Wilkie, Sandra D; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J
Thirteen states in the nation authorize dental hygienists to satisfy re-licensure requirements in part, by performing pro bono oral health services in lieu of participating in continuing education courses This study compared registered dental hygienists' donations of time and professional expertise, perceptions of volunteerism and motivational orientations as they practice in both the presence and absence of a practice act statute intended to incentivize volunteerism. Volunteer behaviors, perceptions and motivational orientations of a non probability sample of 316 dental hygienists actively licensed by the states of Idaho or Utah, were assessed using an online survey which included the Self Determination Theory General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS). Survey Monkey results were analyzed using Mann Whitney U tests, Chi-Square analysis and an Independent Samples t-test at the 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant differences were found between dental hygienists' volunteer behaviors, perceptions of volunteerism or scores on the GCOS Autonomy and Impersonal subscales in the 2 states studied. Statistical analysis of dental hygienists' mean scores on the GCOS measure of Controlled motivational orientation yielded a significant difference (p=0.001) among Utah and Idaho dental hygienists. Dental hygienists require evidence based practice statutes and regulations that keep pace with the need to provide universal access to comprehensive oral care. Additional research is required to determine the effectiveness of legislation intended to encourage registered dental hygienists' altruistic expressions. Dental hygienists are frequently unaware of opportunities to volunteer their services and how state practice act regulations impact those opportunities. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Wilkie, Sandra D; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J
... courses This study compared registered dental hygienists' donations of time and professional expertise, perceptions of volunteerism and motivational orientations as they practice in both the presence...
the population. Private dental practices in Romania require personnel specialized in dental management. Success in dentistry depends, on the one hand, on the management of clinical aspects, and equallyon the efficient management of the dental practice. Patient satisfaction is influenced by factors related to the communication between the physicianand the patient, technical competence and by the environment provided by dental practice. The realization of the paper followed a review...
Feldstein, Paul J.; And Others
This document investigates the regulation of dental assistants in Michigan. Emphasis is placed on increased dental productivity from increased use of auxiliaries, utilization of dental auxiliaries, and educational and training requirements for certification and licensure. Results of the investigation indicate: (1) support should be given for the…
Fitzpatrick, J J; McArdle, N S; Wilson, M H; Stassen, L F A
Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterised by seizure activity. It has an approximate incidence of 1%. General dental practitioners will encounter these patients in practice. This article discusses the types of epilepsy, the medical management and considerations in dental management of epileptic patients. General recommendations are made, based on current evidence, with respect to prescribing of medications. The management of an epileptic seizure is discussed. Status epilepticus is a rare but serious complication of epileptic seizures. An easy-to-follow algorithm is provided to assist the practitioner in managing seizures.
Fabiani, L; Mosca, G; Giuliani, A R
The aim of this study was to investigate the hygienic quality of dental practices on the basis of the self-awareness expressed by dentists respondents to a self-reported questionnaire about the health/hygiene characteristics of practice, the knowledge of biologic/toxicological risks and the preventive procedures and devices improvements in professional practice. Of the 127 practitioners contacted, 108 (85%) agreed to participate. The knowledge of infective risks was self- evaluated as good only in 24%: even if vaccinated, most of the dentists (57%) considered HBV the main infective agent to fear, not giving the same importance to the air-borne transmission of diseases. The presence of a single dental unit per surgery (90%) was considered an index of good health/hygiene education but, in spite of the use of disposable gloves, caps and masks, the dentists do not always change their coats or wash their hands between patients yet. The management of dental instruments can be considered efficient as long as they are sterilised in an autoclave (97%) and undergo periodic sterilization efficacy tests (76%). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The results indicate a good structural and organisational status, but there is the need for continuous education concerning the prevention of cross-infections.
Gerbert, B; Badner, V; Maguire, B
Dental health care workers (DHCWs) can provide important diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. They also have a responsibility to protect all patients in their practices, and themselves, from infectious disease transmission through the use of infection control. To determine the extent to which DHCWs are prepared to assume these responsibilities, a randomized survey of California DHCWs was conducted. Responses were obtained from 297 dentists, 128 hygienists, and 177 dental assistants. DHCWs who expressed a greater willingness to treat people with AIDS or HIV infection also practiced more thorough infection control. Respondents in all groups who perceived a greater percent of their patients to be at risk for AIDS were more likely to use infection control procedures (P less than .0001). They also were more willing to treat such patients (P less than .004) and were more likely to assess patients for AIDS by taking a thorough medical history (P less than .02) and sexual history (P less than .04). Since attitudes toward AIDS and perception of the percent of patients at risk in one's practice affect patient assessment and infection control procedures used by dental health care workers, educational programs designed to enhance DHCWs' response to the HIV epidemic should alert them to the extent of the problem and help them cope with their concerns.
Poorterman, J.H.G.; Dikkes, B.T.; Brand, H.S.
Objective: In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental students, amongst other non-qualified individuals, to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental students have part-time employment in
Poorterman, J.H.G.; Dikkes, B.T.; Brand, H.S.
Objective: Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have
Poorterman, J.H.G.; Dikkes, B.T.; Brand, H.S.
Objective: Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have p
Poorterman, J.H.G.; Dikkes, B.T.; Brand, H.S.
Objective: In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental students, amongst other non-qualified individuals, to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental students have part-time employment in de
Society now expects more from its doctors and dentists, and these increasing demands can be summed up in one relatively new term for the medical profession: "quality management" (QM). Doctors and dentists formerly took the view that their performance could be assessed solely on the basis of their technical skills, ethics and expertise, but are now confronted with a new social imperative, from outside the profession--quality management. The author, prize-winner of the European Quality Award 2000 describes his approach to introduce the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model in his dental practice. He shows that the EFQM model is well suited as a basis for a quality management system in healthcare.
Wilson, M H
Serious medical emergencies are fortunately a rare occurrence in the dental practice environment; however, if an emergency situation is encountered a delay in treatment may result in potentially avoidable consequences. The risk of mortality or serious morbidity can be reduced by ensuring that basic emergency equipment and medications are in place, and that the dental team is appropriately trained in basic life support measures. This article aims to provide an overview of the basic emergency medications and equipment that should be present in dental practices, and to discuss specific responses to some of the more common adverse medical events that can present while providing dental treatment.
Hakim A. Larbi and Dmitry Ye. Suyetenkov
Full Text Available This article highlights the comparative statistics of musculoskeletal system deseases depending on a type of dental method. The practical recommendations on prevention of diseases of joints, ligaments and spine were done.
In Thailand nowadays AIDS is not completely under control. This is evident from reports which show an increasing number of HIV-positive patients. Since an unknown number of HIV-infected persons who are either undiagnosed or asymptomatic come to get dental service, fears of getting infected with HIV have been developed among dental professionals. This article summarizes a number of past studies and reports on HIV transmission in dental work and discusses the possibility of AIDS infection and dental occupational risk. It also urges dental professionals to take effective safety precaution against the infection. This is for their own and their patients' well-being and hopefully for Thailand's success in controlling AIDS.
The realization of the paper followed a review of specialty literature, through which the mainaspects of dental office management have been analyzed, rendering the management solutionsavailable to all of those interested from an economic, deontological point of view, as well asmethods of managing human resources in order to obtain the best feedback possible from patients.
Niken Widyanti Sriyono
Full Text Available Globalization including General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS and Asia Fair Trade Agreement (AFTA are a new free trade system. In globalization era, there will be an intense and free competition in looking for jobs throughout the world. This new system will affect the health services system in which health services tend to follow an industrial model. Meaning that dentistry or dental health services tend to be part of a business system, and this system has caused controversy among the community and the profession itself. The results of the discussion revealed that professional and business of dentistry is compatible and complementary. The tendency of increasing number of legal form of practice (group and a professional corporation and the worldwide advertisement of these practices supported the premise that delivering dental practice tends to follow the industrial model. Dentists should not only more focus on achieving financial success in running the business of practice but profession should have the most concern for the people who seek their services. Delivering quality of dental care depends on the high skill of the dentist and on the satisfactory income for the survival of the practice in the long run, and this make the practice will be viewed by the public and profession as being appropriate and of high quality. Facing the globalization, besides possessing high clinical skill, dentists must have a firm understanding of management concepts and apply them in their practice. In conclusion: The profession and the business of dentistry are compatible and complementary. The delivery of the dental services tends to follow the industrial model, which is a current reality. Dentist should concern more on the delivering high quality of dental services, not only focus on the business of the practice, although the satisfactory income is important for the survival growth of the practice in the long run. It is suggested for dentists to follow as
Douglass, C W
This paper explores the thesis that the changing medical needs of dental patients, advances in biomedical research, and the confluence of the financing of medical and dental care will result in closer linkages between the medical and dental care delivery systems during the next century. Five trends have been documented in support of this thesis: the increasing number of elderly and their retention of teeth means there is a greater need for restorative dental care than in previous generations; the elderly have chronic diseases and are taking more medications; younger patients are presenting more frequently with infectious, systemic diseases such as HIV/AIDS. New scientific discoveries are opening new possibilities for patient care, which generate even higher expectations on the part of future consumers of medical and dental services. The health and fitness trend is not a fad; new knowledge regarding diet, nutrition, and exercise is identifying systemic risk factors related to common oral pathologies. Medical and dental educators are paying increased attention to the application of basic sciences to patient care. HMOs are increasing their market share of medical care delivery and expanding their services with preventive care and total patient care, including dental services. Data are provided documenting that dentists see these trends occurring in their private practices. The paper concludes that the application of advances in science and technology to oral health will improve the quality of dentistry. However, only new, effective preventive agents will decrease the cost of care, while improved diagnostics and restorative technologies could increase dental care costs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Cameron, Cheryl A.; And Others
Dental and dental hygiene faculty should maintain their clinical skills through regular practice, to improve their ability to relate to students through instruction, provide an additional source of income, and improve their image in the community. Institutional policies fostering and regulating faculty practice plans are suggested. (Author/MSE)
Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin
Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by ...
Savage, N W; McKay, C; Faulkner, C
Actinic cheilitis is a potentially premalignant condition involving predominantly the vermilion of the lower lip. The aim of the current paper was to review the clinical presentation of actinic cheilitis and demonstrate the development of management plans using a series of cases. These are designed to provide immediate treatment where required but also to address the medium and long-term requirements of the patient. The authors suggest that the clinical examination of lips and the assessment of actinic cheilitis and other lip pathology become a regular part of the routine soft tissue examination undertaken as a part of the periodic examination of dental patients. Early recognition of actinic cheilitis can allow the development of strategies for individual patients that prevent progression. These are based on past sun exposure, future lifestyle changes and the daily use of emollient sunscreens, broad-brimmed hats and avoidance of sun exposure during the middle of the day. This is a service that is not undertaken as a matter of routine in general medical practice as patients are not seen with the regularity of dental patients and generally not under the ideal examination conditions available in the dental surgery.
Burke, F J T; Crisp, R J; McCord, J F
Most dental treatment, in most countries, is carried out in general dental practice. There is therefore a potential wealth of research material, although clinical evaluations have generally been carried out on hospital-based patients. Many types of research, such as clinical evaluations and assessments of new materials, may be appropriate to dental practice. Principal problems are that dental practices are established to treat patients efficiently and to provide an income for the staff of the practice. Time spent on research therefore cannot be used for patient treatment, so there are cost implications. Critics of practice-based research have commented on the lack of calibration of operative diagnoses and other variables; however, this variability is the stuff of dental practice, the real-world situation. Many of the difficulties in carrying out research in dental practice may be overcome. For the enlightened, it may be possible to turn observations based on the volume of treatment carried out in practice into robust, clinically related and relevant research projects based in the real world of dental practice.
Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin
Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by a computer and image processing programs. In this article, image post-processing operations such as image restoration, image enhancement, image analysis, image synthesis, and image compression, and their diagnostic efficacy is described. In addition this article provides general dental practitioners with a broad overview of the benefits of the different image post-processing operations to help them understand the role of that the technology can play in their practices.
Darbar, Arun A.
This is a clinical presentation on the use of laser therapy in a private dental practice using a 810nm diode. A wide range of conditions involving pain management, treatment and as an adjunct to procedures to enhance patient comfort and experience. This will include cases treated for TMD (Temporo mandibular dysfunction), apthous ulcers, angular chelitis, cold sores, gingival retraction, periodontal treatment and management of failing dental implants. The case presentation will include the protocols used and some long term reviews. The results have been very positive and will be shared to enable this form of treatment to be used more frequently and with confidence within dental practice.
Smith, A; Creanor, S; Hurrell, D; Bagg, J; McCowan, M
This was an observational study in which the management policies and procedures associated with infection control and instrument decontamination were examined in 179 dental surgeries by a team of trained surveyors. Information relating to the management of a wide range of infection control procedures, in particular the decontamination of dental instruments, was collected by interview and by examination of practice documentation. This study found that although the majority of surgeries (70%) claimed to have a management policy on infection control, only 50% of these were documented. For infection control policies, 79% of surgeries had access to the British Dental Association Advice Sheet A12. Infection control policies were claimed to be present in 89% of surgeries, of which 62% were documented. Seventy-seven per cent of staff claimed to have received specific infection control training, but for instrument decontamination this was provided mainly by demonstration (97%) or observed practice (88%). Many dental nurses (74%) and dental practitioners (57%) did not recognise the symbol used to designate a single-use device. Audit of infection control or decontamination activities was undertaken in 11% of surgeries. The majority of surgeries have policies and procedures for the management of infection control in dental practice, but in many instances these are not documented. The training of staff in infection control and its documentation is poorly managed and consideration should be given to development of quality management systems for use in dental practice.
Full Text Available Shows the comparative statistics of diseases of musculoskeletal system, depending on the type of dental reception. Recommendations on prevention of diseases of joints, ligaments and spine
Cobban, Sandra J; Edgington, Eunice M; Clovis, Joanne B
Dental hygiene, as an emerging profession, needs to increase the number of intervention studies that identify improvements in oral health outcomes for clients. Historically, dental hygiene studies have typically been atheoretical, but the use of theoretical frameworks to guide these studies will increase their meaningfulness. Rogers' theory of diffusion of innovations has been used to study research utilization across many disciplines, and may offer insights to the study of research use in dental hygiene. Research use is an important component of evidence-based practice (EBP), and diffusion of research knowledge is an important process in implementing EBP. The purpose of this paper is to use diffusion of innovations theory to examine knowledge movement in dental hygiene, specifically through the example of the preventive practice of oral cancer screening by dental hygienists, considered as an innovation. Diffusion is considered to be the process by which an innovation moves through communication channels over time among a social network. We suggest diffusion theory holds promise for the study of knowledge movement in dental hygiene, but there are limitations including access to and understanding research studies as innovations. Nevertheless, using a theoretical framework such as Rogers' diffusion of innovations will strengthen the quality of intervention research in dental hygiene, and subsequently, health outcomes for clients.
Schilling Elizabeth A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increasing share of the dental insurance market, little is known about dental practices' satisfaction with preferred provider organizations (PPOs. This analysis examined practice satisfaction with dental PPOs and the extent to which satisfaction was a function of communications from the plan, claims handling and compensation. Methods Data were collected through telephone surveys with dental practices affiliated with MetLife between January 2002 and December 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions related to their satisfaction with a systematically selected PPO with which they were affiliated. Six different PPO plans had sufficient observations to allow for comparative analysis (total n = 4582. Multiple imputation procedures were used to adjust for item non-response. Results While the average level of overall satisfaction with the target plan fell between "very satisfied" and "satisfied," regression models revealed substantial differences in overall satisfaction across the 6 PPOs (p Conclusion Results demonstrate the importance of compensation to dental practice satisfaction with PPOs. However, these results also highlight the critical role of service-related factors in differentiating plans and suggest that there are important non-monetary dimensions of PPO performance that can be used to recruit and retain practices.
Fitzpatrick, J J
Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.
Goren, A.D.; Sciubba, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Malamud, H. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY (USA))
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence and contribute to patient exposure in radiologic procedures performed in the offices of 132 staff members within the dental department of a teaching hospital. A questionnaire was prepared in which data were requested on brands of film used, type of x-ray unit used, processing, and use of leaded apron, cervical shield, and film holder. Offices were also visited to evaluate performance of existing dental x-ray equipment. Both the Dental Radiographic Normalizing and Monitoring Device and the Dental Quality Control Test Tool were evaluated. The average exposure was equivalent to the class D film (220 mR), but only 13% of those surveyed used the faster class E film, which would reduce patient exposure in half. The survey indicates that dentists are not using the newer low-exposure class E film in their practices.
Full Text Available The term "work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs," refers to musculoskeletal disorders to which the work environment contributes significantly, or to musculoskeletal disorders that are made worse or longer lasting by work conditions or workplace risk factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in reporting WMSDs for dental persons. Risk factors of WMSDs with specific reference to dentistry include - stress, poor flexibility, improper positioning, infrequent breaks, repetitive movements, weak postural muscles, prolonged awkward postures and improper adjustment of equipment. Ergonomics is the science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. In this article, 20 strategies to prevent WMSDs in the dental operatory are discussed.
Public relations is a way of marketing a dental practice through the media and directly to potential patients without purchasing advertising time or space. Well-written press releases and follow-up phone calls targeted to the specific audience of various media outlets can result in stories that are worth more than purchased advertising. One key to successfully communicating to others through public relations is straightforward writing. The following article not only covers the variety of opportunities available to a dental practice through PR, it also serves as an excellent example of the style of writing that should be used for PR communications.
Bertens, J; Abraham-Inpijn, L; Meuwissen, P J
The general dental practitioner is occasionally confronted with patients who, on the basis of psychological--and often somatic--criteria, are difficult to treat. Medicinal sedation in combination with anxiety reduction may be deemed appropriate for such patients. In the Netherlands inhalation sedation by means of a combination of oxygen and nitrous oxide is generally used. The limitations and disadvantages of this method have directed attention towards sedation by means of midazolam, a quick-acting benzodiazepine. In view of the complications which may accompany the administration of midazolam, the general practitioner working alone or in a group practice is advised against using midazolam sedation. Such use should be reserved for a dentist working in a hospital setting, who is able to consult with a physician regarding the advisability of administering midazolam. Even then, the safety of the patient requires that the practitioners have a proper insight into the physical state of the patient, work according to a protocol and in accordance with clearly defined responsibilities, and provide adequate accommodation during and after treatment.
Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Chen, Lei; Lazar, Vickie F; Brown, L Jackson; Ray, Subhash C; Heffley, Dennis R; Berg, Rob; Bailit, Howard L
This study examined the impact of expanded function allied dental personnel on the productivity and efficiency of general dental practices. Detailed practice financial and clinical data were obtained from a convenience sample of 154 general dental practices in Colorado. In this state, expanded function dental assistants can provide a wide range of reversible dental services/procedures, and dental hygienists can give local anesthesia. The survey identified practices that currently use expanded function allied dental personnel and the specific services/procedures delegated. Practice productivity was measured using patient visits, gross billings, and net income. Practice efficiency was assessed using a multivariate linear program, Data Envelopment Analysis. Sixty-four percent of the practices were found to use expanded function allied dental personnel, and on average they delegated 31.4 percent of delegatable services/procedures. Practices that used expanded function allied dental personnel treated more patients and had higher gross billings and net incomes than those practices that did not; the more services they delegated, the higher was the practice's productivity and efficiency. The effective use of expanded function allied dental personnel has the potential to substantially expand the capacity of general dental practices to treat more patients and to generate higher incomes for dental practices.
Marković, Dubravka; Blazić, Larisa; Durić, Milanko; Vucinić, Predrag; Blagojević, Duska; Bajkin, Branislav
This paper reviews recent trends in basic dental disciplines and advantages of new clinical procedures over conventional. Post and core restoration is one of the most common treatment modalities applied when the remaining coronal tooth structure is not sufficient to provide the necessary retention form for restoration. Nowadays, the restoration of endodontically treated teeth is based on the use of materials with a modulus of elasticity similar to that of dentin. Polymerization contraction stress of resin based composite during light-activation process may be reduced by various illumination schemes. Successful curing depends on the calculated energy density values (spatial irradiance x irradiation period - J/cm2) rather than on light irradiance levels (mW/cm2). It is well documented that various systemic diseases have a profound effect on periodontal tissues. Recently, it has been speculated that periodontal disease may influence systemic health and represent the risk factor for cardiovascular diseases or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Computer systems, which will automatically identify relevant skeletal and soft tissue roentgencephalometric landmarks, will represent a great improvement in the field of orthodontic diagnosis. By using the Active Appearance Model, it is possible to identify most of roentgencephalometric bony landmarks with an average error well below 2 mm. Chemomechanical caries removal was introduced as an alternative to conventional mechanical procedures. Its advantages are: selective removal of carious tissue, absence of pain, reduced need for local anesthesia and less potentially negative effects on the dental pulp. The introduction of the surgical operating microscope, microsurgical instruments, ultrasonic retrotips for root-end cavity preparation and new root-end filling materials opened a new era in periapical surgery, even on multi-rooted teeth, often called endodontic microsurgery.
Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana
Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.
Summerfelt, Fred F
The 2010 U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) calls for training programs to develop mid-level dental health care providers to work in areas with underserved populations. In 2004, legislation was passed in Arizona allowing qualified dental hygienists to enter into an affiliated practice relationship with a dentist to provide oral health care services for underserved populations without general or direct supervision in public health settings. In response, the Northern Arizona University (NAU) Dental Hygiene Department developed a teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice dental hygiene model that places a dental hygienist in the role of the mid-level practitioner as part of a digitally linked oral health care team. Utilizing current technologies, affiliated practice dental hygienists can digitally acquire and transmit diagnostic data to a distant dentist for triage, diagnosis, and patient referral in addition to providing preventive services permitted within the dental hygiene scope of practice. This article provides information about the PPACA and the Arizona affiliated practice dental hygiene model, defines teledentistry, identifies the digital equipment used in NAU's teledentistry model, give an overview of NAU's teledentistry training, describes NAU's first teledentistry clinical experience, presents statistical analyses and evaluation of NAU students' ability to acquire diagnostically efficacious digital data from remote locations, and summarizes details of remote applications of teledentistry-assisted, affiliated practice dental hygiene workforce model successes.
Fitzpatrick, William G; Renshaw, John; Batchelor, Paul
This brief paper explains why the art of negotiation has become far more important for general dental practitioners. It explains that negotiations take place with patients, with practice staff, and with funding agencies such as Primary Care Trusts. It sets out the principles for successful negotiation and gives two examples of how they can be applied. It concludes that negotiation is a skill that can be learned and that it will be a key skill as the profession faces future challenges.
Angelina Kisselova; Adriana Krasteva; Assya Krasteva
The aim is to present some of the most prescribed premedication schemes prior to an upcoming dental analgesia in non-allergic patients. These schemes we would like to be proved as “standard protocols” in dental practice.
Chu, C H; Lo, Edward
Fluoride varnish is developed to prolong the contact time between fluoride and tooth surface, so that the tooth becomes more resistant to caries attack. The active ingredient of fluoride varnish is usually 5% sodium fluoride, (22,600 ppm fluoride). Studies have found that fairly insoluble globules of calcium fluoride-like material formed on the tooth surface after topical fluoride application. These globules act as a reservoir of fluoride in the mouth for a prolonged period of time. Systematic reviews corroborate evidence for the efficacy of fluoride varnish in the prevention of dental caries. Sodium fluoride varnish is used to prevent caries development, arrest early enamel and even soft dentine caries through promotion of remineralization of carious tooth substance. It is also used to treat tooth hypersensitivity. Some use it as a provisional luting agent by itself or combined with other provisional luting agents for cementing provisional crowns. Fluoride varnish has recently gained much attention in dentistry because it is quick and easy to apply. It sets rapidly on teeth, and gagging and swallowing is unusual. Side-effects or complications of its use are rare. Studies show that fluoride varnish is safe for young children and the risk of dental fluorosis is minimal. The simplicity of its application makes it very suitable and practical for use in dental clinics and outreach dental services, especially in young children and in other special needs groups.
or the technical skills of dental professionals, but also on patients, their attitudes and behaviour and the interaction between dental professionals and patients. It is well known that the success of dental treatments (for example, periodontal, orthodontic or implants) depends on the patient's behaviour, which......The aim of this paper is to illustrate how knowledge from behavioural sciences is necessary and relevant in creating a successful dental practice, benefitting patients and dental professionals. There are many ways to create a successful dental practice, the products of which are the various...... treatments performed by dentists or dental hygienists for their patients. Advanced technologies and methods are constantly improving these treatments and thus the technical and managerial aspects of dentistry. However, the success of dental practice is not only dependent on the technique applied...
or the technical skills of dental professionals, but also on patients, their attitudes and behaviour and the interaction between dental professionals and patients. It is well known that the success of dental treatments (for example, periodontal, orthodontic or implants) depends on the patient's behaviour, which......The aim of this paper is to illustrate how knowledge from behavioural sciences is necessary and relevant in creating a successful dental practice, benefitting patients and dental professionals. There are many ways to create a successful dental practice, the products of which are the various...... treatments performed by dentists or dental hygienists for their patients. Advanced technologies and methods are constantly improving these treatments and thus the technical and managerial aspects of dentistry. However, the success of dental practice is not only dependent on the technique applied...
Reinders, Jan J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Onclin, Pieter; van der Schans, Cees P.; Stegenga, Boudewijn
Aims: Attitudes of dentists and dental hygienists towards extended scope and independent dental hygiene practice are described in several studies, but the results are heterogenous. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the attitudes of dentists and dental hygienists towards extended
Yavner, S B
The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.
David O. Willis
Full Text Available The economic environment of dental practices is undergoing rapid change. Franchise and network practices are increasing in number because of many underlying economic factors, including supply and demand for services, banking requirements, student debt, proliferation of managed care plans, and healthcare reform. These franchise practices compete very effectively with traditional solo dental practices, leading to the “Wal-Martization“ of dental practice, in which dental services are bought and sold more as a commodity than as an individually unique service. These chains compete with private practices on efficiency, convenience, insurance plan participation, and aggressive marketing. There are advantages and disadvantages for both the patients and dental practitioners for participating in this practice mode. This paper explores the reasons that these entities are growing, and offers suggestions for independent solo practitioners to compete with them.
Clarkson, Earl; Bhatia, Sanjeev
This article reviews trends in the dental marketplace. Marketing is an essential element of dentistry. Communicating treatment options with patients is one aspect of marketing. Treatment planning helps patients understand the relationships between oral health, occlusion, temporomandibular joint function, and systemic health. Through marketing, dental practice owners inform patients of ever-changing treatment modalities. Understanding treatment options allows patients to make better, informed choices. More options leads to a higher level of care and more comprehensive dental treatment. Managing a practice requires tracking its financial health. Economic statistics measure the effect of management decisions that mark the direction of a dental practice.
Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V; Funkhouser, Ellen M
OBJECTIVES: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a venue to foster evidence-based care. We tested the hypothesis that a higher level of participation in a dental PBRN is associated with greater stated change toward evidence-based practice. METHODS: A total of 565 dental PBRN...
Drug abuse appears destined to become an exacerbating cultural phenomenon despite intrinsic dangers to the abuser and accelerating costs to society. Dentists cannot afford to ignore the problem or its sequelae either in terms of their personal involvement or in terms of the clinical implications of such a practice for their patients. Abuse of agents, such as opioids and amphetamines, by the dental practitioner leads to devastating personal, social, and professional consequences. The abuser jeopardizes his or her reputation, family relationships, professional practice, and, not uncommonly, his or her very life through accidental overdose of drugs or by suicide. Nitrous oxide abuse is particularly prevalent among dentists and, although producing no psychological dependence, may result in long-term myeloneuropathy and physical disability making continued dental practice impossible. The dentist's responsibilities in this area lie within clinical and social domains. Clinically, the dentist must (1) learn to detect those physical and behavioral signs in patients that are indicators of drug abuse; (2) become familiar with tactics employed by drug abusers to obtain drugs for themselves or for further criminal diversion, and be prepared to defend against such tactics; (3) understand and make clinical allowance for therapeutic complications that may arise in the treatment of drug-abuse patients. The dentist's social role as an informed, concerned, and empathic counselor in matters of drug abuse must be assumed as a personal imperative and not viewed as an intellectual abstraction. Whenever we are made aware of the drug-related devastation or death of a friend, colleague, or student, we discern the immediacy of an ethical responsibility of social dimensions, so eloquently expressed over 350 years ago, by John Donne in his "Devotions XVII": "No man is an island, ... Any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankind; And therefore never send to know for whom the
Peltier, Bruce; Curley, Arthur
This is the first of two essays written to consider several important trends in dental practice that result from innovations in digital and social media. This essay reviews ethical and legal implications of the use of websites, Facebook, review sites, email and other digital innovations in dental practice. The second essay provides ethical tools for analysis, illuminates areas of ethical concern in today's practice environment and offers recommendations for future practice.
Chambers, David W
There is a common misconception that scientists conduct research in their labs or clinics and practitioners do not experiment, but only use the best results reported in the literature. This confusion comes about because dentists are not trained in, nor do they normally observe, the formal requriments of research protocol or ethics. It is generally believed that the norms that apply to clinical practice also cover all situations where dentists innovate in their treatment protocols with a view toward discovering more effective ways to treat patients or where they modify a standard protocol in hopes of better serving the needs of an atypical patient. In this 2002 paper from the Dental Clinics of North America (Volume 46, Number 1, pp. 29-44), David W. Chambers challenges the concept that useful general knowledge is created only outside dental practice and then transferred into the office. But if it is the case that practitioners experiment, even to the limited extent of customizing materials and methods to their own needs or the particular circumstances of patients, there are ethical considerations. All modifications are not equally justifiable, the patient should be involved in "partially tested" approaches in a different way from the routine, and there needs to be sound reason to believe the innovation will not fall below the standard of care. Experimental practice has the characteristics of high probability of success, structured observation, realistic settings, and careful documentation. Heroic measures can only be undertaken when available options have failed and with full consent of the patient. A two-part ethical test is proposed for experimenting in practice: (a) If the dentist believes members of the community (patients, colleagues, or society generally) would be offended or outraged by an action, provided that they became aware of the relevant details--to not do it! (b) If the dentist believes members of the community would be concerned by an action
Full Text Available n the globalization and Asean Economic Community (MEA era, especially in the era of competition and modern dentistry, dentists need increasing services in order to maintain and increase patient visits. Especially in patient’s complain about dental services that caused by unmanaged time, such as late dentist, long queue of patients and time inefficiency in dental practice. The objective of this review is to discuss the importance of good time management ’in supporting successful dental pratice. Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Implementation in dental practice are as follow: planning, scheduling and time organizing to avoid wasted time. Proper time management resulted in greater efficiency and productivity, professional reputation,reduces stress and improves the image of dental practices. Routine evaluation is needed to increase time management quality. Efficient time management in dental practice requires organizing individual tasks, analizing daily task, scheduling main projects, establishing deadlines and organizing workflow. The implementation in dental practice like organizing patients, medical and non medical employee daily schedule, managing the patient’s queue to get the minimum waiting time and avoiding doctors being late in giving services to patient. Setting good time management will make the dentist's work 'smarter not harder' to get more results with limited time. In principle all medical and non-medical personnel should support the implementation of service excellence in the health care services especially dental practice. The final objective in realizing good time management in dental clinic is concerning in quality service and aims to achieve patient satisfaction (customer satisfaction that the end goal is a loyal patient, customer loyalty and
Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)
A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)
Maloney, William James; Raymond, George
3,4 Methylenedioxymethampetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy, is an illicit drug used by individuals seeking mood enhancement. Ecstasy's pharmacology, systemic, oral and dental manifestations are presented. Use of this drug is not limited to a particular socioeconomic class and, as such, all practicing dentists must be aware of both the intra-oral effects of this drug and any possible alterations to dental treatment that might become necessary. Dental manifestations include bruxism, increased incidence of caries, xerostomia and oral ulcers.
Gorter, R C; den Dekker, J; Schut, H; Eijkman, M A
An overview is presented of several undergraduate courses given by the Department of Social Dentistry and Dental Health Education (ACTA). A short description of the contents of courses in communication skills, treatment of anxious patients and practice management is given together with the results of a student-evaluation. Students consider these courses useful and relevant for future dental practice. This is especially true in case the direct relevance for clinical practice is clear.
McKeown, L; Sunell, S; Wickstrom, P
Recently the discourse in Canada relating to dental hygiene practice has changed. While dentistry still exercises controlling power over the public's oral cavity, dental hygienists have made inroads through legislative changes. A description of Canadian dental hygiene practice is provided to set the stage for a discussion about current discourse in the dental hygiene profession. Although power is often perceived as a shifting changing set of relations, these can be frozen in abstraction. It is rather like taking a photo of a single moment or event in an ongoing activity. This moment provides a starting point, an event that can be analysed. Four such events are evident in Canadian dental hygiene practice; they include, education, recognition of dental hygienists as primary care providers, the culture of dental hygiene and self-regulation. While all the events are important, self-regulation is critical to the viability and development of the profession. It is the central event that provides the backdrop for effecting change. With self-regulation comes responsibility and accountability for professional actions. It also provides possibilities for changing the discourse in oral care. As oral health care discourse is transformed through legislation and public awareness, the public will, hopefully, be able to directly access dental hygiene services, and dental hygienists themselves might increasingly recognise their importance as contributors in the health care system.
Plangger, K; Bredican, J; Mills, A J; Armstrong, J
To keep pace with consumer adoption of smart mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, and the applications ('apps') developed for these devices, dental professionals should consider how this technology could be used to simultaneously improve both patient service experiences and dental practice management. Using U-Commerce as a theoretical lens, this article discusses the potential value of smart mobile technology to the dental practice context, with a particular focus on the unique and customisable capabilities of apps. To take full advantage of this technology, a process is outlined for identifying and designing bespoke dental apps that takes into account the unique advantages of these devices. Dental practices, with increasing financial and competitive pressures, may improve the efficiency and profitability of operations and better manage patients, employees and stakeholders by integrating smart mobile technology.
Full Text Available The aim is to present some of the most prescribed premedication schemes prior to an upcoming dental analgesia in non-allergic patients. These schemes we would like to be proved as “standard protocols” in dental practice.
Creswell, J W; Kuster, C G
Approximately 40 percent of the data-based articles reported in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years have used survey research procedures. This study examines the use of one type of survey procedure, mailed questionnaires, in research on dental education. Specifically, the discussion identifies several factors that dental education researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors. These factors are discussed using examples of adequate and inadequate procedures reported in the method sections of studies in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years.
Davidson, P L; Nakazono, T T; Carreon, D C; Gutierrez, J J; Shahedi, S; Andersen, R M
The USA dental education programmes are facing challenges similar to those confronting countries around the globe, particularly amongst the industrialised nations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational programmes of 15 USA dental schools to determine their impact on improving workforce diversity and oral health care access. The study investigates the predictors of public service plans of dental school seniors in Pipeline and non-Pipeline Program dental schools. We analysed baseline and post-intervention data collected in the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Annual Survey of Dental School Seniors and a set of contextual variables. Public service plans (dependent variable) was predicted by four types of independent variables: intervention, contextual, community-based dental education (CBDE), and student characteristics. Findings from the study show that access to a state or federally sponsored loan repayment program was the most significant predictor of public service plans and that increasing educational debt was the most significant barrier. In the short-term we may be able to sustain the USA loan repayment programs to motivate senior dental students to provide public service to address the oral health care access crisis. However, in the long-term, a new workforce development initiative will be required to transform dental education and practice, modelled after the well-respected licensure programmes for Physician Assistants and/or Advanced Practice Registered Nurses, to expand oral health care access, particularly amongst vulnerable population subgroups, such as low-income children and families.
