scientifically valid approaches; however, cell homing offers a number of advantages that are compatible with the development of clinical therapies for dental pulp-dentin regeneration.

  14. The effect of chronic periodontitis on dental pulp: A clinical and histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Ramrao Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This human study was carried out to evaluate the possible effects of severe chronic periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 permanent teeth with a hopeless prognosis due to severe chronic periodontitis were extracted from systemically healthy adults, with a pocket probing depth of ≥8 mm and a mobility of grade 3. After extraction, the apical 2-3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned with a fissure bur. Results: Inflammation was usual finding in the samples, however, only 15% of the teeth showed no inflammation. Pulpal necrosis (partial or complete was seen in different sections, and it was observed that 50% sections had no necrosis. Partial necrosis was a common finding seen when compared to complete necrosis (6.7%. About 60% of samples showed edematous pulp. Only 6.7% of samples showed absence of fibrosis. Pulp with moderate fibrosis was seen commonly seen in many sections. A majority of teeth (70% also displayed a loss of odontoblastic integrity. In only 25% of samples, pulp stones were detected. Conclusion: Our results revealed that severe chronic periodontitis can affect dental pulp. The cumulative effect of the periodontal disease, as indicated by the factors of calcifications, apposition of calcified tissue, resorption or inflammation from the root caries or from the involved lateral canals, is damaged pulp tissue, but total disintegration is a certainty only when all main apical foramina are involved by bacterial plaque. Proper evaluation and treatment of periodontal-endodontic involvement is recommended.

  15. OCT4B1 Regulates the Cellular Stress Response of Human Dental Pulp Cells with Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infection and apoptosis are combined triggers for inflammation in dental tissues. Octamer-binding transcription factor 4-B1 (OCT4B1, a novel spliced variant of OCT4 family, could respond to the cellular stress and possess antiapoptotic property. However, its specific role in dental pulpitis remains unknown. Methods. To investigate the effect of OCT4B1 on inflammation of dental pulp cells (DPCs, its expression in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs was examined by in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay. OCT4B1 overexpressed DPCs model was established, confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, and then stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Apoptotic rate was determined by Hoechst/PI staining and FACS. Cell survival rate was calculated by CCK8 assay. Results. In situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and FISH assay revealed that OCT4B1 was extensively expressed in inflamed dental pulp tissues and DPCs with LPS stimulation. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining showed the expression of OCT4B1 and OCT4B increased after OCT4B1 transfection. Hoechst/PI staining and FACS demonstrated that less red/blue fluorescence was detected and apoptotic percentage decreased (3.45% after transfection. CCK8 demonstrated that the survival rate of pCDH-OCT4B1-flag cells increased. Conclusions. OCT4B1 plays an essential role in inflammation and apoptosis of DPCs. OCT4B might operate synergistically with OCT4B1 to reduce apoptosis.

  16. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  17. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration.

  18. Current Advance and Future Prospects of Tissue Engineering Approach to Dentin/Pulp Regenerative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biomaterial science and tissue engineering technology have greatly spurred the development of regenerative endodontics. This has led to a paradigm shift in endodontic treatment from simply filling the root canal systems with biologically inert materials to restoring the infected dental pulp with functional replacement tissues. Currently, cell transplantation has gained increasing attention as a scientifically valid method for dentin-pulp complex regeneration. This multidisciplinary approach which involves the interplay of three key elements of tissue engineering—stem cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules—has produced an impressive number of favorable outcomes in preclinical animal studies. Nevertheless, many practical hurdles need to be overcome prior to its application in clinical settings. Apart from the potential health risks of immunological rejection and pathogenic transmission, the lack of a well-established banking system for the isolation and storage of dental-derived stem cells is the most pressing issue that awaits resolution and the properties of supportive scaffold materials vary across different studies and remain inconsistent. This review critically examines the classic triad of tissue engineering utilized in current regenerative endodontics and summarizes the possible techniques developed for dentin/pulp regeneration. PMID:27069484

  19. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  20. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5) and controls (n = 12), and the other patients with BMS (n = 7) and controls (n = 10). BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS. PMID:20529324

  1. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.

  2. Enamel tissue engineering using subcultured enamel organ epithelial cells in combination with dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki J; Shinmura, Yuka; Shinohara, Yoshinori

    2009-01-01

    We describe a strategy for the in vitro engineering of enamel tissue using a novel technique for culturing enamel organ epithelial (EOE) cells isolated from the enamel organ using 3T3-J2 cells as a feeder layer. These subcultured EOE cells retain the capacity to produce enamel structures over a period of extended culture. In brief, enamel organs from 6-month-old porcine third molars were dissociated into single cells and subcultured on 3T3-J2 feeder cell layers. These subcultured EOE cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge in combination with primary dental pulp cells isolated at an early stage of crown formation, and these constructs were transplanted into athymic rats. After 4 weeks, complex enamel-dentin structures were detected in the implants. These results show that our culture technique maintained ameloblast lineage cells that were able to produce enamel in vivo. This novel subculture technique provides an important tool for tooth tissue engineering. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A; Boostani, H R

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended.

  4. Assessment of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of permanent teeth with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Larissa Bergesch; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Bruno, Kely Firmino; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    In individuals with periodontal disease, dental pulp status should be determined before a treatment plan is made. Pulse oximeters are promising diagnostic tools to evaluate pulp vascularization. This study used pulse oximetry to determine the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of intact permanent teeth with periodontal attachment loss (PAL) and gingival recession (GR) and to evaluate the correlation between periodontal disease and level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. This study included 67 anterior teeth of 35 patients; all teeth showed intact crowns, PAL, a periodontal pocket (PP), and GR. The teeth underwent periodontal examination, cold and electric pulp testing, and pulse oximetry measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient and a linear regression coefficient were calculated to evaluate the degree of correlation between periodontal disease markers (PAL, PP, and GR) and the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp. These tests also evaluated possible associations between oxygen saturation and cold and electric pulp testing. PAL, PP, and GR had negative correlations with oxygen saturation in dental pulp. Conversely, no statistically significant association was found between oxygen saturation in dental pulp and the response to electric sensibility testing. Oxygen saturation was lower in the pulp of permanent teeth with PAL, PP, and GR, indicating that periodontal disease correlates with the level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Sonoda; Haruyoshi Yamaza; Lan Ma; Yosuke Tanaka; Erika Tomoda; Reona Aijima; Kazuaki Nonaka; Toshio Kukita; Songtao Shi; Fusanori Nishimura; Takayoshi Yamaza

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we...

  6. The dynamics of TGF-β in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Takahiko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Hajime; Karakida, Takeo; Chiba, Risako; Hu, Jan C-C; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Simmer, James P; Margolis, Henry C; Gomi, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-13

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11). Activated TGF-β1 enhances the mRNA expression levels of MMP20 and full-length dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in dental pulp cells, coinciding with the induction of odontoblast differentiation. Latent TGF-β1 synthesized in odontoblasts is primarily activated by MMP2 and MMP20 in both odontoblasts and dentin. The activity level of TGF-β1 was reduced in the dentin of MMP20 null mice, although the amount of latent TGF-β1 expression did not change between wild-type and MMP20 null mice. TGF-β1 activity was reduced with the degradation of DSPP-derived proteins that occurs with ageing. We propose that to exert its multiple biological functions, TGF-β1 is involved in a complicated dynamic interaction with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and/or DSPP-derived proteins present in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

  7. Expression and Function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pulp Tissue of Teeth under Orthodontic Movement

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    Fulan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic force may lead to cell damage, circulatory disturbances, and vascular changes of the dental pulp, which make a hypoxic environment in pulp. In order to maintain the homeostasis of dental pulp, hypoxia will inevitably induce the defensive reaction. However, this is a complex process and is regulated by numerous factors. In this study, we established an experimental animal model of orthodontic tooth movement to investigate the effects of mechanical force on the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α in dental pulp. Histological analysis of dental pulp and expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins in dental pulp were examined. The results showed that inflammation and vascular changes happened in dental pulp tissue in different periods. Additionally, there were significant changes in the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins under orthodontic force. After application of mechanical load, expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was markedly positive in 1, 3, 7 d, and 2 w groups, and then it weakened in 4 w group. These findings suggested that the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was enhanced by mechanical force. HIF-1α and VEGF may play an important role in retaining the homeostasis of dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement.

  8. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis Expression in Dental Pulp Cells Derived From Carious Teeth

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    Hanaa Esa Alkharobi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor (IGF axis plays an important role in dental tissue regeneration and most components of this axis are expressed in human dental pulp cells (DPCs. In our previous study, we analyzed IGF axis gene expression in DPCs and demonstrated a novel role of IGF binding protein (IGFBP-2 and -3 in coordinating mineralized matrix formation in differentiating DPCs. A more recent study from our laboratory partially characterized dental pulp stem cells from teeth with superficial caries (cDPCs and showed that their potential to differentiate odontoblasts and/or into osteoblasts is enhanced by exposure to the mild inflammatory conditions characteristic of superficial caries. In the present study, we examine whether changes apparent in IGF axis expression during osteogenic differentiation of healthy DPCs are also apparent in DPCs derived from carious affected teeth.

  9. The effects of low level laser irradiation on proliferation of human dental pulp: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffoli, S; Romeo, U; Amorim, R N S; Migliau, G; Palaia, G; Resende, L; Polimeni, A

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capability for self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation in various types of specialized cells, so they are very important in cellular therapies. MSC from dental pulp are simply obtainable and have high proliferative capability. Among the therapies that can stimulate the proliferation of certain cell types, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) stands out. The target of this study is to perform a literature review to investigate these effects of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation of human dental pulp.The electronic search of scientific papers was conducted in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and PubMed databases through scientific articles published in national and international journals in the past 20 years.The results of this review suggest that LLLT may be a useful and important tool for future advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering associated to stem cells. Studies on cell therapy for regenerating dental tissues has already been done, and shows promising results.

  10. In Vitro Osteogenic and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eTeti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages.Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering.

  11. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  12. Regeneration of dental pulp/dentine complex with a three-dimensional and scaffold-free stem-cell sheet-derived pellet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sijia; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Fang; Wang, Weiqi; Ding, Yin; Li, Dechao; Jin, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Dental pulp/dentine complex regeneration is indispensable to the construction of biotissue-engineered tooth roots and represents a promising approach to therapy for irreversible pulpitis. We used a tissue-engineering method based on odontogenic stem cells to design a three-dimensional (3D) and scaffold-free stem-cell sheet-derived pellet (CSDP) with the necessary physical and biological properties. Stem cells were isolated and identified and stem cells from root apical papilla (SCAPs)-based CSDPs were then fabricated and examined. Compact cell aggregates containing a high proportion of extracellular matrix (ECM) components were observed, and the CSDP culture time was prolonged. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentine sialoprotein (DSPP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2) mRNA was higher in CSDPs than in cell sheets (CSs), indicating that CSDPs have greater odonto/osteogenic potential. To further investigate this hypothesis, CSDPs and CSs were inserted into human treated dentine matrix fragments (hTDMFs) and transplanted into the subcutaneous space in the backs of immunodeficient mice, where they were cultured in vivo for 6 weeks. The root space with CSDPs was filled entirely with a dental pulp-like tissue with well-established vascularity, and a continuous layer of dentine-like tissue was deposited onto the existing dentine. A layer of odontoblast-like cells was found to express DSPP, ALP and BSP, and human mitochondria lined the surface of the newly formed dentine-like tissue. These results clearly indicate that SCAP-CSDPs with a mount of endogenous ECM have a strong capacity to form a heterotopic dental pulp/dentine complex in empty root canals; this method can be used in the fabrication of bioengineered dental roots and also provides an alternative treatment approach for pulp disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

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    Edgar Ledesma-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology.

  14. The Neurovascular Properties of Dental Stem Cells and Their Importance in Dental Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Jessica; Bronckaers, Annelies; Dillen, Yörg; Gervois, Pascal; Vangansewinkel, Tim; Driesen, Ronald B.; Wolfs, Esther; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Given their straightforward and relatively easy isolation from extracted third molars, dental stem cells (DSCs) have become an attractive source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Over the past decade, there have been numerous studies supporting the angiogenic, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects of the DSC secretome. Together with their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and neural cell types, this makes DSCs suitable candidates for dental tissue engineering and nerve injury repair. PMID:27688777

  15. The Neurovascular Properties of Dental Stem Cells and Their Importance in Dental Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Given their straightforward and relatively easy isolation from extracted third molars, dental stem cells (DSCs have become an attractive source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Over the past decade, there have been numerous studies supporting the angiogenic, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects of the DSC secretome. Together with their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and neural cell types, this makes DSCs suitable candidates for dental tissue engineering and nerve injury repair.

  16. Effect of miR-146a/bFGF/PEG-PEI Nanoparticles on Inflammation Response and Tissue Regeneration of Human Dental Pulp Cells

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    Lu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inflammation in dental pulp cells (DPCs initiated by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS results in dental pulp necrosis. So far, whether there is a common system regulating inflammation response and tissue regeneration remains unknown. miR-146a is closely related to inflammation. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is an important regulator for differentiation. Methods. To explore the effect of miR-146a/bFGF on inflammation and tissue regeneration, polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI was synthesized, and physical characteristics were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and gel retardation analysis. Cell absorption, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Alginate gel was combined with miR-146a/PEG-PEI nanoparticles and bFGF. Drug release ratio was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotography. Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of DPCs with 1 μg/mL LPS treatment were determined. Results. PEG-PEI prepared at N/P 2 showed complete gel retardation and smallest particle size and zeta potential. Transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI was higher than lipo2000. Cell viability decreased as N/P ratio increased. Drug release rate amounted to 70% at the first 12 h and then maintained slow release afterwards. Proliferation and differentiation decreased in DPCs with LPS treatment, whereas they increased in miR-146a/bFGF gel group. Conclusions. PEG-PEI is a promising vector for gene therapy. miR-146a and bFGF play critical roles in inflammation response and tissue regeneration of DPCs.

  17. Immunohistochemical Expression of TGF-β1 and Osteonectin in engineered and Ca(OH2-repaired human pulp tissues

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    Luiz Alexandre CHISINI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and osteonectin (ON in pulp-like tissues developed by tissue engineering and to compare it with the expression of these proteins in pulps treated with Ca(OH2 therapy. Tooth slices were obtained from non-carious human third molars under sterile procedures. The residual periodontal and pulp soft tissues were removed. Empty pulp spaces of the tooth slice were filled with sodium chloride particles (250–425 µm. PLLA solubilized in 5% chloroform was applied over the salt particles. The tooth slice/scaffold (TS/S set was stored overnight and then rinsed thoroughly to wash out the salt. Scaffolds were previously sterilized with ethanol (100–70° and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. TS/S was treated with 10% EDTA and seeded with dental pulp stem cells (DPSC. Then, TS/S was implanted into the dorsum of immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Human third molars previously treated with Ca(OH2 for 90 days were also evaluated. Samples were prepared and submitted to histological and immunohistochemical (with anti-TGF-β1, 1:100 and anti-ON, 1:350 analyses. After 28 days, TS/S showed morphological characteristics similar to those observed in dental pulp treated with Ca(OH2. Ca(OH2-treated pulps showed the usual repaired pulp characteristics. In TS/S, newly formed tissues and pre-dentin was colored, which elucidated the expression of TGF-β1 and ON. Immunohistochemistry staining of Ca(OH2-treated pulps showed the same expression patterns. The extracellular matrix displayed a fibrillar pattern under both conditions. Regenerative events in the pulp seem to follow a similar pattern of TGF-β1 and ON expression as the repair processes.

  18. Dental Tissue — New Source for Stem Cells

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    Vladimir Petrovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have been isolated from many tissues and organs, including dental tissue. Five types of dental stem cells have been established: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, periodontal ligament stem cells, and dental follicle progenitor cells. The main characteristics of dental stem cells are their potential for multilineage differentiation and self-renewal capacity. Dental stem cells can differentiate into odontoblasts, adipocytes, neuronal-like cells, glial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, melanocytes, myotubes, and endothelial cells. Possible application of these cells in various fields of medicine makes them good candidates for future research as a new, powerful tool for therapy. Although the possible use of these cells in therapeutic purposes and tooth tissue engineering is still in the beginning stages, the results are promising. The efforts made in the research of dental stem cells have clarified many mechanisms underlying the biological processes in which these cells are involved. This review will focus on the new findings in the field of dental stem cell research and on their potential use in the therapy of various disorders.

  19. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  20. Decellularized Human Dental Pulp as a Scaffold for Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J S; Takimoto, K; Jeon, M; Vadakekalam, J; Ruparel, N B; Diogenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Teeth undergo postnatal organogenesis relatively late in life and only complete full maturation a few years after the crown first erupts in the oral cavity. At this stage, development can be arrested if the tooth organ is damaged by either trauma or caries. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are a treatment alternative to conventional root canal treatment for immature teeth. These procedures rely on the transfer of apically positioned stem cells, including stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), into the root canal system. Although clinical success has been reported for these procedures, the predictability of expected outcomes and the organization of the newly formed tissues are affected by the lack of an available suitable scaffold that mimics the complexity of the dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we evaluated 3 methods of decellularization of human dental pulp to be used as a potential autograft scaffold. Tooth slices of human healthy extracted third molars were decellularized by 3 different methods. One of the methods generated the maximum observed decellularization with minimal impact on the ECM composition and organization. Furthermore, recellularization of the scaffold supported the proliferation of SCAP throughout the scaffold with differentiation into odontoblast-like cells near the dentinal walls. Thus, this study reports that human dental pulp from healthy extracted teeth can be successfully decellularized, and the resulting scaffold supports the proliferation and differentiation of SCAP. The future application of this form of an autograft in REPs can fulfill a yet unmet need for a suitable scaffold, potentially improving clinical outcomes and ultimately promoting the survival and function of teeth with otherwise poor prognosis.

  1. Retracted: Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mineralization potential of rat dental pulp stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.; Fan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The following article from the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 'Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines on Mineralization Potential of Rat Dental Pulp Stem Cells' by Yang X, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Jansen JA, Fan M, published online on 11 July 2011 in Wiley Online Library

  2. Morphologic and hemodynamic analysis of dental pulp in dogs after molar intrusion with the skeletal anchorage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yuichi; Daimaruya, Takayoshi; Iikubo, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Reiko; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sugawara, Junji; Sasano, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    We have successfully treated skeletal open bite by intruding posterior teeth with the skeletal anchorage system. Our aim in this study was to morphologically and hemodynamically evaluate the changes in pulp tissues when molars are radically intruded. The mandibular fourth premolars of 9 adult beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups: a sham operated group (n = 6, 3 dogs), 4-month intrusion group (n = 6, 3 dogs), and a further 4-month retention group (n = 6, 3 dogs). We evaluated the morphological changes of the pulp and dentin-the amount of vacuolar degeneration in the odontoblast layer, the predentin width and nervous continuity in the pulp tissue, and the pulpal blood-flow response evoked by electrical stimulation in the dental pulp. Extreme molar intrusion with the skeletal anchorage system caused slight degenerative changes in the pulp tissue, followed by recovery after the orthodontic force was released. Circulatory system and nervous functions were basically maintained during the intrusion, although a certain level of downregulation was observed. These morphologic and functional regressive changes in the pulp tissue after molar intrusion improved during the retention period. Histologic changes and changes in pulpal blood flow and function are reversible, even during radical intrusion of molars.

  3. Culture of human dental pulp cells at variable times post-tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENÍCIO Daniela Ferreira Araújo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of human dental pulp cells from extracted teeth kept at standard room temperature and atmospheric pressure for different periods of time. Twenty-one healthy permanent teeth were used. They were divided into five groups according to the expected time from extraction to processing. One group was tested immediately after extraction; the other groups were each tested at one of the following time points: 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 5 hours post-extraction. Cell morphology was analysed by light microscopy; cell proliferation was analysed using MTT assay and by counting the viable cells in a haemocytometer. Similar results were observed in all groups (p < 0.05. A delay of up to five hours for tooth processing and tissue collection does not preclude the establishment of dental pulp cell cultures, affect the morphology of these cells, or reduce their proliferative potential.

  4. Trophic Effects and Regenerative Potential of Mobilized Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue as Alternative Cell Sources for Pulp/Dentin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Osako, Yohei; Hirose, Yujiro; Nakashima, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) subsets mobilized by granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration. The supply of autologous pulp tissue, however, is very limited in the aged. Therefore, alternative sources of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are needed for the cell therapy. In this study, DPSCs, bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue (AD)-derived stem cells of the same individual dog were isolated using G-CSF-induced mobilization (MDPSCs, MBMSCs, and MADSCs). The positive rates of CXCR4 and G-CSFR in MDPSCs were similar to MADSCs and were significantly higher than those in MBMSCs. Trophic effects of MDPSCs on angiogenesis, neurite extension, migration, and antiapoptosis were higher than those of MBMSCs and MADSCs. Pulp-like loose connective tissues were regenerated in all three MSC transplantations. Significantly higher volume of regenerated pulp and higher density of vascularization and innervation were observed in response to MDPSCs compared to MBMSC and MADSC transplantation. Collagenous matrix containing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)-positive odontoblast-like cells was the highest in MBMSCs and significantly higher in MADSCs compared to MDPSCs. MBMSCs and MADSCs, therefore, have potential for pulp regeneration, although the volume of regenerated pulp tissue, angiogenesis, and reinnervation, were less. Thus, in conclusion, an alternative cell source for dental pulp/dentin regeneration are stem cells from BM and AD tissue.

  5. Human dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells promote wound healing and muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sarrà, Ester; Montori, Sheyla; Gil-Recio, Carlos; Núñez-Toldrà, Raquel; Costamagna, Domiziana; Rotini, Alessio; Atari, Maher; Luttun, Aernout; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2017-07-27

    Dental pulp represents an easily accessible autologous source of adult stem cells. A subset of these cells, named dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSC), shows high plasticity and can undergo multiple population doublings, making DPPSC an appealing tool for tissue repair or maintenance. DPPSC were harvested from the dental pulp of third molars extracted from young patients. Growth factors released by DPPSC were analysed using antibody arrays. Cells were cultured in specific differentiation media and their endothelial, smooth and skeletal muscle differentiation potential was evaluated. The therapeutic potential of DPPSC was tested in a wound healing mouse model and in two genetic mouse models of muscular dystrophy (Scid/mdx and Sgcb-null Rag2-null γc-null). DPPSC secreted several growth factors involved in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition and improved vascularisation in all three murine models. Moreover, DPPSC stimulated re-epithelialisation and ameliorated collagen deposition and organisation in healing wounds. In dystrophic mice, DPPSC engrafted in the skeletal muscle of both dystrophic murine models and showed integration in muscular fibres and vessels. In addition, DPPSC treatment resulted in reduced fibrosis and collagen content, larger cross-sectional area of type II fast-glycolytic fibres and infiltration of higher numbers of proangiogenic CD206 + macrophages. Overall, DPPSC represent a potential source of stem cells to enhance the wound healing process and slow down dystrophic muscle degeneration.

  6. Histological evaluation of pulp tissue from second primary molars correlated with clinical and radiographic caries findings

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    Vellore Kannan Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managing dental caries in young children is demanding due to the elusions present on the right diagnostic criteria for treatment. The present study evaluated the histological status of pulp tissues extracted from primary second molar with caries involvement. Histological findings are correlated with clinical and radiographic assessment. Materials and Methods: Simple experimental study was conducted on upper or lower second primary molars with occlusal (22 teeth or proximal (22 teeth dental caries. Selected children were below 6 years of age. Percentage of caries involvement, residual dentin thickness (RDT, radiographic assessment of interradicular and periapical areas, clinical caries depth and signs and symptoms are the parameters considered for comparing with the histological findings. The specimens were grouped based on the nature of the inflammatory process as acute or chronic. The data were analyzed by Student t-test to compare histological types of inflammation with clinical parameters. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Four cases revealed severe acute inflammation in coronal and relatively mild acute inflammation in radicular pulp. In the rest of the specimen coronal and radicular pulp had similar acute or chronic inflammatory changes. Histological evidence of pulpitis correlated with dental caries depth of ≥80%, RDT of ≤1 mm, radiographic rarefactions in the interradicular regions and symptoms of pain. Conclusion: Primary second molars with more than two-third caries involvement with symptoms of pain histologically showed inflammation of both coronal and radicular pulp tissues in all cases.

  7. Scaffold-free Prevascularized Microtissue Spheroids for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, W L; Zhu, L; Hargreaves, K M; Jin, L; Zhang, C

    2014-12-01

    Creating an optimal microenvironment that mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) of natural pulp and securing an adequate blood supply for the survival of cell transplants are major hurdles that need to be overcome in dental pulp regeneration. However, many currently available scaffolds fail to mimic essential functions of natural ECM. The present study investigated a novel approach involving the use of scaffold-free microtissue spheroids of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) prevascularized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in pulp regeneration. In vitro-fabricated microtissue spheroids were inserted into the canal space of tooth-root slices and were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. Histological examination revealed that, after four-week implantation, tooth-root slices containing microtissue spheroids resulted in well-vascularized and cellular pulp-like tissues, compared with empty tooth-root slices, which were filled with only subcutaneous fat tissue. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the tissue found in the tooth-root slices was of human origin, as characterized by the expression of human mitochondria, and contained odontoblast-like cells organized along the dentin, as assessed by immunostaining for nestin and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Vascular structures formed by HUVECs in vitro were successfully anastomosed with the host vasculature upon transplantation in vivo, as shown by immunostaining for human CD31. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that prevascularized, scaffold-free, microtissue spheroids can successfully regenerate vascular dental pulp-like tissue and also highlight the significance of the microtissue microenvironment as an optimal environment for successful pulp-regeneration strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  8. Ionizing radiation induces senescence and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelek, R; Soukup, T; Ćmielová, J; Seifrtová, M; Suchánek, J; Vávrová, J; Mokrý, J; Muthná, D; Řezáčová, M

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells, including adult stem cells. One of the fundamental properties of an adult stem cell is that it does not have any tissue-specific structures that allow it to perform specialized functions. However, under certain stimuli, unspecialized adult stem cells can give rise to specialized cells to generate replacements for cells that are lost during one's life or due to injury or disease. Nevertheless, specialization of stem cells must be controlled by specific milieu and also initiated at the proper time, making the entire process beneficial for tissue recovery and maintaining it for a long time. In this paper we assess whether irradiated dental pulp stem cells have maintained open their options to mature into specialized cells, or whether they have lost their unspecialized (immature) state following irradiation. Our findings showed radiation-induced premature differentiation of dental pulp stem cells towards odonto-/osteoblast lineages in vitro. Matrix calcification was visualized from Day 6 or Day 9 following irradiation of cells expressing low or high levels of CD146, respectively.

  9. Potential Roles of Dental Pulp Stem Cells in Neural Regeneration and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Key, Brian; Lee, Bae Hoon

    2018-01-01

    This review summarizes current advances in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and their potential applications in the nervous diseases. Injured adult mammalian nervous system has a limited regenerative capacity due to an insufficient pool of precursor cells in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Nerve growth is also constrained by inhibitory factors (associated with central myelin) and barrier tissues (glial scarring). Stem cells, possessing the capacity of self-renewal and multicellular differentiation, promise new therapeutic strategies for overcoming these impediments to neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) derive from a cranial neural crest lineage, retain a remarkable potential for neuronal differentiation, and additionally express multiple factors that are suitable for neuronal and axonal regeneration. DPSCs can also express immunomodulatory factors that stimulate formation of blood vessels and enhance regeneration and repair of injured nerve. These unique properties together with their ready accessibility make DPSCs an attractive cell source for tissue engineering in injured and diseased nervous systems. In this review, we interrogate the neuronal differentiation potential as well as the neuroprotective, neurotrophic, angiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties of DPSCs and its application in the injured nervous system. Taken together, DPSCs are an ideal stem cell resource for therapeutic approaches to neural repair and regeneration in nerve diseases. PMID:29853908

  10. Interleukin 1-beta analysis in chronically inflamed and healthy human dental pulp

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    Šubarić Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proinflammatory cytokines can act like endogenous pyrogen interleukin 1 (IL-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF α which regulate the synthesis of secondary mediators and other proinflammatory cytokines through macrophages and mesenchymal cells. They stimulate acute-phase proteins and attract inflammatory cells. The aim of this study was to determine interleukin 1-β (IL-1 β concentrations in chronically inflamed and healthy dental pulps. Methods. A total of 41 pulps (19 from patients with pulpitis chronic causa and 22 from patients with pulpatis chronic aperta, divided into two groups, were obtained from teeth with chronic pulp inflammation. The control group consisted of 12 teeth with healthy pulp. After extirpation, pulp samples were immediately placed in sterile Eppendorf tubes and frozen. After that, homogenisation was performed by a Teflon® pestle in ice-cold phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 whose volume was adjusted according to the weight of tissue. The supernatant was then frozen at -70°C until the performance of appropriate biochemical analyses. Cytokine IL-1 β value was determined by a commercial enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test. We applied the high sensitivity system technique, which may register low levels of cytokines, ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 pg/mL for IL-1 β. Results. By comparing the mean value of IL-1β, in the pulps we can see a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01 among them. The highest value of IL-1 β was in the subjects with pulpitis chronica clausa and it was 6.21 ± 2.70 pg/mL. Conclusion. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β is present in detectable quantities in the pulp tissue of all vital pulps. Its highest concentrations were found in the sample group with pulpitis chronica clausa.

  11. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

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    Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, β-endorphins (β-End, and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg, which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg, which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain.

  12. Odontoblast-Like Cells Differentiated from Dental Pulp Stem Cells Retain Their Phenotype after Subcultivation

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    Paula A. Baldión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontoblasts, the main cell type in teeth pulp tissue, are not cultivable and they are responsible for the first line of response after dental restauration. Studies on dental materials cytotoxicity and odontoblast cells physiology require large quantity of homogenous cells retaining most of the phenotype characteristics. Odontoblast-like cells (OLC were differentiated from human dental pulp stem cells using differentiation medium (containing TGF-β1, and OLC expanded after trypsinization (EXP-21 were evaluated and compared. Despite a slower cell growth curve, EXP-21 cells express similarly the odontoblast markers dentinal sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 concomitantly with RUNX2 transcripts and low alkaline phosphatase activity as expected. Both OLC and EXP-21 cells showed similar mineral deposition activity evidenced by alizarin red and von Kossa staining. These results pointed out minor changes in phenotype of subcultured EXP-21 regarding the primarily differentiated OLC, making the subcultivation of these cells a useful strategy to obtain odontoblasts for biocompatibility or cell physiology studies in dentistry.

  13. Fighting for territories: time-lapse analysis of dental pulp and dental follicle stem cells in co-culture reveals specific migratory capabilities

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    C Schiraldi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell migration is a critical step during the repair of damaged tissues. In order to achieve appropriate cell-based therapies for tooth and periodontal ligament repair it is necessary first to understand the dynamics of tissue-specific stem cell populations such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and dental follicle stem cells (DFSC. Using time-lapse imaging, we analysed migratory and proliferative capabilities of these two human stem cell lines in vitro. When cultured alone, both DPSC and DFSC exhibited low and irregular migration profiles. In co-cultures, DFSC, but not DPSC, spectacularly increased their migration activity and velocity. DFSC rapidly surrounded the DPSC, thus resembling the in vivo developmental process, where follicle cells encircle both dental epithelium and pulp. Cell morphology was dependent on the culture conditions (mono-culture or co-culture and changed over time. Regulatory genes involved in dental cell migration and differentiation such as TWIST1, MSX1, RUNX2, SFRP1 and ADAM28, were also evaluated in co-cultures. MSX1 up-regulation indicates that DPSC and DFSC retain their odontogenic potential. However, DPSC lose their capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts in the presence of DFSC, as suggested by RUNX2 up-regulation and TWIST1 down-regulation. In contrast, the unchanged levels of SFRP1 expression suggest that DFSC retain their potential to form periodontal tissues even in the presence of DPSC. These findings demonstrate that stem cells behave differently according to their environment, retain their genetic memory, and compete with each other to acquire the appropriate territory. Understanding the mechanisms involved in stem cell migration may lead to new therapeutic approaches for tooth repair.