Origins and benefits of the practice of dental hygiene were investigated in order to provide guidelines to countries where initiatives are being taken to introduce the profession. In Europe, so far the profession has been introduced in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Great Britain, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. Programmes in Ireland, Poland, and Romania are not presented in this article. Information for this study was obtained using questionnaires and followed up by e-mail correspondence with additional experts, supporting studies and reference literature. All experts consulted are involved in the professional and educational organisation of dental hygiene in their countries. Results show that dentists and dental hygienists who had been inspired by the delivery of preventive care in the US, initiated the European dental hygiene movement. In some countries, opposition of organised dentistry had to be overcome. In countries where the population has limited access to qualified dental hygiene care, such as in Austria, Belgium, Germany and France, a high prevalence of untreated periodontal disease has been reported. There, the lucrative practice of delegating dental hygiene tasks to dental assistants without qualifying education has slowed efforts to implement the profession and resulted in negative health and vocational outcomes. This leads to the conclusion that an implementation of legislation governing the practice and the educational process of dental hygiene in the EU and beyond would contribute to an equitable standard of health care as well as to equal opportunities in education and employment.
Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.
The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)
Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.
The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)
Diecidue, Robert J
Private dental practice can be achieved through either outright ownership or an associateship in conjunction with senior dentists; the decision depends on personal and professional objectives and goals. Once a decision is made, the time and effort required to identify an appropriate practice, negotiate the terms of purchase or associateship, and transition to the new practice can be daunting. This article reviews the process and provides an overview of the general steps involved in the evaluation of a dental practice for purchase or associateship. With appropriate knowledge and preparation, due diligence, and ethical and sensitive behavior, transitioning to private practice can be successful and lead to professional and personal fulfillment.
Moldoveanu, Lucia E.; Odor, Alin A.
Introduction: The use of lasers has become a practice in modern periodontology and it is a fact that the use of diodes in the dental office can bring a real benefit in periodontal surgery. Material and method: These case reports describe few of various soft tissue procedures that were performed with diode laser 940 nm (Epic 10, Biolase Inc., USA). Discussions: There are a few immediate benefits of the intervention: the "periodontal bandage" belongs to the patient, the procedure is painless, performed under a superficial anesthesia and the psychological impact on the patient, as well as the acceptance, are superior to conventional methods of dentistry. Conclusions: Diode lasers at the level of periodontium have become a significant part of the dentistry, reducing the patient's stress and giving satisfaction to practitioners as well.
Henry, Rachel K; Molnar, Amy; Henry, Jon C
Social media is becoming the way for businesses, including health care professionals, to communicate with consumers. The study examines the use of social media by dental practices in the US. An electronic survey was sent to 22,682 dentists in the United States. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of social media in the dental practice. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparisons were made using a Fisher's exact test. A total of 573 responses were received. Social media was used in 52% of dental practices, the most common being Facebook. The use of social media was most commonly for marketing purposes (91%). Dentists younger than 45 years old were more likely to use social media in their practice than dentists 45 years or older (p > 0.001). Dental practices actively use social media for marketing and communication. Many dentists are unsure how to measure the success of social media in their practice. Additional research is needed to measure the success of social media in a dental practice. Social media is a common way practices market and interact with their patients. There are some difficulties in determining what appropriate content for social media is and how to evaluate the success.
Kurcz, R; Kruger, E; Tennant, M
Dentistry across the globe faces significant workforce issues with mal-distribution at most levels of analysis being a substantial issue. This study was the first to apply high resolution Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools to map every private dental practice in the State of Indiana against a backdrop of population demographics. The hypothesis tested in the study is that there is an even density distribution of dental practices across Indiana. Adult population data were obtained from the United States Census of Population and divided by census tracts. The physical address for each dental practice in Indiana was collated from a comprehensive web-based search and the two datasets were integrated using GIS tools. The whole adult population of Indiana (5 million) was distributed across 1,511 census tracts. Across these tracts a total of 2,096 separate private general dental practices were distributed. There were a total of 679 tracts (45%) without a dental practice while 2.5% of tracts had 8 or more practices. The practice to population ratio (1:2,384) for the whole State was not significantly different for those living within 50km (31 miles) or 25km (15 miles) of the seven major city centers, and mean personal income (by residency location) did not appear to significantly influence practice location.
Ramu, C; Padmanabhan, T V
Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection. Special care needs to be addressed to patients with organ transplants, poorly controlled diabetes and pregnancy. Antibiotics should be used only as an adjunct to dental treatment and never alone as the first line of care. The present paper reviews the indications of antibiotics in dental practice.
van der Sanden, W J M; Gorter, R; Tams, J
In response to the initiatives of the Kennisinstituut Mondzorg (Institute for Knowledge Translation in Oral Care), the importance of effective education in the area of guidelines is increasing. Future dentists will, after all, be confronted with new guidelines and need to be able to integrate them in their daily practice. Various guidelines and protocols have been established within the 3 dental schools. For students and instructors, however, the motivation for these guidelines and protocols is not always sufficiently clear. In addition, the terms guideline, clinical practice guideline and protocol are used interchangeably, resulting in terminological confusion. Embedding within and coordination with theoretical education is also still limited in all programmes and it is proposed that the 3 dental schools collaborate on this issue. Finally, it is advised to replace the term 'evidence-based' with 'evidence-informed' because this indicates more clearly that other factors (patients opinion, available financial means, etc.) play a role in the final choice of treatment in a specific situation.
Hartshorne, Johan; Hasegawa, Thomas K
Overservicing or the acceptance of unnecessary, inappropriate, excessive or fraudulent treatment is regarded as sanctioned lying, cheating or stealing and thus constitutes unethical conduct and a breach of the integrity of the profession. During the past year the media have repeatedly reported that the private sector is bloated with overservicing: one of the most important factors contributing to the increasing inflation of health care costs. Overservicing is an ethical problem presenting with a conflict situation among the interests of the patient, the provider and the funder. For example, since dentists are in a position to gain financially from their professional recommendations, they are at risk of having a conflict of interest: by overservicing they collect more fees. Low medical aid tariffs, delayed payment of benefits, oversupply of dentists, decreasing business and the spiralling costs of dental materials and equipment are the primary causes of high practice overheads and low cash-flow levels. Dentists may seek alternatives such as overservicing or unnecessary treatment to generate income and to improve their cash flow and/or profit. The main motives for overservicing are economic survival and financial gain. Some dentists may overtreat unintentionally due to out-dated treatment philosophies or where criteria for diagnosis and effective care are not clear, leading to variation in treatment decisions. Some overservicing may be due to patient-initiated demand. Dentists are largely unregulated as to the appropriateness or necessity of treatment decisions because of their professional status. Society trusts that their professionals will put the benefit of those they serve above their own self-interests. The aim of this review is to provide dentists with some guidance to the process of ethical decision making, the ethical principles involved, moral rules, and guidelines for professional standard of care. Business considerations whether profit, financial gain or
Cobban, Sandra J
The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice.
Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.
Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724
Boynes, Sean G.; Moore, Paul A.; Tan, Peter M.; Zovko, Jayme
Abstract General descriptions or “snapshots” of sedation/general anesthesia practices during dental care are very limited in reviewed literature. The objective of this study was to determine commonalities in dental sedation/anesthesia practices, as well as to accumulate subjective information pertaining to sedation/anesthesia care within the dental profession. This questionnaire-based survey was completed by participating anesthesia providers in the United States. A standardized questionnaire was sent via facsimile, or was delivered by mail, to 1500 anesthesia providers from a randomized list using an online database. Data from the returned questionnaires were entered onto an Excel spreadsheet and were imported into a JMP Statistical Discovery Software program for analyses. Quantitative evaluations were confined to summation of variables, an estimation of means, and a valid percent for identified variables. A total of 717 questionnaires were entered for data analysis (N = 717). Data from this study demonstrate the wide variation that exists in sedation/anesthesia care and those providing its administration during dental treatment in the United States. The demographics of this randomized population show anesthesia providers involved in all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as significant variation in the types of modalities used for sedation/anesthesia care. Data from this study reveal wide variation in sedation/anesthesia care during dental treatment. These distinctions include representation of sedation/anesthesia providers across all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as variations in the techniques used for sedation/anesthesia care. PMID:20553135
Boynes, Sean G; Moore, Paul A; Tan, Peter M; Zovko, Jayme
General descriptions or "snapshots" of sedation/general anesthesia practices during dental care are very limited in reviewed literature. The objective of this study was to determine commonalities in dental sedation/anesthesia practices, as well as to accumulate subjective information pertaining to sedation/anesthesia care within the dental profession. This questionnaire-based survey was completed by participating anesthesia providers in the United States. A standardized questionnaire was sent via facsimile, or was delivered by mail, to 1500 anesthesia providers from a randomized list using an online database. Data from the returned questionnaires were entered onto an Excel spreadsheet and were imported into a JMP Statistical Discovery Software program for analyses. Quantitative evaluations were confined to summation of variables, an estimation of means, and a valid percent for identified variables. A total of 717 questionnaires were entered for data analysis (N=717). Data from this study demonstrate the wide variation that exists in sedation/anesthesia care and those providing its administration during dental treatment in the United States. The demographics of this randomized population show anesthesia providers involved in all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as significant variation in the types of modalities used for sedation/anesthesia care. Data from this study reveal wide variation in sedation/anesthesia care during dental treatment. These distinctions include representation of sedation/anesthesia providers across all disciplines of the dental profession, as well as variations in the techniques used for sedation/anesthesia care.
Plekavich, E J
The problems involved in teaching prosthodontics in a general practice program outwardly appear to be due to the lack of sufficient basic prosthodontic training dispensed by the dental schools. This lack of sufficient training is not the fault of dental school faculties. The students are not learning what they are taught. What they need is more repetition, which means more time. The problems are not insurmountable. We just must find the route.
aspect of the public health sector and the infection constitutes ... management of HIV-infection. ... in the overall health-care delivery to patients with HIV/ ... 82/113 respondents (72%) disagreed that the risk of HIV transmission in the dental clinic.
Full Text Available Background. Literature reviews world over have shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dental practitioners. Prevalence of MSD among dental practitioners in India is not well documented. Aim. To determine the prevalence and distribution of MSD among dental practitioners in a city in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Material and Methods. A cross sectional descriptive study in which a self-administered questionnaire (the Standardized Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the musculoskeletal symptoms among dental practitioners. The recorded data was analyzed with SPSS 13. -value 0.05 was considered to statistically significant. Results. Seventy-three dental practitioners participated in the study of which seventy-eight percent had a prevalence of at least one MSD symptom over the past twelve months. Most common areas affected by MSD in order of magnitude were neck (52%, low back (41%, shoulders (29% and wrist (26%. One third of the practitioners (40% required sick leave from their practice during the preceding twelve months. Conclusions. High prevalence of MSD exists among our dental practitioners affecting the daily practice of more than one third. Further studies are needed to identify the specific risk factors for MSD so as to introduce effective remedial measures.
Maloney, William James
The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis-marijuana, hash, hash oil-pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary.
Omaran Ibrahim Mohammed Ali
Full Text Available Dental caries is a major cause of tooth loss in children and young adults. Dental caries have been linked to the situation of underprivileged families, nutritional imbalance, and poor oral hygiene techniques, including lack of tooth brushing or flossing the teeth, and also have a genetic etiology. Dietary habits and dental hygiene practice can result in high caries in school children. This research aimed to reveal the correlation between dietary habits and dental hygiene practice with dental caries among school children in urban area of Semarang. The subjects of this research are the elementary student 7 – 9 years old enrolled in schools located in at urban area in Semarang in 2016 and the mother of a student who became the study sample. Data were statisically analyzed usingbivariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Based on the research result, it can be concluded that: there was no correlation between total carbohydrate intake, refined carbohydrate intake, fiber intake, dental hygiene practice with dental caries, bottle feeding and duration of bottle feeding were assosiated with dental cariest-score. Overall, def-t score in the study was very bad with high median of dental caries score and many children have dental caries t-score more than 6.How to CiteAli, O. I. M., Muis, F. & O, Oedijani. (2016. The Correlation Between Dietary Habits and Dental Hygiene Practice with Dental Caries Among School Children at Urban Area in Semarang. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 178-184.
Medical rosters are not free of trade practices problems, notwithstanding assurances by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). Neither the ACCC nor the recently convened Wilkinson Committee has applied rigorous legal principles in interpreting the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cwlth) to reach its conclusions. The Australian law should be changed to bring it into line with that of the United States and New Zealand.
Ciesielski, C; Marianos, D; Ou, C Y; Dumbaugh, R; Witte, J; Berkelman, R; Gooch, B; Myers, G; Luo, C C; Schochetman, G
To determine if patients of a dentist with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) became infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their dental care and, if so, to identify possible mechanisms of transmission. Retrospective epidemiologic follow-up of the dentist, his office practice, and his former patients. The practice of a dentist with AIDS in Florida. A dentist with AIDS, his health care providers and employees, and former patients of the dentist, including eight HIV-infected patients. Identification of risks for HIV transmission (if present), degree of genetic relatedness of the viruses, and identification of infection control and other office practices. Five of the eight HIV-infected patients had no confirmed exposures to HIV other than the dental practice and were infected with HIV strains that were closely related to those of the dentist. Each of the five had invasive dental procedures, done by the dentist after he was diagnosed with AIDS. Four of these five patients shared visit days (P greater than 0.2). Breaches in infection control and other dental office practices to explain these transmissions could not be identified. Although the specific incident that resulted in HIV transmission to these patients remains uncertain, the epidemiologic evidence supports direct dentist-to-patient transmission rather than a patient-to-patient route.
McGuigan, Patrick J; Eisner, Alan B
The authors provide a suggested framework for completing a comprehensive evaluation of practice processes and routines. Their approach focuses on improving the professional image of dentists and the methods they use to market themselves. A practice can benefit by implementing a program to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the practice and how these strengths and weaknesses affect patients' experiences. A word-of-mouth marketing campaign relies on the cultivation of opinion leaders, but opinion leaders cannot be cultivated until they have been identified. Dental practice marketing campaigns cannot be based on assumptions; they must be based on facts. Practice Implications. Improving relationships with patients will lead to increased patient retention, reduced marketing costs and greater personal satisfaction. By focusing on strengths, clinicians will improve patients' experiences in the dental office.
Oberoi, Sukhvinder S; Dhingra, Chandan; Sharma, Gaurav; Sardana, Divesh
Antibiotics are prescribed by dentists in dental practice, during dental treatment as well as for prevention of infection. Indications for the use of systemic antibiotics in dentistry are limited because most dental and periodontal diseases are best managed by operative intervention and oral hygiene measures. The use of antibiotics in dental practice is characterised by empirical prescription based on clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors, resulting in the use of a very narrow range of broad-spectrum antibiotics for short periods of time. This has led to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in a wide range of microbes and to the consequent inefficacy of commonly used antibiotics. Dentists can make a difference by the judicious use of antimicrobials--prescribing the correct drug, at the standard dosage and appropriate regimen--only when systemic spread of infection is evident. The increasing resistance problems of recent years are probably related to the over- or misuse of broad-spectrum agents. There is a clear need for the development of prescribing guidelines and educational initiatives to encourage the rational and appropriate use of drugs in dentistry. This paper highlights the need for dentists to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in an attempt to curb the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance and other side effects of antibiotic abuse. The literature provides evidence of inadequate prescribing practices by dentists for a number of factors, ranging from inadequate knowledge to social factors.
Botello-Harbaum, Maria T; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson; Lindblad, Anne
Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing ...
Chiodo, G T; Tolle, S W; Critchlow, C
Sexual harassment in the workplace is harmful to employees and disruptive. While the ethical obligations arising from the doctor-patient relationship do not address a dentist's ethical obligations toward his or her employees, the more general ethical obligations to the profession and those of business ethics would mediate against the creating or tolerance of sexual harassment in the workplace. The legal implications of participating in sexual harassment or allowing it to persist in the dental office are significant and dentists should be aware that employees enjoy legal protections against this inappropriate and potentially unlawful behavior. While any gender in any position may be the victim of sexual harassment, women who occupy subordinate positions are the most likely targets of these overtures. Dentist-employers are wise to be proactive in providing an appropriate protocol for employees to use when they perceive sexual harassment in the workplace.
The object of this study was to grade the response of patients undergoing a variety of dental procedures with the aid of intravenous midazolam sedation in general dental practice and to explore any relationships between the patients preoperative anxiety assessment and the clinician's assessment of co-operation whilst under sedation. One hundred consecutive patients aged between 18 and 58 years (mean 32 years; sd 10 years) and in ASA Class I or II were prospectively studied. Results showed that despite attempts to grade patient's behaviour it was not possible to reliably predict patient's responses under intravenous sedation. In addition to these findings, the great individual variation in sensitivity to midazolam was confirmed.
Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D
This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.
Uswak, Gerry; Keller-Kurysh, Emory
The profession of dental therapy has long been held up as a model for reducing access to care barriers in high-risk, underserved populations worldwide. Dental therapists practice in many countries delivering preventive and basic restorative care to children and adults. In North America, dental therapy education and practice date back to 1972 with the establishment of training programs at the National School of Dental Therapy in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, and the Wascana Institute of Applied Arts and Science in Regina, Saskatchewan, as a means of reducing access to care barriers in Canada's northern territories and to implement the Saskatchewan Health Dental Plan, respectively. At present, dental therapy in North America has reached a crossroads: in the United States, the profession is cautiously being explored as a solution for improving access to care in at-risk populations. In 2011, Canada's sole training program, the National School of Dental Therapy in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, closed when the federal government eliminated its funding. This article examines the impact of private practice employment of dental therapists in Saskatchewan on the supply of dental therapist human resources for health in Canada's three northern territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon), its role in the closure of the National School of Dental Therapy in 2011, and ramifications for the future of dental therapy in Canada.
Praveen, B N; Shubhasini, A R; Bhanushree, R; Sumsum, P S; Sushma, C N
Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. There are several forms of radiation, including ionizing and nonionizing. X-rays are the ionizing radiation used extensively in medical and dental practice. Even though they provide useful information and aid in diagnosis, they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry, it is mainly used for diagnostic purposes and in a dental set-up usually the practicing dentist exposes, processes and interprets the radiograph. Even though such exposure is less, it is critical to reduce the exposure to the dental personnel and patients in order to prevent the harmful effects of radiation. Several radiation protection measures have been advocated to ameliorate these effects. A survey conducted in the Bengaluru among practicing dentists revealed that radiation protection awareness was very low and the necessary measures taken to reduce the exposure were not adequate. The aim of the article is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set-up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel.