  14. C-myb Regulates Autophagy for Pulp Vitality in Glucose Oxidative Stress.

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    Lee, Y H; Kim, H S; Kim, J S; Yu, M K; Cho, S D; Jeon, J G; Yi, H K

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is closely related to oral-complicated diseases by oxidative stress. This study investigates whether cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) could protect human dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress and regulate autophagy activity for pulp vitality. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in Sprague-Dawley rats, and their pulp tissue in teeth was analyzed in terms of pulp cavity and molecules by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining. Human dental pulp cells were serially subcultured and treated with glucose oxidase in the presence of elevated glucose to generate glucose oxidative stress. The replication-deficient adenovirus c-myb and small interfering RNA c-myb were introduced for c-myb expression. The pulp tissue from the diabetic rats was structurally different from normal tissue in terms of narrow pulp capacity, reduced c-myb, and dentinogenesis molecules. Glucose oxidase treatment decreased c-myb and dentinogenesis molecules (bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7, dentin matrix protein 1, and dentin sialophosphoprotein) in human dental pulp cells. However, overexpression of c-myb by adenovirus c-myb increased dentinogenesis, autophagy molecules (autophagy protein 5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, and Beclin-1), and cell survival via p-AMPK/AKT signaling even with glucose oxidative stress. In contrast, the lack of c-myb decreased the above molecules and cell survival by downregulating p-AMPK/AKT signaling. The results indicate that diabetes leads to irreversible damage to dental pulp, which is related to downexpression of autophagy via the p-AMPK/AKT pathway by decline of c-myb. The findings of this study provide a new insight that c-myb could ameliorate autophagy activity and that it is applicable for monitoring complicated diseases of dental pulp. The involvement of c-myb in pulp pathology could serve a therapeutic target in oral-complicated diseases. © International & American Associations

  15. Investigation of functional activity human dental pulp stem cells at acute and chronic pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustiashvili, M; Kordzaia, D; Mamaladze, M; Jangavadze, M; Sanodze, L

    2014-09-01

    It is already recognized that together with the other connective tissues organ-specific progenic stem cells are also found in postnatal dental pulp. This group of undifferentiated cells is only 1% of total cell population of the pulp. The aim of the study was the identification of stem cells in human dental pulp, detection of their localization and assessment of functional activity during inflammation process and/or at norm. The obtained results showed that at acute pulpitis the pulp stroma is hypocellular in comparison with the norm but cells proliferative activity is low. CD 133 and NCAM (CD 56) positive stem cells were found in perivascularl space of the pulp stroma and in Hohle layer. At process prolongation and transition to the chronic phase pulp stroma is hypercellular, the cells with large, rounded or oval-shaped nuclei with clear chromatin appear together with fibroblasts. They are distributed as about entire thickness of the stroma as especially Hohle layer. In such cells higher proliferative activity (Ki67 expression) was observed. The cells in the mentioned proliferation phase are intensively marked by CD133, the rate of which is high in Hohle layer and along it. A large number of NCAM (CD 56) positive cells appear in pulp stroma. During pulpitis an involvement of stem cells into the process of reparative dentinogenesis should be conducted stepwise. In acute cases of the disease, stem cell perivascularl mobilization and proliferation and its migration to Hohle layer occur in response to irritation /stimulation. Chronification of the process leads not only to the migration of stem cells to the periphery of the pulp but also s their В«maturationВ» (increase of NCAM expression in the stem cells), which causes an increase the number of dentin producing active odontoblasts and initiation of reparative dentinogenesis.

  16. Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reprogrammed from Dental Pulp Cells: a Novel Approach for Tooth Regeneration

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    Xiaoyan Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidate human dental stem/progenitor cells have been isolated and charac-terized from dental tissues and shown to hold the capability to differentiate into tooth-generating cells. However, ad-vances in engineering a whole tooth by these stem cells are hindered by various factors, such as the poor availability of human primitive tooth bud stem cells, difficulties in isolating and purifying dental mesenchymal stem cells and ethical controversies when using embryonic oral epithelium. As a result it is meaningful to find other autologous dental cells for the purpose of reconstructing a tooth.The hypothesis: Previous studies demonstrated that somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells by ex-ogenous expression Oct-4 and Sox-2. On the basis of these findings we can reasonably hypothesize that when transfected with specific transcription factors Oct-4 and Sox-2, dental pulp cells, the main cell in pulp, could also be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells, which are considered to be of best potential to regenerate a whole tooth. Evaluation of the hypothesis: After transfection with Oct-4 and Sox-2 into human dental pulp cells, the positive colonies are isolated and then identified according to the characteristics of iPS cells. These cells are further investigated the capability in differentiating into ameloblasts and odontoblasts and finally seeded onto the sur-face of a tooth-shaped biodegradable polymer scaffold to detect the ability of constructing a bioengineered tooth.

  17. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

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    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS AND HUMAN PERIAPICAL CYST MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS IN BONE TISSUE REGENERATION: COMPARISON OF BASAL AND OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATED GENE EXPRESSION OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL LINEAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, M; Falisi, G; Amantea, M; Rastelli, C; Paduano, F; Marrelli, M

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration is an interesting field of biomedicine. The most recent studies are aimed to achieve a bone regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) taken from more accessible sites: oral and dental tissues have been widely investigated as a rich accessible source of MSCs. Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and human Periapical Cysts Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hPCy-MSCs) represent the new generation MSCs. The aim of this study is to compare the gene expression of these two innovative cell types to highlight the advantages of their use in bone regeneration. The harvesting, culturing and differentiating of cells isolated from dental pulp as well as from periapical cystic tissue were carried out as described in previously published reports. qRT-PCR analyses were performed on osteogenic genes in undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated cells of DPSC and hPCy-MSC lineage. Real-time RT-PCR data suggested that both DPSCs and hPCy-MSCs cultured in osteogenic media are able to differentiate into osteoblast/odontoblast-like cells: however, some differences indicated that DPSCs seem to be directed more towards dentinogenesis, while hPCy-MSCs seem to be directed more towards osteogenesis.

  19. Isolation, expansion and differentiation of cellular progenitors obtained from dental pulp of agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

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    Yulla K.P. de Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to isolate, expand, differentiate and characterize progenitor cells existent in the dental pulp of agouti. The material was washed with PBS solution and dissociated mechanically with the aid of a scalpel blade on plates containing culture medium D-MEM/F-12, and incubated at 5% CO2-37⁰C. The growth curve, CFU assay, osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation and characterization were obtained from the isolation. The cells began to be released from the explant tissue around the 7th day of culture. By day 22 of culture, cells reached 80% confluence. At the UFC test, 81 colonies were counted with 12 days of cultivation. The growth curves before and after freezing showed a regular growth with intense proliferation and clonogenic potential. The cell differentiation showed formation of osteoblasts and fat in culture, starting at 15 days of culture in a specific medium. Flow cytometry (FACs was as follows: CD34 (positive, CD14 (negative, CD45 (negative, CD73 (positive, CD79 (negative, CD90 (positive, CD105 (positive, demonstrating high specificity and commitment of isolated cells with mesenchymal stem cells strains. These results suggest the existence of a cell population of stem cells with mesenchymal features from the isolated tissue in the explants of agouti dental pulp, a potential model for study of stem cell strains obtained from the pulp tissue.

  20. An in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of curcumin against human dental pulp fibroblasts

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    Praveenkumar S Mandrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of curcumin to primary dental pulp fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp fibroblasts from primary maxillary central incisors were cultured and used for cytotoxicity tests after the fourth passage. Ninety-five percent curcumin was diluted with dimethylsulfoxide to prepare 100%, 50%, and 25% concentrations. Each concentration of curcumin was added in triplicate into 96-well microtiter plate containing the fibroblast culture at 104/well. Cells without treatment served as a control group. The number of viable cells after 48 hrs incubation at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 and 95 % air was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The relative viability of pulp cells was expressed as color intensity of the number in the experimental wells relative to that of the control group. Absorbances were read at 492 nm on a microplate reader with a background subtraction at 620 nm. Results: Cell viability of primary dental pulp fibroblasts to 25%, 50%, and 100% curcumin concentration was 174%, 310%, and 317%, respectively. Conclusions: Curcumin promotes cell viability and induces proliferation of primary dental pulp fibroblasts and has the potential to be developed into an economical and reliable medicament for vital pulp therapy.

  1. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  2. [Studies on the relation between glucose metabolism and c-AMP formation in dental pulps in the presence of inflammatory chemical mediators in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, H

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between glucose metabolism and cyclic-AMP production in dental pulp in the presence of chemical mediators was investigated in vitro. It is generally accepted that oxidation of glucose-6-14C is indicative of metabolism by the glycolytic pathway whereas that of glucose-1-14C occurs by the hexose monophosphate shunt. The 14CO2 productions from both routes were compared in dental pulp from cattle and rats in the presence of each of several chemical mediators: bradykinin (1.7-3.3 micrograms/ml), prostaglandin E1 (0.3 micrograms/ml), prostaglandin E2 (0.3 micrograms/ml), histamine (33 micrograms/ml), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (33 micrograms/ml). The effects of dental filling materials on glucose oxidation, and cyclic-AMP production by chemical mediators in pulp tissues were also investigated. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Glucose oxidation in dental pulp was stimulated by chemical mediators generally by way of the Embden-Meyerhof Parnas pathway, and was further stimulated by the medium containing bradykinin. However, it was depressed in the presence of higher concentrations of chemical mediators, especially depressed in the HMS pathway. 2) The oxidation ratio of glucose-1-14C to glucose-6-14C (G1/G6) in dental pulp was 4 to 8 in the cattle and 0.6 in the rat, showing clear differences in glucose oxidation between the two animals. 3) Moreover, glucose oxidation in rat dental pulp was 60 to 80 times higher in the EMP pathway and 5 to 10 times higher in the HMS pathway than those in the cattle. 4) Dental filling materials such as silicate cement, zinc phosphate cement, calcium hydroxide, and eugenol cement severely depressed glucose-6-14C oxidation in bovine dental pulp when used at high concentrations, but not at low concentrations. 5) The chemical mediators tested in this experiment (PGE1, PGE2, histamine, 5-HT, bradykinin, and substance P) stimulated cyclic AMP production in rat dental pulp. The production was highest with PGE1 and PGE2. The

  3. Advances in regeneration of dental pulp--a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay Sharma, Lavanya; Sharma, Ajay; Dias, George J

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes the biological response of dentin-pulp complexes to a variety of stimuli and responses to current treatment therapies and reviews the role of tissue engineering and its application in regenerative endodontics. An electronic search was undertaken based on keywords using Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Ovid database resources up to March 2012 to identify appropriate articles, supplemented by a manual search using reference lists from relevant articles. Inclusion criteria were mainly based on different combinations of keywords and restricted to articles published in English language only. Biological approaches based on tissue engineering principles were found to offer the possibility of restoring natural tooth vitality, with distinct evidence that regeneration of lost dental tissues is possible. Studies to formulate an ideal restorative material with regenerative properties, however, are still under way. Further research with supporting clinical studies is required to identify the most effective and safe treatment therapy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Human dental pulp cells exhibit bone cell-like responsiveness to fluid shear stress.

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    Kraft, David Christian Evar; Bindslev, Dorth Arenholt; Melsen, Birte; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2011-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, mechanosensitive cells are needed that are able to conduct bone cell-specific functions, such as bone remodelling. Mechanical loading affects local bone mass and architecture in vivo by initiating a cellular response via loading-induced flow of interstitial fluid. After surgical removal of ectopically impacted third molars, human dental pulp tissue is an easily accessible and interesting source of cells for mineralized tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to determine whether human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC) are responsive to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF) upon stimulation of mineralization in vitro. Human DPC were incubated with or without mineralization medium containing differentiation factors for 3 weeks. Cells were subjected to 1-h PFF (0.7 ± 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) and the response was quantified by measuring nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, and gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. We found that DPC are intrinsically mechanosensitive and, like osteogenic cells, respond to PFF-induced fluid shear stress. PFF stimulated NO and PGE₂ production, and up-regulated COX-2 but not COX-1 gene expression. In DPC cultured under mineralizing conditions, the PFF-induced NO, but not PGE₂, production was significantly enhanced. These data suggest that human DPC, like osteogenic cells, acquire responsiveness to pulsating fluid shear stress in mineralizing conditions. Thus DPC might be able to perform bone-like functions during mineralized tissue remodeling in vivo, and therefore provide a promising new tool for mineralized tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects.

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Clinical Isolates from Initial Stages of Dental Pulp Infection: Identification of a New Exopolysaccharide Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R.; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG). Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED) identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG). Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation from the reference

  6. Oxygen Saturation in the Dental Pulp of Maxillary Premolars in Different Age Groups - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Carlos; Serpa, Giuliano C; Alencar, Ana Helena G; Bruno, Kely F; Barletta, Fernando B; Felippe, Wilson T; Estrela, Cyntia R A; Souza, João B

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine oxygen saturation levels in the dental pulp of maxillary premolars in different age groups. A total of 120 human maxillary premolars with normal dental pulps were selected covering the following age groups: 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and 40-44 years (n=24 each group). Oxygen saturation was assessed using pulse oximetry. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in oxygen saturation levels and Tukey's test was used to identify the age groups that differed from each other. Significance was set at 0.05. Mean oxygen saturation of 120 premolars was 86.20% considering all age groups. Significantly reduced levels were found in the oldest group compared to the other groups: 40 to 44 years - 80.00% vs. 89.71, 87.67, 88.71, and 84.80% for age groups 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 years, respectively. The mean oxygen saturation levels were similar between 20 and 39 years of age (86.20%) in the whole sample, but reduced significantly in the 40-44-year age group, suggesting that older patients present lower oxygen saturation results even in the absence of pulp tissue injury.

  7. An investigation of dentinal fluid flow in dental pulp during food mastication: simulation of fluid-structure interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

    2014-06-01

    This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of a premolar tooth (enamel, dentine, pulp, periodontal ligament, cortical bone, and cancellous bone) and food particle were created. Food particles with elastic modulus of 2,000 and 10,000 MPa were used, respectively. The external displacement loading (5 μm) was gradually directed to the food particle surface for 1 and 0.1 s, respectively, to simulate the chewing of food particles. The displacement and stress on tooth structure and fluid flow in the dental pulp were selected as evaluation indices. The results show that masticating food with a high elastic modulus results in high stress and deformation in the tooth structure, causing faster dentinal fluid flow in the pulp in comparison with that obtained with soft food. In addition, fast chewing of hard food particles can induce faster fluid flow in the pulp, which may result in dental pain. FSI analysis is shown to be a useful tool for investigating dental biomechanics during food mastication. FSI simulation can be used to predict intrapulpal fluid flow in dental pulp; this information may provide the clinician with important concept in dental biomechanics during food mastication.

  8. Advanced Scaffolds for Dental Pulp and Periodontal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marco C; Pankajakshan, Divya; Nör, Jacques E

    2017-10-01

    No current therapy promotes root canal disinfection and regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex in cases of pulp necrosis. Antibiotic pastes used to eradicate canal infection negatively affect stem cell survival. Three-dimensional easy-to-fit antibiotic-eluting nanofibers, combined with injectable scaffolds, enriched or not with stem cells and/or growth factors, may increase the likelihood of achieving predictable dental pulp regeneration. Periodontitis is an aggressive disease that impairs the integrity of tooth-supporting structures and may lead to tooth loss. The latest advances in membrane biomodification to endow needed functionalities and technologies to engineer patient-specific membranes/constructs to amplify periodontal regeneration are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Partial pulp necrosis caused by excessive orthodontic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the dental pulp is encased with a rigid, noncompliant shell, changes in pulpal blood flow or vascular tissue pressure can have serious implication for the health of pulp. Numerous studies have demonstrated that orthodontic force application may influence both blood flow and cellular metabolism, leading degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to present a case about tooth with chronic periapical abscess which showed normal vital responses. Excessive orthodontic force is thought to be the prime cause of partial pulp necrosis. Owing to remaining vital tissue, wrong dianosis can be made, and tooth falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissuses. Clinician should be able to utilize various diagnostic tools for the precise diagnosis, and be aware of the endodontic-orthodontic inter-relationship.

  10. Effect of adhesive system application for cavities prepared with erbium, chromium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser on rat dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Mayo; Suzuki, Masaya; Haga-Tsujimura, Maiko; Shinkai, Koichi

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effects of adhesive systems under study applied for a laser-cut cavity using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on rat dental pulp at 24 h and 14 days postoperatively. Group 1, laser-cut cavities were treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 2, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 3, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid and sodium-hypochlorite, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; and group 4, treated with an all-in-one adhesive. A flowable resin composite was used as filling material for each cavity treated with each group. A glass-ionomer-cement was used as a control. The following items were evaluated: pulp-tissue-disorganization (PTD), inflammatory-cell-infiltration (ICI), tertiary-dentin-formation (TDF), and bacterial-penetration (BP). The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. No significant differences were observed among the experimental groups for all parameters after 24 h and 14 days (P > 0.05). The majority of the specimens showed PTD with edema formation after 24 h; however, all the specimens demonstrated pulpal healing with TDF after 14 days. On the parameter of TDF, all groups showed significant differences between the two postoperative periods (P < 0.01). On the parameter of ICI, a significant difference was found between the two postoperative periods in group 4 (P < 0.05). No specimens showed BP. The pretreatment on the cavity prepared with the laser using phosphoric-acid or sodium-hypochlorite did not affect the dental pulp healing of rat tooth.

  11. Davallialactone reduces inflammation and repairs dentinogenesis on glucose oxidase-induced stress in dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Go-Eun; Song, Yong-Beom; Paudel, Usha; Lee, Nan-Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2013-11-01

    The chronic nature of diabetes mellitus (DM) raises the risk of oral complication diseases. In general, DM causes oxidative stress to organs. This study aimed to evaluate the cellular change of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress by glucose oxidase with a high glucose state. The purpose of this study was to test the antioxidant character of davallialactone and to reduce the pathogenesis of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress. The glucose oxidase with a high glucose concentration was tested for hydroxy peroxide (H2O2) production, cellular toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, induction of inflammatory molecules and disturbance of dentin mineralization in human dental pulp cells. The anti-oxidant effect of Davallilactone was investigated to restore dental pulp cells' vitality and dentin mineralization via reduction of H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, ROS formation and inflammatory molecules. The treatment of glucose oxidase with a high glucose concentration increased H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, and inflammatory molecules and disturbed dentin mineralization by reducing pulp cell activity. However, davallialactone reduced H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, ROS formation, inflammatory molecules, and dentin mineralization disturbances even with a long-term glucose oxidative stress state. The results of this study imply that the development of oral complications is related to the irreversible damage of dental pulp cells by DM-induced oxidative stress. Davallialactone, a natural antioxidant, may be useful to treat complicated oral disease, representing an improvement for pulp vital therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional profiling of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA regulated genes in mineralizing dental pulp cells at early and late time points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F. Duncan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue can be damaged by a range of irritants, however, if the irritation is removed and/or the tooth is adequately restored, pulp regeneration is possible (Mjör and Tronstad, 1974 [1]. At present, dental restorative materials limit healing by impairing mineralization and repair processes and as a result new biologically-based materials are being developed (Ferracane et al., 2010 [2]. Previous studies have highlighted the benefit of epigenetic modification by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi application to dental pulp cells (DPCs, which induces changes to chromatin architecture, promoting gene expression and cellular-reparative events (Duncan et al., 2013 [3]; Paino et al., 2014 [4]. In this study a genome-wide transcription profiling in epigenetically-modified mineralizing primary DPC cultures was performed, at relatively early and late time-points, to identify differentially regulated transcripts that may provide novel therapeutic targets for use in restorative dentistry. Here we provide detailed methods and analysis on these microarray data which has been deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67175.

  13. Overexpression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Human Dental Pulp Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunya Tancharoen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1. RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection.

  14. Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Gutta-Percha Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in treatment of tooth injury have shown that tooth regeneration from the pulp was a viable alternative of root canal therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that Gutta-percha, nanocomposites primarily used for obturation of the canal, are not cytotoxic and can induce differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC in the absence of soluble mediators. Flat scaffolds were obtained by spin coating Si wafers with three Gutta-percha compounds: GuttaCore™, ProTaper™, and Lexicon™. The images of annealed surfaces showed that the nanoparticles were encapsulated, forming surfaces with root mean square (RMS roughness of 136–211 nm. Then, by culturing DPSC on these substrates we found that after some initial difficulty in adhesion, confluent tissues were formed after 21 days. Imaging of the polyisoprene (PI surfaces showed that biomineral deposition only occurred when dexamethasone was present in the media. Spectra obtained from the minerals was consistent with that of hydroxyapatite (HA. In contrast, HA deposition was observed on all Gutta-percha scaffolds regardless of the presence or absence of dexamethasone, implying that surface roughness may be an enabling factor in the differentiation process. These results indicate that Gutta-percha nanocomposites may be good candidates for pulp regeneration therapy.

  15. Autologous dental pulp stem cells in periodontal regeneration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Cricenti, Luca; Mariani, Giulia Maria; Romano, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Histologic findings in animal models suggest that the application of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote periodontal regeneration in infrabony defects. This case report describes the clinical and radiographic regenerative potential of autologous DPSCs in the treatment of human noncontained intraosseous defects. A chronic periodontitis patient with one vital third molar requiring extraction was surgically treated. The third molar was extracted and used as an autologous DPSCs source to regenerate the infrabony defect on the mandibular right second premolar. At the 1-year examination, the defect was completely filled with bonelike tissue as confirmed through the reentry procedure.

  16. Wnt and BMP signaling crosstalk in regulating dental stem cells: Implications in dental tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugui Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth is a complex hard tissue organ and consists of multiple cell types that are regulated by important signaling pathways such as Wnt and BMP signaling. Serious injuries and/or loss of tooth or periodontal tissues may significantly impact aesthetic appearance, essential oral functions and the quality of life. Regenerative dentistry holds great promise in treating oral/dental disorders. The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of our understanding of the biological features of dental stem cells, along with the signaling mechanisms governing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we first summarize the biological characteristics of seven types of dental stem cells, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental follicle precursor cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, alveolar bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and MSCs from gingiva. We then focus on how these stem cells are regulated by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and/or Wnt signaling by examining the interplays between these pathways. Lastly, we analyze the current status of dental tissue engineering strategies that utilize oral/dental stem cells by harnessing the interplays between BMP and Wnt pathways. We also highlight the challenges that must be addressed before the dental stem cells may reach any clinical applications. Thus, we can expect to witness significant progresses to be made in regenerative dentistry in the coming decade.

  17. Pulp Obliteration in a Patient with Sclerodermatous Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Camilla Borges Ferreira; Treister, Nathaniel Simon; Miller, Brian; Armand, Philippe; Friedland, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Dental pulp calcification is a common finding associated with localized dental trauma, genetic disorders, and systemic inflammatory diseases. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a frequent complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) characterized by immune-mediated injury to the skin, mouth, eyes, liver, and other tissues, resulting in significant disability and reduced quality of life. We report a patient with sclerodermatous cGVHD who presented with general pulp calcification in all teeth 5 years after allo-HCT. A review of full mouth dental radiographs obtained just before allo-HCT revealed normal-appearing pulp chambers. Based on prior reports of generalized pulp calcification associated with progressive systemic sclerosis, we hypothesized that the etiology was likely related to the presence of cGVHD with associated vascular and fibrotic tissue changes within the pulp vasculature. Clinicians should consider cGVHD in the differential diagnosis of generalized pulp calcification. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  18. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:26775677

  19. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  20. Glycometabolic reprogramming associated with the initiation of human dental pulp stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linyan; Cheng, Li; Wang, Huning; Pan, Hongying; Yang, Hui; Shao, Meiying; Hu, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Glycometabolism, particularly mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis, plays a central role in cell life activities. Glycometabolism can be reprogrammed to maintain the stemness or to induce the differentiation of stem cells, thereby regulating tissue repair and regeneration. However, research on the glycometabolism of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) remains scarce. Here, we investigated the relationship between glycometabolic reprogramming and initiation of hDPSC differentiation. We found the differentiation of hDPSCs commenced on day 3 when cells were cultured in mineralized medium. When cell differentiation commenced, mitochondria became elongated with well-developed cristae, and the oxygen consumption rate of mitochondria was enhanced, manifested as an increase in basal respiration, mitochondrial ATP production, and maximal respiration. Interestingly, glycolytic enzyme activities, glycolysis capacity, and glycolysis reserve were also upregulated at this time to match the powerful bioenergetic demands. More importantly, hDPSCs derived from different donors or cultured in various oxygen environments showed similar glycometabolic changes when they began to differentiate. Thus, glycometabolic reprogramming accompanies initiation of hDPSC differentiation and could potentially play a role in the regulation of dental pulp repair. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. Human dental pulp stem cells and gingival fibroblasts seeded into silk fibroin scaffolds have the same ability in attracting vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eWoloszyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neovascularization is one of the most important processes during tissue repair and regeneration. Current healing approaches based on the use of biomaterials combined with stem cells in critical-size bone defects fail due to the insufficient implant vascularization and integration into the host tissues. Therefore, here we studied the attraction, ingrowth, and distribution of blood vessels from the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane into implanted silk fibroin scaffolds seeded with either human dental pulp stem cells or human gingival fibroblasts. Perfusion capacity was evaluated by non-invasive in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging while the number and density of blood vessels were measured by histomorphometry. Our results demonstrate that human dental pulp stem cells and gingival fibroblasts possess equal abilities in attracting vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds. Additionally, the prolonged in vitro pre-incubation period of these two cell populations favors the homogeneous distribution of vessels within silk fibroin scaffolds, which further improves implant survival and guarantees successful healing and regeneration.

  2. Classification of ancient mammal individuals using dental pulp MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279-modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%. Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56% collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals.

  3. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Aboudharam, Gérard; Gardeisen, Armelle; Davoust, Bernard; Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Flaudrops, Christophe; Belghazi, Maya; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279–modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%). Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56%) collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I) in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals. PMID:21364886

  4. STRO-1 selected rat dental pulp stem cells transfected with adenoviral-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene show enhanced odontogenic differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells harbor great potential for tissue-engineering purposes. However, previous studies have shown variable results, and some have reported only limited osteogenic and odontogenic potential.Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-established agents to induce bone and

  5. Comparative characterization of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, dental pulp, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Ryo; Nakajima, Kengo; Awada, Tetsuya; Tsuka, Yuji; Abe, Takaharu; Ando, Kazuyo; Hiraki, Tomoka; Kimura, Aya; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-06-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used clinically in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs vary according to factors such as tissue source and cell population heterogeneity. Dental tissue has received attention as an easily accessible source of high-quality stem cells. In this study, we compared the in vitro characteristics of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (SHED), human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). SEHD and hDPSCs were isolated from dental pulp and analyzed in comparison with human bone marrow (hBM)MSCs. Proliferative capacity of cultured cells was analyzed using a bromodeoxyuridine immunoassay and cell counting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were monitored to assess osteogenic differentiation. Mineralization was evaluated by alizarin red staining. Levels of bone marker mRNA were examined by real-time PCR analysis. SHED were highly proliferative compared with hDPSCs and hBMSCs. SHED, hDPSCs, and hBMSCs exhibited dark alizarin red staining on day 21 after induction of osteogenic differentiation, and staining of hBMSCs was significantly higher than that of SHED and hDPSCs by spectrophotometry. ALP staining was stronger in hBMSCs compared with SHED and hDPSCs, and ALP activity was significantly higher in hBMSCs compared with SHED or hDPSCs. SHED showed significantly higher expression of the Runx2 and ALP genes compared with hBMSCs, based on real-time PCR analysis. In bFGF, SHED showed significantly higher expression of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene compared with hDPSCs and hBMSCs. SHED exhibited higher proliferative activity and levels of bFGF and BMP-2 gene expression compared with BMMSCs and DPSCs. The ease of harvesting cells and ability to avoid invasive surgical procedures suggest that SHED may be a useful cell source for application in bone regeneration treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  6. Biological Effects of Provisional Resin Materials on Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S-K; Mahapatra, C; Lee, H-H; Kim, H-W; Lee, J-H

    This study investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity as well as the proinflammatory cytokine expression of provisional resin materials on primary cultured human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Five commercially available provisional resin materials were chosen (SNAP [SN], Luxatemp [LT], Jet [JE], Revotek LC [RL], and Vipi block [VB]). Eluates that were either polymerizing or already set were added to hDPSCs under serially diluted conditions divided into three different setting times (25% set, 50% set, and 100% set) and incubated for 24 hours with 2× concentrated culture media. Cell cytotoxicity tests were performed by LDH assay and live and dead confocal microscope images. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in SN and VB was measured using cytokine antibody arrays. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) or ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test at a significance level of pprovisional resin materials during polymerization (SN, LT, and JE) were cytotoxic to hDPSCs and may adversely affect pulp tissue.

  7. Dentin and dental pulp regeneration by the patient’s endogenous cells

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, SAHNG G.; ZHENG, YING; ZHOU, JIAN; CHEN, MO; EMBREE, MILDRED C.; SONG, KAREN; JIANG, NAN; MAO, JEREMY J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the functions of the dental pulp–dentin complex. Two approaches are being applied toward dental pulp–dentin regeneration: cell transplantation and cell homing. The majority of previous approaches are based on cell transplantation by delivering ex vivo cultivated cells toward dental pulp or dentin regeneration. Many hurdles limit the clinical translation of cell transplantation such as the difficulty of acquiring and isolating viable cells, un...

  8. Dental pulp-derived stem cells (DPSC) differentiation in vitro into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    survival and viability rates following freezing, long-term storage and thawing. Conclusions: The ... The working hypothesis was that dental pulp ... two hours was removed from the subsequent analysis. ... G6 digital camera (Tokyo, Japan) and.

  9. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification...

  10. Paracrine Maturation and Migration of SH-SY5Y Cells by Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gervois, Pascal; Wolfs, Esther; Dillen, Yörg; Hilkens, Petra; Ratajczak, Jessica; Driesen, Ronald; Vangansewinkel, Tim; Bronckaers, Annelies; Brône, Bert; Struys, Tom; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders are characterized by neurodegeneration and/or loss of neuronal function, which cannot be adequately repaired by the host. Therefore, there is need for novel treatment options such as cell-based therapies that aim to salvage or reconstitute the lost tissue or that stimulate host repair. The present study aimed to evaluate the paracrine effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on the migration and neural maturation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The hDPSC s...

  11. Development and initial testing of a pulse oximetry prototype for measuring dental pulp vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, M.; Ferreira, M.; Caramelo, F.

    2015-05-01

    The guiding principle of endodontic treatment is to preserve teeth while maintaining its aesthetic and functional roles. To accomplish this goal the assessment of teeth pulp vitality is very important since it will determine the procedures that should be adopted and define the therapy strategy. Currently, the most commonly tests for determining dental pulp state are the thermal and the electrical tests, which are based on nerve response and, because of that, have a relatively high rate of false positives and false negatives cases. In this work we present a simple test to be used in the clinical setting for evaluating noninvasively the existence of blood perfusion in dental pulp. This test is based on pulse oximetry principle that was devised to indirectly measure the amount of oxygen in blood. Although pulse oximetry has already demonstrated its usefulness in clinical environment its usage for the determination of dental pulp vitality has been frustrated by several factors, notably the absence of a suitable sensor to the complex shape of the various coronary teeth. We developed a suitable sensor and present the first trials with promising results, regarding the ability for distinguish teeth with and without blood perfusion.