Reddy, S S; Rakesh, N; Chauhan, Pallavi; Clint, Joseph Ben; Sharma, Shivani
Today, dentists have a wide range of imaging modalities to choose from, the film based techniques, digital techniques, and the recent introduction of 3D volumetric or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The inherent design features of the new generation dental x-ray equipment has significantly improved over the years with no evidence of substandard x-ray units in operation. In dental facilities radiological workload is comparatively low, newer radiation equipments and accessories follow safety guidelines and employ better radiation protection measures for the patient and the operator. Dentists' knowledge and expertise in radiation protection measures is good, enabling them to carry out riskfree radiation procedures in their practice. Therefore, the present study is aimed at assessing the need for dosimeters in current dental scenario. 'Is there currently a significant risk from dental radiography to merit the use of personal dosimetery in dental practice. 'Dental health professionals (Oral radiologists) and radiographic assistants of fourteen dental colleges in Karnataka state participated in this questionnaire study. The questionnaire consisted of the following questions--the make, type, year of manufacture of radiographic machines used in their setup, number of radiographs made per day in the institution, type of receptors used, number of personnel at risk for radiation exposure, radiation protection measures used, regular monitoring by personal dosimeters, equivalent dosage readings for the past 12 months and whether the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for any personnel had exceeded the recommended exposure value in the last 3 years. Dosimetry records of the radiology staff in the last three years shows doses no more than 1.50 mSv per year. The various institutions' dose (person mSv) was in the range of 3.70 mSv-3.90 mSv. Personal monitoring for Dentists can be omitted in the dental colleges since the estimated dose of oral radiologists
Full Text Available The orthopantomogram is a very useful additional examination in dentistry, as a tool for the diagnosis and treatment plan, with medical-legal importance, assessing the health status of the dento-maxillary apparatus. As a long-time, non-degradable document, it shows the evolution of the therapy applied in various dental specialities, permitting checking of the prognosis of the detected disease. The present study aims at investigating the usability of this dental radiographic examination in the actual Romanian dental practice, based on an original questionnaire completed by 558 dentists, which gives a response rate of 3.9%. The collected data were loaded electronically and processed statistically using Excel and SPSS, the threshold limit of statistical significance used being p> 0.05.
The decision to buy a dental practice is the most important one in a young dentists professional career and should be made only after a careful examination and review of the seller's practice. Usually the buyer is 35 years or younger, married with children, dental school loans of anywhere from $50,000 to $300,000, and little or no net worth. The practice this dentist purchases will have an impact on the kind of professional he or she is, and will also have a lasting effect on the dentist's quality of life and that of his or her entire family. Areas requiring examination are examined here, along with the need for a due diligence review prior to purchase.
Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H
Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls [i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth] was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular
Boyd, Barry C; Fantuzzo, Joseph J; Votta, Timothy
Dental practices are seeing an increasing number of elderly and medically compromised patients, making it likely that staff will be called upon to respond to medical emergencies in the office, including cardiac arrest. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests account for nearly half of all cardiovascular deaths in the United States. In adult cardiac arrest victims, the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac arrest is ventricular dysrhythmia, either ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. The survival rate for sufferers of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests is a dismal 1% to 5% to hospital discharge. A majority of people who survive to discharge sustain significant morbidity. Untreated ventricular fibrillation degenerates into asystole, which is often refractory to resuscitative efforts and represents a terminal event. The development and availability of the automated external defibrillator (AED) represents a promising advance in the pre-hospital early defibrillation of victims of sudden cardiac arrest in a variety of settings, often remote from hospitals or EMS personnel. Given the medically compromised segment of the population treated in many dental practices today, it is imperative that dental practitioners and allied health providers become trained in the recognition and prompt initiation of emergency care, including basic life support with early defibrillation. The AED is becoming more accessible, with increasingly widespread availability, training in its use and relative ease of operation, making the goal of increased survival one in which dental health professionals can play a part.
Guyton, Brad; LeBeau, Jan; Sorci, Rebecca; Doneen, Amy
An innovative interprofessional model is described for the delivery of dental care in the year 2026 to optimize efficiency and profitability while enhancing quality of care. The dental practice of tomorrow may look different than today. Although not broken, the current system can be improved in efficiency and effectiveness. Although traditional private practices will continue to exist and many will thrive over the next decades, they may not present the optimal model for dental practice. To manage complex patient needs, a more collaborative model of multidisciplinary, interprofessional clinical teams capable of treating patients comprehensively has been suggested by the authors. They explore an alternative model of practice that may be possible in the next 10 years to better serve patients and improve outcomes while honoring the role of practitioners. Landmark publications and reviews are used to examine evidence showing the potential benefits of an innovative interprofessional approach to the delivery of care in the oral health care setting. By examining key studies, the authors provide commentary on the potential for enhanced efficiency, profitability, and quality of care in the oral health care setting through a collaborative model of multidisciplinary, interprofessional clinical teams capable of treating patients comprehensively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: In dental and medical education, information and communication technology (ICT has been playing an important role and its use is rapidly increasing. In developing countries, however, information technology is still only available to a minority of health professionals. The present study aimed to assess the level of computer use among dental undergraduate students pursuing their career at a private dental institution in India.Materials and Methods: The study population comprised dental undergraduate students from first to fourth year pursuing their career in a private dental institution of India. Informationtechnology practices were assessed using a questionnaire that consisted of 14 questions.Results: In total, 247 students with an overall response rate of 66% participated in the study. Only 58.3% of the study population mentioned that they had access to computers.Students from preclinical years reported to be competent in IT skills more frequently than the clinical year students (chi square test, P=0.007. Compared to women, men used computers more regularly both for academic activities (P=0.082 and personal use (P=0.006.Similarly, students of clinical years used computers more than preclinical students for both purposes (academic activities, P=0.045; personal use, P=0.124.Conclusion: The present study revealed that computer literacy of Indian dental undergraduate students was comparable with students of other countries whereas accessibility of IT sources was poor. Expansion of computer-assisted learning which requires careful strategic planning, resource sharing, staff incentives, active promotion of multidisciplinary working, and effective quality control should be implemented.
Carvalho, Cristiana Leite
The article analyzes the process by which dentistry acquired the status of a profession. The setting is the mid-nineteenth-century United States, where the West's first professional dental organizations were founded, and the focus is on some aspects of the development of a dental market and on the professional disputes among practitioners of the dental trade, who wanted a monopoly within this field of knowledge. Certain outside factors played a major role in the emergence of the profession, including changes in patterns of sugar consumption (which spread dental caries disease throughout society) as well as the expansion of the dental service market. The subsequent proliferation of distinct groups of dental practitioners--both qualified and unqualified to practice dentistry--and their competition for a place in the dental market reflect the battle waged to establish jurisdiction in this field and the emergence of dentistry as a 'modern profession'.
Waterman, B D
A private practitioner describes the application of TQM concepts to his practice. Customer focus is illustrated through a survey, teamwork through enhanced communication, process improvement through a flow diagram, and overall quality through graphs showing the effects of handoffs among office staff.
Armstrong, J L; Boardman, A E; Vining, A R
As dentistry is becoming increasingly competitive, dentists must focus more on strategic analysis. This paper lays out seven initial steps that are the foundation of strategic analysis. It introduces and describes the use of service-customer matrices and location-proximity maps as tools in competitive positioning. The paper also contains a brief overview of the role of differentiation and cost-control in determining key success factors for dental practices.
Full Text Available Aims and objectives : The present study was carried out to assess the oral hygiene practices and habits among practicing general dentists. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out in four dental schools with the help of a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered dentists′ oral self care, smoking habits, professional reading and oral health concepts. A total of 700 dentists responded, of which 457 were males. Recommended oral self care (ROSC included tooth brushing one per day, eating sugary snacks daily or rarely and regularly using fluoride tooth paste. Results : The data obtained was then subjected to statistical analyses and evaluated using chi-square tests and logistic regressions.It was found that 55.9% of all respondents brushed twice a day, 59.4% consumed sugar containing snacks less than once daily and 55.1% of them used fluoride containing paste regularly while brushing. 81.1% of the 700 dentists never used tobacco products. In all, 19.6% 0f the practicing general dentists followed recommended oral self care. Conclusion : From the present study, it can be concluded that only 19.6% of south Indian dentists follow recommended oral self care and hence awareness programs and continuous dental education programs among dentists is essential to improve the present scenario and to increase the number of dental professionals following ROSC.
Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.
Dental practice consists of a series of laboring procedures which demands the use of several types of equipment and materials. Usually patient"s fears brings additional burden to the Dentists. The use of Lasers for treating and diagnosis in Dentistry is quite new comparing to other medical areas. Initially Laser technology was used as an alternative method for treating dental caries in order to substitute the use of the drill. Lately surgical Lasers have shown themselves very useful for treating several pathologies and began to be used as a powerful tool on the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial complex and later on, the era of the use of Laser therapy began. The advent of the diode Lasers made possible the introduction of small units at the dental office and Laser therapy was used to improve healing and later included also caries diagnosis. This paper discuss the use of Laser therapy on Restorative Dentistry, Periodondology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral implantology and other. Clinical and laboratorial experience has demonstrated that Laser therapy does improve the healing of both mineralized and soft tissues, reduces pain and inflammation, and also reduces both cost and length of the dental treatment.
McLeod, Neil S
This article describes methods for enhancing the online presence of a dental practice to gain market share and facilitate communication with current and prospective patients. Topics discussed include creation of a website that will help patients easily locate the practice. The importance of back links and embedded keywords is stressed. A method for identifying competitors' online marketing strategies also is presented, along with discussions of patient reviews and pay-per-click advertising options. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R
In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.
Grieveson, Brian; Brigden, David
In this article, the authors examine the role of the seven key skills portfolios in the assessment of new dental graduates in general dental practice. They discuss the nature and construction of portfolios and explore how the use of portfolios encourages learning. They outline what educational support is available and consider where key skills fit within a career pathway.
Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B
The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai.
Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V; Korelitz, James J; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W; Rindal, D Brad; Gregory, Randall J
Objectives were to: (1) determine whether and how often general dentists (GDs) provide specific dental procedures; and (2) test the hypothesis that provision is associated with key dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. GDs (n = 2,367) in the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed an Enrollment Questionnaire that included: (1) dentist; (2) practice; and (3) patient characteristics, and how commonly they provide each of 10 dental procedures. We determined how commonly procedures were provided and tested the hypothesis that provision was substantively related to the three sets of characteristics. Two procedure categories were classified as "uncommon" (orthodontics, periodontal surgery), three were "common" (molar endodontics; implants; non-surgical periodontics), and five were "very common" (restorative; esthetic procedures; extractions; removable prosthetics; non-molar endodontics). Dentist, practice, and patient characteristics were substantively related to procedure provision; several characteristics seemed to have pervasive effects, such as dentist gender, training after dental school, full-time/part-time status, private practice vs. institutional practice, presence of a specialist in the same practice, and insurance status of patients. As a group, GDs provide a comprehensive range of procedures. However, provision by individual dentists is substantively related to certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. A large number and broad range of factors seem to influence which procedures GDs provide. This may have implications for how GDs respond to the ever-changing landscape of dental care utilization, patient population demography, scope of practice, delivery models and GDs' evolving role in primary care.
Healy, C M; Kearns, H P O; Coulter, W A; Stevenson, M; Burke, F J T
To assess by postal questionnaire, cross-infection control methods, especially sterilisation procedures, of 700 general dental practitioners in the Republic of Ireland, and to biologically monitor steam pressure sterilisers or autoclaves in their practices. Methods of instrument cleaning and sterilisation, autoclave efficacy. A response rate of 40% with all, except one practitioner, using steam sterilisation. 49% also reported the use of chemical sterilisation with a quarter of these using glutaraldehyde. However, instrument soaking time varied greatly from 2.5 minutes to 74 hours. Methods of instrument cleaning prior to autoclaving were as follows: scrubbing by hand 41.5%, ultrasonic cleaning 7.0%, combination of both 50%. 52.9% of the respondents did not autoclave their dental handpieces and only 44.7% disinfected impressions before sending them to the laboratory. The autoclaves of thirty practitioners (11.3%) did not pass the initial biological test. Following counselling about possible causes of failure, four autoclaves (1.5%) failed a repeat biological test. However, seven practitioners did not return the repeat biological test. Some aspects of recommended cross-infection control procedures are well adhered to, e.g. instrument cleaning, but further education is required in certain key areas, in particular the use of chemical sterilisation, dental handpiece autoclaving and impression disinfection. There is also a need to increase awareness of the importance of routine autoclave servicing and calibration, along with validation and monitoring.
Kakudate, N; Morita, M; Fukuhara, S; Sugai, M; Nagayama, M; Kawanami, M; Chiba, I
In clinical practice, self-efficacy refers to how certain a patient feels about his or her ability to take the necessary action to improve the indicators and maintenance of health. It is assumed that the prognosis for patient behaviour can be improved by assessing the proficiency of their self-efficacy through providing psychoeducational instructions adapted for individual patients, and promoting behavioural change for self-care. Therefore, accurate assessment of self-efficacy is an important key in daily clinical preventive care. The previous research showed that the self-efficacy scale scores predicted patient behaviour in periodontal patients and mother's behaviour in paediatric dental practice. Self-efficacy belief is constructed from four principal sources of information: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological and affective states. Thus, self-efficacy can be enhanced by the intervention exploiting these sources. The previous studies revealed that behavioural interventions to enhance self-efficacy improved oral-care behaviour of patients. Therefore, assessment and enhancement of oral-care specific self-efficacy is important to promote behaviour modification in clinical dental practice. However, more researches are needed to evaluate the suitability of the intervention method.
Maupome, Gerardo; Aguirre-Zero, Odette; Westerhold, Chi
The objectives of this study were to identify dental hygiene themes voiced by adults and teenagers of Mexican origin [or Mexican Americans (MAs)] and place these themes within the larger landscape of oral health and dental care perceptions. Interviews with urban-based MAs were analyzed to identify barriers, beliefs, and behaviors influencing engagement in dental hygiene practices. Adult (n = 16, ages 33-52) and teenage (n = 17, ages 14-19) MAs reported themes pertaining to structural factors (financial and economic-related barriers, the dual challenges of reduced access to care vis-à-vis successfully navigating the dental care system, and the effects of reduced social support derived from migration) and to individual factors (different agendas between MAs and health systems for dental care utilization and indications for oral self-care, including limited dental hygiene instruction from professionals and larger impacts from school-based and mass media). Also, prior experiences with dental hygiene, prevention, and associated themes were characterized by a range of attitudes from fatalistic to highly determined agency. Good family upbringing was instrumental for appropriate dental hygiene, anteceding good oral health; and outlining a loose structure of factors affecting oral health such as diet, having "weak" teeth, or personal habits. Themes from adults and teenagers in the Midwest United States were generally similar to other groups of MA parents and younger children. Dental hygiene was not salient relative to other oral health and dental care matters. Several opportunities for improvement of knowledge and enhancing motivation for dental hygiene practices were identified, both within and outside professional resources. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Newsome, Philip R H
There can be few who would argue with the notion that the nature of dental practice in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. A variety of factors, including new clinical techniques, growing consumerism, a much greater awareness of health-related and well-being issues in the public at large, as well as a marked deregulation within the dental profession, the development of vocational training and recently mandatory lifelong learning, the growing number of females working in the profession, and an increasing reluctance of young dentists to finance dental practices have all combined to create an environment which has enabled and encouraged a move away from traditional forms of dental care delivery. Instead, there has been considerable growth in independently-funded practice and a commensurate growth in the number of practices operating under a corporate body umbrella of one form or another. Currently there are 27 corporate bodies registered with the General Dental Council (GDC) with the likelihood of more in the future given the proposed GDC review. This will no doubt take into consideration European law, under which the restriction within the Dentist's Act on the number of corporate bodies is likely to be untenable. Although they still have only a small share of the dental market--with 4% of all dentists in the UK in 1999--they have expanded rapidly from a small base. The data available at the time the paper was written indicate that the global total of fees earned from dentistry in the UK in the financial year 2001/2002 was almost 3 billion Pounds, of which 1.9 billion Pounds (64%) came from NHS fees and 1.1 billion Pounds (36%) from private fees. Of this 1.9 billion Pounds received in NHS fees in 2001/2002, 0.55 billion Pounds were paid by patients who were not exempt from charges, bringing the total amount actually paid out of patients' pockets for dental treatment to 1.65 billion Pounds. Compare these figures with 1996
Mehtar, S; Shisana, O; Mosala, T; Dunbar, R
Infection control practices which increase the risk of blood-borne virus transmission with associated dental practice in one South African province were studied. All 24 state dental clinics were observed for adequate provision to carry out good infection prevention and control (IPC) practice, 75 staff including dentists, nurses and dental assistants were interviewed to assess IPC knowledge and 23 dental procedures were observed. Significant findings were the difference between knowledge and practice, despite adequate provisions for safe infection control practice. The lack of protective eye wear during a dental procedure, not washing hands between patients, not disassembling an item prior to disinfection or sterilization, and not using a sterile drill for each patient were identified. A rapid method for detection of occult blood was used as a marker for inadequate IPC practice. Contaminated dental items of equipment just prior to patient use in 25% of equipment tested and 37% of surfaces and surrounding areas in the dental clinics and units were recorded. This study concludes that, despite provision for safe dental practice available in state dental clinics, there was a lack of knowledge application in clinical practice. The risk of blood-borne virus transmission in a population with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence cannot be ignored.
Feldman, C A
The financial plan describes the practice's financial strategy, projects the strategy's future effect on the practice, and establishes goals by which the practice's manager can measure subsequent performance. The act of putting together a financial plan is called the financial planning process. It is a process that consists of analyzing the practice; projecting future outcomes of decisions that have to be made regarding finances, investments, and day to day operations; deciding which alternatives to undertake; and measuring performance against goals that are established in the financial plan. Computer financial planning models can aid the practice manager in projecting future outcomes of various financial, investment, and operational decisions. These models can be created inexpensively by noncomputer programmers with the aid of computer software on the market today. The financial planning process for a hypothetical practice was summarized, and the financial model used to test out various alternatives available to the practice was described.