  12. Analysis of gene expression during odontogenic differentiation of cultured human dental pulp cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seock Seo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives We analyzed gene-expression profiles after 14 day odontogenic induction of human dental pulp cells (DPCs using a DNA microarray and sought candidate genes possibly associated with mineralization. Materials and Methods Induced human dental pulp cells were obtained by culturing DPCs in odontogenic induction medium (OM for 14 day. Cells exposed to normal culture medium were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from cells and analyzed by microarray analysis and the key results were confirmed selectively by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. We also performed a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA of the microarray data. Results Six hundred and five genes among the 47,320 probes on the BeadChip differed by a factor of more than two-fold in the induced cells. Of these, 217 genes were upregulated, and 388 were down-regulated. GSEA revealed that in the induced cells, genes implicated in Apoptosis and Signaling by wingless MMTV integration (Wnt were significantly upregulated. Conclusions Genes implicated in Apoptosis and Signaling by Wnt are highly connected to the differentiation of dental pulp cells into odontoblast.

  13. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  14. Immunocytochemical localization of the neurokinin 1 receptor in rat dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Mizuho A; Ibuki, Teiichi; Danjo, Atsushi; Kondo, Teruyoshi; Zhang, Jing-Qi; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Yamashita, Yoshio; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Teruo

    2005-12-01

    The dentin-pulp complex is a peripheral end-organ supplied by dense sensory nerve fibers. Substance P, a representative neuropeptide widely distributed in the dental pulp, has been reported to play roles in pain transmission and the amplification of inflammation. We analyzed here the expression of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, preferentially activated by substance P, using immunocytochemistry in rat dental pulp at both the light and electron microscopic levels. Conspicuous NK1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in the odontoblasts; immunolabelings were present at their plasma membrane and endosomal structures, especially in their cytoplasmic processes. Immunoreactions for NK1 receptor were also detectable in a part of the nerve terminals associated with the cytoplasmic processes of the odontoblasts. Furthermore, the endothelial cells of capillaries and post-capillary venules and the fibroblasts were labeled with the NK1 receptor in the subodontoblast layer. These findings suggest that pulpal cells and nerve fibers are targets for substance P that mediate multiple functions, including a vasoactive function and the regulation of vascular permeability as well as the modulation of pain transmission.

  15. Novel approach for transient protein expression in primary cultures of human dental pulp-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguro, Hisashi; Mikami, Yoshikazu; Koshi, Rieko; Ogiso, Bunnai; Watanabe, Eri; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Honda, Masaki J; Asano, Masatake; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    Transfection is a powerful method for investigating variable biological functions of desired genes. However, the efficiency of transfection into primary cultures of dental pulp-derived cells (DPDC) is low. Therefore, using a recombinant vaccinia virus (vTF7-3), which contains T7 RNA polymerase, we have established a transient protein expression system in DPDCs. In this study, we used the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) cDNA as a model gene. pIgR expression by the vTF7-3 expression system was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. Furthermore, exogenous pIgR protein localized at the cell surface in DPDCs and formed a secretory component (SC). This suggests that exogenous pIgR protein expressed by the vTF7-3 expression system acts like endogenous pIgR protein. These results indicate the applicability of the method for cells outgrown from dental pulp tissue. In addition, as protein expression could be detected shortly after transfection (approximately 5h), this experimental system has been used intensely for experiments examining very early steps in protein exocytosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IFN-γ regulates human dental pulp stem cells behavior via NF-κB and MAPK signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Jiang, Wenkai; Luo, Zhirong; Qu, Tiejun; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Yaqing; Cooper, Paul R.; He, Wenxi

    2017-01-01

    During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation). Here we demonstrate that IFN-γ at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation and migration of DPSCs, but abrogated odonto/osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways are both involved in the process of IFN-γ-regulated odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. DPSCs treated with IFN-γ and supplemented with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) or SB203580 (a MAPK inhibitor) showed significantly improved potential for odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs both in vivo and in vitro. These data provide important insight into the regulatory effects of IFN-γ on the biological behavior of DPSCs and indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:28098169

  17. IFN-γ regulates human dental pulp stem cells behavior via NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Jiang, Wenkai; Luo, Zhirong; Qu, Tiejun; Wang, Zhihua; Liu, Ningning; Zhang, Yaqing; Cooper, Paul R; He, Wenxi

    2017-01-18

    During caries, dental pulp expresses a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infectious challenge. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine, which is critical for immune responses. Previous study has demonstrated that IFN-γ at relative high concentration (100 ng/mL) treatment improved the impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive regulatory functions of disease-derived dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, little is known about the regulatory effects of IFN-γ at relative low concentration on healthy DPSC behavior (including proliferation, migration, and multiple-potential differentiation). Here we demonstrate that IFN-γ at relatively low concentrations (0.5 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation and migration of DPSCs, but abrogated odonto/osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways are both involved in the process of IFN-γ-regulated odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. DPSCs treated with IFN-γ and supplemented with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor) or SB203580 (a MAPK inhibitor) showed significantly improved potential for odonto/osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs both in vivo and in vitro. These data provide important insight into the regulatory effects of IFN-γ on the biological behavior of DPSCs and indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  18. Dental Pulp Cells Isolated from Teeth with Superficial Caries Retain an Inflammatory Phenotype and Display an Enhanced Matrix Mineralization Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem El-Gendy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated dental pulp cells (DPCs from three healthy (hDPCs and three carious (cDPCs donors and shown that compared to hDPCs cells isolated from superficial carious lesions show higher clonogenic potential; show an equivalent proportion of cells with putative stem cell surface markers; show enhanced matrix mineralization capability; have enhanced angiogenic marker expression and retain the inflammatory phenotype in vitro characteristic of superficial caries lesions in vivo. Our findings suggest that cDPCs may be used for further investigation of the cross talk between inflammatory, angiogenic and mineralization pathways in repair of carious pulp. In addition cells derived from carious pulps (almost always discarded may have potential for future applications in mineralized tissue repair and regeneration.

  19. Can dental pulp calcification predict the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Bronoosh, Pegah; Khosropanah, Shahdad; Rahimi, Elham

    2013-09-01

    To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated. Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD. This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of glass ionomer cements on human dental pulp stem cells correlate with fluoride release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjevac, Tatjana; Milovanovic, Marija; Volarevic, Vladislav; Lukic, Miodrag L; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Markovic, Dejan; Zdravkovic, Nebojsa; Tesic, Zivoslav; Lukic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used as restorative materials. Responses to GICs differ among cell types and it is therefore of importance to thoroughly investigate the influence of these restorative materials on pulp stem cells that are potential source for dental tissue regeneration. Eight biomaterials were tested: Fuji I, Fuji II, Fuji VIII, Fuji IX, Fuji Plus, Fuji Triage, Vitrebond and Composit. We compared their cytotoxic activity on human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and correlated this activity with the content of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions in their eluates. Elution samples of biomaterials were prepared in sterile tissue culture medium and the medium was tested for toxicity by an assay of cell survival/proliferation (MTT test) and apoptosis (Annexin V FITC Detection Kit). Concentrations of Fluoride, Aluminium and Strontium ions were tested by appropriate methods in the same eluates. Cell survival ranged between 79.62% (Fuji Triage) to 1.5% (Fuji Plus) and most dead DPSCs were in the stage of late apoptosis. Fluoride release correlated with cytotoxicity of GICs, while Aluminium and Strontium ions, present in significant amount in eluates of tested GICs did not. Fuji Plus, Vitrebond and Fuji VIII, which released fluoride in higher quantities than other GICs, were highly toxic to human DPSCs. Opposite, low levels of released fluoride correlated to low cytotoxic effect of Composit, Fuji I and Fuji Triage.

  1. Odontoblasts: Specialized hard-tissue-forming cells in the dentin-pulp complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Okiji, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Odontoblasts are specialized cells that produce dentin and exhibit unique morphological characteristics; i.e., they extend cytoplasmic processes into dentinal tubules. While osteoblasts, which are typical hard-tissue-forming cells, are generated from mesenchymal stem cells during normal and pathological bone metabolism, the induction of odontoblasts only occurs once during tooth development, and odontoblasts survive throughout the lives of healthy teeth. During the differentiation of odontoblasts, signaling molecules from the inner enamel epithelium are considered necessary for the differentiation of odontoblast precursors, i.e., peripheral dental papilla cells. If odontoblasts are destroyed by severe external stimuli, such as deep caries, the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells into odontoblast-like cells is induced. Various bioactive molecules, such as non-collagenous proteins, might be involved in this process, although the precise mechanisms responsible for odontoblast differentiation have not been fully elucidated. Recently, our knowledge about the other functional activities of odontoblasts (apart from dentin formation) has increased. For example, it has been suggested that odontoblasts might act as nociceptive receptors, and surveillance cells that detect the invasion of exogenous pathogens. The regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex has recently gained much attention as a promising future treatment modality that could increase the longevity of pulpless teeth. Finally, congenital dentin anomalies, which are concerned with the disturbance of odontoblast functions, are summarized. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Regenerative medicine using dental pulp stem cells for liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Hara, Hajime; Hirono, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-02-06

    Acute liver failure is a refractory disease and its prognosis, if not treated using liver transplantation, is extremely poor. It is a good candidate for regenerative medicine, where stem cell-based therapies play a central role. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to differentiate into multiple cell lineages including hepatocytes. Autologous cell transplant without any foreign gene induction is feasible using MSCs, thereby avoiding possible risks of tumorigenesis and immune rejection. Dental pulp also contains an MSC population that differentiates into hepatocytes. A point worthy of special mention is that dental pulp can be obtained from deciduous teeth during childhood and can be subsequently harvested when necessary after deposition in a tooth bank. MSCs have not only a regenerative capacity but also act in an anti-inflammatory manner via paracrine mechanisms. Promising efficacies and difficulties with the use of MSC derived from teeth are summarized in this review.

  3. Roles of dental pulp fibroblasts in the recognition of bacterium-related factors and subsequent development of pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakanishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As caries-related bacteria invade deeply into dentin and come into close proximity to the pulp, inflammatory cells (such as lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrate into the bacterium-invaded area and consequently pulpitis develops. Many types of cytokines and adhesion molecules are responsible for the initiation and progression of pulpitis. Dental pulp fibroblasts, a major cell type in the dental pulp, also have capacity to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and express adhesion molecules in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, including lipopolysaccharide. The innate immune system senses microbial infection using pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD, for PAMPs. In this review, we summarize the roles of dental pulp fibroblasts in the recognition of invaded bacterium-related factors via TLR and NOD pathways, and the subsequent pulpal immune responses, leading to progressive pulpitis.

  4. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  5. Can Dental Pulp Calcification Predict the Risk of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD using digital panoramic dental radiographs.Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of panoramic radiography in predicting CVD were calculated.Results: Out of 122 patients who met the criteria, 68.2% of the patients with CVD had pulp chamber calcifications. Pulp calcification in panoramic radiography had a sensitivity of 68.9% to predict CVD.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with CVD show an increased incidence of pulp calcification compared with healthy patients. The findings suggest that pulp calcification on panoramic radiography may have possibilities for use in CVD screening.

  6. Effect of white mineral trioxide aggregate compared with biomimetic carbonated apatite on dentine bridge formation and inflammatory response in a dental pulp model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, F; Vahid, A; Jahanbani, J; Mashhadiabbas, F; Arman, E

    2012-01-01

      To evaluate the effects of apatite precipitation on the biocompatibility and hard tissue induction properties of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) in a dental pulp model.   Pulp exposures were created on the axial walls of 32 sound canine teeth of eight dogs. Four additional sound teeth served as controls. The pulps were capped either with WMTA or apatite derivatives [biomimetic carbonated apatite (BCAp)] in the interaction of WMTA with a synthetic tissue fluid and restored with zinc oxide-eugenol cement. After 7 and 70 days, the animals were killed, and the histological specimens taken from the teeth were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological evaluation. The Brown and Brenn technique was employed to stain bacteria. The data were subjected to nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney U_tests.   Biomimetic carbonated apatite did not induce hard tissue bridge formation. WMTA performed significantly better than BCAp in this respect at both periods (P 0.05).   White mineral trioxide aggregate induced hard tissue formation via a mechanism other than that postulated via apatite formation. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells: function, isolation and applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J

    2015-11-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a promising source of cells for numerous and varied regenerative medicine applications. Their natural function in the production of odontoblasts to create reparative dentin support applications in dentistry in the regeneration of tooth structures. However, they are also being investigated for the repair of tissues outside of the tooth. The ease of isolation of DPSCs from discarded or removed teeth offers a promising source of autologous cells, and their similarities with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) suggest applications in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. DPSCs are derived from the neural crest and, therefore, have a different developmental origin to BMSCs. These differences from BMSCs in origin and phenotype are being exploited in neurological and other applications. This review briefly highlights the source and functions of DPSCs and then focuses on in vivo applications across the breadth of regenerative medicine. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A theranostic dental pulp capping agent with improved MRI and CT contrast and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiacomo, S; Güvener, N; Dou, W; Alghamdi, H S; Camargo, W A; Cremers, J G O; Borm, P J A; Heerschap, A; Oosterwijk, E; Jansen, J A; Walboomers, X F

    2017-10-15

    Different materials have been used for vital dental pulp treatment. Preferably a pulp capping agent should show appropriate biological performance, excellent handling properties, and a good imaging contrast. These features can be delivered into a single material through the combination of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (i.e. theranostic). Calcium phosphate based composites (CPCs) are potentially ideal candidate for pulp treatment, although poor imaging contrast and poor dentino-inductive properties are limiting their clinical use. In this study, a theranostic dental pulp capping agent was developed. First, imaging properties of the CPC were improved by using a core-shell structured dual contrast agent (csDCA) consisting of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and colloidal gold, as MRI and CT contrast agent respectively. Second, biological properties were implemented by using a dentinogenic factor (i.e. bone morphogenetic protein 2, BMP-2). The obtained CPC/csDCA/BMP-2 composite was tested in vivo, as direct pulp capping agent, in a male Habsi goat incisor model. Our outcomes showed no relevant alteration of the handling and mechanical properties (e.g. setting time, injectability, and compressive strength) by the incorporation of csDCA particles. In vivo results proved MRI contrast enhancement up to 7weeks. Incisors treated with BMP-2 showed improved tertiary dentin deposition as well as faster cement degradation as measured by µCT assessment. In conclusion, the presented theranostic agent matches the imaging and regenerative requirements for pulp capping applications. In this study, we combined diagnostic and therapeutic agents in order to developed a theranostic pulp capping agent with enhanced MRI and CT contrast and improved dentin regeneration ability. In our study we cover all the steps from material preparation, mechanical and in vitro characterization, to in vivo study in a goat dental model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a

  9. Effects of hTERT immortalization on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ayachi Ikbale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These data relate to the differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and DPSC immortalized by constitutively expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT through both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages (i.e. to make bone producing and fat producing cells from these dental pulp stem cells. The data augment another study to characterize immortalized DPSC for the study of neurogenetic “Characterization of neurons from immortalized dental pulp stem cells for the study of neurogenetic disorders” [1]. Two copies of one typical control cell line (technical replicates were used in this study. The data represent the differentiation of primary DPSC into osteoblast cells approximately 60% more effectively than hTERT immortalized DPSC. Conversely, both primary and immortalized DPSC are poorly differentiated into adipocytes. The mRNA expression levels for both early and late adipogenic and osteogenic gene markers are shown. Keywords: Stem cells, Osteogenic, Adipogenic, Immortalized, hTERT, DPSC

  10. Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats

  11. Effects of Transplanted Heparin-Poloxamer Hydrogel Combining Dental Pulp Stem Cells and bFGF on Spinal Cord Injury Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Lihua; Albashari, Abdullkhaleg Ali; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Ling; Zhang, Yanni; Zheng, Lina; Xia, Jianjian; Xu, Helin; Zhao, Yingzheng; Xiao, Jian; He, Yan; Ye, Qingsong

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of serious traumatic diseases of the central nervous system and has no effective treatment because of its complicated pathophysiology. Tissue engineering strategy which contains scaffolds, cells, and growth factors can provide a promising treatment for SCI. Hydrogel that has 3D network structure and biomimetic microenvironment can support cellular growth and embed biological macromolecules for sustaining release. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from cra...

  12. Comparison of immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy and inflamed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, Farinawati Binti; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunodulatory properties of dental pulp stem cells derived from healthy (SCD) and inflamed pulp deciduous (SCDIP) tissues. The overall hypothesis is that SCDIP possess equal immune properties with SCD and could be used as an alternative tissue source in regenerative medicine. An intra-oral examination was carried out to assess the status of the pulp tissues and group them according to healthy or inflamed. Primary cells were established from these groups, and basic mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) characterizations were conducted. The expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), namely HLA-G, HLA-DR, and HLA-ABC were examined in both cell lines using flow cytometry. We further compared the immunosuppressive effects of SCD and SCDIP on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Supernatants were tested for cytokine profiling using multiplex array. While SCD exhibited typical MSC characteristics, SCDIP on the other hand, did not. Compared with SCDIP, SCD effectively suppresses mitogen-induced T cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, as well as express a higher percentage of HLA-ABC and HLA-G. In addition, levels of several cytokines, such as TNF-α, TNF-β, and IL-2, were drastically suppressed in SCD than SCDIP. Furthermore, a high level of IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine, was present in SCD compared with SCDIP. These findings suggest that SCDIP is highly dysfunctional in terms of their stemness and immunomodulatory properties. SCDIP is not a viable therapeutic cell source especially when used in graft versus host disease (GvHD) and organ rejection.

  13. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA on the Protein of Human Dental Pulp Cells

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    Ratna Farida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA is a common component of the bonding agents and resin composites used in dentistry for restorative dentistry. However, TEGDMA could be released from composite resins following incomplete polymerization and degradation processes by salivary enzyme in the mouth. Subsequently, TEGDMA is available in saliva and diffuses toward and affects the dental pulp which contains various cells, and thus may cause severe cytotoxic effects. Objectives: To determine the total protein concentration of human dental ulp cells following exposure to TEGDMA. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp cells were isolated from the pulp of the freshly extracted teeth and cultured in DMEM for 48 h (37ºC, 5% CO2. Then, 2 mM and 4 mM, and 8 mM TEGDMA were added to these cells and incubated for 24 h. The total protein was measured by Bradford Protein Assay. Results: The total protein concentration of dental pulp cells after exposure to 4 mM, 8mM, and 12 mM TEGDMA were statistically lower (22762.27 µg/ml ± 3385.87; 20268.44 µg/ml ± 1701.14; 23706.51 µg/ml ± 3214.52; respectively than the control group (24253.77 µg/ml ± 3072.99. Furthermore, the total protein concentration of culture medium after exposure to 4 mM, 8 mM, and 2 mM TEGDMA, were statistically higher (28635.85 µg/ml ± 2373.4; 35288.41 µg/ml ± 3469.48; 38199.79 µg/ml ± 2752.47; respectively when compared with the controls (27073.83 µg/ml ± 2772.47. Conclusion: 2 mM, 4 mM, and 8 mM TEGDMA caused cytotoxity to human dental pulp cells chowed by decreasing the total protein of cells and increasing the total protein of the culture medium.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.102

  15. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  16. Platelet-rich Preparation may serve as a Powerful Tool for Therapeutic Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hua Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regeneration of dental pulp tissues presents one of the most challenging issues in regenerative dentistry due to their extremely poor intrinsic ability for self-healing and re-growth.The hypothesis: We hypothes-ize that patient-derived platelet-rich preparation can be used in clinical endodontic regenerative procedure, serving as a powerful tool for therapeutic dental pulp regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The cell transplantation does not always obtain the good result because of the low survival rate of transplanted cells. In addition, the use of ex vivo manipulated cell products faces many translational hurdles in treating non-vital disease. Recently, the body cells are focused as a potential source for therapeutics. Some researchers have demonstrated that endogenous stem cells may be recruited to a desired anatomic site pharma-cologically. This is spurring interest in developing new generation of biomaterials that incorporate and release selected powerful extracellular influences in a near-physiological fashion, and subsequently capture endogenous stem cells and influence their fates for regene-ration. The use of patient-derived products such as platelet-rich preparations that contain a multitude of endogenous growth factors and proteins is a clinically translatable biotechnology for this proposes. These simple and cost efficient procedures may have a potential impact in reducing the economic costs for standard medical treatments in regenerative endodontics.

  17. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental hard tissues with an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Krillke, Raphael Franz; Frentzen, Matthias; Bourauel, Christoph; Stark, Helmut; Schelle, Florian

    2015-02-01

    Heat generation during the removal of dental hard tissues may lead to a temperature increase and cause painful sensations or damage dental tissues. The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental hard tissues following laser ablation using an ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) system. A total of 85 specimens of dental hard tissues were used, comprising 45 specimens of human dentine evaluating a thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm (15 samples each) and 40 specimens of human enamel with a thickness of 1 and 2 mm (20 samples each). Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1,064 nm, a pulse duration of 9 ps, and a repetition rate of 500 kHz with an average output power of 6 W. Specimens were irradiated for 0.8 s. Employing a scanner system, rectangular cavities of 1-mm edge length were generated. A temperature sensor was placed at the back of the specimens, recording the temperature during the ablation process. All measurements were made employing a heat-conductive paste without any additional cooling or spray. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the dental hard tissue (enamel or dentine) and the thickness of the respective tissue (p dental hard tissues, heat generation has to be considered. Especially during laser ablation next to pulpal tissues, painful sensations and potential thermal injury of pulp tissue might occur.

  18. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases expression in human dental pulp cells by all-trans retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Man Kim; Sang Wook Kang; Su-Mi Shin; Duck Su Kim; Kyong-Kyu Choi; Eun-Cheol Kim; Sun-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in synovial fibroblasts, skin fibroblasts, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and cancer cells, but activates MMP-9 in neuroblast and leukemia cells. Very little is known regarding whether ATRA can activate or inhibit MMPs in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ATRA on the production and secretion of MMP-2 and-9 in HDPCs. The productions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of MMP-2 and-9 were accessed by gelatin zymography and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. ATRA was found to decrease MMP-2 level in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction in MMP-2 mRNA expression was also observed in HDPCs treated with 25 mmol?L21 ATRA. However, HDPCs treated with ATRA had no effect on the pattern of MMP-9 produced or secreted in either cell extracts or conditioned medium fractions. Taken together, ATRA had an inhibitory effect on MMP-2 expression in HDPCs, which suggests that ATRA could be a candidate as a medicament which could control the inflammation of pulp tissue in vital pulp therapy and regenerative endodontics.

  19. [Correlation between dental pulp demyelination degree and pain visual analogue scale scores data under acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsantiia, N B; Davarashvili, X T; Gogiashvili, L E; Mamaladze, M T; Tsagareli, Z G; Melikadze, E B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of study is the analysis of pulp nerve fibers demyelination degree and its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score that may be measured as objective criteria. Material and methods of study. Step I: electron micrografs of dental pulp simples with special interest of myelin structural changes detected in 3 scores system, obtained from 80 patients, displays in 4 groups: 1) acute and 2) chronic pulpitis without and with accompined systemic deseases, 20 patients in each group. Dental care was realized in Kutaisi N1 Dental clinic. Step II - self-reported VAS used for describing dental pain. All data were performed by SPSS 10,0 version statistics including Spearmen-rank and Mann-Whitny coefficients for examine the validity between pulp demyelination degree and pain intensity in verbal, numbered and box scales. Researched Data were shown that damaged myelin as focal decomposition of membranes and Schwann cells hyperthrophia correspond with acute dental pain intensity as Spearman index reported in VAS numbered Scales, myelin and axoplasm degeneration as part of chronic gangrenous pulpitis disorders are in direct correlation with VAS in verbal, numbered and behavioral Rating Scales. In fact, all morphological and subjective data, including psychomotoric assessment of dental painin pulpitis may be used in dental practice for evaluation of pain syndrome considered personal story.

  20. Multilineage potential of STRO-1+ rat dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Zhang, W.; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether STRO-1 selection is an effective approach for purifying rat dental pulp stem cells, and especially whether such selection is beneficial on the multilineage differentiation capacity, i.e. whether selection will account for a higher rate of

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from inflamed dental pulpal and gingival tissue: a potential application for bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Laura; Mauceri, Rodolfo; Coppola, Antonina; Pitrone, Maria; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Campisi, Giuseppina; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Giordano, Carla

    2017-08-01

    Chronic periodontal disease is an infectious disease consisting of prolonged inflammation of the supporting tooth tissue and resulting in bone loss. Guided bone regeneration procedures have become common and safe treatments in dentistry, and in this context dental stem cells would represent the ideal solution as autologous cells. In this study, we verified the ability of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) harvested from periodontally affected teeth to produce new mineralized bone tissue in vitro, and compared this to cells from healthy teeth. To characterize DPSCs and GMSCs, we assessed colony-forming assay, immunophenotyping, mesenchymal/stem cell phenotyping, stem gene profiling by means of flow cytometry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The effects of proinflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation potential were investigated. We also observed participation of several heat shock proteins (HSPs) and actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) during osteogenic differentiation. DPSCs and GMSCs were successfully isolated both from periodontally affected dental tissue and controls. Periodontally affected dental MSCs proliferated faster, and the inflamed environment did not affect MSC marker expressions. The calcium deposition was higher in periodontally affected MSCs than in the control group. Proinflammatory cytokines activate a cytoskeleton remodeling, interacting with HSPs including HSP90 and HSPA9, thioredoxin-1, and ADFs such as as profilin-1, cofilin-1, and vinculin that probably mediate the increased acquisition in the inflamed environment. Our findings provide evidence that periodontally affected dental tissue (both pulp and gingiva) can be used as a source of MSCs with intact stem cell properties. Moreover, we demonstrated that the osteogenic capability of DPSCs and GMSCs in the test group was not only preserved but increased by the overexpression of

  2. Temperature variation in pulp chamber during dental bleaching in presence or absence of light activation

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Travassos, Alessandro Caldas; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Araujo, Maria Amélia Maximo de

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In addition to the chemical damage due to bleaching gels penetration into the pulp during pulp vitality dental bleaching, another possible aggressive factor could be the heat generated by the exothermal oxidation reaction of the bleaching gel, which may also be aggravated by the use of light activation. This study assessed the temperature variation in the pulp chamber in human teeth, using three different bleaching gels with or without LED light activation. METHODS: Thirty human pre-...

  3. Effects of Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor L-mimosine on Dental Pulp in the Presence of Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Heinz-Dieter; Cvikl, Barbara; Janjić, Klara; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Moritz, Andreas; Gruber, Reinhard; Agis, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Proangiogenic prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors represent a novel approach to stimulate tissue regeneration. Diabetes mellitus involves the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Here we evaluated the impact of AGEs on the response of human pulp tissue to the PHD inhibitor L-mimosine (L-MIM) in monolayer cultures of dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) and tooth slice organ cultures. In monolayer cultures, DPCs were incubated with L-MIM and AGEs. Viability was assessed based on formazan formation, live-dead staining, annexin V/propidium iodide, and trypan blue exclusion assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 production was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Furthermore, expression levels of odontoblast markers were assessed, and alizarin red staining was performed. Tooth slice organ cultures were performed, and VEGF, IL-6, and IL8 levels in their supernatants were measured by immunoassays. Pulp tissue vitality and morphology were assessed by MTT assay and histology. In monolayer cultures of DPCs, L-MIM at nontoxic concentrations increased the production of VEGF and IL-8 in the presence of AGEs. Stimulation with L-MIM decreased alkaline phosphatase levels and matrix mineralization also in the presence of AGEs, whereas no significant changes in dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression were observed. In tooth slice organ cultures, L-MIM increased VEGF but not IL-6 and IL-8 production in the presence of AGEs. The pulp tissue was vital, and no signs of apoptosis or necrosis were observed. Overall, in the presence of AGEs, L-MIM increases the proangiogenic capacity, but decreases alkaline phosphatase expression and matrix mineralization. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Comparative Analysis Between Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Giuliani, Patricia; Pierdomenico, Laura; Marchisio, Marco; Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Quaresima, Raimondo; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2017-06-01

    White adipose tissue is a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) that are actively studied for their possible therapeutic use in bone tissue repair/remodeling. To better appreciate the osteogenic potential of these cells, we compared some properties of MSCs from human subcutaneous adipose tissue [subcutaneous-adipose stromal cells (S-ASCs)] and dental pulp stem cell (DPSCs) of third-impacted molars, the latter representing a well-established MSC source. Both undifferentiated cell types showed similar fibroblast-like morphology and mesenchymal marker expression. However, undifferentiated S-ASCs displayed a faster doubling time coupled to greater proliferation and colony-forming ability than DPSCs. Also, the osteogenic differentiation of S-ASCs was greater than that of DPSCs, as evaluated by the higher levels of expression of early osteogenic markers Runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) and alkaline phosphatase at days 3-14 and of extracellular matrix mineralization at days 14-21. Moreover, S-ASCs showed a better colonization of the titanium scaffold. In addition, we investigated whether S-ASC osteogenic commitment was enhanced by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) stimulation, as previously shown for DPSCs. Although A1R expression was constant during DPSC differentiation, it increased in S-ASC at day 21 from osteogenesis induction. Accordingly, A1R stimulation by the agonist 2-chloro-N 6 -cyclopentyl-adenosine, added to the cultures at each medium change, stimulated proliferation only in differentiating DPSC and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation earlier in DPSCs than in S-ASCs. These effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with a selective A1R antagonist. Thus, our findings suggest that S-ASCs could be advantageously used in regenerative orthopedics/dentistry, and locally released or exogenously added purines may play a role in bone repair/remodeling, even though this aspect should be more thoroughly evaluated.

  5. Acute dental pain II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Peter; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Rosen, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Acute dental pain most often occurs in relation to inflammatory conditions in the dental pulp or in the periradicular tissues surrounding a tooth, but it is not always easy to reach a diagnose and determine what treatment to perform. The anamnesis and the clinical examination provide valuable...

  6. [Daily practice and pulp diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmein, S; Claisse, A

    1990-09-01

    Constructive or destructive processes of pulp tissue depend on many factors: anatomic topography, particular physiology, or intensity and duration of infectious, mechanical and chemical aggression. Also irritation of the pulpo-dentinal complex induce histologic and physiologic changes. The positive diagnosis of hyperemia, acute or chronic pulpitis, pulpal necrosis and acute or chronic apical abscess is performed by clinical investigations which allow a differential diagnosis with other dental or extra-dental diseases. These multiple steps lead to an adapted and appropriate treatment.

  7. Analisis heteroplasmy DNA mitokondria pulpa gigi pada identifikasi personal forensik (Heteroplasmy analysis of dental pulp mitochondrial DNA in forensic personal identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardyni Febri K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence analysis of the hypervariable control region has been shown to be an effective tool for personal identification. The high copy and maternal mode of inheritance make mtDNA analysis particularly useful when old samples or degradation of biological samples prohibits the detection of nuclear DNA analysis. Dental pulp is covered with hard tissue such as dentin and enamel. It is highly capable of protecting the DNA and thus is extremely useful. One of the diasadvantages of mitochondrial DNA is heteroplasmy. Heteroplasmy is the presence of a mixture of more than one type of an organellar genome within a cell or individual. It can lead to ambiguity in forensic personal identification. Due to that, the evidence of heteroplasmy in dental pulp is needed. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the heteroplasmy occurance of mitocondrial DNA in dental pulp. Methods: Blood and teeth samples were taken from 6 persons, each samples was extracted with DNAzol. DNA samples were amplified with PCR and sequencing to analyze the nucleotide sequences polymorphism of the hypervariable region 1 in mtDNA and compared with revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS. results: The dental pulp and blood nucleotide sequence of hypervariable region 1 mitochondrial DNA showed polymorphism when compared with rCRS and heteroplasmy when compared between dental pulp with blood. Conclusion: The study showed that heteroplasmy was found in mithocondrial DNA from dental pulp.latar belakang: Analisis sekuens DNA mitokondria (mtDNA regio kontrol hypervariable telah terbukti menjadi alat efektif untuk identifikasi personal. Kopi DNA yang banyak dan pewarisan maternal membuat analisis mtDNA sangat berguna ketika sampel lama atau sampel biologis yang terdegradasi menghambat deteksi analisis DNA inti. Pulpa gigi terlindung jaringan keras seperti dentin dan enamel. Hal ini membuat pulpa mampu melindungi DNA dan dengan demikian sangat berguna

  8. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces odonto/osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Nattasit, Praphawi; Thongngam, Tanutchaporn; Pavasant, Prasit; Tompkins, Kevin A; Egusa, Hiroshi; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2017-08-31

    Notch signaling regulates diverse biological processes in dental pulp tissue. The present study investigated the response of human dental pulp cells (hDPs) to the indirect immobilized Notch ligand Jagged1 in vitro. The indirect immobilized Jagged1 effectively activated Notch signaling in hDPs as confirmed by the upregulation of HES1 and HEY1 expression. Differential gene expression profiling using an RNA sequencing technique revealed that the indirect immobilized Jagged1 upregulated genes were mainly involved in extracellular matrix organization, disease, and signal transduction. Downregulated genes predominantly participated in the cell cycle, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 significantly reduced cell proliferation, colony forming unit ability, and the number of cells in S phase. Jagged1 treated hDPs exhibited significantly higher ALP enzymatic activity, osteogenic marker gene expression, and mineralization compared with control. Pretreatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuated the Jagged1-induced ALP activity and mineral deposition. NOTCH2 shRNA reduced the Jagged1-induced osteogenic marker gene expression, ALP enzymatic activity, and mineral deposition. In conclusion, indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of hDPs via the canonical Notch signaling pathway.