Siddiqui, Talha Mufeed; Khan, Rabia; Batool, Kanza
The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cluster-sampling technique was used and 200 dental surgeons from six different dental institutions were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire was distributed to the dental surgeons that comprised 20 closed-ended questions. The data was entered and analyzed for frequency and percentages by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. The results showed that 76 (38%) dental surgeons took the responsibility of managing pediatric patient when given; 68 (34%) dental surgeons allowed the parents in the clinic; 111 (55.5%) dental surgeons are of the view that colorful and fun environment in dental clinic make the child at ease; 59 (29.5%) always demonstrate the dental procedure to the child to eradicate imaginary fears; 94 (47.0%) dental surgeons preferred the child to be treated in general anesthesia (GA) to avoid difficult behavior of the child; 135 (67.5%) dental surgeons did not show syringe needle or any instrument to the child. All the members of dental profession must be aware of patient perceptions, preferences, and fear to meet patient’s needs. Dental studies should include guidelines and techniques to train the upcoming dentists for excellent practice in pediatric dentistry. How to cite this article Wali A, Siddiqui TM, Khan R, Batool K. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Dental Surgeons in managing Child Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):372-378. PMID:28127171
Curtis, B; Warren, E; Pollicino, C; Evans, R W; Schwarz, E; Sbaraini, A
The objective of this research was to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a non-invasive approach to dental caries management in private dental practice. Private dental practices from a variety of locations in New South Wales were randomly allocated to either non-invasive management of caries, or continue with usual care. Patients were followed for three years and caries incidence assessed. A patient-level decision analytic model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention at two years, three years, and hypothetical lifetime. Twenty-two dental practices and 920 patients were recruited. Within the clinical trial there was a significant difference in caries increment favouring non-invasive therapy at both two and three years. Efficacy was independent of age, gender, medical concerns, fluoride history, or previous history of dental caries, in a population of patients attending for treatment in private dental practices, in a variety of locations both urban and rural. Cost per DMFT avoided estimate was A$1287.07 (two years), A$1148.91 (three years) decreasing to A$702.52 in (medium) and A$545.93 (high) risk patients (three years). A joint preventive and non-invasive therapeutic approach appears to be cost-effective in patients at medium and high risk of developing dental caries when compared to the standard care provided by private dental practice. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.
Kudiyirickal, Marina G.; Hollinshead, Frank
Objectives: Orofacial infections are common reasons for dental consultations worldwide. However, there is scarcity of data on clinico-epidemiological profiles reported from primary care dental practices. To address this issue, a study was done to characterize the clinical pattern, age groups affected and sex predilection of orofacial infections in the primary care dental practice. Study design: Clinical data was evaluated from random electronic files of patients for whom antimicrobials were p...
Botello-Harbaum, Maria T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Curro, Frederick A.; Rindal, D. Brad; Collie, Damon; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Craig, Ronald G.; Wu, Juliann; Funkhouser, Ellen; Lehman, Maryann; McBride, Ruth; Thompson, Van; Lindblad, Anne
Research on the information-seeking behaviors of dental practitioners is scarce. Knowledge of dentists’ information-seeking behaviors should advance the translational gap between clinical dental research and dental practice. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the self-reported information-seeking behaviors of dentists in three dental practice-based research networks (PBRNs). A total of 950 dentists (65 percent response rate) completed the survey. Dental journals and continuing dental education (CDE) sources used and their influence on practice guidance were assessed. PBRN participation level and years since dental degree were measured. Full-participant dentists reported reading the Journal of the American Dental Association and General Dentistry more frequently than did their reference counterparts. Printed journals were preferred by most dentists. A lower proportion of full participants obtained their CDE credits at dental meetings compared to partial participants. Experienced dentists read other dental information sources more frequently than did less experienced dentists. Practitioners involved in a PBRN differed in their approaches to accessing information sources. Peer-reviewed sources were more frequently used by full participants and dentists with fifteen years of experience or more. Dental PBRNs potentially play a significant role in the dissemination of evidence-based information. This study found that specific educational sources might increase and disseminate knowledge among dentists. PMID:23382524
Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Jeske, Arthur
Through its website (http:// www.ada.org/prof/resources/ebd/index.asp), the American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry offers dental health professionals access to systematic reviews of oral health-related research findings, as well as Clinical Recommendations, which summarize large bodies of scientific evidence in the form of practice recommendations, e.g., the use of professionally-applied topical fluoride and pit-and-fissure sealants. Another feature of the site of great practical importance to the practicing dentist is the Critical Summary, which is a concise review of an individual systematic review's methodology and findings, as well as the importance and context of the outcomes, and the strengths and weaknesses of the systematic review and its implications for dental practice.
Albino, Judith E N; Young, Stephen K; Neumann, Laura M; Kramer, Gene A; Andrieu, Sandra C; Henson, Lindsey; Horn, Bruce; Hendricson, William D
In this article, the Task Force on Student Outcomes Assessment of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education describes the current status of student outcomes assessment in U.S. dental education. This review is divided into six sections. The first summarizes the literature on assessment of dental students' performance. Section two discusses catalysts, with a focus on problem-based learning, for development of new assessment methods, while the third section presents several resources and guides that can be used to inform selection of assessment techniques for various domains of competence. The fourth section describes the methodology and results of a 2008 survey of current assessment practices in U.S. dental schools. In the fifth section, findings from this survey are discussed within the context of competency-based education, the educational model for the predoctoral curriculum endorsed by the American Dental Education Association and prescribed by the Commission on Dental Accreditation. The article concludes with a summary of assessments recommended as optimal strategies to measure three components of professional competence based on the triangulation model. The survey of assessment practices in predoctoral education was completed by 931 course directors, representing 45 percent of course directors nationwide, from fifty-three of the fifty-six U.S. dental schools. Survey findings indicate that five traditional mainstays of student performance evaluation-multiple-choice testing, lab practicals, daily grades, clinical competency exams, and procedural requirements-still comprise the primary assessment tools in dental education. The survey revealed that a group of newer assessment techniques, although frequently identified as best practices in the literature and commonly used in other areas of health professions education, are rarely employed in predoctoral dental education.
Mutters, Nico T.
Full Text Available [english] Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice.Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well.Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100% wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6% gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%. Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100% protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05. In addition, most of female dentists (62.9% and dental assistants (80.7% wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie; Shih, Yeng-Hung
This study investigated the dental health knowledge and oral hygiene practices of 95 students with visual impairments and 286 sighted students in Taiwan. It found that the students with visual impairments were less knowledgeable about dental health and less frequently completed oral hygiene practices than did the sighted students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the changes in dental healthcare, such as the increasing assertiveness of patients, the introduction of new dental professionals, and regulated competition, it becomes more important that general dental practitioners (GDPs take patients' views into account. The aim of the study was to compare patients' views on organizational aspects of general dental practices with those of GDPs and with GDPs' estimation of patients' views. Methods In a survey study, patients and GDPs provided their views on organizational aspects of a general dental practice. In a second, separate survey, GDPs were invited to estimate patients' views on 22 organizational aspects of a general dental practice. Results For 4 of the 22 aspects, patients and GDPs had the same views, and GDPs estimated patients' views reasonably well: 'Dutch-speaking GDP', 'guarantee on treatment', 'treatment by the same GDP', and 'reminder of routine oral examination'. For 2 aspects ('quality assessment' and 'accessibility for disabled patients' patients and GDPs had the same standards, although the GDPs underestimated the patients' standards. Patients had higher standards than GDPs for 7 aspects and lower standards than GDPs for 8 aspects. Conclusion On most aspects GDPs and patient have different views, except for social desirable aspects. Given the increasing assertiveness of patients, it is startling the GDP's estimated only half of the patients' views correctly. The findings of the study can assist GDPs in adapting their organizational services to better meet the preferences of their patients and to improve the communication towards patients.
Full Text Available Health-care workers have an occupational risk of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Since dental healthcare professionals have numerous patients and are exposed to blood, they are likely to have the maximum risk. HBC and HCV are transmitted by skin prick with infected, contaminated needles and syringes or through accidental inoculation of minute quantities of blood during surgical and dental procedures. HBV can be prevented by strict adherence to standard microbiological practices and techniques, and routine use of appropriate barrier precautions to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposure when handling blood and other body fluids of all patients in healthcare settings and pre-exposure vaccines. Despite many publications about programs and strategies to prevent transmission, HBV and HCV infections remain a major public health issue. Oral clinical manifestations can be observed, such as bleeding disorders, jaundice, fetor hepaticus, and xerostomia. The most frequent extrahepatic manifestations mostly affect the oral region in the form of lichen planus, xerostomia, Sjögren′s syndrome, and sialadenitis. The present paper highlights some of the important oral manifestations related to hepatitis B and C infection and various post-exposure protocols that can be undertaken to minimize the risk of infection.
Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Skoulas, Angelique; Timothé, Peggy; Friedland, Bernard
Curriculum evaluations by recent graduates of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine suggested the need for additional coursework in practice management. Given the complex challenges facing practitioners, the course design was expanded beyond the suggested practice management to include leadership theory and skills. Students were able to distinguish and assess their level of various leadership skills at the end of the course. The course received an overall rating of 4.23 on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent), with 84 percent of responding students indicating that their interest-specifically in the areas of clinical efficiency, practice management, reducing medical errors, communication, business, team building, leadership, and access to care-was enhanced. The responding students assessed their current leadership skills overall at 3.84. They assessed themselves best at "Integrity" (4.48) and worst at "Managing Conflict" (3.12). They felt that "Ability to Build Trust with Others" is the most beneficial skill for a dentist, while "Ability to Influence" is the least beneficial. Eighty-eight percent of students responding indicated that it is "Very Likely" they will continue to practice developing their leadership skills. Qualitative feedback was overwhelmingly positive and indicated that students found the course life-altering and highly valued its breadth of topics.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Conclusion: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai.
Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B
Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Conclusion: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai. PMID:22408322
Funkhouser, Ellen; Agee, Bonita S; Gordan, Valeria V; Rindal, D Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H
Estimate the proportion of dental practitioners who use online sources of information for practice guidance. From a survey of 657 dental practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, four indicators of online use for practice guidance were calculated: read journals online, obtained continuing education (CDE) through online sources, rated an online source as most influential, and reported frequently using an online source for guidance. Demographics, journals read, and use of various sources of information for practice guidance in terms of frequency and influence were ascertained for each. Overall, 21 percent (n = 138) were classified into one of the four indicators of online use: 14 percent (n = 89) rated an online source as most influential and 13 percent (n = 87) reported frequently using an online source for guidance; few practitioners (5 percent, n = 34) read journals online, fewer (3 percent, n = 17) obtained CDE through online sources. Use of online information sources varied considerably by region and practice characteristics. In general, the four indicators represented practitioners with as many differences as similarities to each other and to offline users. A relatively small proportion of dental practitioners use information from online sources for practice guidance. Variation exists regarding practitioners' use of online source resources and how they rate the value of offline information sources for practice guidance. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Full Text Available Dental caries are largely preventable, and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between diet and oral health is abundant. To date, however, dentists' perceptions about the role of diet and dentists' practice patterns regarding diet counseling have not been clarified.THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1 examine discordance between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual provision of diet counseling to patients, and (2 identify dentists' characteristics associated with their provision of diet counseling.The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey in Japan.The study queried dentists working in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan (JDPBRN, which aims to allow dentists to investigate research questions and share experiences and expertise (n = 282.Dentists were asked about their perceptions on the importance of diet and their practice patterns regarding diet counseling, as well as patient, practice, and dentist background data.The majority of participants (n = 116, 63% recognized that diet is "more important" to oral health. However, among participants who think diet is "more important" (n = 116, only 48% (n = 56 provide diet counseling to more than 20% of their patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that several variables were associated with providing diet counseling; dentist gender, practice busyness, percentage of patients interested in caries prevention, caries risk assessment, and percentage of patients who receive blood pressure screening.Some discordance exists between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual practice pattern regarding diet counseling to patients. Reducing this discordance may require additional dentist education, including nutritional and systemic disease concepts; patient
League for Innovation in the Community Coll., Los Angeles, CA.
A survey was conducted by the League for Innovation in the Community College and Johnson County Community College to determine the state of the dental hygiene profession. The study sought the opinions of all dental hygiene program administrators in the United States and Canada regarding the principal concerns facing dental hygiene education and…
Din, Feng S.; Soldan, Christina
This study investigated the effects of two practice reading methods (an ACT [American College Test]-prep program) on the performance of 11th grade students (N=43) on an ACT science portion mockup sub-test. A pre-test, treatment, post-test with control group design was used in the study. The treatments included that students read the ACT science…
Holt, Vernon P
The drive for quality assurance in general dental practice has arisen as a response to changing standards and demands. Dentists need to develop skills in change management in this new culture of change. Groups of practitioners often encounter difficulties when managing change, yet it is essential that they lead the process. Such problems are common among groups of professionals. A wide range of topics is presented that may, from one point of view, represent challenging or problem areas (obstacles) for a group practice but may also, from a different point of view, provide a framework of opportunities for improvement, and facilitate the management processes within the practice and the management of change in particular (tools). The range of skills required to assist a professional group is such that individual dentists or advisers may not be able to achieve much on their own. The best way forward may be to interpret the problems as a professional training need and to organise training as a group. These issues will be considered under the following headings: partners and teams; introduction: the need for change management; the challenge for group practices; obstacles and tools; conclusion: the way forward--a case for training.
Sweeting, Larry A; Davis, Karen; Cobb, Charles M
A sequence of interrelated steps is inherent to effective periodontal treatment: early and accurate diagnosis, comprehensive treatment, and continued periodontal maintenance and monitoring. A primary goal of periodontal therapy is to reduce the burden of pathogenic bacteria and thereby reduce the potential for progressive inflammation and recurrence of disease. Emerging evidence of possible perio-systemic links further reinforces the need for good periodontal health. In the private practice setting, the treatment of patients with periodontal disease is best accomplished within the structure of a uniform and consistent Periodontal Treatment Protocol (PTP). Such a protocol would reinforce accurate and timely diagnosis, treatment needs based on a specific diagnosis, and continual assessment and monitoring of outcomes. This is best achieved if everyone in the practice setting has a general understanding of the etiology of periodontal diseases, the benefits of treatment, and potential consequences of nontreatment. Communication skills and patient education are vital components of effective therapy since slight and even moderate stages of the disease often have few noticeable symptoms to the patient. Accurate documentation and reporting of procedures for dental insurance reimbursement, coupled with scheduling considerations, assist general practice settings in effectively managing the increasing volume of patients that can benefit from early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases. This article presents the essential elements of a PTP including diagnosis, treatment planning, implementation of therapy, assessment and monitoring of therapy, insurance coding, introduction of the patient to periodontal therapy, and enhanced verbal skills. In addition, considerations for implementation of adjunctive local delivery antimicrobials is presented.
Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rouisse, Kathleen M.; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.
Objectives A number of articles have addressed gender differences in the productivity of dentists, but little is known about differences in practice patterns for caries management. This study compared the use of a comprehensive range of specific diagnostic methods, preventive agents, and restorative decision making for caries management between male and female dentists who were members of The Dental Practice-Based Research Network(DPBRN). Methods This study surveyed general dentists who were members of DPBRN and who practiced within the United States. The survey asked about dentist, practice, and patient characteristics, as well as prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries. Differences in years since dental school graduation, practice model, full/part-time status, and practice owner/employee were adjusted in the statistical models, before making conclusions about gender differences. Results Three hundred ninety-three male (84%) and seventy-three female (16%) dentists participated. Female dentists recommended at-home fluoride to a significantly larger proportion of their patients, whereas males had a preference for using in-office fluoride treatments with pediatric patients. Female dentists also choose to restore interproximal lesions at a significantly later stage of development, preferring to use preventive therapy more often at earlier stages of dental caries. There were few differences in diagnostic methods, time spent on or charges for restorative dentistry, and busyness of their practices. Conclusion DPBRN female dentists differ from their male counterparts in some aspects of the prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries, even with significant covariates taken into account. Practice patterns of female dentists suggest a greater caries preventive treatment philosophy. PMID:21454850
Yiu, C K Y; McGrath, C; Bridges, S; Corbet, E F; Botelho, M G; Dyson, J E; Chan, L K
To determine how prepared for dental practice graduates from the integrated problem-based learning (PBL) dental undergraduate curriculum at The University of Hong Kong (HKU) perceive themselves to be and to identify factors associated with self-perceived preparedness. A postal questionnaire was sent to five cohorts of dentists who had graduated from HKU's integrated PBL curriculum between 2004 and 2008. Using a 4-point Likert scale, the questionnaire assessed the self-perceived level of preparedness in 59 competencies grouped in nine domains. Responses were dichotomised into 'poorly prepared' and 'well prepared'. The response rate was 66% (159/241). The mean proportion (±standard deviation) of respondents indicating well-preparedness was 72.0±15.1% overall, and for each domain was as follows: general patient management, 93.1±12.1%; practice management, 81.0±22.2%; periodontology and dental public health, 73.5±19.3%; conservative dentistry, 92.5±13.1%; oral rehabilitation, 62.8±24.0%; orthodontics, 23.0±32.9%; managing children and special-needs patients, 64.8±28.9%; oral and maxillofacial surgery, 52.2±25.2%; and drug and emergency management, 84.7±22.6%. The odds of self-perceived well-preparedness were increased for cohorts graduating in 2004 and 2005 and graduates working in a non-solo dental practice. Dental graduates of HKU's integrated PBL curriculum felt well prepared for the most fundamental aspects of dental practice. However, apparent deficiencies of training in orthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery will need to be addressed by continuing education, postgraduate training and planning for the new 6-year undergraduate curriculum in 2012. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Sabalic, Maja; Schoener, Jason D.