  9. Distal C terminus of CaV1.2 channels plays a crucial role in the neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Ge

    Full Text Available L-type voltage-dependent CaV1.2 channels play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. C-terminal cleavage of CaV1.2 channels was reported in several types of excitable cells, but its expression and possible roles in non-excitable cells is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine whether distal C-terminal fragment of CaV1.2 channels is present in rat dental pulp stem cells and its possible role in the neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. We generated stable CaV1.2 knockdown cells via short hairpin RNA (shRNA. Rat dental pulp stem cells with deleted distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 channels lost the potential of differentiation to neural cells. Re-expression of distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 rescued the effect of knocking down the endogenous CaV1.2 on the neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells, indicating that the distal C-terminal of CaV1.2 is required for neural differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells. These results provide new insights into the role of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels in stem cells during differentiation.

  10. Substance P and CGRP expression in dental pulps with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Mandana; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Matloob, Arash; Mozayeni, Maryam; Javaheri, Homan H

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in pulp tissue with clinically diagnosed symptomatic and asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Healthy pulps acted as controls. Five normal pulps and 40 with irreversible pulpitis (20 symptomatic and 20 asymptomatic) were obtained from 45 different patients. SP and CGRP expression was determined by competition binding assays using enzyme immunoassay. anova and Mann-Whitney tests were used to ascertain if there were statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that neuropeptides were found in all pulp samples. The highest and the lowest expressions for SP and CGRP were found in symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and healthy pulps groups, respectively. The differences between healthy pulps and the groups of pulps having irreversible pulpitis were significant (P pulpitis groups (P pulpitis groups were not significant. This study demonstrated that the expression of CGRP and SP is significantly higher in pulps with irreversible pulpitis compared with healthy pulps.

  11. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  12. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo

    2011-01-01

    abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. RESULTS: The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were...

  13. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  14. Genetic Comparison of Stemness of Human Umbilical Cord and Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on gene expression patterns and functions in human umbilical cord (UC and dental pulp (DP containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. DP tissues were collected from 25 permanent premolars. UC tissue samples were obtained from three newborns. Comparative gene profiles were obtained using cDNA microarray analysis and the expression of tooth development-associated and MSC-related genes was assessed by the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Genes related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immune responses were expressed at higher levels in UC, whereas genes related to growth factor and receptor activity and signal transduction were more highly expressed in DP. Although UC and DP tissues exhibited similar expression of surface markers for MSCs, UC showed higher expression of CD29, CD34, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and CD166. qRT-PCR analysis showed that CD146, CD166, and MYC were expressed 18.3, 8.24, and 1.63 times more highly in UC, whereas the expression of CD34 was 2.15 times higher in DP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant differences in the expression of genes (DSPP, DMP1, and CALB1 related to odontogenesis and angiogenesis in DP. DP and UC tissue showed similar gene expression, with the usual MSC markers, while they clearly diverged in their differentiation capacity.

  15. Genetic Comparison of Stemness of Human Umbilical Cord and Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chung-Min; Kim, Hyunok; Song, Je Seon; Choi, Byung-Jai; Kim, Seong-Oh; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok-Jun; Choi, Hyung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on gene expression patterns and functions in human umbilical cord (UC) and dental pulp (DP) containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). DP tissues were collected from 25 permanent premolars. UC tissue samples were obtained from three newborns. Comparative gene profiles were obtained using cDNA microarray analysis and the expression of tooth development-associated and MSC-related genes was assessed by the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Genes related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and immune responses were expressed at higher levels in UC, whereas genes related to growth factor and receptor activity and signal transduction were more highly expressed in DP. Although UC and DP tissues exhibited similar expression of surface markers for MSCs, UC showed higher expression of CD29, CD34, CD44, CD73, CD105, CD146, and CD166. qRT-PCR analysis showed that CD146, CD166, and MYC were expressed 18.3, 8.24, and 1.63 times more highly in UC, whereas the expression of CD34 was 2.15 times higher in DP. Immunohistochemical staining revealed significant differences in the expression of genes (DSPP, DMP1, and CALB1) related to odontogenesis and angiogenesis in DP. DP and UC tissue showed similar gene expression, with the usual MSC markers, while they clearly diverged in their differentiation capacity.

  16. Alcohol Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells by Activating mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term heavy alcohol consumption could result in a range of health, social, and behavioral problems. People who abuse alcohol are at high risks of seriously having osteopenia, periodontal disease, and compromised oral health. However, the role of ethanol (EtOH in the biological functions of human dental pulp cells (DPCs is unknown. Whether EtOH affects the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EtOH on DPC differentiation and mineralization. DPCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs treated with EtOH were subsequently investigated. Different doses of EtOH were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs. EtOH significantly activated the mTOR pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EtOH downregulated the alkaline phosphatase activity, attenuated the mineralized nodule formation, and suppressed the expression of odontoblastic markers including ALP, DSPP, DMP-1, Runx2, and OCN. Moreover, the pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, markedly reversed the EtOH-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. Our findings show for the first time that EtOH can suppress DPC differentiation and mineralization in a mTOR-dependent manner, indicating that EtOH may be involved in negatively regulating the dental pulp repair.

  17. Alcohol Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells by Activating mTOR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Huang, Qi-Ting; Weir, Michael D; Song, Zhi; Fouad, Ashraf F; Lin, Zheng-Mei; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-01-01

    Long-term heavy alcohol consumption could result in a range of health, social, and behavioral problems. People who abuse alcohol are at high risks of seriously having osteopenia, periodontal disease, and compromised oral health. However, the role of ethanol (EtOH) in the biological functions of human dental pulp cells (DPCs) is unknown. Whether EtOH affects the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EtOH on DPC differentiation and mineralization. DPCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs treated with EtOH were subsequently investigated. Different doses of EtOH were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs. EtOH significantly activated the mTOR pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EtOH downregulated the alkaline phosphatase activity, attenuated the mineralized nodule formation, and suppressed the expression of odontoblastic markers including ALP, DSPP, DMP-1, Runx2, and OCN. Moreover, the pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, markedly reversed the EtOH-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. Our findings show for the first time that EtOH can suppress DPC differentiation and mineralization in a mTOR-dependent manner, indicating that EtOH may be involved in negatively regulating the dental pulp repair.

  18. Influence of the mechanical environment on the engineering of mineralised tissues using human dental pulp stem cells and silk fibroin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyk, Anna; Holsten Dircksen, Sabrina; Bostanci, Nagihan; Müller, Ralph; Hofmann, Sandra; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2014-01-01

    Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) that have the same embryonic origin as craniofacial bones. Optimising combinations of scaffolds, cells, growth factors and culture conditions still remains a great challenge. In the present study, we evaluate the mineralisation potential of hDPSCs seeded on porous silk fibroin scaffolds in a mechanically dynamic environment provided by spinner flask bioreactors. Cell-seeded scaffolds were cultured in either standard or osteogenic media in both static and dynamic conditions for 47 days. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography of the samples showed low levels of mineralisation when samples were cultured in static conditions (0.16±0.1 BV/TV%), while their culture in a dynamic environment with osteogenic medium and weekly µCT scans (4.9±1.6 BV/TV%) significantly increased the formation of homogeneously mineralised structures, which was also confirmed by the elevated calcium levels (4.5±1.0 vs. 8.8±1.7 mg/mL). Molecular analysis of the samples showed that the expression of tooth correlated genes such as Dentin Sialophosphoprotein and Nestin were downregulated by a factor of 6.7 and 7.4, respectively, in hDPSCs when cultured in presence of osteogenic medium. This finding indicates that hDPSCs are able to adopt a non-dental identity by changing the culture conditions only. Also an increased expression of Osteocalcin (1.4x) and Collagen type I (1.7x) was found after culture under mechanically dynamic conditions in control medium. In conclusion, the combination of hDPSCs and silk scaffolds cultured under mechanical loading in spinner flask bioreactors could offer a novel and promising approach for bone tissue engineering where appropriate and rapid bone

  19. Influence of the mechanical environment on the engineering of mineralised tissues using human dental pulp stem cells and silk fibroin scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Woloszyk

    Full Text Available Teeth constitute a promising source of stem cells that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. Bone loss in the craniofacial complex due to pathological conditions and severe injuries could be treated with new materials combined with human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs that have the same embryonic origin as craniofacial bones. Optimising combinations of scaffolds, cells, growth factors and culture conditions still remains a great challenge. In the present study, we evaluate the mineralisation potential of hDPSCs seeded on porous silk fibroin scaffolds in a mechanically dynamic environment provided by spinner flask bioreactors. Cell-seeded scaffolds were cultured in either standard or osteogenic media in both static and dynamic conditions for 47 days. Histological analysis and micro-computed tomography of the samples showed low levels of mineralisation when samples were cultured in static conditions (0.16±0.1 BV/TV%, while their culture in a dynamic environment with osteogenic medium and weekly µCT scans (4.9±1.6 BV/TV% significantly increased the formation of homogeneously mineralised structures, which was also confirmed by the elevated calcium levels (4.5±1.0 vs. 8.8±1.7 mg/mL. Molecular analysis of the samples showed that the expression of tooth correlated genes such as Dentin Sialophosphoprotein and Nestin were downregulated by a factor of 6.7 and 7.4, respectively, in hDPSCs when cultured in presence of osteogenic medium. This finding indicates that hDPSCs are able to adopt a non-dental identity by changing the culture conditions only. Also an increased expression of Osteocalcin (1.4x and Collagen type I (1.7x was found after culture under mechanically dynamic conditions in control medium. In conclusion, the combination of hDPSCs and silk scaffolds cultured under mechanical loading in spinner flask bioreactors could offer a novel and promising approach for bone tissue engineering where appropriate and

  20. Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, George T-J; Al-Habib, Mey; Gauthier, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell-based and cell-free. The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. Studies in small and large animals have demonstrated that pulp/dentin-like tissues can be regenerated partially or completely in the root canal space with apical openings of 0.7-3.0 mm using dental pulp stem cells, including stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and subpopulations of pulp stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) have also been shown to regenerate pulp-like tissue. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration. However, one crucial concept has not been considered nor defined in the field of pulp/dentin regeneration and that is the critical size defect of dentin and pulp. Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. By reasoning, cell-free therapy is unlikely to regenerate an organ/tissue after total loss. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp, it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration. Although stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration has shown great promise, clinical trials are difficult to launch at present. This article will address several issues that challenge and hinder the clinical applications of pulp/dentin regeneration which need to be overcome before stem cell-based pulp/dentin regeneration can occur in the clinic.

  1. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  2. Histological evaluation of the rat dental pulp after indirect capping with sildenafil or L-NAME incorporated into a bioadhesive thermoresponsive system

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    Rogério Rodrigues Cupertino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the histological dental pulp state in vivo after indirect pulp capping using sildenafil or LG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME, incorporated into a new bioadhesive thermoresponsive system (BTS. Male Wistar rats were subjected to an upper and lower first molar class I cavity preparation followed by indirect pulp capping with sildenafil or L-NAME. Calcium hydroxide (CaOH2 was used as a control. The teeth and surrounding bone were properly dissected and processed for Nissl’s staining. Pulp state was evaluated considering the morphological aspects of the inflammatory response, type of inflammatory infiltrate, organization of the odontoblast layer, blood vessel condition, and presence of abscesses or necrosis. The results were expressed as average of observations. The most intense inflammatory response was observed 3 days after the cavity preparation. No identified changes were detected in the dental pulp response of the molars treated with L-NAME compared with those treated with CaOH2. A dual effect was observed in the teeth treated with sildenafil. While low sildenafil concentration (0.015% w w-1 promoted effects comparable to CaOH2, at a higher concentration (0.15% w w-1, sildenafil caused a severe inflammatory response and pulp necrosis. This pioneering suggest that NO pathway activity may be a determinant in the process of dental pulp healing.

  3. Effects of washed platelets vs platelet-rich plasma on the proliferation and mineralization of rat dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Xie, Y H; Lin, B R

    2015-08-14

    We examined the effects of washed platelets (WPLTs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the proliferation and mineralization of rat dental pulp cells. Rat dental pulp cells were separated, cultured, and identified. Medium containing 1, 10, 100, or 500 mL/L PRP or WPLTs was added to 4th generation cells. The MTS method was used to determine cell proliferation. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the formation of mineralized nodules after cell mineralization and induction for 10 and 20 days under different culture conditions, and the areas of the mineralized nodules formed 20 days after induction were computed. The addition of 1, 10, and 100 mL/L WPLTs or PRP significantly promoted rat dental pulp cell proliferation (P 0.05). Under the same concentrations, no significant differences on cell proliferation were observed between WPLT and PRP treatments (P > 0.05 in all groups). After 10 days mineralization and culture, the 100 and 500 mL/L WPLT and PRP group positive nodule rates were significantly higher than those of the low concentration and the control groups (P < 0.05). After 20 days, the areas of the mineralized nodules formed in the 100 and 500 mL/L WPLT and PRP groups were significantly larger than those in the control group (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both WPLTs and PRP are equally able to significantly promote the proliferation and calcification of rat dental pulp cells under a certain range of concentrations.

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In vivo evaluation of human dental pulp stem cells differentiated towards multiple lineages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Damme, P.A. van; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of investigations supports that adult stem cells have the potential to differentiate into matured cell types beyond their origin, a property defined as plasticity. Previously, the plasticity of stem cells derived from dental pulp (DPSC) has been confirmed by culturing cells in

  6. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  7. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  8. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Niehage

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2% or high (10% serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention.

  9. Variaciones de la enzima fosfatasa alcalina en la pulpa dental Variations of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the dental pulp

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    Zoraida Pons Pinillos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, numerosas investigaciones se han dedicado al estudio de los mecanismos potenciales implicados en el desarrollo de la caries dental y su prevención, sin embargo, a pesar de haber disminuido gradualmente el índice de caries en la población, son muchos los pacientes que necesitan tratarse la caries dental, tal es así que continuamente se están utilizando diferentes materiales en la búsqueda de aquel que ante una agresión a la pulpa, ayude a una respuesta biológica de la misma, conservando de esta forma su integridad. De ahí la importancia de la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina de la pulpa en el proceso carioso, como una reacción ante el hidróxido de calcio que continuamente se está usando en toda la red docente-asistencial del país. Se seleccionaron 50 dientes monorradiculares, con pulpa viva y con caries de segundo, tercer y cuarto grado y 50 dientes sanos de pacientes de diferentes edades. Se extrajo la pulpa de cada diente y se realizaron improntas (3 por cada muestra, una de las cuales se procesó para obtener orientación morfológica, y las otras 2 para valorar la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina. Para esto se utilizaron 2 métodos: el de calcio cobalto y el de alpha naftol fosfato de Gomori. Como resultado, se obtuvo que la pulpa tiene más actividad enzimática en caries profunda y que la edad del paciente no determina el aumento o disminución de dicha actividad.In the last decades, numerous investigations have been made on the study of potential mechanisms involved in the development of dental caries and their prevention. However, in spite of the gradual reduction of dental caries in the population, a lot of patients need to have their dental caries treated and different materials are continuously used searching for one that before the aggression to the pulp helps it to give a biological response, conserving this way its integrity. That's why the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of the pulp

  10. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  11. Neuronal regeneration in injured rat spinal cord after human dental pulp derived neural crest stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, S; Demir, C S; Civelek, E; Yilmaz, I; Kircelli, A; Yilmaz, C; Akyuva, Y; Karaoz, E

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining. In early post-injury (p.i) period, the ultrastructure of spinal cord tissue was preserved in Group 4. The majority of cells forming the ependymal region around the central canal were found to be hDP-NCSCs. While the grey-and-white-matter around the ependymal region was composed of e.g. GFP cells, with astrocytic-like appearance. The scores showed significant motor recovery in hind limb functions in Group 4. However, no obvious change was observed in other groups. Cells e.g., mesenchymal (Vimentin+) which express GFP+ cells in the gray-and-white-matter around the ependymal region could indicate the potential to self-renewal and plasticity. Thus, transplantation of hDP-NCSCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma (Fig. 10, Ref. 32).

  12. The effect of Aloe vera gel on viability of dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholehvar, Fatemeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Yaghmaei, Parichehr; Vahdati, Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. Aloe vera L. (Liliaceae) contains the polysaccharide of acemannan that was shown to be a trigger factor for cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. This study sought to determine the viability of DPSCs in Aloe vera in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Twelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability. Aloe vera showed a significant higher viability than HBSS (74.74%). The 50% Aloe vera showed higher viability (97.73%) than other concentrations. PDT in 50% concentration was 35.1 h and for HBSS was 49.5 h. DPSCs were spindle shaped and were positive for CD73 and negative for CD34 and CD45. Karyotyping was normal. Aloe vera as an inexpensive and available herb can improve survival of avulsed or broken teeth in emergency cases as a transfer media. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  14. Proteome of human stem cells from periodontal ligament and dental pulp.

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    Enrica Eleuterio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many adult tissues contain a population of stem cells with the ability to regenerate structures similar to the microenvironments from which they are derived in vivo and represent a promising therapy for the regeneration of complex tissues in the clinical disorder. Human adult stem cells (SCs including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs have been characterized for their high proliferative potential, expression of characteristic SC-associated markers and for the plasticity to differentiate in different lineage in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study is to define the molecular features of stem cells from oral tissue by comparing the proteomic profiles obtained with 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF of ex-vivo cultured human PDLSCs, DPSCs and BMSCs. Our results showed qualitative similarities in the proteome profiles among the SCs examined including some significant quantitative differences. To enrich the knowledge of oral SCs proteome we performed an analysis in narrow range pH 4-7 and 6-9, and we found that DPSCs vs PDLSCs express differentially regulated proteins that are potentially related to growth, regulation and genesis of neuronal cells, suggesting that SCs derived from oral tissue source populations may possess the potential ability of neuronal differentiation which is very consistent with their neural crest origin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies some differentially expressed proteins by using comparative analysis between DPSCs and PDLSCs and BMSCs and suggests that stem cells from oral tissue could have a different cell lineage potency compared to BMSCs.

  15. Proliferation and mineralization ability of dental pulp cells derived from primary and permanent teeth

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    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the proliferation and mineralization ability of CFU-F selected dental pulp cellsderived from primary and permanent teeth. Those cells were isolated by enzyme digestion and analyzed for their colonyformingcapacity. The cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay on day 1, day 7, and day14. Alizarin Red S stainingwas used to detect mineralized nodule formation of the cells on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. Proliferation of CFU-F selected pulpcells from primary teeth was significantly higher than that of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teeth in all periods ofthe experiment. Upon cultured cells in mineralization inducing media, the mineralized nodules appeared as early as day 14 inCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth and MG-63, whereas those of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teethcan be found at day 21. On day 21 and day 28, the mineralized nodules of the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the primaryteeth group were more than those in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group. Mineralized noduleformation in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group appeared later and were less than those ofCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth. However, mineralized nodules in CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanentteeth group increased very fast after their appearance. Those results suggest that CFU-F selected pulp cells from primaryteeth had a higher proliferation rate and mineralization rate when compared to CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanentteeth.

  16. Differentiation potential of STRO-1+ dental pulp stem cells changes during cell passaging

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    Wang Ruoning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs can be driven into odontoblast, osteoblast, and chondrocyte lineages in different inductive media. However, the differentiation potential of naive DPSCs after serial passaging in the routine culture system has not been fully elucidated. Results DPSCs were isolated from human/rat dental pulps by the magnetic activated cell sorting based on STRO-1 expression, cultured and passaged in the conventional culture media. The biological features of STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 1st and 9th passages were investigated. During the long-term passage, the proliferation ability of human STRO-1+ DPSCs was downregulated as indicated by the growth kinetics. When compared with STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 1st passage (DPSC-P1, the expression of mature osteoblast-specific genes/proteins (alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osterix, and osteopontin, odontoblast-specific gene/protein (dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein, and chondrocyte-specific gene/protein (type II collagen was significantly upregulated in human STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 9th passage (DPSC-P9. Furthermore, human DPSC-P9 cells in the mineralization-inducing media presented higher levels of alkaline phosphatase at day 3 and day 7 respectively, and produced more mineralized matrix than DPSC-P9 cells at day 14. In vivo transplantation results showed that rat DPSC-P1 cell pellets developed into dentin, bone and cartilage structures respectively, while DPSC-P9 cells can only generate bone tissues. Conclusions These findings suggest that STRO-1+ DPSCs consist of several interrelated subpopulations which can spontaneously differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. The differentiation capacity of these DPSCs changes during cell passaging, and DPSCs at the 9th passage restrict their differentiation potential to the osteoblast lineage in vivo.

  17. Can Dental Pulp Calcification Predict the Risk of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Khojastepour, Leila; Bronoosh, Pegah; Khosropanah, Shahdad; Rahimi, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To report the association of pulp calcification with that of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of patients referred from the angiography department were included if the patient was under 55 years old and had non-restored or minimally restored molars and canines. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. The sensitivity, specif...

  18. Drawing Links within Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines results of a practical drawing task given to a cohort of first year dental surgery students at Kings College Dental Institute, London. It compares and relates their success in drilling and removing caries and pulp tissue from a virtual tooth using the hapTEL virtual learning system, with each individuals' drawing skills.…

  19. BMP7 transfection induces in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells

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    Ka Po John Yau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether in-vitro osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells can be induced by transient transfection with the gene encoding human bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7. Materials and Methods: A mesenchymal stem cell population was isolated from the dental pulp of two extracted permanent premolars, expanded and characterized. The human BMP7 gene, as a recombinant pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO-BMP7 plasmid, was transfected into the cells. Three negative controls were used: No plasmid, empty vector, and an unrelated vector encoding green fluorescent protein. After the interval of 24 and 48 h, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as markers of in-vitro osteogenic differentiation were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and standardized against β-actin mRNA levels. Results: The level of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 48 h after transfection (706.9 vs. 11.24 for untransfected cells, 78.05 for empty vector, and 73.10 for green fluorescent protein vector. The level of osteocalcin mRNA was significantly higher for the BMP7 group than for all three negative controls 24 h after transfection (1.0, however, decreased after another 24 h. Conclusions: In-vitro osteoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells, as indicated by expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, can be induced by transient transfection with the BMP7 gene.

  20. Deciduous and permanent dental pulp mesenchymal cells acquire hepatic morphologic and functional features in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Yaegaki, Ken; Calenic, Bogdan; Nakahara, Taka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Mitiev, Vanyo; Haapasalo, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells display extensive proliferative capacity of multilineage differentiation. The stromal compartment of mesenchymal tissues is considered to harbor stem cells. We assessed the endodermal differentiation of mesenchymal cells from deciduous and wisdom tooth pulp. Dental mesenchymal cells were isolated and expanded in vitro. After cell cultures had been established, cells were characterized using known stem cell markers. For hepatic differentiation the media was supplemented with hepatic growth factor, dexamethasone, Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium-X, and oncostatin. Both cultures showed a number of cells positive for specific hepatic markers including alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, and hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha after differentiation. Also, small clusters of cells positive for insulin-like growth factor 1 were found. The concentration of urea increased significantly in the media. Moreover, a significant amount of glycogen was found in the cells. Because the cells proved to produce specific hepatic proteins and to start functions specific for hepatocytes, such as storing glycogen and urea production, we may state that the mesenchymal cell cultures from wisdom and deciduous tooth pulp acquired morphologic and functional characteristics of hepatocytes. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The odontogenic potential of STRO-1 sorted rat dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Zhang, W.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of heterogeneous cell populations in dental pulp may count for the considerable variation in the outcome of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, we intended to determine whether a minor cell sub-population of high proliferation and odontogenic potential existed among a larger

  2. DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 2 enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine expression in human dental pulp cells by regulating MyD88 hydroxymethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxuan; Feng, Zhihui; Li, Qimeng; Yi, Baicheng; Xu, Qiong

    2018-04-13

    Dental pulp inflammation is a bacterially driven inflammation process characterized by the local accumulation of cytokines/chemokines that participate in destructive processes in the pulp. Multiple mechanisms are involved in dental pulp inflammation, including epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation/demethylation. Ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) is a recently discovered DNA methylcytosine dioxygenase that plays important roles in inflammatory disease. However, its role in the inflammatory response of dental pulp is unknown. We observed elevated mRNA and protein levels of TET2 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs). To identify the effects of TET2 on cytokine expression, TET2 was knocked down and cytokines were detected using a cytokine antibody array after LPS stimulation. The protein expression of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES decreased in the LPS-induced hDPCs following TET2 knockdown. The downregulated expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were further confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, the phosphorylation levels of IKK-α/β, p65 and IκBα of the NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased in the TET2-silenced group. Furthermore, the global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level was significantly decreased and the genomic 5-methylcytosine (5mC) level was increased in the TET2-deficient hDPCs; TET2 depletion resulted in a decrease in the 5hmC level of the MyD88 promoter following LPS stimulation. These findings indicate that TET2 knockdown inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response in hDPCs by downregulating MyD88 hydroxymethylation. Thus, TET2-dependent DNA demethylation might play an important role in dental pulp inflammation as an epigenetic regulator.

  3. Evaluation of a dental pulp-derived cell sheet cultured on amniotic membrane substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Adachi, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Takeshi; Mazda, Osam; Kanamura, Narisato; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are transplanted for periodontal tissue regeneration, and the periodontal ligament (PDL) is regenerated using a cultured cell sheet. This cultured cell sheet is prepared using PDL-derived cells, growth factors, and amniotic membrane (AM). Dental pulp (DP)-derived cells can be easily obtained from extracted wisdom teeth, proliferate rapidly, and are less susceptible to bacterial infection than PDL-derived cells. Thus, to prepare a novel cell sheet, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM as a culture substrate for immunohistochemical examination. Wisdom teeth extracted from three adults were cut along the cement-enamel border. DP tissue was collected, minced, and primarily cultured. After three or four passage cultures, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM, followed by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and immunofluorescence staining. DP-derived cells cultured on AM formed a layered structure. Cells positive for vimentin, Ki-67, ZO-1, desmoplakin, CD29, 44, 105 or 146, STRO-1, collagen IV or VII or laminin 5 or α5 chain were localized. DP-derived cells proliferated on AM, while retaining the properties of DP, which allowed the cultured cell sheet to be prepared. In addition, the cultured cell sheet contained MSC, which suggests its potential application in periodontal tissue regeneration.

  4. Cellular Responses in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Treated with Three Endodontic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Victoria-Escandell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs are of special relevance in future regenerative dental therapies. Characterizing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity produced by endodontic materials is required to evaluate the potential for regeneration of injured tissues in future strategies combining regenerative and root canal therapies. This study explores the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress of three endodontic materials that are widely used on HDPSCs: a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-Angelus white, an epoxy resin sealant (AH-Plus cement, and an MTA-based cement sealer (MTA-Fillapex. Cell viability and cell death rate were assessed by flow cytometry. Oxidative stress was measured by OxyBlot. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated by Western blot. Genotoxicity was studied by quantifying the expression levels of DNA damage sensors such as ATM and RAD53 genes and DNA damage repair sensors such as RAD51 and PARP-1. Results indicate that AH-Plus increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity markers in HDPSCs. MTA-Fillapex was the most cytotoxic oxidative stress inductor and genotoxic material for HDPSCs at longer times in preincubated cell culture medium, and MTA-Angelus was less cytotoxic and genotoxic than AH-Plus and MTA-Fillapex at all times assayed.

  5. The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of current study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) seeded on electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin scaffolds with or without the addition of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). For the in vitro evaluation, DNA content, alkaline

  6. Biomodulatory effects of laser irradiation on dental pulp cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milward, Michael R.; Hadis, Mohammed A.; Cooper, Paul R.; Gorecki, Patricia; Carroll, James D.; Palin, William M.

    2015-03-01

    Low level laser/light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation is a biophysical approach that can be used to reduce pain, inflammation and modulate tissue healing and repair. However, its application has yet to be fully realized for dental disease treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the modulation of dental pulp cell (DPC) responses using two LLLT lasers with wavelengths of 660nm and 810nm. Human DPCs were isolated and cultured in phenol-red-free α- MEM/10%-FCS at 37°C in 5% CO2. Central wells of transparent-based black walled 96-microplates were seeded with DPCs (passages 2-4; 150μL; 25,000 cell/ml). At 24h post-seeding, cultures were irradiated using a Thor Photomedicine LLLT device (THOR Photomedicine, UK) at 660nm (3, 6 or 13s to give 2, 5 and 10J/cm2) or 810nm (for 1, 2 or 5s to deliver 5, 10 and 20J/cm2). Metabolic activity was assessed via a modified MTT assay 24h post-irradiation. Statistical differences were identified using analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests (P=0.05) and compared with nonirradiated controls. Significantly higher MTT activity was obtained for both lasers (P0.05). Consequently, enhanced irradiation parameters was apparent for both lasers. These parameters should be further optimised to identify the most effective for therapeutic application.

  7. Molecular study of the dentin-pulp complex responses to caries progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dentin-pulp complex exhibits various responses to caries, including events of injury, defense, and repair. The overall responses dependent on pulp cell activity and the signaling processes, which regulate the behavior of these cells. The signals for tissue repair are thought to be mediated by dentin-bound growth factors released during caries progression. Growth factors are a key of molecules responsible for signaling a variety of cellular process following dental injury. The endogenous proteolytic enzymes (Matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs present in dentin matrix might also participate in releasing bioactive molecule. Several members of the MMP family are found in the soft and hard tissue compartment of dentin-pulp complex. Their presumed role in many physiological process during the development and maintenance of the dentin-pulp complex, they may also contribute to the pathogenesis of dentin caries and the responses elicited by caries.

  8. Effects of SOX2 on Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    Full Text Available As a key factor for cell pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes, SOX2 has attracted scientists' attention gradually in recent years. However, its exact effects in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are still unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated whether SOX2 could affect some biological functions of DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of human impacted third molar. SOX2 overexpressing DPSCs (DPSCs-SOX2 were established through retroviral infection. The effect of SOX2 on cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability was evaluated with CCK-8, trans-well system and fibronectin-induced cell attachment experiment respectively. Whole genome expression of DPSCs-SOX2 was analyzed with RNA microarray. Furthermore, a rescue experiment was performed with SOX2-siRNA in DPSC-SOX2 to confirm the effect of SOX2 overexpression in DPSCs. We found that SOX2 overexpression could result in the enhancement of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion in DPSCs obviously. RNA microarray analysis indicated that some key genes in the signal pathways associated with cell cycle, migration and adhesion were upregulated in different degree, and the results were further confirmed with qPCR and western-blot. Finally, DPSC-SOX2 transfected with SOX2-siRNA showed a decrease of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability, which further confirmed the biological effect of SOX2 in human DPSCs. This study indicated that SOX2 could improve the cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability of DPSCs through regulating gene expression about cell cycle, migration and adhesion, and provided a novel strategy to develop seed cells with strong proliferation, migration and adhesion ability for tissue engineering.

  9. Effects of SOX2 on Proliferation, Migration and Adhesion of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Cai, Jinglei; Dong, Delu; Chen, Yaoyu; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yulai

    2015-01-01

    As a key factor for cell pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes, SOX2 has attracted scientists' attention gradually in recent years. However, its exact effects in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are still unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated whether SOX2 could affect some biological functions of DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated from the dental pulp of human impacted third molar. SOX2 overexpressing DPSCs (DPSCs-SOX2) were established through retroviral infection. The effect of SOX2 on cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability was evaluated with CCK-8, trans-well system and fibronectin-induced cell attachment experiment respectively. Whole genome expression of DPSCs-SOX2 was analyzed with RNA microarray. Furthermore, a rescue experiment was performed with SOX2-siRNA in DPSC-SOX2 to confirm the effect of SOX2 overexpression in DPSCs. We found that SOX2 overexpression could result in the enhancement of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion in DPSCs obviously. RNA microarray analysis indicated that some key genes in the signal pathways associated with cell cycle, migration and adhesion were upregulated in different degree, and the results were further confirmed with qPCR and western-blot. Finally, DPSC-SOX2 transfected with SOX2-siRNA showed a decrease of cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability, which further confirmed the biological effect of SOX2 in human DPSCs. This study indicated that SOX2 could improve the cell proliferation, migration and adhesion ability of DPSCs through regulating gene expression about cell cycle, migration and adhesion, and provided a novel strategy to develop seed cells with strong proliferation, migration and adhesion ability for tissue engineering.

  10. The performance of human dental pulp stem cells on different three-dimensional scaffold materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.; Bian, Z.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from impacted third molars, when seeded onto different 3-dimensional (3-D) scaffold materials: i.e. a spongeous collagen, a porous ceramic, and a fibrous titanium mesh.

  11. Discrimination between intact and decayed pulp regions in carious teeth by ADC mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Nemeth, Lidija; Bajd, Franci; Vidmar, Jernej; Serša, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping, in the functional assessment of carious teeth. 38 extracted human teeth with scores of 0, 3 and 6 according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria were screened and subsequently analyzed by MRI at 2.35 T. Histology sectioning of teeth was used for the gold standard by analyzing two extreme cases (intact and severely decayed). ADC maps of the same teeth were calculated from corresponding diffusion-weighted images and used to obtain ADC distributions along dental pulp as functions of the relative pulp length measured from the occlusal pulp side. The measured distributions were analyzed for the best fit by a four-parameter three-segment linear regression model for ADC distribution along the pulp. MRI results were in good agreement with findings in histological sections of identical teeth. The best fit model parameters, relative decayed region depth, relative transition region width and ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue, showed statistically significant differences between the ADC values of intact and decayed pulp tissue (1.0 × 10(-9) m(2)/s vs. 0.74-0.89 × 10(-9) m(2)/s) and the relative decayed region depth progressing with ICDAS score (3 vs. 46% with ICDAS 3 vs. ICDAS 6). The results of this feasibility study confirmed relevance of ADC mapping for the discrimination and localization of intact and decayed regions in dental pulps of carious teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  13. Transcriptome comparison of human neurons generated using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from dental pulp and skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Mingyan; Foxe, John J; Pedrosa, Erika; Hrabovsky, Anastasia; Carroll, Reed; Zheng, Deyou; Lachman, Herbert M

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is providing an opportunity to study neuropsychiatric disorders through the capacity to grow patient-specific neurons in vitro. Skin fibroblasts obtained by biopsy have been the most reliable source of cells for reprogramming. However, using other somatic cells obtained by less invasive means would be ideal, especially in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to fibroblasts, iPSCs have been developed from cord blood, lymphocytes, hair keratinocytes, and dental pulp from deciduous teeth. Of these, dental pulp would be a good source for neurodevelopmental disorders in children because obtaining material is non-invasive. We investigated its suitability for disease modeling by carrying out gene expression profiling, using RNA-seq, on differentiated neurons derived from iPSCs made from dental pulp extracted from deciduous teeth (T-iPSCs) and fibroblasts (F-iPSCs). This is the first RNA-seq analysis comparing gene expression profiles in neurons derived from iPSCs made from different somatic cells. For the most part, gene expression profiles were quite similar with only 329 genes showing differential expression at a nominally significant p-value (pdisease-modeling neuropsychiatric disorder and may have some advantages over those derived from F-iPSCs.

  14. Concurrent Expression of Oct4 and Nanog Maintains Mesenchymal Stem-Like Property of Human Dental Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-En Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1−CD146− dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.

  15. Concurrent expression of Oct4 and Nanog maintains mesenchymal stem-like property of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuan-En; Hu, Fang-Wei; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Tsai, Lo-Lin; Lee, Tzu-Hsin; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2014-10-15

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), unique mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) type, exhibit the characteristics of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity. Oct4 and Nanog are pluripotent genes. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological functions of Oct4 and Nanog expression in DPSCs. Herein, we determined the critical role of an Oct4/Nanog axis modulating MSCs properties of DPSCs by lentiviral-mediated co-overexpression or co-knockdown of Oct4/Nanog in DPSCs. MSCs properties including osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation was assayed for expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic markers by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, we observed that the expression profile of Oct4 and Nanog in dental pulp cells, which exerted properties of MSCs, was significantly up-regulated compared to that of STRO-1-CD146- dental pulp cells. Down-regulation of Oct4 and Nanog co-expression significantly reduced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation capability, STRO-1, CD146, and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of DPSCs. In contrast, co-overexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhanced the expression level of STRO-1 and CD146, proliferation rate and osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation capability, and expression of osteogenic/chondrogenic/adipogenic induction differentiation markers. Our results suggest that Oct4-Nanog signaling is a regulatory switch to maintain properties in DPSCs.

  16. A retrospective study on traumatic dental and soft-tissue injuries in preschool children in Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, Marko; Škaričić, Josip; Batinjan, Goran; Trampuš, Zdenko; Čuković Bagić, Ivana; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, time elapsed before treatment and type of tooth from the records of traumatized children. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the University Dental Clinic in Zagreb, Croatia using the documentation of 128 patients (61 males and 67 females) aged 1 month to 6 years with injuries of primary teeth between February 2009 and January 2013. Trauma was seen in 217 primary teeth, which implies that the number of injured primary teeth was 1.69 per child. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently affected teeth (81.1%), they were followed by maxillary lateral incisors, while the least affected were mandibular central incisors. Traumatic dental injuries involved periodontal tissue 2.82 times more frequently than hard dental and pulp tissue. The main cause of teeth injury was fall (67.2%) and the majority of injuries occurred at home (51.6%) (p<0.05). Of 128 patients who received treatment 71 (55.5%) also had soft-tissue injuries. The distribution of soft-tissue injuries by gender (35 males, 36 females) was not statistically significant. Comparing children with soft-tissue injuries and those without them, a statistically significant difference was found in the time of arrival (p<0.01). The results of this study showed the need of informing about preventive measures against falls at home and the methods of providing first aid in dental trauma injuries.

  17. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  18. Repair Responses of Dental Pulp to Tooth Injury and Biological Properties of Dentin-pulp Complex

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 勇人; Ohshima, Hayato

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration-the creation of a new tissue after the original one has been lost-is the fundamental biological capability in an organism. Numerous organs are considered to contain stem cells referred to as adult stem cells, even in the adult. Adult stem cells can give rise to a limited set of adult tissue types. In the field of clinical dentistry, it is well-known that the dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries such as tooth replantation/transplantation or restorative pro...

  19. Ultrashort pulse laser processing of hard tissue, dental restoration materials, and biocompatibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, A.; Strassl, M.; Beer, F.; Verhagen, L.; Wittschier, M.; Wintner, E.

    2007-07-01

    During the last few years, ultra-short laser pulses have proven their potential for application in medical tissue treatment in many ways. In hard tissue ablation, their aptitude for material ablation with negligible collateral damage provides many advantages. Especially teeth representing an anatomically and physiologically very special region with less blood circulation and lower healing rates than other tissues require most careful treatment. Hence, overheating of the pulp and induction of microcracks are some of the most problematic issues in dental preparation. Up till now it was shown by many authors that the application of picosecond or femtosecond pulses allows to perform ablation with very low damaging potential also fitting to the physiological requirements indicated. Beside the short interaction time with the irradiated matter, scanning of the ultra-short pulse trains turned out to be crucial for ablating cavities of the required quality. One main reason for this can be seen in the fact that during scanning the time period between two subsequent pulses incident on the same spot is so much extended that no heat accumulation effects occur and each pulse can be treated as a first one with respect to its local impact. Extension of this advantageous technique to biocompatible materials, i.e. in this case dental restoration materials and titanium plasma-sprayed implants, is just a matter of consequence. Recently published results on composites fit well with earlier data on dental hard tissue. In case of plaque which has to be removed from implants, it turns out that removal of at least the calcified version is harder than tissue removal. Therefore, besides ultra-short lasers, also Diode and Neodymium lasers, in cw and pulsed modes, have been studied with respect to plaque removal and sterilization. The temperature increase during laser exposure has been experimentally evaluated in parallel.

  20. An in vitro evaluation of the degree of pulp tissue dissolution through different root canal irrigation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Massimo; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Abtellatif, Dina; Blasi, Andrea; Gagliani, Massimo; Iandolo, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro , using artificial lateral canals, the rate of dissolution of the pulp tissue through different protocols of canal irrigation. One hundred artificial canals provided with lateral canals have been used. Each lateral canal was filled with pulp tissue and calibrated to 0.002 mg. All canals were irrigated using five different protocols. Five groups have been used for the experiment: Group A, distilled water (control); Group B, preheated NaOCl; Group C, NaOCl heated inside the canal; Group D, NaOCl ultrasonically activated; and Group E, NaOCl heated inside the canal with ultrasonic activation. All samples were weighed through professional microbalance in three different phases: before insertion of the pulp tissue into the lateral canal, after insertion of the pulp tissue and, finally, after different protocols of irrigation. A statistical analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test was performed. The partial dissolution of the pulp tissue inside the artificial lateral canal occurs only using the protocol with NaOCl heated inside the canal with ultrasonic activation. Other irrigation protocols are not able to dissolve the pulp tissue. The main objective of endodontic therapy is the removal of damaged tissues and bacteria. Modern literature highlights that it is impossible to remove all the pulp tissues and bacteria from the whole endodontic space. Hence, to achieve excellence and get positive results in the short and long term, it is necessary to use techniques and technologies that may increase the degree of root canal detersion.

  1. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Rahman, Ismail Ab; Ismail, Hanafi; Mahmood, Zuliani

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H 2 PO 4 ) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration

  2. Effect of different calcium phosphate scaffold ratios on odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdulQader, Sarah Talib [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq); Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj, E-mail: kannan@usm.my [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rahman, Ismail Ab [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ismail, Hanafi [School of Materials and Minerals Resource Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Penang (Malaysia); Mahmood, Zuliani [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds have been widely and successfully used with osteoblast cells for bone tissue regeneration. However, it is necessary to investigate the effects of these scaffolds on odontoblast cells' proliferation and differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. In this study, three different hydroxyapatite (HA) to beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratios of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds, BCP20, BCP50, and BCP80, with a mean pore size of 300 μm and 65% porosity were prepared from phosphoric acid (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) and calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sintered at 1000 °C for 2 h. The extracts of these scaffolds were assessed with regard to cell viability and differentiation of odontoblasts. The high alkalinity, more calcium, and phosphate ions released that were exhibited by BCP20 decreased the viability of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. However, the cells cultured with BCP20 extract expressed high alkaline phosphatase activity and high expression level of bone sialoprotein (BSP), dental matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes as compared to that cultured with BCP50 and BCP80 extracts. The results highlighted the effect of different scaffold ratios on the cell microenvironment and demonstrated that BCP20 scaffold can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • BCPs of different HA/β-TCP ratios influence cell microenvironment. • BCP20 decreases cell viability of HDPCs as compared to BCP50 and BCP80. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 express highest ALP activity. • HDPCs cultured with BCP20 up-regulate BSP, DMP-1 and DSPP gene expressions. • BCP20 can support HDPC differentiation for dentin tissue regeneration.

  3. In vitro analysis of scaffold-free prevascularized microtissue spheroids containing human dental pulp cells and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Waruna Lakmal; Zhu, Lifang; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Jin, Lijian; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-05-01

    Scaffolds often fail to mimic essential functions of the physiologic extracellular matrix (ECM) that regulates cell-cell communication in tissue microenvironments. The development of scaffold-free microtissues containing stem cell-derived ECM may serve as a successful alternative to the use of artificial scaffolds. The current study aimed to fabricate 3-dimensional microtissue spheroids of dental pulp cells (DPCs) prevascularized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to characterize these scaffold-free spheroids for the in vitro formation of pulplike tissue constructs. Three-dimensional microtissue spheroids of DPC alone and DPC-HUVEC co-cultures were fabricated using agarose micro-molds. Cellular organization within the spheroids and cell viability (live/dead assay) were assessed at days 1, 7, and 14. Microtissue spheroids were allowed to self-assemble into macrotissues, induced for odontogenic differentiation (21 days), and examined for expression levels of osteo/odontogenic markers: alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein and RUNX2 (Real-time PCR), mineralization (von-Kossa), and prevascularisation (immunohistochemistry for CD31). The DPC microtissue microenvironment supported HUVEC survival and capillary network formation in the absence of a scaffolding material and external angiogenic stimulation. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 showed the capillary network formed by HUVECs did sustain-for a prolonged period-even after the microtissues transformed into a macrotissue. Induced, prevascularized macrotissues showed enhanced differentiation capacity compared with DPC alone macrotissues, as shown by higher osteo/odontogenic gene expression levels and mineralization. These findings provide insight into the complex intercellular cross talk occurring between DPCs and HUVECs in the context of angiogenesis and pulp regeneration and highlight the significance of developing a favorable 3-dimensional microenvironment that can, in turn, contribute

  4. Pulp regeneration after non-infected and infected necrosis, what type of tissue do we want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Bakland, Leif K

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration (revitalization) of infected necrotic pulp tissue has been an important issue in endodontics for more than a decade. Based on a series of case reports, there appears to be evidence that new soft tissue can enter the root canal with a potential for subsequent hard tissue deposition...... that such events may take place in four variants: (i) Revascularization of the pulp with accelerated dentin formation leading to pulp canal obliteration. This event has a good long-term prognosis. (ii) Ingrowth of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL). The long-term prognosis for this event is not known. (iii...

  5. The effect of watermelon frost on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in inflamed pulp tissue (in vitro study

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    Dennis Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulp inflammation can be marked by the increase of prostaglandin E2(PGE2 level compared to normal pulp. The increase of PGE2 may lead to vasodilatation, increase of vascular permeability, pain and bone resorption. Watermelon frost has been well known in Chinese society for pain relief and inflammation in oral cavity and teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level. Method: 27 samples of pulp tissues used in this in-vitro study, were extirpated from the patients’ teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis referred to clinic of Conservative Dentistry, RSPGM Faculty of Dentistry, USU. Trial materials were applied to 27 samples i.e. watermelon frost as a trial material and commercial watermelon frost and eugenol to observe their effect on PGE2. PGE2 level of each material was detected through ELISA method by measuring and comparing the absorbance reading of the wells of the samples against standards with a micro plate reader at W1 = 650 nm and W2 = 490 nm. Result: The result showed the biggest effect was found in the third group (eugenol, mean 4.6933, followed by the first group (watermelon frost as a trial material, mean 18,1578 then the second group (commercial watermelon frost, mean 82,2689. OneWay ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among all trial materials (p < 0.001 on PGE2 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that watermelon frost can be used to decrease the PGE2 level in inflamed pulp tissue and led to the acceptance of traditional medicine and natural products as an alternative form of dental care.

  6. Correlation between enamel morphological and dental pulp physiological outcomes as a function of lasing parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcoria, Charles J.; Wagner, Martin J.; Vitasek, Bunny A.

    1992-06-01

    Previous oral medicine research has insufficiently quantified and correlated laser effects on calcified/soft-tissue combinations. The purpose of this study was to explain lasing effects on outcome variables (pulp response and enamel condition). Vital animal molars were irradiated using several mediums, with predetermined energy densities serving as independent variables. Predetermined safe-tissue thresholds, including pulp/enamel conditions, can be demonstrated to display linear relationships using several laser systems.

  7. Human immature dental pulp stem cells (hIDPSCs), their application to cell therapy and bioengineering: an analysis by systematic revision of the last decade of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Priscilla Vianna; Alves, Fabiana Bucholdz Teixeira; Costa Ayub, Cristina Lucia Sant'Ana; de Miranda Soares, Maria Albertina; Gomes, Jose Rosa

    2013-12-01

    During recent years, attention has been given to the potential of therapeutic approaches using stem cells obtained from dental pulp tissue. The aim of this study, therefore, was to give an overview of the papers produced during the last 10 years that have described the use of stem cells obtained from human deciduous teeth in cell therapy or bioengineering. The PubMed database was investigated from January 2002 until July 2011 and the papers published during this period were analyzed according to criteria previously established, using the methodology of systematic review. The measurements were done using "stem cell" as the primary keyword, and "human deciduous teeth dental pulp cell" and "human exfoliated deciduous teeth" as the secondary keywords. Four hundred and seventy-five papers were found. The first screening resulted in 276 papers, from which 84 papers were selected. However, only 11 of them attained the aim proposed in our approach. There were few scientific studies related to direct therapeutic application using stem cells of human deciduous teeth and none of them had been applied to humans. However, the results indicated important and promising applications of the pulp stem-cells in cell therapy and bioengineering as demonstrated by studies in animal models of muscular dystrophy, Parkison's disease, and lupus erythematosus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Masticatory Forces on a Lower First Molar considering the Contact between Dental Tissues

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    Rosa Alicia Hernández-Vázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to identify the reactions of the dental organs to the different forces that occur during chewing and the transcendence of the union and contact maintained by the dental tissues. The study used a lower first molar biomodel with a real morphology and morphometry and consisting of the three dental tissues (enamel, dentin, and pulp each with its mechanical properties. In it, two simulations were carried out, as would the process of chewing a food. One of the simulations considers the contact between the enamel and the dentin, and the other does not take it into account. The results obtained differ significantly between the simulations that consider contact and those that do not, establishing the importance of taking this contact into account. In this way, the theories that establish horizontal and lateral occlusion forces are present during the functional chewing process which are viable to be correct. The case studies carried out present not only the reasons for the failure of enamel but also the failure of the restoration materials used. This reflection will allow the development of more adequate materials, mechanical design of prostheses, implants, and treatment.

  9. Modeling of thermal and optical effects in dental pulp during the irradiation with neodymium and diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Patricia Bahls de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    During the development of applications of high intensity lasers in the enamel and dentine, adverse thermal effects into the entire dental structure, including the pulp, must be verified. The measurement of the temperature in the intact pulp, however, is not a solved problem. For this purpose, models have been used frequently, using extracted teeth, with pulpal cavities filled with materials that simulate only thermal properties of the pulp. Current models, however, do not simulate optical properties of the pulp, not taking the remaining radiation in the pulp chamber into account. The aim of this study was to verify if the remaining radiation from neodymium and diode lasers that reach the pulp chamber, at the models using extracted bovine teeth, can cause local thermal effects. For this purpose, two models were developed, using extracted bovine teeth with their pulp chambers filled with water (simulating pulp thermal characteristics) without (model 1) and with (model 2) an optical absorbent. Models were radiated with 1 W. The obtained results show that, for both lasers, the temperature rise in model 2 pulp chamber is: up to 11 % higher than in the model 1 when the enamel is radiated; and up to 37% higher than in the model 1 when dentine is radiated (1 mm from the pulp), indicating that the level of the remaining radiation is relevant for the construction of models excited by the neodymium and diode lasers. (author)

  10. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte; Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2010-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed for bone (re)modelling. Local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which provokes a cellular response via loading-induced interstitial fluid flow. We studied whether human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDSCs) portraying mature (PDSC-mature) or immature (PDSC-immature) bone cell characteristics are responsive to pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. We also assessed bone formation by PDSCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Cultured PDSC-mature exhibited higher osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity than PDSC-immature. Pulsating fluid flow (PFF) stimulated nitric oxide production within 5 min by PDSC-mature but not by PDSC-immature. In PDSC-mature, PFF induced prostaglandin E(2) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression was higher than in PDSC-immature. Implantation of PDSC-mature resulted in more osteoid deposition and lamellar bone formation than PDSC-immature. We conclude that PDSCs with a mature osteogenic phenotype are more responsive to pulsating fluid shear stress than osteogenically immature PDSCs and produce more bone in vivo. These data suggest that PDSCs with a mature osteogenic phenotype might be preferable for bone tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, because they might be able to perform mature bone cell-specific functions during bone adaptation to mechanical loading in vivo.

  11. miRNA-720 controls stem cell phenotype, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

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    Emilio Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Dental pulp cells (DPCs are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.

  12. Alteration of microRNA expression of human dental pulp cells during odontogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qimei; Wang, Runfu; Jiang, Hongwei; Lin, Zhengmei; Ling, Junqi

    2012-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play momentous roles in various biological processes including cell differentiation. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) during odontogenic differentiation. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of miRNAs in the primary culture of hDPCs when incubated in odontogenic medium. The potential characteristics of hDPCs were investigated by miRNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatics (ie, target prediction, Gene Ontology analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes mapping tools) were applied for predicting the complementary target genes of miRNAs and their biological functions. A total of 22 miRNAs were differentially expressed in which 12 miRNAs up-regulated and 10 miRNAs down-regulated in differentiated hDPCs compared with the control. The target genes of differential miRNAs were predicted to associate with several biological functions and signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the Wnt signaling pathway. The differential expression miRNAs may be involved in governing hDPC odontogenic differentiation, thus contributing to the future investigations of regulatory mechanisms in reparative dentin formation and dental pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TET1 knockdown inhibits the odontogenic differentiation potential of human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li-Jia; Yi, Bai-Cheng; Li, Qi-Meng; Xu, Qiong

    2016-06-30

    Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) possess the capacity to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells and generate reparative dentin in response to exogenous stimuli or injury. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) is a novel DNA methyldioxygenase that plays an important role in the promotion of DNA demethylation and transcriptional regulation in several cell lines. However, the role of TET1 in the biological functions of hDPCs is unknown. To investigate the effect of TET1 on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation potential of hDPCs, a recombinant shRNA lentiviral vector was used to knock down TET1 expression in hDPCs. Following TET1 knockdown, TET1 was significantly downregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of the hDPCs was suppressed in the TET1 knockdown groups. Alkaline phosphatase activity, the formation of mineralized nodules, and the expression levels of DSPP and DMP1 were all reduced in the TET1-knockdown hDPCs undergoing odontogenic differentiation. Based on these results, we concluded that TET1 knockdown can prevent the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, which suggests that TET1 may play an important role in dental pulp repair and regeneration.

  14. [Structural features of the pulp ground substance and its significance for acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarashvili, Capital Ka Cyrillich; Dgebuadze, M; Melikadze, E; Zhvitiashvili, T; Jandieri, K

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the research study is an analysis of amorphous material, fibers and cellular elements of the dental pulp and evaluation of their interactions with a variety of fibrouse structures in the norm and inflammation. To solve this problem used dental pulp tissue bioptats (10 cases) of patients with acute and chronic pulpitis and 10 control specimens (orthodontic operations). The material was studied by histological and electron microscopic methods of research. It was determined that in acute pulpitis develope changes promoting dissociation of fibrouse and cellular structures of pulp components, and thus, loss the cementing binding role of the ground substance. Acute pulpitis characterized by the recruitment of mast cells. ; The reorganization and remodeling of ground substance associated with neoangiogenesis, especially capillaries, and the replacement of collagen fibers by the fibrouse structures are major points in chronic pulpitis.

  15. Reactions of human dental pulp cells to capping agents in the presence or absence of bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenjian; Tribble, Gena; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    An ideal pulp-capping agent needs to have good biocompatibility and promote reparative dentinogenesis. Although the effects of capping agents on healthy pulp are known, limited data regarding their effects on bacterial contaminated pulp are available. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of contaminated pulps to various capping agents to assist clinicians in making informed decisions. Human dental pulp (HDP) cell cultures were developed from extracted human molars. The cells were exposed to a bacterial cocktail comprising Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus gordonii before being cocultured with capping agents such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Portland cement (PC), and Dycal. HDP cell proliferation was assayed by MTS colorimetric cell proliferation assay, and its differentiation was evaluated by real-time PCR for detecting alkaline phosphatase, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and osteocalcin expressions. MTA and PC had no apparent effect, whereas Dycal inhibited HDP cell proliferation. PC stimulated HDP cell differentiation, particularly when they were exposed to bacteria. MTA and Dycal inhibited differentiation, regardless of bacterial infection. In conclusion, PC was the most favorable agent, followed by MTA, and Dycal was the least favorable agent for supporting the functions of bacterial compromised pulp cells.

  16. Effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 on the expression and regulation of chemokines in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Min, Kyung-San; Jeong, Dong-Ho; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2010-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) participates in both hematopoiesis and osteogenesis; however, the effects of FGF-2 on chemokines during odontoblastic differentiation have not been reported. This study investigated whether human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) treated with FGF-2 could express chemokines during differentiation into odontoblastic cells and sought to identify its underlying mechanism of action. To analyze differentiation, we measured alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcified nodule formation by alizarin red staining, and marker RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of chemokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-3α, were evaluated by RT-PCR. ALP activity, the mineralization, and mRNA expression for odontoblastic markers were enhanced by FGF-2 in HDPCs. FGF-2 also up-regulated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-3α mRNAs, which were attenuated by inhibitors of p38, ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases, protein kinase C, phosphoinositide-3 kinase, and NF-κB. Taken together, these data suggest that FGF-2 plays a role not only as a differentiation inducing factor in the injury repair processes of pulpal tissue but also as a positive regulator of chemokine expression, which may help in tissue engineering and pulp regeneration using HDPCs. However, the fate of odontoblastic or osteoblastic differentiation, effective local delivery for FGF-2, interaction of chemotatic and odontogenic factors, and other limitations will need to be overcome before a major modality for the treatment of pulp disease. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The expressions of NF-kb and TGFb-1 on odontoblast-like cells of human dental pulp injected with propolis extracts

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    Ira Widjiastuti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propolis is known to have beneficial effects, namely anti- bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory. Propolis extracts with anti-inflammatory properties are expected to be useful in treating inflamed pulp tissue with a diagnosis of reversible pulpitis. The inflammation of pulp tissue is caused by bacteria, namely Lactobacillus acidophilus. This research used odontoblast like cells derived from pulp tissue of human third molars. Odontoblast like cells exposed to Lactobacillus achidophilus were used as a model of proinflammatory cytokine signaling. This research examined the effects of propolis extracts on odontoblast like cells exposed to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis extracts on the activities of odontoblast-like cells exposed to Lactobacillus acidophillus by measuring the expressions of NFkb and TGF- b1. Methods: First, pulp odontoblast cultures were derived from human dental pulp tissues of impacted third molars removed by using digestion method. Next, odontoblast-like cells exposed to inactive Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria were given propolis extract. Finally, the activities of odontoblast-like cells were monitored by measuring the expressions of NF-kb and TGFb-1 with immunocytochemistry technique. Results: A decline NF-kb expression and on increase of TGFb-1 expression on odontoblast like cells exposed to inactive Lactobacillus acidophilus. Conclusion: Propolis extracts inhibit the expression of NF-kb, and increase the expression of TGF-b1 in pulp odontoblast-like cells exposed to inactive Lactobacillus acidophillus.Latar belakang: Propolis dilaporkan mempunyai efek menguntungkan yaitu bersifat anti bakteri, anti virus, anti inflamasi, anti oksidan, dan imunomodulator. Ekstrak propolis dengan sifat anti inflamasi diharapkan bermanfaat untuk mengobati jaringan pulpa yang mengalami inflamasi dengan diagnosis pulpitis

  18. Immunophenotyping reveals the diversity of human dental pulp mesenchymal stromal cells in vivo and their evolution upon in vitro amplification

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    Maxime DUCRET

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs from human dental pulp (DP can be expanded in vitro for cell-based and regenerative dentistry therapeutic purposes. However, their heterogeneity may be a hurdle to the achievement of reproducible and predictable therapeutic outcomes. To get a better knowledge about this heterogeneity, we designed a flow cytometric strategy to analyze the phenotype of DP cells in vivo and upon in vitro expansion with stem cell markers. We focused on the CD31- cell population to exclude endothelial and leukocytic cells. Results showed that the in vivo CD31- DP cell population contained 1.4% of CD56+, 1.5% of CD146+, 2.4% of CD271+ and 6.3% of MSCA-1+ cells but very few Stro-1+ cells (≤1%. CD56+, CD146+, CD271+ and MSCA-1+ cell subpopulations expressed various levels of these markers. CD146+MSCA-1+, CD271+MSCA-1+ and CD146+CD271+ cells were the most abundant DP-MSC populations. Analysis of DP-MSCs expanded in vitro with a medicinal manufacturing approach showed that CD146 was expressed by about 50% of CD56+, CD271+, MSCA-1+ and Stro-1+ cells, and MSCA-1 by 15-30% of CD56+, CD146+, CD271+ and Stro-1+ cells. These ratios remained stable with passages. CD271 and Stro-1 were expressed by less than 1% of the expanded cell populations. Interestingly, the percentage of CD56+ cells strongly increased from P1 (25% to P4 (80% both in all sub-populations studied. CD146+CD56+, MSCA-1+CD56+ and CD146+MSCA-1+ cells were the most abundant DP-MSCs at the end of P4. These results established that DP-MSCs constitute a heterogeneous mixture of cells in pulp tissue in vivo and in culture, and that their phenotype is modified upon in vitro expansion. Further studies are needed to determine whether co-expression of specific MSC markers confers DP cells specific properties that could be used for the regeneration of human tissues, including the dental pulp, with standardized cell-based medicinal products.

  19. N-Acetyl Cysteine Depletes Reactive Oxygen Species and Prevents Dental Monomer-Induced Intrinsic Mitochondrial Apoptosis In Vitro in Human Dental Pulp Cells.

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    Yang Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the involvement of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in dental monomer-induced cytotoxicity and the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC on this process.Human dental pulp cells (hDPCs were exposed to several dental monomers in the absence or presence of NAC, and cell viability, intracellular redox balance, morphology and function of mitochondria and key indicators of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis were evaluated using various commercial kits.Dental monomers exerted dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on hDPCs. Concomitant to the over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and depletion of glutathione (GSH, differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were detected. Apoptosis, as indicated by positive Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI staining and activation of caspase-3, was observed after dental monomer treatment. Dental monomers impaired the morphology and function of mitochondria, and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis in hDPCs via up-regulation of p53, Bax and cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. NAC restored cell viability, relieved oxidative stress and blocked the apoptotic effects of dental monomers.Dental monomers induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis in hDPCs. NAC could reduce the oxidative stress and thus protect hDPCs against dental monomer-induced apoptosis.