Virtual reality-based technologies have been used in dentistry for almost two decades. Dental simulators, planning software and CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) systems have significantly developed over the years and changed both dental education and clinical practice. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes…
Yiu, Cynthia K Y; McGrath, Colman; Bridges, Susan; Corbet, Esmonde F; Botelho, Michael; Dyson, John; Chan, L K
The objective of this study was to compare dental graduates' perceived preparedness for practice after being educated in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum with those who graduated from a traditional undergraduate curriculum, both at the University of Hong Kong. A cohort of graduates from the traditional dental curriculum (1997-2001) and a cohort of graduates from the PBL curriculum (2004-08) rated their self-perceived preparedness for dental practice in fifty-nine aspects of dentistry across nine domains. Perceived preparedness for dental practice was compared at domain and item levels (accounting for multiple comparisons) using chi-square statistics. Both cohorts felt well prepared for the "bread and butter" aspects of dentistry, but less so for specific specialty disciplines. There was no significant difference between PBL and traditional graduates' self-perceived preparedness in eight of the nine domains of dental practice (P>0.05). However, in the area of orthodontics, both cohorts felt ill-prepared for practice and more so among the PBL cohort (P<0.01). For the most part, regardless of curriculum design, these dental graduates perceived themselves to be well prepared for dental practice.
Full Text Available Background: The child′s perception of the dental environment is a significant factor causing dental anxiety. If the color of the dental environment can have a positive impact on the child′s behavior, it is possible that those colors may add to the comfort of a child, thus reducing dental anxiety. Aim: To evaluate the association between color and emotions of children in a pediatric dental set-up. Design: A total of 300 children aged 6-12 years were divided into 2 groups: Younger children (6-9 years, n = 156 and older children (9-12 years, n = 144. All the children were asked to shade two cartoon faces representing happiness and fear with their most preferred color. Results: For the positive emotion, 44% (n = 132 of the children preferred yellow, followed by blue 32.67% (n = 98. For negative emotion, 56.67% (n = 170 of the children preferred black and 42.67% (n = 128 preferred red. Association between color and emotion was highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study has attempted to advance the area of color research to dental anxiety in children visiting a dental clinic. The use of child friendly colors like yellow and blue in the dental work place could enhance a positive dental attitude in the child′s mind.
Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V
We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once
Rijk, A.J. de; Kreulen, C.M.
The 3 dental schools in the Netherlands have the same goals for their graduates, in terms of knowledge and skills, but the contents of the curricula are different. The curricula are all based on the pillars of scientific education, medical education, dental education, and professionalism. Within thi
Ilić Dragan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. The recent literature data points out a rising application of digital radiography - radiovisiography (RVG - in dental clinical practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to apply and compare RVG with the conventional radiographic technique (CRDG in terms of accuracy in linear measurement in dentistry. Methods. Measurements were done on the mandibular dogs teeth considering incisors crown width and height of the surrounding alveolar bone using RVG and CRDG. The control technique (CONT involved values obtained by direct gauging in dogs mouth. Each measuring was done by two examiners. Results. Considering the incisors’ crown width, there were no significant statistical difference in measurement using CRDG, RVG and CONT technique (p>0.01. Concerning the alveolar height gauging there were no significant difference in recorded values between the two radiographic techniques (p>0.01. The high level of inter-examiner agreement was observed for scoring in all techniques (CRDG, RVG and CONT. Conclusion. Although RVG did not expose more accuracy comparing to CRDG, having opulent tool service the first technique contributed more comfortable work during measuring procedures in this study.
To investigate attitudes of Irish dental practitioners, cardiologists and patients with cardiac lesions to the new NICE guideline for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis and to determine the implications of this guideline for dental practice in Ireland.
Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke;
The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so....
Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke
The authors conducted a study to quantify the reasons for restoring noncarious tooth defects (NCTDs) by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) and to assess the tooth, patient and dentist characteristics associated with those reasons.......The authors conducted a study to quantify the reasons for restoring noncarious tooth defects (NCTDs) by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) and to assess the tooth, patient and dentist characteristics associated with those reasons....
Tejani, Asif; Epstein, Joel B; Gibson, Gary; Le, Nhu
The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the outcome of completing a general practice hospital-based dental residency program. A survey was mailed to all individuals who had completed a general practice residency program (resident) between 1980 and 1996 and to dentists who had not completed a hospital program (undergraduate). The responses were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Seventy-four percent of the resident group and 68% from the undergraduate sample group returned the questionnaire. Approximately half the residents were in general dental practice. Twenty-six percent were involved in specialty dentistry, 7% in hospital dentistry, and 20% in teaching at a dental school. Of the undergraduate dentists, more than three-quarters were in general practice, 5% were entered into specialty programs, 1% were involved in hospital dentistry, and 15% taught at a dental school. Half of the residents held staff privileges in a hospital or ambulatory setting, compared with 16% of undergraduates. Forty-three percent of the residents provided consultation in a hospital or long-term-care facility, compared with 21% of the undergraduates. Practice characteristics suggested enhanced clinical skills in oral surgery, periodontics, emergency dental care, and oral medicine/pathology in those completing the hospital program. The findings of this study confirm that the outcome of completing a hospital program is a change in practice profile, site of practice, services for complex patients, and continuing involvement in teaching.
Om N Baghele
Full Text Available A lot of biomedical waste (BMW is generated in dental practices, which can be hazardous to the environment as well as to those who come in contact with the materials, if not dealt with appropriately. Most of the rules world-wide are not specific for dental BMW management and hinder easy understanding by dental practitioners. Because of lack of clear-cut guidelines either from Dental Council of India or Government of India or Indian Dental Association (IDA on disposal of dental wastes, this article is designed to explore and review on these issues and formulate a simplified scheme. The guidelines by the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board from the directives of The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India through BMW (Management and Handling Rules, 1998, (BMW-MH-98, similar guidelines being followed elsewhere in the world, the local BMW disposal company′s rules and the IDA′s Clinic Standardization Program guidelines. We developed and implemented a simplified waste segregation protocol for practicing dentists and dental hospitals. A methodological dental waste segregation protocol was required considering its disposal and ill-effects on health and the environment. The simplified scheme provided a good model to be followed in developing countries like India. The scheme improved understanding among dentists because of its self-explanatory nature.
Elizondo, Jesús Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Álvarez, Mario Moisés
To explore the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) towards the implementation of rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice, and to evaluate MSM's perceptions of stigma and discrimination related to sexual orientation by dental care professionals. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered, anonymous, structured analytical questionnaire answered by 185 MSM in Mexico. The survey included sociodemographic variables, MSM's perceptions towards public and private dental providers, and dental services, as well as their perception towards rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice. In addition, the perception of stigma and discrimination associated with their sexual orientation was explored by designing a psychometric Likert-type scale. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and non-hierarchical cluster analysis. 86.5% of the respondents expressed their willingness to take a rapid HIV-1/2 screening test during their dental visit. Nevertheless, 91.9% of them considered it important that dental professionals must be well-trained before administering any rapid HIV-1/2 tests. Factor analysis revealed two factors: experiences of sexual orientation stigma and discrimination in dental settings, and feelings of concern about the attitude of the dentist and dental staff towards their sexual orientation. Based on these factors and cluster analysis, three user profiles were identified: users who have not experienced stigma and discrimination (90.3%); users who have not experienced stigma and discrimination, but feel a slight concern (8.1%), and users who have experienced some form of discrimination and feel concern (1.6%). The dental practice may represent a potential location for rapid HIV-1/2 testing contributing to early HIV infection diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Singh, Gurminder; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Munjal, Vaibhav
The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators. More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners. The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.
Without knowledge and positive attitude of dental practitioners towards teledentistry, it will not ... and have positive attitude towards teledentistry. .... scale for knowledge and attitude. ..... The author declares that there is no conflict of interest in.
Seymour, Brittany; Shick, Elizabeth; Chaffee, Benjamin W; Benzian, Habib
The Global Oral Health Interest Group of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (GOHIG-CUGH) published recommended competencies to support development of competency-based global health education in dental schools. However, there has been no comprehensive, systematically derived, or broadly accepted framework for creating and delivering competency-based global health education to dental students. This article describes the results of a collaborative workshop held at the 2016 American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Annual Session & Exhibition designed to build on the GOHIG-CUGH competencies and start to develop systematic approaches for their practical application. Workshop organizers developed a preliminary theoretical framework for guiding the development of global health in dental education, grounded in published research. Collectively, workshop participants developed detailed outcomes for the theoretical framework with a focus on three educational practices: didactic, experiential, and research learning and how each can meet the competencies. Participants discussed learning objectives, keys to implementation, ethical considerations, challenges, and examples of success. Outcomes demonstrated that no educational practice on its own meets all 33 recommended competencies for dental students; however, the three educational practices combined may potentially cover all 33. Participants emphasized the significance of sustainable approaches to student learning for both students and communities, with identified partners in the communities to collaborate on the development, implementation, evaluation, and long-term maintenance of any student global health activity. These findings may represent early steps toward professional consensus and best practices for global health in dental education in the United States.
Shah, M A; Darby, M L; Bauman, D B
This paper reviews the healthcare system, available dental care, and oral health status of people in Pakistan. Considering the enormous unmet oral health needs, the insufficient supply of dental professionals and the current unstructured dental hygiene curriculum in Pakistan, a mission, vision, and goals for professional dental hygiene in Pakistan is recommended. The authors offer recommendations for competency-based dental hygiene education and practice, professional credentialing, a practice act, and a dental hygiene scope of practice to promote the health, welfare, and quality of life of the Pakistani people. Specifically, the authors recommend increasing the number of quality dental hygiene programs, establishing the dental hygienist as a primary care provider of oral health services, enhancing current dental hygiene curriculum, and establishing a dental hygiene council with responsibility for educational requirements and regulation of dental hygienists in Pakistan.
Full Text Available Dental health care workers are increasingly called upon to provide quality dental care to individuals whose bleeding and clotting mechanisms have been altered by inherited or acquired diseases. This provides an opportunity for the dentist who is trained in the recognition of oral and systemic signs of altered hemostasis to assist in the diagnosis of the underlying condition. A number of dental procedures result in the risk of bleeding that can have serious consequences, such as severe hemorrhage or possibly death, for the patient with a bleeding disorder. Oral care providers must be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on the management of their patients. These disorders must be recognized from history, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations, if indicated, prior to surgical procedures including those in dental surgery to prevent bleeding related complications. Safe dental care may require consultation with the patient′s physician, systemic management, and dental treatment modifications. The purpose of this article is how to identify these patients with bleeding disorders.
Elad, S; Marshall, J; Meyerowitz, C; Connolly, G
Currently, 4 novel Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) were approved by the FDA. This review focuses on these agents and proposes a matrix for the general dentists to assess bleeding risk in dental management of patient on DOACs. The outline covers the pharmacology of DOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban and dabigatran), bleeding complications, risk associated with discontinuation, monitoring/reversal, and implications for the dental practitioners. A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were identified with mixed results in regards to the risk for bleeding. Considering the pharmacology of DOACs and challenges in monitoring and reversing their effect, the dentist should consider carefully the management of patients on DOACs as it may differ from patients on conventional anticoagulants. Based on the type of dental procedure and the medical risk assessment, several general treatment approaches can be considered: continue DOACs, time dental treatment as late as possible after the last DOACs dose, discontinue DOACs for 24hrs, or discontinue DOACs for 48hrs. Based on the current reported dental literature, limited dental surgery may benefit from the first 2 conservative options. However, this needs to be proven in comparative clinical trials.
Olatosi, O O; Sote, E O; Akinsola, O J; Oredugba, F A; Adenaike, A S
Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children and this is preventable. Paediatricians are the first professionals whom children visit and are in good position to begin the process of prevention of dental caries if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits. To determine the knowledge, practice and opinion of pediatricians in prevention of dental caries. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among pediatricians in Lagos. Questionnaires were administered to pediatricians practicing in Teaching hospitals, general and private hospitals in Lagos. The questionnaire assessed their personal details, knowledge about caries, practice guidelines and opinion towards its prevention. Less than one-third (27.7%) of the pediatricians knew that bacteria causing caries can be transmitted from mother to child. Only about one-third (30.8 %) of the paediatricians examine children's teeth for dental caries. Majority (87.7%) were of the opinion that paediatricians have a role in promoting oral health. A total of 59% of the paediatricians had moderate knowledge, while (71%) of them had poor practice and their opinion for prevention of dental caries was positive in more than two-thirds of them (71%). We concluded that most paediatricians in Lagos had moderate knowledge, poor practice and lacked proper awareness about prevention of dental caries. Recommendation: we recommend that preventive dentistry topics in oral health promotion and prevention of dental caries be part of their postgraduate curriculum, continued dental health education programme for paediatricians, referral of related cases to paediatric dentists and oral health related topics be published in paediatric medical journals.
Full Text Available Khalid H Zawawi,1 Ahmed R Afify,1 Mohammed K Yousef,2 Hisham I Othman,3 Ayman A Al-Dharrab4 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Operative Dentistry, 3Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objectives: This longitudinal study was aimed to investigate the association between didactic grades and practical skills for dental students and whether didactic grades can reliability predict the dental students’ practical performance. Materials and methods: Didactic and practical grades for graduates from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, between the years 2009 and 2011 were collected. Four courses were selected: Dental Anatomy, Operative Dentistry, Prosthodontics, and Orthodontics. Pearson product-moment correlation analyses between didactic and practical scores were conducted. Results: There was only a significant correlation between didactic and practical scores for the Dental Anatomy course (P<0.001. There was also a significant correlation between all four subjects in the didactic scores (P<0.001. Only the scores of male students showed a significant correlation in the Operative Dentistry course (P<0.001. There were no correlations between Orthodontic grades. Moreover, a poor degree of reliability was found between didactic and practical scores for all subjects. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the relationship between didactic grades and practical performance is course specific. Didactic grades do not reliably predict the students' practical skills. Measuring practical performances should be independent from didactic grading. Keywords: correlation study, dental education, dental students, practical performance
In Europe, over 96.5% of dental hygienists are women. The objective of this report was to examine the impact of gender role stereotyping on the image of the dental hygiene profession and on disparities in educational attainment and work regulations within Europe. Data pertaining to regulated or non-regulated dental hygiene practice in 22 European countries were analysed according to possible gender impact on access to education and on the structure of the delivery of care. It was examined whether there is a correlation between national differences found in the dental hygiene profession and gender related disparities found in other work-related areas. Results show that the gender bias in the dental hygiene profession has an effect on equal access to education, and on equal occupational opportunities for dental hygienists within the European Union (EU) and beyond. In northern Europe, higher educational attainment in the field of dental hygiene, more extensive professional responsibilities and greater opportunities for self-employment in autonomous practice tend to correlate with greater equality in the work force. In eastern Europe, lower educational and professional opportunities in dental hygiene correlate with greater gender disparities found in other work-related areas. In some western European countries, the profession has not been implemented because of the political impact of organised dentistry, which expects financial loss from autonomous dental hygiene practice. In order to fulfil mandates of the EU, initiatives must be taken to remove the gender bias in the delivery of preventive care and to promote equal access to educational attainment and to professional development in the whole of Europe for those who choose to do so.
Brian M. Lange
Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice management in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corporations marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identified. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.
Brian M Lange
Full Text Available Over the last twenty-seven years, the evaluation of practice man-agement in dental schools has been documented by three studies. In twenty-seven years the teaching of practice management has been influenced by changes in the definition of practice manage-ment, resources available to dental schools, technology, changes in accreditation standards and, more recently, the influence of corpora-tions marketing to dental students. In an effort to determine what resources dental schools are utilizing to teach practice management, fifty-seven schools were contacted, and fifty faculty members with teaching responsibilities were identi-fied. An on-line email survey was administered and results reported at the 2011 meeting of the American Dental Education Association Section on Practice Management. At the section meeting breakout groups discussed two questions. First, identify innovative tools, methods and ideas in the area of practice management. Second, what changes may be necessary to meet recently updated accredi-tation standards 2-17 through 2-19. The recommendations of the breakout groups are presented in detail.
Full Text Available Mohammad H Al-Shayyab,1 Soukaina Ryalat,1 Najla Dar-odeh,1 Firas Alsoleihat21Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, 2Department of Conservative Dentistry and Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, JordanPurpose: The study reported here aimed to identify current sedation practice among general dental practitioners (GDPs and specialist dental practitioners (SDPs in Jordan in 2010.Methods: Questionnaires were sent by email to 1683 GDPs and SDPs who were working in Jordan at the time of the study. The contact details of these dental practitioners were obtained from a Jordan Dental Association list. Details on personal status, use of, and training in, conscious sedation techniques were sought by the questionnaires.Results: A total of 1003 (60% questionnaires were returned, with 748 (86.9% GDPs and 113 (13.1% SDPs responding. Only ten (1.3% GDPs and 63 (55.8% SDPs provided information on the different types of treatments related to their specialties undertaken under some form of sedation performed by specialist and/or assistant anesthetists. Approximately 0.075% of the Jordanian population received some form of sedation during the year 2010, with approximately 0.054% having been treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The main reason for the majority of GDPs (55.0% and many SDPs (40% not to perform sedation was lack of training in this field. While some SDPs (26.0% indicated they did not use sedation because of the inadequacy of sedative facilities.Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the provision of conscious sedation services in general and specialist dental practices in Jordan is inconsistent and inadequate. This stresses the great need to train practitioners and dental assistants in Jordan to enable them to safely and effectively perform all forms of sedation.Keywords: Jordan Dental
Full Text Available Aim of the study: The paper addresses the use of dental age assessment methods based on radiographs in medico-legal practice. Different cases of practical application of the methods are presented including identification of human remains, dental age assessment in a living person and one archaeological case. Material and methods : The study material consisted of cases involving dental age assessment performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. Depending on the preliminary assessment of age, the Liversidge or the Kvaal et al. methods were applied. Dental age was estimated on the basis of available pantomograms. In the case of the living person, it was a radiograph supplied for expert evaluation. In the other cases, dental computed tomography was performed. Results : Dental age was successfully estimated in all of the cases. Various methods based on the analysis of X-ray images were applied. Dental age was shown to be correlated with skeletal age. Conclusions : The methods based on radiographs were demonstrated to be useful, and the results they yield are fully correlated with results of anthropological analyses.
Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.
A qualitative study about the effects of dental anxiety on private dental practices in Denmark was made. Characteristics of 53 anxious patients were surveyed from 42 randomly selected private practices (PP) in Århus, Denmark. Samples from the specialist dental phobia treatment center, Forsknings......- og BehandlingsCenter for Tandlægeskræk (FoBCeT), were used as a standard of reference for comparison. Dental anxiety (DAS) scores of PP patients before treatment were significantly lower than patients treated at the FoBCeT specialist clinic. Inspite of this, dropouts in PP (33/53) were greater than...... anxiety problem to be primarily the fault of the patients' own personality, 40% blamed the problem on previous dentists and 10% pointed to a relationship problem between dentists and patients. The dentists expressed confidence about treating anxious patients, but also a need for more education about...
Sunaga, Masayo; Kondo, Keiko; Adachi, Toshiko; Miura, Yoshiko; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro
Dental and dental hygiene students must acquire the skill of measuring periodontal pockets and learn to identify the bottom of a pocket, especially of deep periodontal pockets. A new dental model that would enable students to practice measuring deep periodontal pockets was developed at the Tokyo Medical and Dental University. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this model. Twenty dental hygiene students in their third year at the school and twenty-four instructors or dental hygienists of the University Hospital measured periodontal pockets on the newly designed dental model. Feasibility and effectiveness of the model were evaluated based on periodontal probing by the students and instructors, as well as results of a questionnaire. The results demonstrated an intraexaminer agreement (within ±1 mm) averaging 91 percent. The mean percentages of correct answers of the students and instructors were 82 percent and 80 percent, respectively. More than 90 percent of the instructors and students reported that the new model would be suitable for pocket probing training. In the questionnaire, they responded that this practice using the new model would contribute to students' future and that they wanted to try other dental models with various probing depths. The new dental model designed for periodontal pocket probing training was reported to be feasible and effective for student practice.
Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung
Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results.
Although most dental and periodontal diseases are caused by bacteria, the usual therapy is mechanical/surgical rather than antimicrobial medications. However, sometimes antibiotic administration may be necessary in addition to or as an alternative to the surgical/mechanical treatment. Many studies have shown that the misuse of antibiotics by dentists may be mostly attributed to unnecessity or inefficient regimen, and could contribute to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The article presents practical guidelines to the administration of antibiotics in the dental office.
Peltier, Bruce; Curley, Arthur
This article considers several important trends in dental practice that result from innovations in digital and social media. It provides ethical tools for analysis, Illuminates areas of ethical concern in the current practice environment and offers recommendations for future practice. A summary in the form of a checklist is posted at the end of this essay for dentists considering the use of social media in their practice.
Pina, Patricia M; Douglass, Joanna
This study aimed to evaluate the opinions and practices of general dentists in Connecticut regarding dental care during pregnancy. A survey was mailed to Connecticut general dentists to acquire data regarding age, gender, training, type of practice, years in practice, payment types accepted, procedures provided for pregnant women according to trimester, provider comfort level with treating pregnant patients, reasons for not treating pregnant patients, and provider opinions about dental care during pregnancy. The response rate was 42%, yielding a sample of 116 dentists. The majority of respondents (97%) reported treating pregnant patients; however, only 45% felt "very comfortable" treating these patients. All dentists in the sample agreed that physicians need to include an oral health evaluation and appropriate referral for patients' prenatal care. However, 70% of respondents had never received a dental referral for a pregnant patient. The majority of dentists favored providing dental treatment during the second trimester of pregnancy. Most dentists (77%) would take a radiograph for a patient 10 weeks into the pregnancy seeking treatment for dental pain, but only 2% would take routine radiographs regardless of the pregnancy trimester. There was a lack of consensus about medications dentists reported acceptable to prescribe for pregnant patients, and female dentists were significantly less likely than males to prescribe ibuprofen (P dental school and continued education course curricula.
Middleton Philippa F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess women's knowledge and experiences of dental health in pregnancy and to examine the self-care practices of pregnant women in relation to their oral health. Methods Women in the postnatal ward at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, completed a questionnaire to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices to periodontal health. Pregnancy outcomes were collected from their medical records. Results were analysed by chi-square tests, using SAS. Results Of the 445 women enrolled in the survey, 388 (87 per cent completed the questionnaire. Most women demonstrated reasonable knowledge about dental health. There was a significant association between dental knowledge and practices with both education and socio-economic status. Women with less education and lower socio-economic status were more likely to be at higher risk of poor periodontal health compared with women with greater levels of education and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusion Most women were knowledgeable about oral and dental health. Lack of knowledge about oral and dental health was strongly linked to women with lower education achievements and lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Whether more intensive dental health education in pregnancy can lead to improved oral health and ultimately improved pregnancy outcomes requires further study.
Hevinga, M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. METHODS: Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants befor
Muhney, Kelly A; Campbell, Patricia R
Highly publicized reports and current research on cheating in dental schools and dental hygiene programs have created a resurgence of proactive measures in the deterrence of academic dishonesty. A majority of administrators and faculty members are of the opinion that cheating does occur at their schools and may have been personally involved with incidents of cheating through observation or student reporting. With the information age and the diverse makeup of today's student body, there may be differences in what is considered academic dishonesty between students and educators. The purpose of this study was to elicit perceptions on those differences, ascertain the number of cheating incidents that educators personally witnessed or about which they received information, and determine how they resolved those incidents. Another aim of this study was to determine if having an honor code, adequate ethics training, honor pledges, dialogue in the classroom, and formal due process policy were related to the number of cheating incidents. Surveys were distributed at the educational program of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Section on Dental Hygiene Education at the 2009 ADEA Annual Session & Exhibition. Results show the majority of these educators had had experience with cheating occurrences and believe that there are disparities between students and educators and among cultural groups in defining academic dishonesty. No differences or patterns emerged between academic integrity characteristics and occurrences or reports of cheating.
Masella, Richard S; Thompson, Thomas J
Research about educational best practices is negatively perceived by many dental faculty. Separation between teaching and learning strategies commonly employed in dental education and evidence-based educational techniques is real and caused by a variety of factors: the often incomprehensible jargon of educational specialists; traditional academic dominance of research, publication, and grantsmanship in faculty promotions; institutional undervaluing of teaching and the educational process; and departmentalization of dental school governance with resultant narrowness of academic vision. Clinician-dentists hired as dental school faculty may model teaching activities on decades-old personal experiences, ignoring recent educational evidence and the academic culture. Dentistry's twin internal weaknesses--factionalism and parochialism--contribute to academic resistance to change and unwillingness to share power. Dental accreditation is a powerful impetus toward inclusion of best teaching and learning evidence in dental education. This article will describe how the gap between traditional educational strategies and research-based practices can be reduced by several approaches including dental schools' promotion of learning cultures that encourage and reward faculty who earn advanced degrees in education, regular evaluation of teaching by peers and educational consultants with inclusion of the results of these evaluations in promotion and tenure committee deliberations, creating tangible reward systems to recognize and encourage teaching excellence, and basing faculty development programs on adult learning principles. Leadership development should be part of faculty enrichment, as effective administration is essential to dental school mission fulfillment. Finally, faculty who investigate the effectiveness of educational techniques need to make their research more available by publishing it, more understandable by reducing educational jargon, and more relevant to the day
It goes without saying that the members of any professional group are more likely to modify their behavior if they are provided with logical, rational reasons to enact the suggested change. In the mid 1980s, health care providers, including dental personnel, were advised to adopt universal precautions and to alter their infection control habits with minimal justification, apart from the general unease and paranoia surrounding AIDS. Therefore, it is understandable that some practitioners would react with scepticism to the idea that their traditional infection control techniques were less than adequate, while others would overwhelmingly embrace the new recommendations in the misguided belief that personal, patient, staff and family safety would be enhanced. This predictable confusion is epitomized by the dentist who "sterilizes" extraction forceps by immersing them in alcohol for 10 minutes, versus the dentist who wears gloves, mask and disposable gown to conduct a recall examination. And if dentists are perplexed, it is clear that their staffs are equally, if not more confused, since they are exposed to the exaggerated claims and counter claims of sales agents. The microbes encountered in dental practise, apart from the hepatitis B virus, pose no significant risk to dental personnel or their patients, and the danger of hepatitis B transmission is reduced most effectively by vaccination. In reality, the genesis of dentistry's current emphasis on infection control resides entirely with HIV disease. But there is no credible clinical evidence to suggest that HIV infection is transmitted via dental treatment. Indeed, it may be theorized that for such a transmission to occur, the blood stream of the susceptible recipient would have to be invaded directly by a pathogenic inoculum of the virus--an unlikely event in the normal practise of dentistry. Under such circumstances, infection control practises should ignore the danger of HIV transmission, but concentrate on
Kay, E J; Vascott, D; Hocking, A; Nield, H
Objectives The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence regarding the use of motivational interviewing in the context of general dental practice, in order that practitioners can decide whether it might be an important skill to develop within their practices.Data sources The results reported in this study form part of a larger systematic review which sought to identify whether oral health promotion within dental practice is effective and how its effects can be optimised. Here, we focus on the papers describing motivational interviewing in dental practice published since 1994. The systematic review included searches of 20 online resources (including Ovid Medline and Embase).Data selection Papers which were not about oral health promotion and did not apply the behavioural and psychological theories, which underpin motivational interviewing, were excluded.Data synthesis This review included eight papers all of which were considered to be of robust quality, in terms of their research methods and seven of which were considered to offer externally valid findings. Five described randomised controlled trials and all of these RCTs demonstrated that interventions including motivational interviewing had a positive effect on oral health and health behaviour.Conclusions This review shows that the motivational interviewing technique, which is based on the concept of autonomy support, has potential for helping patients with poor oral health. Training in motivational interviewing for dental personnel could be a very useful addition to the skill set of practitioners and dental teams.
Objectives: Orofacial infections are common reasons for dental consultations worldwide. However, there is scarcity of data on clinico-epidemiological profiles reported from primary care dental practices. To address this issue, a study was done to characterize the clinical pattern, age groups affected and sex predilection of orofacial infections in the primary care dental practice. Study design: Clinical data was evaluated from random electronic files of patients for whom antimicrobials were prescribed at two Dental Practices in UK between January 2009 and December 2010. Results: 200 case records were studied. 104 (52%) cases were females. Mean age was 37.2 (+/-15.1) years. 107 (53.5%) cases belonged to age group 21-40 years. Posterior teeth were involved in 112 (56%) cases. Types of disease were as follows: dentoalveolar abscess 63(31.5%), pulpitis 27(13.5%), apical periodontitis 21(10.5%), pericoronitis 21(10.5%), dry socket 13(6.5%), periodontitis 9(4.5%) infected root stump 5(2.5%), facial swelling 5(2.5%) and infections unspecified 36(18%) cases. Conclusions: Orofacial infections affect both sexes equally. 21-40 years is the commonest age-group affected. Dentoalveolar abscess is the commonest infection followed by unspecified infections and pulpitis. Key words:Orofacial infections, primary care dental practice, dentoalveolar abscess and pulpitis. PMID:22322492
Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17
Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali
The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor.
Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess women’s knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to
The vast majority of patients will experience gingival-related disease at some point in their life, and up to a quarter of those are susceptible to advanced periodontal disease. This makes its effective management an important part of general dental practice. This paper provides guidance on management which incorporates periodontal assessment, management and recall according to patient's oral hygiene and modifiable risk factors. This has been produced in flow diagram format to aid non-surgical management of chronic gingival and periodontal disease in general dental practice.
Swapna Munaga; Manjusha Rawtiya; Sheeba Khan; Rajkiran Chitumalla; Satheesh Kumar Reddy Kubagiri; Parappa Sajjan
Background: Dental profession is susceptible to various postural and nonpostural occupational risks. Aim : To determine knowledge, practice, and condition of work place regarding ergonomic posture among dental students from Bhopal city, Central India. Also to observe any correlation among knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores. Materials and Methods : A self-administered questionnaire study was conducted among 231 dental students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: K...
Hamre, Harald Johan; Mittag, Inge; Glockmann, Anja; Kiene, Helmut; Tröger, Wilfried
Pulpa dentis D30 (PD: dental pulp of the calf, prepared in a homeopathic D30 potency) has been used in acute reversible pulpitis for pain relief and to avoid or postpone invasive dental treatment. To study short-term clinical outcomes of PD therapy for acute reversible pulpitis in routine dental practice. Prospective, observational, open-label, single-arm cohort study. Eleven dental primary care practices in Germany. Thirty-two patients starting monotherapy with PD for acute reversible pulpitis without visible or radiological abnormalities. PD was applied as 1-mL submucous injections into the mucobuccal fold, repeated daily as needed. Avoidance of invasive dental treatment (pulp capping, root canal therapy, tooth extraction) and remission of pain, measured on a 0-10 point scale (partial remission: reduction by > or =3 points; complete remission: reduction from > or =4 points to 0-1 points) during the 10-day follow-up period. Median pain duration was 14.0 days. The patients received a median of two PD applications (range 1-7). A total of 81% (n=26/32) of patients did not require invasive dental treatment, and 19% (n= 6) had root canal therapy. Remission status was evaluable in 24 patients. Of these, 63% (n = 15/24) achieved pain remission, 58% (n = 14) remitted without invasive dental treatment (complete remission: n=12, partial remission: n=2), and 29% (n= 7) had a close temporal relationship between PD and remission (ratio "time to remission after first PD application vs pain duration prior to first PD application" dental treatment. The open-label pre-post design does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness. However, more than one-fourth of evaluable patients remitted with a close temporal relationship between the first PD application and pain remission, suggesting a causal relationship between therapy and remission.
Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Nechifor, Mihai; Baniceru, Mihaela; Croitoru, Octavian; Popescu, Florica
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of propranolol pretreatment on mepivacaine serum concentrations in dental patients. In a double blind, randomized, 2-way crossover study, 10 patients ingested 30 mg propranolol or placebo, 2 hours before local anesthesia for dental scaling. Each subject received a single dose of 51 mg mepivacaine for posterior superior alveolar nerve block. Mepivacaine in venous serum was measured for up to 1 hour, after 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes from injection. Serum concentrations of mepivacaine were determined by gas chromatography. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after propranolol or placebo and after each sampling. Peak serum concentrations of mepivacaine, C(max) (1.214 +/- 0.746 microg/mL(-1)), were significantly increased by propranolol (2.249 +/- 1.559 microg/mL(-1), P mepivacaine serum concentrations and reduced blood pressure and heart rate, mepivacaine can be used safely in dental patients taking propranolol for short-duration interventions.
King, Tracy B; Muzzin, Kathleen B
The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the infection control practices of practicing dental hygienists, 2) document the attitudes and practices of dental hygienists toward patients with infectious diseases, and 3) determine if professional affiliation affected the attitudes and/or practices of the respondents. A 49-item survey consisting of eight demographic, nine attitudinal, and 32 practice questions was used for this study. A stratified sampling method was used, in which the United States was divided into four regions. Three states were selected from each region according to geographic location and population. Five percent of registered dental hygienists within each selected state were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. All analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS v.10, Chicago, IL). Of the 2,009 surveys mailed, 104 were undeliverable. A total of 856 completed surveys were returned from practicing dental hygienists for a response rate of 44.9%. Overall, this study found an increased use of barriers and personal protective equipment in comparison to previous studies. A majority of respondents (53.9%) felt that treating patients with HIV or AIDS increased their personal risk for contracting the disease. The majority of respondents also reported always using extra precautions with HIV/AIDS patients (63.5%) and hepatitis patients (60.1%). In addition, most respondents reported they would not use an ultrasonic scaler when treating HIV/AIDS (65.8%) or hepatitis (58.9%) patients, indicating an alteration in clinical practice habits. The majority of dental hygienists surveyed reported altering infection control practices and treatment techniques when treating HIV/AIDS or hepatitis patients. While there has been an improvement in compliance with recommended infection control guidelines, practitioners still have misconceptions, and possibly fear, regarding infectious diseases and disease transmission.
Full Text Available Purpose: To present results of a survey on the status of an implantology amongst implant-practicing dentist across the world in 2009. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the members of EAO (European Association of Osseointegration, ICOI (International Congress of Osseointegrated Implants, ISOI (Indian Society of Oral Implantologists, Asian Academy of Osseointegration (AAO, Deutsche Gasellschaft Fur Orale Implantologie (DGOI, Philippines Implant Organization, Korean Society of Oral Implantologist, Japanese Association of OralIimplantologists, Chinese Dental Association, Pakistan Dental Association, asking for the personal (anonymous background data and their implantology concepts. Specific questions dealt with level of recognition of implants, use of implants, superstructures, techniques followed, and materials used. Results: A total of 1500 (63.6% of the 2358 questionnaires were answered. Dental implants were the most preferred treatment modality for restoring the missing teeth. Threaded implants were the most preferred. Cement retained implant prosthesis was the most preferred restoration procedure. Dentists believe that the general dentist should practice dental implant treatment modality, preferably teamwork. Immediate loading was the much-accepted concept among the dentists of the developed nations. Conclusion: Dental implants were much accepted treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth. Most the dentists follow the well documented technique and proven materials, which have been documented in the literature, an evidenced based practice, thus, delivering the best to their patients. Dentists from the developing nations agreed to have standardization in implants.
Lindfors, Erik; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas
The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (> or = 20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71% and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91%. In general dental practice, 97% of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted.
Whelton, Helen; Wardman, Margaret J
Following early limitations on women becoming educated in and practicing dentistry, the proportion of women enrolled in dental schools around the world has increased dramatically over the past decades. Dental schools have undergone a transformation from male dominance to almost equal numbers in the United States and female predominance in other countries including the United Kingdom. However, this change in student gender distribution has not been matched among academic leaders. Data from across the globe indicate a clear disproportion in favor of males in leadership positions in dentistry-and the more senior the position, the greater the imbalance. This article reviews the evolving changes in gender distribution across the landscape of dental education, research, and practice and some initiatives to address the gender imbalance in leadership. Such initiatives can help to ensure that, in the future, the profession benefits from the spectrum of influences brought to bear by the leadership of both women and men.