  20. High proportions of Staphylococcus epidermidis in dental caries harbor multiple classes of antibiotics resistance, significantly increase inflammatory interleukins in dental pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Muzaheed; Aldeyab, Sultan Salem; Alfawaz, Sara A; AlKheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ahmed Khan, Aftab

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of most prevalent in dental caries or dental pulp which has the capability of horizontal genetic transfer between different bacterial species in the oropharynx, suggesting that it may evolve with the dissemination of resistant determinants, This study was performed to molecularly characterize and differentiate S. epidermidis isolated from dental caries and healthy individual. Also, two important cytokines in inflammation were assayed caused due to S. epidermidis of health and dental caries sources. Dental caries strains were more resistant with high MIC 50 and MIC 90 value. These isolates also showed the presence of mecA gene and another virulence gene i. e sea and seb comparatively more than healthy individual isolates. SCCmec types, III and IV was more prevalent in dental caries isolates where an as healthy individual was more non-typable. Additionally, the quantity of IL-1β and IL-8 caused due to dental caries isolates was seen more which indicate dental caries isolates are able to induce. This study showed that S. epidermidis a normal flora of oropharyngeal are more diverse to those strains which cause dental caries. S. epidermidis owns a prodigious genetic plasticity that permits to obtain, lose or regulate genetic elements that provide compensations to improve its colonization in the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of DMP-1 in the human pulp tissue using low level laser therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Natalino Lourenço; Teixeira Marques, Nádia Carolina; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Andrade Moreira Machado, Maria Aparecida; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Rodini, Camila Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on DMP-1 expression in pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly assigned into the following groups: Group I—Buckley’s Formocresol (FC); Group II—Calcium Hydroxide (CH); Group III—LLLT + CH and Group IV—LLLT + Zinc oxide/Eugenol. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted for histological analysis and immunolocalization of DMP-1. Descriptive analysis was performed on the dentin pulp complex. Histopathological assessment showed internal resorption in group FC. Groups CH and LLLT + CH provided better pulpal repair due to the absence of inflammation and the formation of hard tissue barrier. These two groups presented odontoblastic layer expressing DMP-1. According to this study, low level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory bio-inductive activity on pulp tissue repair of human primary teeth. However, other histological and cellular studies are needed to confirm the laser tissue action and efficacy. (paper)

  2. Enhanced regeneration potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells from immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, H; Iohara, K; Hayashi, Y; Okuwa, Y; Kurita, K; Nakashima, M

    2017-07-01

    We have previously demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from mature teeth by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced mobilization method can enhance angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and improve pulp regeneration when compared with colony-derived DPSCs. However, the efficacy of this method in immature teeth with root-formative stage has never been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the stemness, biological characteristics, and regeneration potential in mobilized DPSCs compared with colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. Mobilized DPSCs isolated from immature teeth were compared to colony-derived DPSCs using methods including flow cytometry, migration assays, mRNA expression of angiogenic/neurotrophic factor, and induced differentiation assays. They were also compared in trophic effects of the secretome. Regeneration potential was further compared in an ectopic tooth transplantation model. Mobilized DPSCs had higher migration ability and expressed more angiogenic/neurotrophic factors than DPSCs. The mobilized DPSC secretome produced a higher stimulatory effect on migration, immunomodulation, anti-apoptosis, endothelial differentiation, and neurite extension. In addition, vascularization and pulp regeneration potential were higher in mobilized DPSCs than in DPSCs. G-CSF-induced mobilization method enhances regeneration potential of colony-derived DPSCs from immature teeth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Impact of different degree pulpitis on cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell in Beagle immature premolars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, L; Zhao, Y M; Ge, L H

    2016-10-18

    To compare the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) isolated from normal and inflamed pulps of different degrees in Beagle immature premolars, and provide evidence for the use of inflammatory DPSC (IDPSC). This study evaluated 14 Beagle's young premolars (21 roots). In the experiment group, irreversible pulpitis was induced by pulp exposure and the inflamed pulps were extracted 2 weeks and 6 weeks after the pulp chamber opening.For the control group, normal pulps were extracted immediately after the exposure. HE staining and real-time PCR were performed to confirm the inflammation. The cells were isolated from the inflamed and normal pulps (IDPSC and DPSC). Cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potentials of the two cells were compared. Inflammation cells infiltration was observed in the inflamed pulps by HE staining. The expression of inflammatory factor was much higher in the 6 week inflamed pulp. IDPSC had higher potential of cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation potentials. Furthermore, the osteoblastic differentiation potentials of IDPSC from 2 week inflamed pulp were higher than those from 6 week inflamed pulp. The potential of cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of DPSC was enhanced at early stage of irreversible pulpitis, and reduced at late stage in Beagle immature premolars.

  4. The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma

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    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or cause luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs.

  5. Gene expression change in human dental pulp cells exposed to a low-level toxic concentration of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate: an RNA-seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Geun; Lee, Jin-Woo; Heo, Jung Sun; Kim, Sun-Young

    2014-09-01

    Dental composite resin restoration for defective tooth may lead unpolymerized resin monomers to be leached into dental pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the early gene expression change over time of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) treated with a low-level toxic concentration of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), a common dental resin monomer, by adopting the novel high-throughput transcriptome analysis of RNA-seq. The low-level toxic concentration of TEGDMA was determined through MTT assays with serially diluted concentrations. After the HDPCs were exposed to TEGDMA for 6, 12, 24 or 48 hr, the total RNA of the samples was prepared for RNA-seq. qRT-PCR for several genes was performed for validation of RNA-seq results. In the treated group, 1280 genes were differentially expressed compared with the control group. Five patterns of time-series gene expression profiles were identified through k-means clustering analysis. Angiogenesis, cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix organization, response to extracellular stimulus, inflammatory response and mineralization-related process were major gene ontology terms in functional annotation clustering. HMOX1, OSGIN1, SMN2, SRXN1 AKR1C1, SPP1 and TOMM40L were highly up-regulated genes, and WRAP53 and CCL2 were highly down-regulated genes over time. qRT-PCR for several genes exhibited a high level of agreement with RNA-seq. TEGDMA induced the HDPCs to show massive and dynamic gene expression changes over time. The previously suggested toxic mechanism of TEGDMA was not only verified, but new genes whose functions have yet to be determined were also found. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Cell-penetrating superoxide dismutase attenuates oxidative stress-induced senescence by regulating the p53-p21Cip1 pathway and restores osteoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells

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    Park YJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yoon Jung Choi,1,* Jue Yeon Lee,2,* Chong Pyoung Chung,2 Yoon Jeong Park,1,21Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have potential applications in tissue regeneration because of their convenient cell harvesting procedures and multipotent capacity. However, the tissue regenerative potential of DPSCs is known to be negatively regulated by aging in long-term culture and under oxidative stress. With an aim of reducing cellular senescence and oxidative stress in DPSCs, an intracellular delivery system for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 was developed. We conjugated SOD1 with a cell-penetrating peptide known as low-molecular weight protamine (LMWP, and investigated the effect of LMWP-SOD1 conjugates on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular senescence and osteoblastic differentiation.Results: LMWP-SOD1 significantly attenuated enlarged and flattened cell morphology and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Under the same conditions, LMWP-SOD1 abolished activation of the cell cycle regulator proteins, p53 and p21Cip1, induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, LMWP-SOD1 reversed the inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and downregulation of osteogenic gene markers induced by hydrogen peroxide. However, LMWP-SOD1 could not reverse the decrease in odontogenesis caused by hydrogen peroxide.Conclusion: Overall, cell-penetrating LMWP-SOD1 conjugates are effective for attenuation of cellular senescence and reversal of osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs caused by oxidative stress inhibition. This result suggests potential application in the field of antiaging and tissue engineering to overcome the limitations of senescent stem cells.Keywords: superoxide

  7. Magnetic resonance tomography and dental radiology (Dental-MRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahleitner, A.; Wien Univ.; Solar, P.; Ertl, L.; Nasel, C.; Homolka, P.; Youssefzadeh, S.; Schick, S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the usefulness of Dental-MRT for imaging of anatomic and pathologic conditions of the mandible and maxilla. Methods: Seven healthy volunteers, 5 patients with pulpitis, 9 patients with dentigerous cysts, 5 patients after tooth transplantation and 12 patients with atrophic mandibles were evaluated. Studies of the jaws using axial T1- and T2-weighted gradient echo and spin echo sequences in 2D and 3D technique have been to performed. The acquired images were reconstructed with a standard dental software package on a workstation as panoramic and cross sectional views of the mandible or maxilla. Results: The entire maxilla and mandibula, teeth, dental pulp and the content of the mandibular canal were well depicted. Patients with inflammatory disease of the pulp chamber demonstrate bone marrow edema in the periapical region. Dentigerous cysts and their relation to the surrounding structures are clearly shown. After contrast media application marked enhancement of the dental pulp can be found. Conclusion: Dental-MRT provides a valuable tool for visualization and detection of dental diseases. (orig.) [de

  8. Histopathological study of the effects of low-intensity laser irradiation (λ=650 nm) on dental pulp tissue after cavity pre paration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertella, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (in vivo) the effects of low-intensity Arsenide Gallium Aluminium laser application post-cavity preparation class 1. Six patients with bilateral pre-molars and molars indicated to extraction for orthodontics aim were selected. Four samples of these teeth underwent cavity preparation with deep from medium to high and two samples underwent cavity preparation from high to pulp expositions. The samples were constituted of two teeth of the same patient and received different treatments. One of the teeth underwent laser exposition and the other one was maintained as control, before restorative procedure with polycarboxylate cement. A diode laser (λ=650 nm), output power 30 mW and fluencies of 1,8 J/cm 2 and 2,7 J/cm 2 in pre-molars and molars, respectively, was used for irradiation with repetition rate of 18 Hz in interrupted continuous wave mode. After seven days, the teeth were extracted and processed histologically with HE to verify morphological changes in the pulpy tissue. The four samples, which cavity preparation and restorative material were not in contact with the pulp, did not show histological differences between irradiated and non-irradiated teeth. Both of them presented the same characteristics of normality. The two samples with exposed pulpy tissue showed different results. The irradiated teeth presented no or slight inflammatory signs when compared to the control samples, which showed abscess in the coronary pulp interior and intense inflammatory infiltrated. These results suggest that the laser irradiation can be used as a therapeutic modality in clinical trials, in the conditions employed in this study. (author)

  9. Effects of combining CBCT technology with visual root canal recurrence in treatment of elderly patients with dental pulp disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J-J; Peng, B; Lin, W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of combining cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology with visual root canal recurrence in the treatment of elderly patients with dental pulp disease. 56 cases of elderly patients with dental pulp disease were contiguously selected, and randomly divided into the control group (70 teeth from 27 patients) and the observation group (77 teeth from the rest 29 patients). We adopted CBCT technology combined with conventional root canal therapy in control group and CBCT technology combined with visual root canal recurrence in observation group to compare the clinical effects. It was found that there was no statistical difference in duration of operation between the two groups (p>0.05). The operation times and the VAS during and after operation of the observation group were significantly less than that of the control group (ppulp disease.

  10. Isolation and evaluation of dental pulp stem cells from teeth with advanced periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Ali; Raoof, Maryam; Dabiri, Shahriar; Farsinejad, Ali Reza; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Ehsani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Successful isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from waste tissues might be extremely promising for developing stem cell-based therapies. This study aimed to explore whether cells retrieved from teeth extracted due to advanced periodontal disease present mesenchymal stem cell-like properties. Pulp cells were isolated from 15 intact molars and 15 teeth with advanced periodontal disease. Cell proliferation and markers of mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated. Based on the RT-PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis, nucleostemin, Oct-4 and jmj2c, but not Nanog, were expressed in undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells of both groups. Interestingly, diseased pulp exhibited higher gene expressions although it was not statistically significant. The average percentage of BrdU positive cells in the diseased group (84.4%, n = 5) was significantly higher than that of the control group (65.4%, n = 5) (t-test, P = 0.001). Our results indicate the successful isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from the pulp tissue of hopeless periodontally involved teeth.

  11. Odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells on tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: The 3D culture system improves odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The differentiation level of the cells in 3D culture is significantly lower than that of odontoblasts present in pulp tissue. TCP biomaterial possesses an odontogenic-inducing property.

  12. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach.

  13. PDGFRβ+/c-kit+ pulp cells are odontoblastic progenitors capable of producing dentin-like structure in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenjian; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-28

    Successful pulp regeneration depends on identification of pulp stem cells capable of differentiation under odontoblastic lineage and producing pulp-dentinal like structure. Recent studies demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays an important role in damage repair and tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify a subpopulation of dental pulp cells responsive to PDGF and with dentin regeneration potential. Pulp tissues were isolated from 12 freshly extracted human impacted third molars. Pulp cells were sorted by their expression of PDGFRβ and stem cell marker genes via flow cytometry. For the selected cells, proliferation was analyzed by a colorimetric cell proliferation assay, differentiation was assessed by real time PCR detection the expression of odontoblast marker genes, and mineralization was evaluated by Alizarin Red S staining. GFP marked PDGFRβ + /c-kit + pulp cells were transplanted into emptied root canals of nude rat lower left incisors. Pulp-dentinal regeneration was examined by immunohistochemistry. PDGFRβ + /c-kit + pulp cells proliferated significantly faster than whole pulp cells. In mineralization media, PDGFRβ + /c-kit + pulp cells were able to develop under odontoblastic linage as demonstrated by a progressively increased expression of DMP1, DSPP, and osteocalcin. BMP2 seemed to enhance whereas PDGF-BB seemed to inhibit odontoblastic differentiation and mineralization of PDGFRβ + /c-kit + pulp cells. In vivo root canal transplantation study revealed globular dentin and pulp-like tissue formation by PDGFRβ + /c-kit + cells. PDGFRβ + /c-kit + pulp cells appear to have pulp stem cell potential capable of producing dentinal like structure in vitro and in vivo.

  14. In vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel TRPA1 antagonist and proof of mechanism in a human dental pulp model

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    Nyman E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eva Nyman,1,* Bo Franzén,1,* Andreas Nolting,1 Göran Klement,1 Gang Liu,1 Maria Nilsson,1 Annika Rosén,2 Charlotta Björk,3 Dirk Weigelt,4 Patrik Wollberg,1 Paul Karila,1 Patrick Raboisson11Neuroscience, Innovative Medicines CNS/Pain, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden; 2Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Karolinska Institute/Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; 3Clinical TA NS Early Development, 4Medicinal Chemistry, Innovative Medicines CNS/Pain, AstraZeneca R&D, Södertälje, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: AZ465 is a novel selective transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1 (TRPA1 antagonist identified during a focused drug discovery effort. In vitro, AZ465 fully inhibits activation by zinc, O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS, or cinnamaldehyde of the human TRPA1 channel heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Our data using patch-clamp recordings and mouse/human TRPA1 chimeras suggest that AZ465 binds reversibly in the pore region of the human TRPA1 channel. Finally, in an ex vivo model measuring TRPA1 agonist-stimulated release of neuropeptides from human dental pulp biopsies, AZD465 was able to block 50%–60% of CS-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release, confirming that AZ465 inhibits the native human TRPA1 channel in neuronal tissue.Keywords: pain, pharmacology, antagonist, chimeric proteins, dental pulp, inflammation, neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP

  15. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Zhang, Q Z; Karabucak, B; Le, A D

    2016-10-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages-essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity-can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  16. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp and dental follicle are susceptible to activation by toll-like receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, Sergej; Djokic, Jelena; Vasilijic, Sasa; Vucevic, Dragana; Todorovic, Vera; Supic, Gordana; Colic, Miodrag

    2011-04-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently become a potent tool in regenerative medicine. Due to certain shortcomings of obtaining bone marrow MSCs, alternate sources of MSCs have been sought. In this work, we studied MSCs from dental pulp (DP-MSCs) and dental follicle (DF-MSCs), isolated from the same tooth/donor, to define differences in their phenotypic properties, differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory activities. Both cell types showed colony-forming ability and expressed typical MSCs markers, but differed in the levels of their expression. DF-MSCs proliferated faster, contained cells larger in diameter, exhibited a higher potential to form adipocytes and a lower potential to form chondrocytes and osteoblasts, compared with DP-MSCs. In contrast to DF-MSCs, DP-MSCs produced the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and suppressed proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which could be neutralized with anti-TGF-β antibody. The treatment with toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist augmented the suppressive potential of both cell types and potentiated TGF-β and interleukin-6 secretions by these cells. TLR4 agonist augmented the suppressive potential of DF-MSCs and increased TGF-β production, but abrogated the immunosuppressive activity of DP-MSCs by inhibiting TGF-β production and the expression of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1. Some of these effects correlated with the higher expression of TLR3 and TLR4 by DP-MSCs compared with DF-MSCs. When transplanted in imunocompetent xenogenic host, both cell types induced formation of granulomatous tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that dental MSCs are functionally different and each of these functions should be further explored in vivo before their specific biomedical applications.

  17. Characterization of deciduous teeth stem cells isolated from crown dental pulp

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    Debeljak-Martačić Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The last decade has been profoundly marked by persistent attempts to use ex vivo expanded and manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, as a tool in different types of regenerative therapy. In the present study we described immunophenotype and the proliferative and differentiation potential of cells isolated from pulp remnants of exfoliated deciduous teeth in the final phase of root resorption. Methods. The initial adherent cell population from five donors was obtained by the outgrowth method. Colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F assay was performed in passage one. Cell expansion was performed until passage three and all tests were done until passage eight. Cells were labeled for early mesenchymal stem cells markers and analysis have been done using flow cytometry. The proliferative potential was assessed by cell counting in defined time points and population doubling time was calculated. Commercial media were used to induce osteoblastic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Cytology and histology methods were used for analysis of differentiated cell morphology and extracellular matrix characteristics. Results. According to immunophenotype analyses all undifferentiated cells were positive for the mesenchymal stem cell markers: CD29 and CD73. Some cells expressed CD146 and CD106. The hematopoietic cell marker, CD34, was not detected. In passage one, incidence of CFU-F was 4.7 ± 0.5/100. Population doubling time did not change significantly during cell subcultivation and was in average 25 h. After induction of differentiation, the multicolony derived cell population had a tri-lineage differentiation potential, since mineralized matrix, cartilage-like tissue and adipocytes were successfully formed after three weeks of incubation. Conclusion. Altogether, these data suggest that remnants of deciduous teeth dental pulp contained cell populations with mesenchymal stem cell-like features, with a high proliferation and

  18. Human dental pulp stem cells cultured in serum-free supplemented medium

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    Virginie eBonnamain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence show that human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs could provide a source of adult stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies. In this study, DPSCs were expanded and cultured with a protocol generally used for the culture of neural stem/progenitor cells.Methodology: DPSC cultures were established from third molars. The pulp tissue was enzymatically digested and cultured in serum-supplemented basal medium for 12 hours. Adherent (ADH and non-adherent (non-ADH cell populations were separated according to their differential adhesion to plastic and then cultured in serum-free defined N2 medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Both ADH and non-ADH populations were analyzed by FACS and/or PCR.Results: FACS analysis of ADH-DPSCs revealed the expression of the mesenchymal cell marker CD90, the neuronal marker CD56, the transferrin receptor CD71, and the chemokine receptor CXCR3, whereas hematopoietic stem cells markers CD45, CD133 and CD34 were not expressed. ADH-DPSCs expressed transcripts coding for the Nestin gene, whereas expression levels of genes coding for the neuronal markers β-III tubulin and NF-M, and the oligodendrocyte marker PLP-1 were donor dependent. ADH-DPSCs did not express the transcripts for GFAP, an astrocyte marker. Cells of the non-ADH population that grew as spheroids expressed Nestin, β-III tubulin, NF-M and PLP-1 transcripts. DPSCs migrated out of the spheroids exhibited an odontoblast-like morphology and expressed a higher level of DSPP and osteocalcin transcripts than ADH-DPSCs. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that human DPSCs can be expended and cultured in serum-free supplemented medium with EGF and bFGF. ADH-DPSCs and non-ADH populations contained neuronal and/or oligodendrocyte precursors at different stages of commitment and interestingly, cells from spheroid structures seem to be more engaged into the odontoblastic lineage than the

  19. Development of a Direct Pulp-capping Model for the Evaluation of Pulpal Wound Healing and Reparative Dentin Formation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Kim, Sol; Kim, Terresa; Park, Sil; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Kang, Mo; Park, No-Hee; Kim, Reuben

    2017-01-12

    Dental pulp is a vital organ of a tooth fully protected by enamel and dentin. When the pulp is exposed due to cariogenic or iatrogenic injuries, it is often capped with biocompatible materials in order to expedite pulpal wound healing. The ultimate goal is to regenerate reparative dentin, a physical barrier that functions as a "biological seal" and protects the underlying pulp tissue. Although this direct pulp-capping procedure has long been used in dentistry, the underlying molecular mechanism of pulpal wound healing and reparative dentin formation is still poorly understood. To induce reparative dentin, pulp capping has been performed experimentally in large animals, but less so in mice, presumably due to their small sizes and the ensuing technical difficulties. Here, we present a detailed, step-by-step method of performing a pulp-capping procedure in mice, including the preparation of a Class-I-like cavity, the placement of pulp-capping materials, and the restoration procedure using dental composite. Our pulp-capping mouse model will be instrumental in investigating the fundamental molecular mechanisms of pulpal wound healing in the context of reparative dentin in vivo by enabling the use of transgenic or knockout mice that are widely available in the research community.

  20. Effect of radiopaque Portland cement on mineralization in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-San; Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Yoon; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiopaque Portland cement (RPC) facilitates the mineralization process in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) compared with pure Portland cement (PC). Under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), cellular morphology was evaluated. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed, and nodule formation was assessed by performing Alizarin Red S staining. In addition, the mRNA expressions of mineralization-related proteins were evaluated by performing a real-time polymerase chain reaction. On SEM evaluation, healthy HDPCs were found adhering to the surfaces of PC and RPC. The ALP activity increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 1 day. Alizarin Red stain increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 2 and 3 weeks. The mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein increased at 14 days in the PC and RPC groups. These results show that PC and RPC have similar effects in terms of mineralization and suggest that RPC also has the potential to be used as a clinically suitable pulp-capping material.

  1. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Dental Pulp and Dentin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawli, Hassan Talat

    Current and historical endodontic "root canal" treatments employ inert obturating materials inserted into the teeth's pulp chambers and root canals, often saving teeth but without adequate function. Furthermore, the occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the immature permanent tooth is considered to be a challenging situation, clinically, in treatment because the thin and often short roots increase the risk of fracture. The ideal treatment would be to promote continued root development. This work demonstrated that endodontically-shaped and durable scaffolds of slowly resorbable fibrous (HT) glass and faster-resorbing small-particle Bioglass can be sintered at 900 degrees C for such placement, and that cell growth of osteoblasts in these scaffolds shows good early results. Retained bioactivity in the sintered specimen was revealed by Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy.

  2. Long term effects of bioactive glass particulates on dental pulp stem cells in vitro

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    Gholami Sanaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses (BG are known for their ability to induce bone formation by the action of their dissolution products. Glasses can deliver active ions at a sustained rate, determined by their composition and surface area. Nanoporous sol-gel derived BGs can biodegrade rapidly, which can lead to a detrimental burst release of ions and a pHrise. The addition of phosphate into the glass can buffer the pH during dissolution. Here, dissolution of BG with composition 60 mol% SiO2, 28 mol% CaO and 12 mol% P2O5 at 600 μg/ml were investigated. Initially, the dissolution and apatite formation of the BG particulates were examined in simulated body fluid using FTIR and XRD. BG particulates were indirectly exposed to dental pulp stem cells, and the effect of 14 days continuous ion release on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC viability and differentiation was evaluated. Alamar blue assay showed that cell proliferation was not inhibited by the continuous release of Ca, P and soluble silica. In fact, hDPSC in the presence of BG particulate displayed a higher density of mineralized nodules than untreated cells, as assessed by Alizarin red. The results will have a great contribution to the in vivo application of this particular BG.

  3. Investigations of some elements distribution in dental tissues by INAA as a function of ecological and some other parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draskovic, R.J.; Jacimovic, Lj.; Stojicevic, M.; Pajic, P.; Filipovic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of some elements (Hg, Zn, Sb, Co and Sc) in dental tissues (enamel, dentine, pulp) has been investiaated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Teeth samples were taken from patients living in different regions (mine and mineralized areas, plain), taking into account the following parameters: ecological conditions, age of patients, stomatological operations and use of local cosmetic preparations containig mercury. Samples of vegetation (beech, moss, pine) from two locations belonging to regions of mineralized areas also were analyzed. Results of our investigations are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Dental tissue as a thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimani, F.; Zahmatkesh, M.H.; Akhlaghpoor, Sh.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thermoluminescence dosimetry is one of the dosimetry procedures used widely as routine and personal dosimeters. In order to extend this kind of dosimeters, dental tissue has been examined and was found promising as a Thermoluminescence Dosimetry dosimeter. Materials and Methods: In this study, 70 health teeth were collected. The only criterion, wich was considered for selection of the teeth, was the healthiness of them regardless of age and gender of the donors. All collected samples were washed and cleaned and milled uniformly. The final powder had a uniform grain size between 100-300 micrometer. The sample was divided into four groups. Group A and B were used for measurement of density and investigation of variation of thermoluminescent characteristics with temperature respectively. Groups C and D were used for investigation of variation of thermoluminescent intensity with dose and fading of this intensity with time. In all cases the results obtained with dental tissue were compared to a standard LiF, thermoluminescence dosimetry dosimeter. Results: It was found that, average density of the dental tissue was 1.570 g/cm 3 , which is comparable to density of LiF, which is 1.612g/cm 3 . It was also concluded that the range of 0-300 d ig C , dental tissue has a simple curve with two specific peaks at 140 and 25 d ig C respectively. The experiment also showed that, the variation of relative intensity versus dose is linear in the range of 0.04-0.1 Gy. The fading rate of dental tissue is higher than LiF but still in the acceptable range (14% per month in compare to 5.2% per month). Conclusion: Dental tissue as a natural dosimeter is comparable with Thermoluminescence Dosimetry and can be used in accidental events with a good approximation

  5. The Biomineralization of a Bioactive Glass-Incorporated Light-Curable Pulp Capping Material Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

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    Soo-Kyung Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biomineralization of a newly introduced bioactive glass-incorporated light-curable pulp capping material using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. The product (Bioactive® [BA] was compared with a conventional calcium hydroxide-incorporated (Dycal [DC] and a light-curable (Theracal® [TC] counterpart. Eluates from set specimens were used for investigating the cytotoxicity and biomineralization ability, determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and alizarin red staining (ARS. Cations and hydroxide ions in the extracts were measured. An hDPSC viability of less than 70% was observed with 50% diluted extract in all groups and with 25% diluted extract in the DC. Culturing with 12.5% diluted BA extract statistically lowered ALP activity and biomineralization compared to DC (p0.05. Ca (~110 ppm and hydroxide ions (pH 11 were only detected in DC and TC. Ionic supplement-added BA, which contained similar ion concentrations as TC, showed similar ARS mineralization compared to TC. In conclusion, the BA was similar to, yet more cytotoxic to hDPSCs than, its DC and TC. The BA was considered to stimulate biomineralization similar to DC and TC only when it released a similar amount of Ca and hydroxide ions.

  6. Prevalence of Coronal Pulp Stones and Its Relation with Systemic Disorders in Northern Indian Central Punjabi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Sandeep Kumar; Bhatia, Archana; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Biswal, Swati Swagatika; Kanth, Shashi; Nalla, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To estimate the prevalence of coronal pulp stones in the molar teeth of dental outpatients of Sunam, Sangrur district, Punjab, India, to report any association between occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, dental arch, side, and dental status and to find out correlation between pulp stones with dental and systemic diseases. Materials and Methods. 500 routine dental outpatients within age group of 18–67 years were involved in the study. Molar bitewing of left and right side of each patient was taken with XCP bitewing instrument and size 2 film. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. Chi-square analysis was used to record the prevalence of pulp stones and to compare it with demographic and systemic factors. Results. Overall prevalence of pulp stones was 41.8%. Pulp stones were significantly higher in maxilla (11.59%) than mandible (6.54%), left side than right side, and first molar than other molars. Higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with cardiovascular disease (38.89%) than with cholelithiasis and renal lithiasis. Conclusion. Pulp stones were higher in maxillary arch than mandibular arch and in females than males. Cardiovascular patients had higher number of pulp stones than other groups. PMID:24944821

  7. Healthy Dental Pulp Oxygen Saturation Rates in Subjects with Homozygous Sickle Cell Anemia: A Cross-Sectional Study Nested in a Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva

    2017-12-01

    To compare the percentage of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in healthy teeth with confirmed pulp vitality between individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and normal hemoglobin A (HbAA). This is a cross-sectional study nested within a cohort. Samples (n = 2543) comprised teeth with intact crowns and pulp vitality confirmed by thermal sensitivity tests and no history of caries, periodontal disease, or dental trauma. A total of 728 teeth of 113 individuals with HbSS and 1815 teeth of 246 individuals with HbAA were evaluated. Data analysis was performed using the χ 2 and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlation analysis (α = 0.05). The study groups were comparable in terms of age, race, and sex (P > .05). Subjects with HbSS exhibited lower median SpO 2 levels in the body and upper teeth, excluding canines, than subjects with HbAA (P  .05). Compared with individuals with HbAA, those with HbSS exhibited lower SpO 2 in maxillary teeth with confirmed pulp vitality, except in the canines. There was no correlation between SpO 2 levels of the body and dental pulp in individuals with HbSS or HbAA. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Hsun; Snyder, Brooke; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C; Huang, Anderson Hsien-Cheng; Chan, Anthony W S

    2008-04-22

    Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs) are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs) as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4) and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin) markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs), hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates.

  9. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  10. Prevalence of Coronal Pulp Stones and Its Relation with Systemic Disorders in Northern Indian Central Punjabi Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bains, Sandeep Kumar; Bhatia, Archana; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Biswal, Swati Swagatika; Kanth, Shashi; Nalla, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To estimate the prevalence of coronal pulp stones in the molar teeth of dental outpatients of Sunam, Sangrur district, Punjab, India, to report any association between occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, dental arch, side, and dental status and to find out correlation between pulp stones with dental and systemic diseases. Materials and Methods. 500 routine dental outpatients within age group of 18–67 years were involved in the study. Molar bitewing of left and right side of each ...

  11. Non-viral bone morphogenetic protein 2 transfection of rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Dolder, J. van den; Yang, F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have shown potential as non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The aim of this study was to induce bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 transfection in rat dental pulp stem cells using calcium phosphate nanoparticles as a gene vector and then to evaluate the efficiency and

  12. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Dental Stem Cell Migration on Pulp Ceiling Cavities Filled with MTA, Dentin Chips, or Bio-Oss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lymperi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MTA, Bio-Oss, and dentin chips have been successfully used in endodontics. The aim of this study was to assess the adhesion and migration of dental stem cells on human pulp ceiling cavities filled with these endodontic materials in an experimental model, which mimics the clinical conditions of regenerative endodontics. Cavities were formed, by a homemade mold, on untouched third molars, filled with endodontic materials, and observed with electron microscopy. Cells were seeded on cavities’ surface and their morphology and number were analysed. The phenomenon of tropism was assessed in a migration assay. All three materials demonstrated appropriate microstructures for cell attachment. Cells grew on all reagents, but they showed a differential morphology. Moreover, variations were observed when comparing cells numbers on cavity’s filling versus the surrounding dentine disc. The highest number of cells was recorded on dentin chips whereas the opposite was true for Bio-Oss. This was confirmed in the migration assay where a statistically significant lower number of cells migrated towards Bio-Oss as compared to MTA and dentin chips. This study highlights that MTA and dentin chips have a greater potential compared to Bio-Oss regarding the attraction of dental stem cells and are good candidates for bioengineered pulp regeneration.

  15. 3D porous chitosan scaffolds suit survival and neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingmei; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Xing, Jing; Feng, Guijuan; Jin, Guohua; Yi, Xin; Li, Liren; Lu, Yuanzhou; Nie, Dekang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xinhua

    2014-08-01

    A key aspect of cell replacement therapy in brain injury treatment is construction of a suitable biomaterial scaffold that can effectively carry and transport the therapeutic cells to the target area. In the present study, we created small 3D porous chitosan scaffolds through freeze-drying, and showed that these can support and enhance the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to nerve cells in vitro. The DPSCs were collected from the dental pulp of adult human third molars. At a swelling rate of ~84.33 ± 10.92 %, the scaffold displayed high porosity and interconnectivity of pores, as revealed by SEM. Cell counting kit-8 assay established the biocompatibility of the chitosan scaffold, supporting the growth and survival of DPSCs. The successful neural differentiation of DPSCs was assayed by RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. We found that the scaffold-attached DPSCs showed high expression of Nestin that decreased sharply following induction of differentiation. Exposure to the differentiation media also increased the expression of neural molecular markers Microtubule-associated protein 2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. This study demonstrates that the granular 3D chitosan scaffolds are non-cytotoxic, biocompatible, and provide a conducive and favorable micro-environment for attachment, survival, and neural differentiation of DPSCs. These scaffolds have enormous potential to facilitate future advances in treatment of brain injury.

  16. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases collagen content, and stimulates procollagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production of dental pulp cells: Role of MEK/ERK and activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shuen Lin

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that TGF-β1 may be involved in the healing/regeneration processes of dental pulp in response to injury by stimulation of collagen and TIMP-1 production. These events are associated with activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad2/3 and MEK/ERK signaling.

  17. Properties of Dental Pulp-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Effects of Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Noda, Sonoko; Yamamoto, Mioko; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) highly express mesenchymal stem cell markers and possess the potential to differentiate into neural cells, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Thus, DPMSCs are considered suitable for tissue regeneration. The colony isolation method has commonly been used to collect relatively large amounts of heterogeneous DPMSCs. Homogenous DPMSCs can be isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using antibodies against mesenchymal stem cell markers, although this method yields a limited number of cells. Both quality and quantity of DPMSCs are critical to regenerative therapy, and cell culture methods need to be improved. We thus investigated the properties of DPMSCs cultured with different methods. DPMSCs in a three-dimensional spheroid culture system, which is similar to the hanging drop culture for differentiation of embryonic stem cells, showed upregulation of odonto-/osteoblastic markers and mineralized nodule formation. This suggests that this three-dimensional spheroid culturing system for DPMSCs may be suitable for inducing hard tissues. We further examined the effect of cell culture density on the properties of DPMSCs because the properties of stem cells can be altered depending on the cell density. DPMSCs cultured under the confluent cell density condition showed slight downregulation of some mesenchymal stem cell markers compared with those under the sparse condition. The ability of DPMSCs to differentiate into hard tissue-forming cells was found to be enhanced in the confluent condition, suggesting that the confluent culture condition may not be suitable for maintaining the stemness of DPMSCs. When DPMSCs are to be used for hard tissue regeneration, dense followed by sparse cell culture conditions may be a better alternative strategy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee

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    Fillos Dimitri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. Results ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4 and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs, hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates.

  19. The effect of dentin on the pulp tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Hanut, Aiham; Matalon, Shlomo; Baev, Valery; Slutzky, Hagay

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) have tissue dissolution capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of dentin on their tissue dissolution capacity in a novel dentin model. Dentin models were prepared from 25 freshly extracted human molar teeth; the crowns were separated from the roots, and a rectangular inner shape was prepared. Pulp tissue samples adjusted to similar weights of 6.5 ± 0.2 mg were randomly divided into 6 groups: NaOCl groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 hour, Ca(OH)2 groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week, and control groups saline in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week. The final weights after the experimental period were checked and compared with the initial weights. The differences were statistically analyzed. The tissue dissolution capacity of Ca(OH)2 was affected by the presence of dentin. Similarly, NaOCl lost its effect on the pulp tissue after incubation in dentin. Comparison between all test groups showed highly significant differences (P interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentin, and pulp tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells on Hydrogel Scaffolds Derived from Decellularized Bone Extracellular Matrix and Collagen Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduano, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on hydrogel scaffolds derived from bone extracellular matrix (bECM) in comparison to those seeded on collagen I (Col-I), one of the main components of dental pulp ECM. DPSCs isolated from human third molars were characterized for surface marker expression and odontogenic potential prior to seeding into bECM or Col-I hydrogel scaffolds. The cells were then seeded onto bECM and Col-I hydrogel scaffolds and cultured under basal conditions or with odontogenic and growth factor (GF) supplements. DPSCs cultivated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) with and without supplements were used as controls. Gene expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mineral deposition was observed by Von Kossa staining. When DPSCs were cultured on bECM hydrogels, the mRNA expression levels of DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE genes were significantly upregulated with respect to those cultured on Col-I scaffolds or TCPS in the absence of extra odontogenic inducers. In addition, more mineral deposition was observed on bECM hydrogel scaffolds as demonstrated by Von Kossa staining. Moreover, DSPP, DMP-1 and MEPE mRNA expressions of DPSCs cultured on bECM hydrogels were further upregulated by the addition of GFs or osteo/odontogenic medium compared to Col-I treated cells in the same culture conditions. These results demonstrate the potential of the bECM hydrogel scaffolds to stimulate odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs.

  1. Study on Dental Treatment with YAG Laser (1st Report): Temperature of Dental Tissue Irradiated with Laser Beam

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 隆司; 山田, 啓司; 古本, 達明

    2000-01-01

    The flash temperature of a dental hard tissue irradiated with pulsed Nd:YAG laser is measured using a two-color pyrometer with an optical fiber. This pyrometer consists of a chalcogenide optical fiber and a laminated infrared detector. The influence of the laser power on the temperature of the dental tissue is investigated, and the relationship between the laser power and the removal volume of the dental tissue is obtained. In order to examine the thermal damage on the dental tissue, hardness...

  2. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  3. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes.

  4. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G; Signoli, M; Dutour, O; Raoult, D

    1998-10-13

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on which to base such research. We hypothesized that it would be a lasting refuge for Yersinia pestis, the plague agent. DNA extracts were made from the dental pulp of 12 unerupted teeth extracted from skeletons excavated from 16th and 18th century French graves of persons thought to have died of plague ("plague teeth") and from 7 ancient negative control teeth. PCRs incorporating ancient DNA extracts and primers specific for the human beta-globin gene demonstrated the absence of inhibitors in these preparations. The incorporation of primers specific for Y. pestis rpoB (the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-encoding gene) and the recognized virulence-associated pla (the plasminogen activator-encoding gene) repeatedly yielded products that had a nucleotide sequence indistinguishable from that of modern day isolates of the bacterium. The specific pla sequence was obtained from 6 of 12 plague skeleton teeth but 0 of 7 negative controls (P plague was achieved for historically identified victims, and we have confirmed the presence of the disease at the end of 16th century in France. Dental pulp is an attractive target in the quest to determine the etiology of septicemic illnesses detected in ancient corpses. Molecular techniques could be applied to this material to resolve historical outbreaks.

  5. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

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    Maryam Bidar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. His-topathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tis-sue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposedwith a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Port-land cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral triox-ide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Al-though the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45% and the least increase in fibrous tissue were ob-served adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp cap-ping in dog teeth.

  7. Influence of Various Pulp Properties on the Adhesion Between Tissue Paper and Yankee Cylinder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Boudreau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the adhesion between the paper and the drying Yankee cylinder is of great importance with respect to the final properties of a tissue paper product. Therefore, the effects of a few potentially important pulp properties have been evaluated in laboratory experiments. Four highly different kraft pulps were used, and the adhesion strength was measured by means of the force required when scraping off a paper from a metal surface with a specifically designed knife mounted on a moving cart. The adhesion strength was observed to increase with increasing grammage and increasing degree of beating of the pulp. It was also found that pulps containing more fines, or with higher hemicellulose content, gave rise to higher adhesion strength.

  8. Pulse frequency dependency of photobiomodulation on the bioenergetic functions of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Bae; Baik, Ku Youn; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

    2017-11-21

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy contributes to pain relief, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. The pulsed wave (PW) mode has been reported to be more effective than the continuous wave (CW) mode when applying PBM to many biological systems. However, the reason for the higher effectiveness of PW-PBM is poorly understood. Herein, we suggest using delayed luminescence (DL) as a reporter of mitochondrial activity after PBM treatment. DL originates mainly from mitochondrial electron transport chain systems, which produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The decay time of DL depends on the pulse frequencies of applied light, which correlate with the biological responses of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Using a low-power light whose wavelength is 810 nm and energy density is 38 mJ/cm 2 , we find that a 300-Hz pulse frequency prolonged the DL pattern and enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, we analyze mitochondrial morphological changes and their volume density and find evidence supporting mitochondrial physiological changes from PBM treatment. Our data suggest a new methodology for determining the effectiveness of PBM and the specific pulse frequency dependency of PBM in the differentiation of hDPSCs.

  9. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  10. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

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    Qian Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs. However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  11. Histological and ultrastructural effect of an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam on dental hard tissue and pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignato, Costantino; Vignato, Giuseppe; Nardelli, Antonella; Baldan, Arianna; Mason, Pier N.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine histological and ultrastructural modifications produced by an Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam after an in vivo exposure of human molars. Using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam delivered by a 600 micrometers optical fiber and concurrent air and water cooling spray, 14 human third molars with artificial first class cavities were exposed at different power levels (6, 7, and 8 W). All the teeth were extracted at different time periods between 10 and 25 days and prepared for histological examination. The results of the histological examination showed no evidence of degeneration or necrosis of the pulpar tissue. Analysis of the dentinal surfaces after exposure demonstrated that the dentinal tubules are completely closed due to the melted dentin. In conclusion a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with an air and water cooling spray is safe for treatments of class I decay and no necrosis or degeneration of the pulp was found for laser powers of 6, 7, and 8 W.

  12. The HOX genes are expressed, in vivo, in human tooth germs: in vitro cAMP exposure of dental pulp cells results in parallel HOX network activation and neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antò, Vincenzo; Cantile, Monica; D'Armiento, Maria; Schiavo, Giulia; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Terracciano, Luigi; Vecchione, Raffaela; Cillo, Clemente

    2006-03-01

    Homeobox-containing genes play a crucial role in odontogenesis. After the detection of Dlx and Msx genes in overlapping domains along maxillary and mandibular processes, a homeobox odontogenic code has been proposed to explain the interaction between different homeobox genes during dental lamina patterning. No role has so far been assigned to the Hox gene network in the homeobox odontogenic code due to studies on specific Hox genes and evolutionary considerations. Despite its involvement in early patterning during embryonal development, the HOX gene network, the most repeat-poor regions of the human genome, controls the phenotype identity of adult eukaryotic cells. Here, according to our results, the HOX gene network appears to be active in human tooth germs between 18 and 24 weeks of development. The immunohistochemical localization of specific HOX proteins mostly concerns the epithelial tooth germ compartment. Furthermore, only a few genes of the network are active in embryonal retromolar tissues, as well as in ectomesenchymal dental pulp cells (DPC) grown in vitro from adult human molar. Exposure of DPCs to cAMP induces the expression of from three to nine total HOX genes of the network in parallel with phenotype modifications with traits of neuronal differentiation. Our observations suggest that: (i) by combining its component genes, the HOX gene network determines the phenotype identity of epithelial and ectomesenchymal cells interacting in the generation of human tooth germ; (ii) cAMP treatment activates the HOX network and induces, in parallel, a neuronal-like phenotype in human primary ectomesenchymal dental pulp cells. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. DPSCs from Inflamed Pulp Modulate Macrophage Function via the TNF-α/IDO Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Zhang, Q.Z.; Karabucak, B.; Le, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be isolated from inflamed pulp derived from carious teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (I-DPSCs), which possess stemness and multidifferentiation potentials similar to DPSCs from healthy pulp. Since macrophages—essential cell players of the pulpal innate immunity—can regulate pulpal inflammation and repair, the authors investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DPSCs/I-DPSCs on macrophage functions and their underlying mechanisms. Similar to DPSCs, I-DPSCs were capable of colony-forming efficiency and adipogenic and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation under in vitro induction conditions. I-DPSCs also expressed a similar phenotypic profile of mesenchymal stem cell markers, except a relatively higher level of CD146 as compared with DPSCs. Coculture of DPSCs or I-DPSCs with differentiated THP-1 cells, the human monocyte cell line, markedly suppressed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and/or nigericin. However, unlike TNF-α, the secreted level of interleukin 1β was not affected by coculture with DPSCs or I-DPSCs. Furthermore, DPSC/I-DPSC-mediated inhibition of TNF-α secretion by macrophages was abolished by pretreatment with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), but not by NSC-398, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, suggesting IDO as a mediator. Interestingly, IDO expression was significantly augmented in macrophages and mesenchymal stromal cells in inflamed human pulp tissues. Collectively, these findings show that I-DPSCs, similar to DPSCs, possess stem cell properties and suppress macrophage functions via the TNF-α/IDO axis, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for their innate immunomodulatory activity in the dental pulp and their capability for pulp repair. PMID:27384335

  14. A clinical assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on human pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D G; Chiego, D J; Glickman, G N; McCauley, L K

    1999-04-01

    Bleaching vital teeth with 10% carbamide peroxide gel is a routine procedure in which there has been no evidence of associated permanent pulpal damage. Synthesis of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is increased after exposure of eukaryotic cells to conditions of oxidative stress (including H2O2) as a defense against the damaging effects of free radicals. Dental pulps were evaluated for HO-1 (aka Heat Shock Protein 32) presence in teeth treated with 10% carbamide peroxide. Seventeen intact first premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were bleached for 4 h immediately preceding extraction. Fourteen additional premolars from the same individuals were not bleached. All 31 teeth were extracted, fixed, demineralized, frozen, sectioned, and immunostained with anti-HO-1 antibody using a standard ABC protocol. There was no significant difference in the presence of HO-1 between total bleached versus total unbleached teeth using the Fisher's Exact Test (p pulp proper may have the potential to respond to oxidative stress by increasing the synthesis of HO-1 (HSP32). This could represent a component of an initial defensive response by specific cells in strategic locations in the pulp that precedes classical inflammatory pathways.

  15. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Henry F., E-mail: Hal.Duncan@dental.tcd.ie [Division of Restorative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Lincoln Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fleming, Garry J.P. [Material Science Unit, Division of Oral Biosciences, Dublin Dental University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Cooper, Paul R. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-10

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors epigenetically promote reparative events in primary dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Henry F.; Smith, Anthony J.; Fleming, Garry J.P.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Application of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to cells epigenetically alters their chromatin structure and induces transcriptional and cellular reparative events. This study investigated the application of two HDACi, valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA) on the induction of repair-associated responses in primary dental pulp cell (DPC) cultures. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TSA (100 nM, 400 nM) significantly increased cell viability. Neither HDACi was cytotoxic, although cell growth analysis revealed significant anti-proliferative effects at higher concentrations for VPA (>0.5 mM) and TSA (>50 nM). While high-content-analysis demonstrated that HDACi did not significantly induce caspase-3 or p21 activity, p53-expression was increased by VPA (3 mM, 5 mM) at 48 h. HDACi-exposure induced mineralization per cell dose-dependently to a plateau level (VPA-0.125 mM and TSA-25 nM) with accompanying increases in mineralization/dentinogenic-associated gene expression at 5 days (DMP-1, BMP-2/-4, Nestin) and 10 days (DSPP, BMP-2/-4). Both HDACis, at a range of concentrations, significantly stimulated osteopontin and BMP-2 protein expression at 10 and 14 days further supporting the ability of HDACi to promote differentiation. HDACi exert different effects on primary compared with transformed DPCs and promote mineralization and differentiation events without cytotoxic effects. These novel data now highlight the potential in restorative dentistry for applying low concentrations of HDACi in vital pulp treatment. -- Highlights: • Valproic acid and trichostatin A promoted mineralization in primary pulp cells. • Cell viability, apoptosis, caspase-3, p21 unaltered; p53 increased by valproic acid. • Trichostatin A increased cell viability at 24 h at selected concentrations. • Altered cell toxicity and differentiation between primary and transformed cells. • HDACi-induced the differentiation marker proteins osteopontin and BMP-2

  18. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  19. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen I. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P<0.001 and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P<0.001. In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P=0.006 and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P<0.001 was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL- 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP- 1, P<0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 and TLR8, P<0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P<0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Platelet Rich Fibrin-Mediated Tissue Repair in Immature Canine Pulpless Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi Lin; Yang, Pan Pan; Ge, Li Hong; Liu, He

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the regenerative therapy of immature canine permanent teeth. Eight immature premolars of beagle dogs were pulp extracted and cleaned with irrigation, then divided into two groups of empty root canals and those filled with a PRF clot. All of the eight premolars were sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate and glass ionomer cement. Two premolars were left naturally grown as a positive control. The root development was assessed radiographically and histologically after 12 weeks. The radiological findings showed greater increases in the thickness of lateral dentinal wall in the PRF group than in the vacant group. Histologically, dental-associated mineral tissue, connective tissue, and bone-like mineral tissue grew into the root canals independent of PRF clot use. The PRF was able to increase the thickness of dental-associated mineral tissue. However, the vital tissue differed from the pulp dentin complex. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of using PRF-mediated regenerative therapy in pulpless immature teeth for improving tissue repair.

  1. Thermotransduction and heat stress in dental structures during orthodontic debonding : Effectiveness of various cooling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Philipp; Frentzen, Matthias; Küpper, Katharina; Braun, Andreas; Kecsmar, Susann; Jäger, Andreas; Wolf, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated possible thermal damage to pulpal tissue during orthodontic debonding. This study aimed to analyze the thermal loads acting upon dental structures and their transfer to the pulp during orthodontic debonding. Specific goals were to analyze temperature changes in local dental tissues, thermotransduction to the pulp cavity, and the effectiveness of common cooling strategies and of simulated intrapulpal circulation. Metal brackets were bonded to five extracted human molars and subsequently removed. While a carbide bur was applied to debond the residual composite from the tooth surface, various cooling strategies (no/air/water cooling) were employed with or without simulated intrapulpal circulation, accompanied by temperature measurements with a thermographic infrared camera on the enamel surface and with measuring probes in the pulp cavity. Appropriate evaluation software was used to calculate the enamel-to-pulp temperature gradients and for statistical analysis. Significant differences in temperature rise and heat development over time, both on the enamel surfaces and in the pulp cavities were found. The mean temperature rises associated with no/air/water cooling were 90.7/46.6/9.2 °C on the enamel surface versus 9/8/4.6 °C inside the pulp. However, thermotransduction from enamel to pulp remained below 10 % of the surface measurements in all groups. Simulated intrapulpal microcirculation was found to significantly reduce intrapulpal temperature levels. During debonding of residual bracket adhesives, provided that a carbide bur is properly used, our data indicate a low risk of reaching critical intrapulpal temperatures even in the absence of dedicated cooling and no risk if the instrumentation is accompanied by air or water cooling.

  2. Bioceramic/Poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gala-Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC and poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid (PLGA material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  3. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Marrazzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1% was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H2O2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.

  4. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Pasquale; Paduano, Francesco; Palmieri, Francesca; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL) contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1%) was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H 2 O 2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.

  5. Comparison of osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human adult dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla in the presence of platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuarqoub, Duaa; Awidi, Abdalla; Abuharfeil, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Human dental pulp cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla have been used for the repair of damaged tooth tissues. Human platelet lysate (PL) has been suggested as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for large scale expansion of dental stem cells. However, biological effects and optimal concentrations of PL for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells remain to be elucidated. DPSCs and SCAP cells were isolated from impacted third molars of young healthy donors, at the stage of root development and identified by markers using flow cytometry. For comparison the cells were cultured in media containing PL (1%, 5% and 10%) and FBS, with subsequent induction for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for; morphology, growth characteristics, mineralization potential (Alizarin Red method) and differentiation markers using ELISA and real time -polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The proliferation rates of DPSCs and SCAP significantly increased when cells were treated with 5% PL (7X doubling time) as compared to FBS. 5% PL also enhanced mineralized differentiation of DPSCs and SCAP, as indicated by the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and osteopontin, calcium deposition and q-PCR. Our findings suggest that using 5% platelet lysate, proliferation and osteo/odontogenesis of DPSCs and SCAP for a short period of time (15 days), was significantly improved. This may imply its use as an optimum concentration for expansion of dental stem cells in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or more in a single tooth, their size varying from minute particles to large masses ... between pulp stones and sex, tooth type, dental arch, side and .... attended Kırıkkale University Dental School (KUDS).Caution .... Beside these disadvantages,.

  7. Accelerated craniofacial bone regeneration through dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Frédéric; Collignon, Anne-Margaux; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Lesieur, Julie; Ribes, Sandy; Sadoine, Jérémy; Llorens, Annie; Nicoletti, Antonino; Letourneur, Didier; Colombier, Marie-Laure; Nazhat, Showan N.; Bouchard, Philippe; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gael Y.

    2016-12-01

    Therapies using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded scaffolds may be applicable to various fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Plastic compression of collagen scaffolds seeded with MSC has been shown to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSC as it increases the collagen fibrillary density. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic effects of dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model. Two symmetrical full-thickness defects were created (5 mm diameter) and filled with either a rat DPSC-containing dense collagen gel scaffold (n = 15), or an acellular scaffold (n = 15). Animals were imaged in vivo by microcomputer tomography (Micro-CT) once a week during 5 weeks, whereas some animals were sacrificed each week for histology and histomorphometry analysis. Bone mineral density and bone micro-architectural parameters were significantly increased when DPSC-seeded scaffolds were used. Histological and histomorphometrical data also revealed significant increases in fibrous connective and mineralized tissue volume when DPSC-seeded scaffolds were used, associated with expression of type I collagen, osteoblast-associated alkaline phosphatase and osteoclastic-related tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Results demonstrate the potential of DPSC-loaded-dense collagen gel scaffolds to benefit of bone healing process.

  8. Pulp stones can help in detection of calculus in the kidneys and/or in the bile--fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksova, Pavlina; Serafimoski, Vladimir; Popovska, Mira; Ristovski, Milčo

    2013-01-01

    Pulp stones or denticles are frequently found in the dental pulp; there is, however, scarce evidence about this phenomenon. Regardless of the obvious endodontic problem of inhibiting access to the canals and their further treatment, they have not been given great importance. The latest experiences of scientific and practical research, including examinations of dental calcifications and their association with calcifications/calculi in the organism, have not been included in the literature. To investigate the possible association between dental calcifications and calculi in the kidney and/or bile. The study group included 200 patients diagnosed with pulptits chronica. All patients underwent dental and systematic examinations. Dental examination included x-rays, which detected the presence of calcifications in the dental pulps. Histopathological analysis of extirpated pulps was also made. Clinical examination comprised ultrasound that detected calculi. The results of the histopathological analysis of the extirpated pulps from the group of patients without denticles, but with calculi in their kidneys, bile and/or other organs, showed a regular presence of "sand" in large quantities in dental pulps. The presence of "sand" was depicted as presence of dystrophic calcifications. There was a percentage difference between the two groups: calculi in the organism (kidney and bile) and denticles--70% and calculi in the organism without denticles--30%. The Student's t-test showed a statistically significant difference for P=0.0000. This study defines the association between the calculi in the organism and the presence of dental calcifications, as well as their possible bacterial association.

  9. Effects of Transplanted Heparin-Poloxamer Hydrogel Combining Dental Pulp Stem Cells and bFGF on Spinal Cord Injury Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is one of serious traumatic diseases of the central nervous system and has no effective treatment because of its complicated pathophysiology. Tissue engineering strategy which contains scaffolds, cells, and growth factors can provide a promising treatment for SCI. Hydrogel that has 3D network structure and biomimetic microenvironment can support cellular growth and embed biological macromolecules for sustaining release. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, derived from cranial neural crest, possess mesenchymal stem cell (MSC characteristics and have an ability to provide neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties for SCI treatment. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is able to promote cell survival and proliferation and also has beneficial effect on neural regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Herein, a thermosensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP hydrogel containing DPSCs and bFGF was prepared, and the effects of HP-bFGF-DPSCs on neuron restoration after SCI were evaluated by functional recovery tests, western blotting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, histology evaluation, and immunohistochemistry. The results suggested that transplanted HP hydrogel containing DPSCs and bFGF had a significant impact on spinal cord repair and regeneration and may provide a promising strategy for neuron repair, functional recovery, and tissue regeneration after SCI.

  10. Osteoblastic differentiating potential of dental pulp stem cells in vitro cultured on a chemically modified microrough titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Colli, Marianna; Radunovic, Milena; Zizzari, Vincenzo L; DI Giacomo, Viviana; DI Nisio, Chiara; Piattelli, Adriano; Calvo Guirado, José L; Zavan, Barbara; Cataldi, Amelia; Zara, Susi

    2018-03-30

    Titanium surface modification is critical for dental implant success. Our aim was to determine surfaces influence on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) viability and differentiation. Implants were divided into sandblasted/acid-etched (control) and sandblasted/acid-etched coated with calcium and magnesium ions (CaMg), supplied as composite (test). Proliferation was evaluated by MTT, differentiation checking osteoblastic gene expression, PGE2 secretion and matrix formation, inflammation by Interleukin 6 (IL-6) detection. MTT and IL-6 do not modify on test. A PGE2 increase on test is recorded. BMP2 is higher on test at early experimental points, Osterix and RUNX2 augment later. Alizarin-red S reveals higher matrix production on test. These results suggest that test surface is more osteoinductive, representing a start point for in vivo studies aiming at the construction of more biocompatible dental implants, whose integration and clinical performance are improved and some undesired effects, such as implant stability loss and further surgical procedures, are reduced.

  11. The Role of Nephronectin on Proliferation and Differentiation in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of nephronectin (Npnt in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs. Methodology. Npnt was coated to nontissue culture-treated polystyrene (non-PS plates. The presence of immobilized protein on the surface was detected by polyclonal rabbit primary anti-Npnt antibody. Then the cell number was counted and compared with PBS-, bovine serum albumin- (BSA-, fish scale type I collagen- (FCOL1-, and human fibronectin- (Fn- coated wells. Cell proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 assay. Cell morphology was observed under light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Lastly, the mRNA expression profiles of integrins, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, bone sialoprotein (BSP, and mineralization capacity of hDPSCs were investigated by real time RT-PCR and alizarin red staining, respectively. Results. Npnt mediates hDPSC adhesion and spreading partially via the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD motif. Npnt enhanced the mRNA expression of ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGA7, and ITGB1 on day five. Npnt downregulated DSPP but significantly upregulated BSP mRNA expression at day 28. Further, Npnt and FCOL1 accelerated the matrix mineralization in hDPSCs. Conclusions. The current findings implicate that Npnt would be favorable to recruit hDPSCs and conducive to mineralization in hDPSCs. The combination of Npnt with hDPSCs may offer a promising approach for hard tissue regeneration.

  12. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Janeczek, Maciej; Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zaj?c, Ma?gorzata; Czajczy?ska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pa?czyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzy?ski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved fo...

  13. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs

  14. Multilineage potential and proteomic profiling of human dental stem cells derived from a single donor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Rajreddy; Kumar, B. Mohana; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Yeon-Mi [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong-Wook; Byun, June-Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jae-Won [Department of Microbiology, Division of Life Sciences, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Gyu-Jin, E-mail: jinrho@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Dental tissues provide an alternative autologous source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine. In this study, we isolated human dental MSCs of follicle, pulp and papilla tissue from a single donor tooth after impacted third molar extraction by excluding the individual differences. We then compared the morphology, proliferation rate, expression of MSC-specific and pluripotency markers, and in vitro differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Finally, we analyzed the protein expression profiles of undifferentiated dental MSCs using 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS. Three types of dental MSCs largely shared similar morphology, proliferation potential, expression of surface markers and pluripotent transcription factors, and differentiation ability into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Upon hepatogenic induction, all MSCs were transdifferentiated into functional HLCs, and acquired hepatocyte functions by showing their ability for glycogen storage and urea production. Based on the proteome profiling results, we identified nineteen proteins either found commonly or differentially expressed among the three types of dental MSCs. In conclusion, three kinds of dental MSCs from a single donor tooth possessed largely similar cellular properties and multilineage potential. Further, these dental MSCs had similar proteomic profiles, suggesting their interchangeable applications for basic research and call therapy. - Highlights: • Isolated and characterized three types of human dental MSCs from a single donor. • MSCs of dental follicle, pulp and papilla had largely similar biological properties. • All MSCs were capable of transdifferentiating into functional hepatocyte-like cells. • 2DE proteomics with MALDI-TOF/MS identified 19 proteins in three types of MSCs. • Similar proteomic profiles suggest interchangeable applications of dental MSCs.

  15. Pulp Inflammation Diagnosis from Clinical to Inflammatory Mediators: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Marjorie; Meyer, Elisabeth; Simon, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    Similar to other tissues, the dental pulp mounts an inflammatory reaction as a way to eliminate pathogens and stimulate repair. Pulp inflammation is prerequisite for dentin pulp complex repair and regeneration; otherwise, chronic disease or pulp necrosis occurs. Evaluation of pulp inflammation severity is necessary to predict the clinical success of maintaining pulp vitality. Clinical limitations to evaluating in situ inflammatory status are well-described. A molecular approach that aids clinical distinction between reversible and irreversible pulpitis could improve the success rate of vital pulp therapy. The aim of this article is to review inflammatory mediator expression in the context of clinical diagnosis. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles published between 1970 and December 2016. Only published studies of inflammatory mediator expression related to clinical diagnosis were eligible for inclusion and analysis. Thirty-two articles were analyzed. Two molecular approaches were described by study methods, protein expression analysis and gene expression analysis. Our review indicates that interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9, tumor necrosis factor-α, and receptor for advanced glycation end products expression increase at both the gene and protein levels during inflammation. Clinical irreversible pulpitis is related to specific levels of inflammatory mediator expression. The difference in expression between reversible and irreversible disease is both quantitative and qualitative. On the basis of our analysis, in situ quantification of inflammatory mediators may aid in the clinical distinction between reversible and irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasticity of human dental pulp stromal cells with bioengineering platforms: a versatile tool for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barachini, Serena; Danti, Serena; Pacini, Simone; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Trombi, Luisa; Moscato, Stefania; Mannari, Claudio; Cei, Silvia; Petrini, Mario

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, human dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs) have received growing attention due to their characteristics in common with other mesenchymal stem cells, in addition to the ease with which they can be harvested. In this study, we demonstrated that the isolation of DPSCs from third molar teeth of healthy individuals allowed the recovery of dental mesenchymal stem cells that showed self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capability. DPSCs resulted positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, STRO-1, negative for CD34, CD45, CD14 and were able to differentiate into osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. We also assayed the angiogenic potential of DPSCs, their capillary tube-like formation was assessed using an in vitro angiogenesis assay and the uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein was measured as a marker of endothelial function. Based on these results, DPSCs were capable of differentiating into cells with phenotypic and functional features of endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study investigated the growth and differentiation of human DPSCs under a variety of bioengineering platforms, such as low frequency ultrasounds, tissue engineering and nanomaterials. DPSCs showed an enhanced chondrogenic differentiation under ultrasound application. Moreover, DPSCs were tested on different scaffolds, poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (PVA/G) sponges and human plasma clots. We showed that both PVA/G and human plasma clot are suitable scaffolds for adhesion, growth and differentiation of DPSCs toward osteoblastic lineages. Finally, we evaluated the interactions of DPSCs with a novel class of nanomaterials, namely boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). From our investigation, DPSCs have appeared as a highly versatile cellular tool to be employed in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance tomography and dental radiology (Dental-MRT); Die Magnetresonanztomographie in der Dentalradiologie (Dental-MRT)

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    Gahleitner, A. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie; Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Orale Chirurgie; Solar, P.; Ertl, L. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Orale Chirurgie; Nasel, C.; Homolka, P. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Biomedizinische Technik und Physik; Youssefzadeh, S.; Schick, S. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Osteologie

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the usefulness of Dental-MRT for imaging of anatomic and pathologic conditions of the mandible and maxilla. Methods: Seven healthy volunteers, 5 patients with pulpitis, 9 patients with dentigerous cysts, 5 patients after tooth transplantation and 12 patients with atrophic mandibles were evaluated. Studies of the jaws using axial T1- and T2-weighted gradient echo and spin echo sequences in 2D and 3D technique have been to performed. The acquired images were reconstructed with a standard dental software package on a workstation as panoramic and cross sectional views of the mandible or maxilla. Results: The entire maxilla and mandibula, teeth, dental pulp and the content of the mandibular canal were well depicted. Patients with inflammatory disease of the pulp chamber demonstrate bone marrow edema in the periapical region. Dentigerous cysts and their relation to the surrounding structures are clearly shown. After contrast media application marked enhancement of the dental pulp can be found. Conclusion: Dental-MRT provides a valuable tool for visualization and detection of dental diseases. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieses Beitrags ist die Vorstellung der Untersuchungsmoeglichkeiten des Ober- und Unterkiefers mittels Magnetresonanztomographie (Dental-MRT) und ihre Anwendung bei der Diagnose zahnmedizinischer Erkrankungen. Sieben gesunde Probanden, 5 Patienten mit Pulpitis, 9 Patienten mit dentogenen Zysten, 5 Patienten nach Zahntransplantationen und 12 Patienten mit atrophem Unterkiefer wurden untersucht. Axiale T1- und T2-gewichtete Gradientenecho- und Spinecho-Sequenzen in 2D und 3D-Technik wurden durchgefuehrt. Nach der Untersuchung wurden zusaetzliche Panoramaschnitte und orhoradiale Rekonstruktionen des Ober- und Unterkiefers, unter Verwendung einer gebraeuchlichen Dental-Software, angefertigt. Der gesamte Ober- oder Unterkiefer, Zaehne, Pulpa und der Inhalt des Mandibularkanals koennen gut dargestellt werden. Patienten mit einer Entzuendung der

  18. Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akihito; Matsubara, Kohki; Nakamura, Shoko; Naruse, Mami; Yamagata, Mari; Sakamoto, Kazuma; Tauchi, Ryoji; Wakao, Norimitsu; Imagama, Shiro; Hibi, Hideharu; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to loss of neurons and glia and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we report that transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in marked recovery of hind limb locomotor functions. Transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells or skin-derived fibroblasts led to substantially less recovery of locomotor function. The human dental pulp stem cells exhibited three major neuroregenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, which improved the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, via paracrine mechanisms. Last, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities.

  19. Human Dental Pulp Cells Differentiate toward Neuronal Cells and Promote Neuroregeneration in Adult Organotypic Hippocampal Slices In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li; Ide, Ryoji; Saiki, Chikako; Kumazawa, Yasuo; Okamura, Hisashi

    2017-08-11

    The adult mammalian central nerve system has fundamental difficulties regarding effective neuroregeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether human dental pulp cells (DPCs) can promote neuroregeneration by (i) being differentiated toward neuronal cells and/or (ii) stimulating local neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Using immunostaining, we demonstrated that adult human dental pulp contains multipotent DPCs, including STRO-1, CD146 and P75-positive stem cells. DPC-formed spheroids were able to differentiate into neuronal, vascular, osteogenic and cartilaginous lineages under osteogenic induction. However, under neuronal inductive conditions, cells in the DPC-formed spheroids differentiated toward neuronal rather than other lineages. Electrophysiological study showed that these cells consistently exhibit the capacity to produce action potentials, suggesting that they have a functional feature in neuronal cells. We further co-cultivated DPCs with adult mouse hippocampal slices on matrigel in vitro. Immunostaining and presto blue assay showed that DPCs were able to stimulate the growth of neuronal cells (especially neurons) in both the CA1 zone and the edges of the hippocampal slices. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), was expressed in co-cultivated DPCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that DPCs are well-suited to differentiate into the neuronal lineage. They are able to stimulate neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus through neurotrophic support in vitro.

  20. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties of dental pulp cell on novel injectable tricalcium phosphate cement by silica doped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying-Fang; Lin, Chi-Chang; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-09-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material in clinical. In this study, we have doped silica (Si) into β-TCP and enhanced its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of Si-doped with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of the diametral tensile strength, ions released and weight loss of cements was considered after immersion. In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on Si-doped β-TCP cements. The results showed that setting time and injectability of the Si-doped β-TCP cements were decreased as the Si content was increased. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 30.1%, 36.9%, 48.1%, and 55.3% were observed for the cement doping 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% Si into β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the Si-rich cements promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the Si-doped in the cement is more than 20%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by Si released from Si-doped β-TCP cements. The degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of Si gives a strong reason to believe that these Si-doped β-TCP cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aging of in vitro pulp illustrates change of inflammation and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Go-Eun; Cho, Hye-Jin; Yu, Mi-Kyoung; Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Nan-Hee; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2013-03-01

    Dental pulp functions include pulp cell activity involvement in dentin formation. In this study we investigated the age-related changes in dental pulp cells that may influence pulp cell activity for restoring pulp function. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were serially subcultured until spontaneously arrested. Altered expression of chronic inflammatory molecules and age-related molecules were determined by Western blotting. Odontogenic functions impaired by senescence were assayed by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red S staining. To understand the mechanism of aging process by stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), the cells were treated with H(2)O(2). Replicative senescence and SIPS were also compared. Replicative senescence of HDPCs was characterized by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and reactive oxygen species formation. These cells exhibited altered expression of chronic inflammatory molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, and heme oxygenase-1 and age-related molecules such as p53, p21, phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-myb. SIPS cell results were similar to replicative senescence. Furthermore, HDPCs decreased odontogenic markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix-1 and osteogenic markers such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -7, runt-related transcription factor-2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation by replicative senescence and SIPS. This study suggests that development of aging-related molecules in pulp cells offers understanding of cellular mechanisms and biological events responsible for tooth preservation and maintenance strategies for healthy teeth across the life span. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic radiation effects on dental hard tissue (''radiation carries''). Classification and therapeutic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetz, K.A.; Brahm, R.; Al-Nawas, B.; Wagner, W.; Riesenbeck, D.; Willich, N.; Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Since the first description of rapid destruction of dental hard tissues following head and neck radiotherapy 80 years ago, 'radiation caries' is an established clinical finding. The internationally accepted clinical evaluation score RTOG/EORTC however is lacking a classification of this frequent radiogenic alteration. Material and Methods: Medical records, data and images of radiation effects on the teeth of more than 1,500 patients, who underwent periradiotherapeutic care, were analyzed. Macroscopic alterations regarding the grade of late lesions of tooth crowns were used for a classification into 4 grades according to the RTOG/EORTC guidelines. Results: No early radiation effects were found by macroscopic inspection. In the first 90 days following radiotherapy 1/3 of the patients complained of reversible hypersensitivity, which may be related to a temporary hyperemia of the pulp. It was possible to classify radiation caries as a late radiation effect on a graded scale as known from RTOG/EORTC for other organ systems. This is a prerequisite for the integration of radiation caries into the international nomenclature of the RTOG/EORTC classification. Conclusions: The documentation of early radiation effects on dental hard tissues seems to be neglectable. On the other hand the documentation of late radiation effects has a high clinical impact. The identification of an initial lesion at the high-risk areas of the neck and incisal part of the tooth can lead to a successful therapy as a major prerequisite for orofacial rehabilitation. An internationally standardized documentation is a basis for the evaluation of the side effects of radiooncotic therapy as well as the effectiveness of protective and supportive procedures. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of ultrasonic dental scaling on pulp vitality in dogs: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérez-Fraguela, J L; Vives Vallés, M A; Ezquerra Calvo, L J

    2000-06-01

    We investigated whether dental pulpal damage is produced as a result of the application of an ultrasonic scaler commonly used in clinical veterinary dentistry. Using methods developed in preliminary studies, we examined six dogs. The radiographic thickness of the dentin and pulp cavity was measured. The ultrasonic scaler was applied to maxillary and mandibular premolar teeth for 30, 60, or 90 seconds, without the use of water as a coolant. The temperatures of the room, the pulp canal on untreated incisor teeth, the cheek, the gingival sulcus, and the dentin of the affected teeth were recorded using a probe with a thermistor attached to a resistivity meter and inserted in the dentin to a depth of 1 mm. Two weeks following scaling, the teeth were extracted for microscopic examination. In another dog serving as a control, the temperature of the dentin was increased to between 45 degrees C (113 degrees F) and 47 degrees C (117 degrees F) and the premolar teeth were removed for microscopic examination 15 days later. We concluded that the application of an uncooled ultrasonic scaler for 90 seconds did not increase the temperature of the dentin. However, damage comparable with acute pulpitis resulted as a consequence of the ultrasonic effect, similar to the effects produced by the 45-47 degrees C heat applied in the control animal.

  4. Microscopic study of dental hard tissues in primary teeth with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II: Correlation of 3D imaging using X-ray microtomography and polarising microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham R; Fearne, Janice M; Sabel, Nina; Norén, Jörgen G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the histological appearance of dental hard tissues in primary teeth from children with DI using conventional polarised light microscopy and correlate that with 3D imaging using X-ray microtomograpy (XMT) to gain a further understanding of the dentine structure of teeth diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta. Undecalcified sections of primary teeth from patients diagnosed with Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II were examined using polarised light microscopy. XMT was employed for 3D-imaging and analysis of the dentine. The polarised light microscopy and XMT revealed tubular structures in the dentine seen as vacuoles coinciding with the path of normal dentinal tubules but not continuous tubules. The size of the tubules was close to that of capillaries. The largest tubular structures had a direction corresponding to where the pulp tissue would have been located during primary dentine formation. The dysfunctional mineralisation of the dentine and obliteration of the pulp evidently leaves blood vessels in the dentine which have in the main been tied off and, in the undecalcified sections, appear as vacuoles. Although from radiographs, the pulp in teeth affected by Dentinogenesis Imperfect type II appears to be completely obliterated, a network of interconnected vessels may remain. The presence of large dentinal tubules and blood vessels, or the remnants of blood vessels, could provide a pathway for bacteria from the oral cavity. This might account for why some of these teeth develop periapical abscesses in spite of apparently having no pulp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge biocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R d’Aquino

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used a biocomplex constructed from dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs and a collagen sponge scaffold for oro-maxillo-facial (OMF bone tissue repair in patients requiring extraction of their third molars. The experiments were carried out according to our Internal Ethical Committee Guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from the patients. The patients presented with bilateral bone reabsorption of the alveolar ridge distal to the second molar secondary to impaction of the third molar on the cortical alveolar lamina, producing a defect without walls, of at least 1.5 cm in height. This clinical condition does not permit spontaneous bone repair after extraction of the third molar, and eventually leads to loss also of the adjacent second molar. Maxillary third molars were extracted first for DPC isolation and expansion. The cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge scaffold and the obtained biocomplex was used to fill in the injury site left by extraction of the mandibular third molars. Three months after autologous DPC grafting, alveolar bone of patients had optimal vertical repair and complete restoration of periodontal tissue back to the second molars, as assessed by clinical probing and X-rays. Histological observations clearly demonstrated the complete regeneration of bone at the injury site. Optimal bone regeneration was evident one year after grafting. This clinical study demonstrates that a DPC/collagen sponge biocomplex can completely restore human mandible bone defects and indicates that this cell population could be used for the repair and/or regeneration of tissues and organs.

  6. Periodontal regeneration in swine after cell injection and cell sheet transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells following good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingchao; Cao, Yu; Xie, Yilin; Wang, Hua; Fan, Zhipeng; Wang, Jinsong; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wu, Chu-Tse; Wang, Songlin

    2016-09-09

    Periodontitis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans, results in the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of cell injection and cell sheet transplantation on periodontal regeneration in a swine model. In the present study, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were transplanted into a swine model for periodontal regeneration. Twelve miniature pigs were used to generate periodontitis with bone defects of 5 mm in width, 7 mm in length, and 3 mm in depth. hDPSCs were obtained for bone regeneration using cell injection or cell sheet transplantation. After 12 weeks, clinical, radiological, and histological assessments of regenerated periodontal tissues were performed to compare periodontal regeneration treated with xenogeneic cell injection and cell sheet implantation. Our study showed that translating hDPSCs into this large animal model could significantly improve periodontal bone regeneration and soft tissue healing. After 12 weeks, both the hDPSC sheet treatment and hDPSC injection significantly improved periodontal tissue healing clinically in comparison with the control group. The volume of regenerative bone in the hDPSC sheet group (52.7 ± 4.1 mm(3)) was significantly larger than in the hDPSC injection group (32.4 ± 5.1 mm(3)) (P cell sheet transplantation significantly regenerated periodontal bone in swine. The hDPSC sheet had more bone regeneration capacity compared with hDPSC injection.

  7. Impact of isolation method on doubling time and the quality of chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiated from murine dental pulp stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Stem cells are normally isolated from dental pulps using the enzymatic digestion or the outgrowth method. However, the effects of the isolation method on the quality of the isolated stem cells are not studied in detail in murine models. The aim of this study was to compare the matrices secreted by osteoblast and chondrocytes differentiated from dental pulp stem cells isolated through different means. Method DPSC from murine incisors were isolated through either the outgrowth (DPSC-OG or the enzymatic digestion (DPSC-ED method. Cells at passage 4 were used in this study. The cells were characterized through morphology and expression of cell surface markers. The cells’ doubling time when cultured using different seeding densities was calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison post-test. The ability of cells to differentiate to chondrocyte and osteoblast was evaluated through staining and analysis on the matrices secreted. Results Gene expression analysis showed that DPSC-OG and DPSC-ED expressed dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell markers, but not hematopoietic stem cell markers. The least number of cells that could have been used to culture DPSC-OG and DPSC-ED with the shortest doubling time was 5 × 102 cells/cm2 (11.49 ± 2.16 h and 1 × 102 cells/cm2 (10.55 h ± 0.50, respectively. Chondrocytes differentiated from DPSC-ED produced  2 times more proteoglycan and at a faster rate than DPSC-OG. FTIR revealed that DPSC-ED differentiated into osteoblast also secreted matrix, which more resembled a calvaria. Discussion Isolation approaches might have influenced the cell populations obtained. This, in turn, resulted in cells with different proliferation and differentiation capability. While both DPSC-OG and DPSC-ED expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers, the percentage of cells carrying each marker might have differed between the two methods. Regardless, enzymatic digestion clearly yielded cells

  8. The CuHBr laser in hard dental tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Walter

    2004-01-01

    In this work, it was verified the viability of characterization of laser-irradiated dental tissues in two extreme conditions: high and low absorption by the dental tissue. Comparison with light microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy revealed that these techniques are complementary each other: quantitative topographic information is directly extracted from the atomic force microscopy, while morphological aspects can be imaged by light microscopy or scanning electronic microscopy. A cavity generated by Cu-HyBrID laser in human dental enamel was also evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Structural and morphological differences between the fused and resolidified enamel from the cavity walls and the enamel from the natural tis sue were analyzed. A model, based on the Monte Carlo method described the propagation of CuHBr laser radiation and the absorbed energy distribution in dental tissues. Experimental measures with a CCD camera were used to semiquantitatively characterize the scattered light distribution in the tooth and they corroborated the model. It was observed that Rayleigh scattering and diffuse scattered radiation is predominant. The absorbed energy distribution map and the temperature variation along the beam propagation axis presented strong dependence with the absorption coefficient of the dental enamel and they cannot be deduced from the light distribution profile. The exposure time threshold for dental enamel melting and evaporation, irradiated by a specific condition of the green line of the Cu-HyBrID laser, was determined and a phenomenological model was discussed for the laser-matter interaction, based on pulse accumulation effect. Theoretical temperature calculations associated with experimental evidences strongly suggest that optical and thermal parameters should vary with temperature. The obtained exposure time threshold should correspond to the time necessary to the sample reach the critical temperature, at which the increase of absorption

  9. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: An approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Signoli, Michel; Dutour, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    1998-01-01

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on...

  10. Mucopolysaccharidosis enzyme production by bone marrow and dental pulp derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matilda; Derrick Roberts, Ainslie; Martin, Ellenore; Rout-Pitt, Nathan; Gronthos, Stan; Byers, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited metabolic disorders that arise from a complete loss or a reduction in one of eleven specific lysosomal enzymes. MPS children display pathology in multiple cell types leading to tissue and organ failure and early death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to many of the cell types affected in MPS, including those that are refractory to current treatment protocols such as hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) based therapy. In this study we compared multiple MPS enzyme production by bone marrow derived (hBM) and dental pulp derived (hDP) MSCs to enzyme production by HSCs. hBM MSCs produce significantly higher levels of MPS I, II, IIIA, IVA, VI and VII enzyme than HSCs, while hDP MSCs produce significantly higher levels of MPS I, IIIA, IVA, VI and VII enzymes. Higher transfection efficiency was observed in MSCs (89%) compared to HSCs (23%) using a lentiviral vector. Over-expression of four different lysosomal enzymes resulted in up to 9303-fold and up to 5559-fold greater levels in MSC cell layer and media respectively. Stable, persistent transduction of MSCs and sustained over-expression of MPS VII enzyme was observed in vitro. Transduction of MSCs did not affect the ability of the cells to differentiate down osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic lineages, but did partially delay differentiation down the non-mesodermal neurogenic lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  12. Transplanted Dental Pulp Stem Cells Migrate to Injured Area and Express Neural Markers in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Zhou, Yinglian; Li, Hulun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Dan; Li, Bing; Cao, Xiaofang; Fu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models. Brain tissues were collected at 4 weeks following cell transplantation and analyzed with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. Intravenously administration of rat-derived DPSCs were found to migrate into the boundary of ischemic areas and expressed neural specific markers, reducing infarct volume and cerebral edema. These results suggest that DPSCs treatment may serve as a potential therapy for clinical stroke patients in the future. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparison of Calcium Hydroxide and Bioactive Glass after Direct Pulp Capping in Primary Teeth

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    R. Haghgoo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bioactive glass is often used as a filler material for repair of dental bone defects.In different studies osteogenic potential of this material was proved, but its dentinogenesisproperty is in doubt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp responses of Calcium hydroxide and Bioactive glass placed directly on exposed pulp tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth to be extracted due to orthodontic reasons were selected. These teeth were divided into two groups and treated with direct pulp capping.Calcium hydroxide was used for 10 teeth and Bioactive glass for 10 teeth. After 60 daysthe teeth were extracted and prepared for histological evaluation. Finally the data was analyzed with exact Fisher test.Results: All teeth treated with Calcium hydroxide showed inflammation. Internal resorption was seen in six teeth, abscess in five teeth and dentinal bridge in two teeth. Inflammationwas seen in three Bioactive glass samples and dentinal bridge in seven teeth, but internal resorption and abscess were not seen.Conclusion: Bioactive glass appears to be superior to Calcium hydroxide as a pulp capping agent in primary teeth.

  14. Effects of transportation time after extraction on the magnetic cryopreservation of pulp cells of rat dental pulp

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    Mao-Suan Huang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The freezing technique used in this animal study provided positive effects on pulp cell storage. In addition, the storage time before the freezing procedure is an important issue for cryopreserving pulp cells in intact teeth.

  15. Pulp Calcification in Traumatized Primary Teeth - Classification, Clinical And Radiographic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Santos, Ana Maria Antunes; Bonini, Gabriela Azevedo Vasconcelos Cunha; Zardetto, Cristina Giovannetti Del Conte; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    The aim of this study was to standardize the nomenclature of pulp alteration to pulp calcification (PC) and to classify it according to type, quantity and location, as well as relate it to clinical and radiographic features. The dental records of 946 patients from the Research and Clinical Center for Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth were studied. Two hundred and fifty PC-traumatized upper deciduous incisors were detected. According to radiographic analysis of the records, 62.5% showed diffuse calcification, 36.3% tube-like calcification, and 1.2% concentric calcification. According to the extension of pulp calcification, the records showed: 80% partial calcification, 17.2% total coronal calcification and partial radicular calcification, and 2.8 % total coronal and radicular calcification. As for location, only 2.4% were on the coronal pulp, 5.2% on the radicular pulp and 92.4% on both radicular and coronal pulp. Regarding coronal discoloration, 54% were yellow and 2% gray. In relation to periradicular changes, 10% showed widened periodontal ligament space, 3.1% internal resorption, 10% external resorption, 10.4% periapical bone rarefaction. Since PC is a general term, it is important to classify it and correlate it to clinical and radiographic changes, in order to establish the correct diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of each case.

  16. Mesenchymal dental stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

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    Rodríguez-Lozano, Francisco-Javier; Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramírez, María-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Marín, Noemí; Martínez, Salvador; Moraleda, José-María

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.

  17. The effect of delta-like 1 homologue on the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengcai; Yan, Yanhong; Wen, Yue; Li, Jialiang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Fubo; Tang, Xiaoshan; Shang, Guangwei; Xu, Yuanzhi; Wang, Raorao

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functions of delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) in the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), DLK1, NOTCH1 and p-ERK1/2 in the mouse first maxillary molar. Recombinant lentivirus was constructed to overexpress DLK1 stably in hDPSCs. The cell viability and proliferation of hDPSCs were examined by CCK8 and EdU incorporation assay respectively. The odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs was determined by detection of ALPase activity assay, ALP and alizarin red staining and the expression of mineralization-related genes including ALP, DSPP and dental matrix protein. The mRNA and protein levels of DLK1 and p-ERK1/2 protein expression were detected. ERK inhibitor was used to test the differentiation effect of DLK1 on hDPSCs. Delta-like homologue 1 was highly expressed on the odontoblasts and dental pulp cells on the first maxillary molar; the expression of p-ERK1/2 is similar with the DLK1 in the same process. The expression level of DLK1 increased significantly after the odontoblastic induction of hDPSCs. DLK1 overexpression increased the proliferation ability of hDPSCs and inhibited odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs. The protein level of p-ERK1/2 significantly increased in hDPSCs/dlk1-oe group. ERK signalling pathway inhibitor reversed the odontoblastic differentiation effects of DLK1 on hDPSCs. The proliferation of hDPSCs was promoted after DLK1 overexpression. DLK1 inhibited the odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs, which maybe through ERK signalling pathway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Regenerative endodontics as a tissue engineering approach: past, current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2012-12-01

    With the reported startling statistics of high incidence of tooth decay and tooth loss, the current interest is focused on the development of alternate dental tissue replacement therapies. This has led to the application of dental tissue engineering as a clinically relevant method for the regeneration of dental tissues and generation of bioengineered whole tooth. Although, tissue engineering approach requires the three main key elements of stem cells, scaffold and morphogens, a conductive environment (fourth element) is equally important for successful engineering of any tissue and/or organ. The applications of this science has evolved continuously in dentistry, beginning from the application of Ca(OH)(2) in vital pulp therapy to the development of a fully functional bioengineered tooth (mice). Thus, with advances in basic research, recent reports and studies have shown successful application of tissue engineering in the field of dentistry. However, certain practical obstacles are yet to be overcome before dental tissue regeneration can be applied as evidence-based approach in clinics. The article highlights on the past achievements, current developments and future prospects of tissue engineering and regenerative therapy in the field of endodontics and bioengineered teeth (bioteeth). © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  19. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study

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    Manuel Mata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo, but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo. hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  20. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Manuel; Milian, Lara; Oliver, Maria; Zurriaga, Javier; Sancho-Tello, Maria; de Llano, Jose Javier Martin; Carda, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo , but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo . hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  1. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chisel, endodontic broach, dental wax carver, endodontic pulp canal file, hand instrument for calculus... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental hand instrument. 872.4565 Section 872.4565...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4565 Dental hand instrument. (a) Identification. A...

  2. Confocal Raman microscopy to monitor extracellular matrix during dental pulp stem cells differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.

    2015-07-01

    Regenerative medicine brings promising applications for mesenchymal stem cells, such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Confocal Raman microscopy, a noninvasive technique, is used to study osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Integrated Raman intensities in the 2800 to 3000 cm-1 region (C-H stretching) and the 960 cm-1 peak (ν1 PO43-) were collected (to image cells and phosphate, respectively), and the ratio of two peaks 1660 over 1690 cm-1 (amide I bands) to measure the collagen cross-linking has been calculated. Raman spectra of DPSCs after 21 days differentiation reveal several phosphate peaks: ν1 (first stretching mode) at 960 cm-1, ν2 at 430 cm-1, and ν4 at 585 cm-1 and collagen cross-linking can also be calculated. Confocal Raman microscopy enables monitoring osteogenic differentiation in vitro and can be a credible tool for clinical stem cell based research.

  3. p75 neurotrophin receptor positive dental pulp stem cells: new hope for patients with neurodegenerative disease and neural injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie-wen; Yuan, Hao; Shen, Shun-yao; Lu, Jing-ting; Zhu, Xiao-fang; Yang, Tong; Zhang, Jiang-fei; Shen, Guo-fang

    2013-08-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases and neural injury are 2 of the most feared disorders that afflict humankind by leading to permanent paralysis and loss of sensation. Cell based treatment for these diseases had gained special interest in recent years. Previous studies showed that dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) could differentiate toward functionally active neurons both in vitro and in vivo, and could promote neuranagenesis through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuroregenerative activities. Some of these neuroregenerative activities were unique to tooth-derived stem cells and superior to bone marrow stromal cells. However, DPSCs used in most of these studies were mixed and unfractionated dental pulp cells that contain several types of cells, and most were fibroblast cells while just contain a small portion of DPSCs. Thus, there might be weaker ability of neuranagenesis and more side effects from the fibroblast cells that cannot differentiate into neural cells. p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) positive DPSCs subpopulation was derived from migrating cranial neural crest cells and had been isolated from DPSCs, which had capacity of differentiation into neurons and repairing neural system. In this article, we hypothesize that p75NTR positive DPSCs simultaneously have greater propensity for neuronal differentiation and fewer side effects from fibroblast, and in vivo transptantation of autologous p75NTR positive DPSCs is a novel method for neuranagenesis. This will bring great hope to patients with neurodegenerative disease and neural injury.

  4. Differences of isolated dental stem cells dependent on donor age and consequences for autologous tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Manuela; Steindorff, Marina M; Strempel, Jürgen F; Winkel, Andreas; Kühnel, Mark P; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-06-01

    Autologous therapy via stem cell-based tissue regeneration is an aim to rebuild natural teeth. One option is the use of adult stem cells from the dental pulp (DPSCs), which have been shown to differentiate into several types of tissue in vitro and in vivo, especially into tooth-like structures. DPSCs are mainly isolated from the dental pulp of third molars routinely extracted for orthodontic reasons. Due to the extraction of third molars at various phases of life, DPSCs are isolated at different developmental stages of the tooth. The present study addressed the question whether DPSCs from patients of different ages were similar in their growth characteristics with respect to the stage of tooth development. Therefore DPSCs from third molars of 12-30 year-old patients were extracted, and growth characteristics, e.g. doubling time and maximal cell division potential were analysed. In addition, pulp and hard dental material weight were recorded. Irrespective of the age of patients almost all isolated cells reached 40-60 generations with no correlation between maximal cell division potential and patient age. Cells from patients <22 years showed a significantly faster doubling time than the cells from patients ≥22 years. The age of patients at the time of stem cell isolation is not a crucial factor concerning maximal cell division potential, but does have an impact on the doubling time. However, differences in individuals regarding growth characteristics were more pronounced than age-dependent differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

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    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  6. The effects of ultrasonic scaling duration and replication on caspase-3 expression of Sprague Dawley rat's pulp cells

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    Archadian Nuryanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonic scaling has been used commonly for stain and calculus removal in dental clinic for over 60years. Previous researches even had proved that ultrasonic scaling may give effects on the surface of tooth root. Ultrasonic wave exposure for 20 seconds or more can increase caspase-3 activity as an indicator of increased apoptotic cells associated with tissue damage. Purpose: This research was aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasonic scaling duration and replication on caspace-3 expression in dental pulp cells. Methods: The samples of this research were 54 male Sprague Dawley rats aged 2 months old divided into 2 groups, each of which consisted of 27 mice. The first group was induced with stain, while the second group was not. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups for ultrasonic scaling 1, 3, and 5 times. Each subgroup was divided into 3 sub-subgroups for duration procedure of 15, 30 and 60 seconds respectively. During scaling process, those rats were anesthetized using 0.1 ml of ketamine and 0.1 ml of xylol added to 2 ml of distilled water injected intramuscularly into their right thigh as much as 0.4 ml. Scaling was done on buccal surface of right first maxillary molar from cervical to occlusal. The teeth were decalcified and embedded in paraffin, then their sagittal plane was cut for thickness of 3µm and painted with immunohystochemistry for detecting caspace-3 expression of cell within dental pulp. Results: The results showed that the duration and replication of ultrasonic scaling procedures affected on the expression of caspace-3 cells as analyzed with Univariate Analisis of Variance test (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that duration and replication of ultrasonic scaling procedure on teeth with and without stain enhauced the expression of  caspace-3 in dental pulp cells.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Dental Origin for Inducing Tissue Regeneration in Periodontitis: A Mini-Review

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    Beatriz Hernández-Monjaraz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic disease that begins with a period of inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth table and then progresses, destroying the tissues until loss of the teeth occurs. The restoration of the damaged dental support apparatus is an extremely complex process due to the regeneration of the cementum, the periodontal ligament, and the alveolar bone. Conventional treatment relies on synthetic materials that fill defects and replace lost dental tissue, but these approaches are not substitutes for a real regeneration of tissue. To address this, there are several approaches to tissue engineering for regenerative dentistry, among them, the use of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC can be obtained from various sources of adult tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, skin, and tissues of the orofacial area. MSC of dental origin, such as those found in the bone marrow, have immunosuppressive and immunotolerant properties, multipotency, high proliferation rates, and the capacity for tissue repair. However, they are poorly used as sources of tissue for therapeutic purposes. Their accessibility makes them an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells, so this review describes the field of dental stem cell research and proposes a potential mechanism involved in periodontal tissue regeneration induced by dental MSC.

  8. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

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    Yasuo Kojima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  9. Imunohistological aspects of the tissue around dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimigean, Victor; Nimigean, Vanda R.; Sǎlǎvǎstru, Dan I.; Moraru, Simona; BuÅ£incu, Lavinia; Ivaşcu, Roxana V.; Poll, Alexandru

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: study of soft and hard tissues around implants. Material and methods: For the immunohistochemical and histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface, we examined pieces of peri-implant mucosa harvested from 35 patients. The implant/bone interface was assessed using histologic and histomorphometric examination of hard tissues around unloaded, early loaded or delayed loaded dental implants with pre-established design, with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface, placed both in extraction sockets, or after bone healing following tooth removal. This study was performed on 9 common race dogs. Results: The histological study of the implant/soft tissue interface showed regenerative modifications and moderate chronic subepithelial inflammatory reactions. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the soft tissue biopsies revealed the presence of specific immunocompetent cells and proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Bone-implants contacts were more obvious in the apical half of the implants and at the edges of the threads, than between them. A mature, lamelliform bone containing lacunae with osteocytes and lack of connective tissue were noticed around implants that were late placed and loaded. The new-formed bone was also abundant in the crestal zone, not only in the apical part of the implants. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the microstructure of dental implant/soft and hard tissue interface will improve the longevity of osseointegrated implants.

  10. Hard and soft tissue surgical complications in dental implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses surgical complications associated with the placement of dental implants, specifically focusing on how they occur (etiology), as well as their management and prevention. Dental implant surgical complications can be classified into those of hard and soft tissues. In general, complications can be avoided with thorough preoperative treatment planning and proper surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065μm wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250μs. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  12. From stem to roots: Tissue engineering in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, M.; Banthia, Priyank; Banthia, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    The vitality of dentin-pulp complex is fundamental to the life of tooth and is a priority for targeting clinical management strategies. Loss of the tooth, jawbone or both, due to periodontal disease, dental caries, trauma or some genetic disorders, affects not only basic mouth functions but aesthetic appearance and quality of life. One novel approach to restore tooth structure is based on biology: regenerative endodontic procedure by application of tissue engineering. Regenerative endodontics is an exciting new concept that seeks to apply the advances in tissue engineering to the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The basic logic behind this approach is that patient-specific tissue-derived cell populations can be used to functionally replace integral tooth tissues. The development of such ‘test tube teeth’ requires precise