Palenik, C J; Burke, F J; Coulter, W A; Cheung, S W
The sterilisation of instruments is central to the infection control process in the dental surgery, with the autoclave being most frequently used for this process. For effective operation, among other factors, it is essential that the autoclave is loaded correctly and tested regularly to ensure that it is operating at a temperature and pressure which will kill all micro-organisms. Biological indicators are another method of verifying the sterilisation process, since the sterilisation of the bacterial spores within the test ampoule provides a guarantee that sterilising conditions have been achieved.
Lobna; Abdel; Aziz; Aly
Stem cells are considered to be among the principle scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century for the future of medicine, and considered to be an important weapon to fight against diseases, particularly those that have resisted the efforts of science for a long time. Human dental tissues have limited potentials to regenerate but the discovery of dental stem cells have developed new and surprising scenario in regenerative dentistry. Stem cell treatments are one example of thepossibility using adult cells sourced from patients’ own bodies’ means that it can be expected that in the near future such treatments may become routine at dental practices. The hope is that it will become possible to regenerate bone and dental tissues including the periodontal ligament, dental pulp and enamel, and that the creation of new teeth may also become feasible. In view of this possibility of achieving restoration with regenerative medicine, it can be considered that a new era of dentistry is beginning. Thus the aim of this review is to give dental professionals a brief overview of different stem cells sources and the latest findings and their implications for improving oral health and treating certain conditions of the human mouth and face.
Khanal, S; Acharya, J
Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.
Lala, Rizwana; Csikar, Julia; Douglas, Gail; Muarry, Jenni
To review the literature reporting factors that are associated with the delivery of lifestyle support in general dental practice. A systematic review of the quantitative observational studies describing activities to promote the general health of adults in primary care general dental practice. Behavior change included tobacco cessation, alcohol reduction, diet, weight management, and physical activity. Tooth brushing and oral hygiene behaviors were excluded as the focus of this review was on the common risk factors that affect general health as well as oral health. Six cross sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies only reported activities to support tobacco cessation. As well as tobacco cessation one study also reported activities related to alcohol usage, physical activity, and Body Mass Index. Perceptions of time availability consistently correlated with activities and beliefs about tobacco cessation, alongside the smoking status of the dental professional. Dentists who perceive having more available time were more likely to discuss smoking with patients, prescribe smoking cessation treatments and direct patients toward (signpost to) lifestyle support services. Dental professionals who smoke were less likely to give smoking cessation advice and counselling than nonsmokers. Finally, the data showed that professional support may be relevant. Professionals who work in solo practices or those who felt a lack of support from the wider professional team (peer support) were more likely to report barriers to delivering lifestyle support. Organizational changes in dental practices to encourage more team working and professional time for lifestyle support may influence delivery. Dental professionals who are smokers may require training to develop their beliefs about the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Sahu, Amitkumar; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V; Panchakshari, Bharath Kashetty; Jain, Manish
Introduction Prevention at primary level is of great value in Paediatric Dentistry. Since use of preventive measures can prevent future complications, dental professionals share an important responsibility toward early screening, prompt referral and treatment and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. Aim To evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among dental practitioners in Bhopal city (central part of India) pertaining to sealants, topical fluorides usage and orthodontic consideration in paediatric patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 20-item self-administered, closed ended, structured questionnaire. A total of 200 available private dental practitioners of Bhopal city made up the sampling frame of study. Results Out of 200 practicing dentists, 147 participated with response rate of 73.5% in which 69.4% were males and 30.6% were females. A total of 83% dentists were less than 35 years of age, while 17% were equal to or more than 35 years of age. Qualification distribution revealed 67.3% dental graduate and 32.6% dental specialist. A highly significant difference in knowledge in relation to age was observed. The mean±SD were found for Knowledge as 8.46±1.82, Attitude as 2.65±0.780, and Practice as 1.66±1.57. Statistically significant correlations were found between attitude and practice (r=0.58, p<0.001). Conclusion Dentists in Bhopal city have vast knowledge towards preventive dentistry. The attitude is highly commendable but underutilized in practice, which needs to be improved. PMID:28209009
Luciene Ribeiro Gaião
Full Text Available In this study we describe the dental status and oral hygiene practices in institutionalized older people and identify factors associated with poor dental status. A cross-sectional study was performed in a nursing home in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State (northeast Brazil. The number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT was assessed in the residents of the nursing home (=167; mean age = 76.6 years. The mean DMFT value was 29.7; the mean number of missing teeth was 28.4. Ninety-three (58.1% were edentulous. Almost 90% practiced oral hygiene, but only about half used a toothbrush. Only 8% had visited a dentist in the preceding three months. Most of the variables regarding oral hygiene habits (such as the use of toothbrush, frequency of oral hygiene per day, regular tooth brushing after meals did not show any significant association with the DMFT. In multivariate regression analysis, age, general literacy level, and practice of oral hygiene were independently associated with the DMFT (2=0.13. Institutionalized older people in northeast Brazil have poor dental status, and oral hygiene practices are insufficient. Dental health education is needed focusing on the special needs of this neglected and socioeconomically deprived population to improve their quality of life.
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 4 | Special Issue 3 |. 307. Address ... assess the knowledge and practice of health workers in a private medical health facility on dental care. ..... J Hosp Tourism. Educ 2011 ...
Conclusions: During dental practice, central areas of the face such as inner part of the eyes and around the nose were most contaminated areas. These parts are the important areas for transmission of infection. It is recommended to use protective means like glasses, mask, and protective shield, which have more protection field in these areas.
Borhan Haghighi A.
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is an important cause of work disability. There is controversy over the relation between carpal tunnel syndrome and occupation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the time-span of practicing dentistry and the role of dominant hands in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.Materials and Method: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 40 dentists and dental students (15 women and 25 men undertook the electroneuro-diagnostic test in both hands by an electromyogram (EMG and they were also evaluated in terms of self- reported clinical symptoms.Results: 17.5% of participants were diagnosed to have decreased nerve conduction velocity while10% had reported clinical symptoms of CTS. Both dominant and non-dominant hands were involved. Within cases who were diagnosed as having median nerve neuropathy, 87.5% worked more than 20 hours per week. 57% had 17-23 years of dental practice experience and 14.2% of cases had10-16 years of practice in dentistry.Conclusion: The high rate of CTS symptoms, in both dominant and non-dominant hand among dental practitioners with more years of dental practice, indicates a prequisite for particular attention, then sufficient education on the major risk factors causing this problem. Early diagnosis of these symptoms may improve the future management of the disease.
Full Text Available Dental education aims to produce competent graduates with the ability to provide quality care to the patients and facilitate the smooth integration into professional practice. The objective of this study was to explore the overall preparedness of graduands for integrating into professional practice. The survey was tested for reliability and analysed the career paths, learning preferences, overall knowledge, and confidence amongst graduating dentists in integrating and managing a dental practice on graduation. Sixty-nine students (89.6% in age group of 20–50 years participated in the study. Students indicated a high level of confidence in their skills and ability to work in a team in a practice or collaboratively with other colleagues and specialists but expressed some reservation on their practice management skills (73.1%. Challenges in gaining employment and pressures to repay educational debts are amongst the reasons for graduands preferring a paid job immediately on graduation regardless of demographics. Students indicated that an increase in speciality training and clinical/outreach placements could enhance employability. This study explores the students’ perception of their confidences, knowledge, learning preferences, and practice management skills as a method of evaluating their preparedness to practice on graduation and provides a base line for curriculum structuring to prepare graduands to enter the competitive dental work force.
Ivelin Morales Fuentes
Full Text Available El mercurio es un metal pesado ampliamente utilizado por el hombre. Se considera muy tóxico por generar afecciones sobre el sistema nervioso central, perturbaciones en el comportamiento y trastornos renales, inmunes y sexuales, entre otros. Desde hace más de un siglo, el mercurio es utilizado en la práctica odontológica por su capacidad de unir metales (amalgamar, su bajo costo y su rápida fijación en la reparación de piezas dentales. Actualmente, existe una gran controversia acerca de la seguridad del uso de las amalgamas dentales y se ha demostrado el riesgo ocupacional al que están expuestos dentistas y asistentes dentales. El objetivo del trabajo es revisar aspectos relacionados con la toxicidad del mercurio metálico tanto para el personal involucrado en la práctica odontológica como para los pacientes con amalgamas. De igual modo, se presentan las rutas de exposición a este metal en la odontología, los riesgos ocupacionales a los cuales están expuestos los odontólogos y asistentes dentales y las medidas para prevenir la intoxicación por mercurio. Se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica sobretudo en las bases de datos Biological Abstracts y Science Citation Index para el período comprendido entre los años 1990 y 2000.Mercury is a heavy metal widely used by man. It is considered very toxic causing conditions in the central nervous system, behavior disturbances, and renal and sexual disorders. For a century, mercury has been used in the dental practice for its capacity of joining metals (amalgamate, its low cost and its rapid fixing in dental pieces repair. Currently, there is much controversy about the safety of dental amalgams and it has been demonstrated it poses occupational risks to dental practitioners and their assistants. The objective of this study is review aspects related to metallic mercury toxicity for personnel involved in the dental practice and patients with dental amalgams. Routes of mercury exposure in
Shuman, Stephen; Simonson, Peggy; Tschida, Breca; Owen, Mary; Ofstehage, John; Glasrud, Patricia
With the passage of a safe patient handling statute in 2009, Minnesota became one of a growing number of states requiring health care providers to become more aware and accountable about providing appropriate assistance during the movement of patients in clinical care settings. The Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry and the Minnesota Dental Association have been working together to ensure that Minnesota's SPH regulations are as practical as possible for dental providers while still achieving the objectives of the statute. A template Safe Patient Handling Program for Clinics has been developed with substantial input from MDA's ESNA Committee and is now available on the DLI website: www.dli.mn.gov/WSC/SPHlegislation.asp. All Minnesota dental practices should use this template to develop their own safe patient handling program as soon as possible. Additional background information and resources related to Minnesota's SPH regulations are also available on the DLI website. MDA and DLI are currently also developing a hazard assessment tool for dental practices to assess their specific risks associated with patient movement. This hazard assessment will, in turn, guide decisions about what type of safe patient handling equipment and staff training will be necessary for total compliance with the new statute. MDA, in cooperation with DLI, will continue to keep dental professionals informed about when these materials will be available. Additionally, MDA is working to ensure appropriate training options will be available for compliance with SPH regulations. The University of Minnesota's School of Dentistry's Oral Health Services for Older Adults Program and Department of Continuing Dental Education have been regularly providing such training in conjunction with the school's "Miniresidency in Nursing Home and Long-term Care for the Dental Team," and efforts are now underway at the dental school to create stand-alone training options for Minnesota's dental professionals
Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two un...
Rutkoski, Holdunn; Fowler, Brynn; Mooney, Ryan; Pappas, Lisa; Dixon, Barbara L; Pinzon, Lilliam M; Winkler, James; Kepka, Deanna
This was the first study to develop and pilot test an assessment tool for the examination of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) knowledge, perceptions, and clinical practices of oral health students. An interdisciplinary team developed the tool using surveys that examined this topic in other populations. The tool was then pilot tested at two different dental programs. Results from the pilot informed revisions to the final version of the tool. Of the 46 student participants, 18 were first-year dental hygiene and 28 were first-year dental students. The majority of participants were female (N = 29, 63%) and ages 18 to 29 years old (N = 41, 89%). Four scales used in the questionnaire were analyzed for reliability. Of these, the HPV and HPV-OPC knowledge and the HPV vaccination knowledge scales had Cronbach alphas of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. Questions assessing HPV and the role of dental professionals had a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Questions assessing willingness to administer vaccines in the dental office had a correlation coefficient of 0.85. Assessing oral health students' HPV-OPC knowledge, perceptions, and clinical practices are important for future assessment of possible HPV-OPC cases. Dental professionals may be optimally positioned to provide HPV patient education. The tool developed and pilot tested in this study can help schools assess their students' knowledge and guide their dental curriculum to address deficiencies. Since this topic has not been effectively examined with dental health students, the results could help improve dental education and dental care.
Gordan, Valeria V; Riley, Joseph L; Geraldeli, Saulo
The authors aimed to determine whether dentists in practices belonging to The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) were more likely to repair or to replace a restoration that they diagnosed as defective; to quantify dentists' specific reasons for repairing or replacing restorations......; and to test the hypothesis that certain dentist-, patient- and restoration-related variables are associated with the decision between repairing and replacing restorations....
Darbar, Arun; Darbar, Rita
For the last decade we have been applying the principles of Low level laser therapy and have broadened the concept for practical use before and after treatment with surgical lasers. The purpose of this clinical presentation is to demonstrate how this concept has improved treatment outcomes. Cases treated in our dental practice will be demonstrated with the protocols used. A look at the science behind this concept will be examined in an effort to explain the results and to open discussion.
Palmer, R M
Patients have high expectations of dental implants in terms of appearance, function and longevity. It is essential that these expectations are realistically managed and that treatment of the highest standard is provided. This involves very careful evaluation, including clinical and radiographic, and presentation of the pros and cons of treatment alternatives. Provision of a successful implant restoration requires many skills including a surgical procedure to place the implant in the best possible position and prosthodontic techniques to provide an aesthetic restoration in occlusal harmony with the rest of the dentition. Recognition of risk factors and long-term maintenance requirements are equally important. Clinicians involved in these treatments must obtain adequate training and develop skills through treatment of straightforward cases using well established protocols before embarking on more demanding cases.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the level of knowledge, opinions, and preventive practices followed by dental students against Hepatitis B. The study also explored if any correlation existed between knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices score. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a dental teaching institution. The subjects comprised 216 dental students. The study was conducted using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepared to assess knowledge, opinion, and preventive practices against Hepatitis B. Kruskal-Wallis and Kendall Tau test were performed. Results. The study found that only 44.4% of the students were vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine. 59.3% of the students reported washing their hands after contact with patient’s body fluids. 63.9% used personal protective measures like facemask, aprons, head cap, eye shields, and so forth, while treating patients. Median knowledge, opinion, and practice scores were found to be 5.00, 3.00, and 3.00, respectively. Significant correlation was obtained between knowledge and preventive practices score (r=0.385, p value <0.0001. Conclusion. Effective measures need to be taken to improve preventive practices of the students to prevent them from risk of Hepatitis transmission. Mandatory vaccination against Hepatitis B needs to be implemented.
Raghuwar D. Singh
Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the study was to assess the awareness and performance towards dental waste including mercury management policy and practices among the dental practitioners in North India. Materials and Methods. An epidemiologic survey was conducted among 200 private dental practitioners. The survey form was composed of 29 self-administered questions frame based on knowledge, attitude, and those regarding the practices of dentists in relation to dental health-care waste management. The resulting data were coded and a statistical analysis was done. Results and Discussion. About 63.7% of the dentists were not aware of the different categories of biomedical waste generated in their clinics. Only 31.9% of the dentists correctly said that outdated and contaminated drugs come under cytotoxic waste. 46.2% said they break the needle and dispose of it and only 21.9% use needle burner to destroy it. 45.0% of the dentists dispose of the developer and fixer solutions by letting them into the sewer, 49.4% of them dilute the solutions and let them into sewer and only 5.6% return them to the supplier. About 40.6% of the dentists dispose of excess silver amalgam by throwing it into common bin. Conclusion. It was concluded that not all dentists were aware of the risks they were exposed to and only half of them observe infection control practices.
Lisowska, P; Daly, B
Epilepsy is a chronic condition which affects about 1% of the population. It is important that the dental team is aware of the management of epileptic seizures and epileptic syndromes including recent advances in seizure management. As people with epilepsy often get a warning aura before seizures begin, the management of the condition has increasingly involved measures to prevent the seizure, once the aura has begun. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy (VNST) in epilepsy involves the use of an implantable electronic device and is being increasingly used in the UK to control severe treatment resistant epilepsy. As a result, more patients will be presented to clinicians in the primary healthcare setting and hospital services with these devices in place. Members of the dental team need to understand the principles of epilepsy control, how VNST is used in the management of intractable epilepsy, how the VNST system operates and the implications of VNST use for dental practice including medical devices, interactions and safety features.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the endodontic practice profile of general dental practitioners. To explore the materials and methods employed by them in Kathmandu valley. To compare these findings with well acknowledged international academic standards. Methods Questionnaires with 18 closed-ended questions were distributed among randomly chosen 120 general dental practitioners of Kathmandu, working in various government or private hospital or clinics.The data were collected and descriptive statistical analysis was done. Results Out of 120 questionnaires, only 110 that were completely filled were included in the study .Most general dental practitioners (97% regularly did multi-rooted root canal treatments and followed multivisit root canal treatment.. Radiograph with instrument in canal was used by 80% of general dental practitioners to determine the working length while only 36% used electronic apex locator which is considered to be more reliable. Half of them (57% used nickel-titanium files for cleaning and shaping but only 23% used crown down technique. Sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide was the most popular irrigation solution and intra-canal medicament respectively. Majority of general dental practitioners (91% used lateral compaction technique for root canal obturation. Sixty three percent used zinc oxide eugenol as root canal sealer and 46% used endomethasone. They seem to overuse antibiotics in cases requiring endodontic therapy. Only 48% used autoclave for sterilization of endodontic files while 86% never used rubber dam. Eight three percent of them felt the need of further endodontic training and 42% of them preferred post-graduate dental program. Conclusion This study shows that the standard guidelines and new technologies for endodontic treatments are not implemented by many general dental practitioners of Kathmandu and require further endodontic trainings. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 40-50 DOI
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to inves‑ tigate the reasons for tooth extraction and their associati‑ ons with possible risk indicators, such as socio-demographic and other epidemiological variables analyzed in dental practice in Greece. Materials and method: The study invol‑ ved 2,250 individuals, 1,170 males and 1,080 females aged 18 to 78 years. Data were collected by means of an intervi‑ ewer-administered questionnaire and oral clinical exami‑ nation. Statistical analysis of the questionnaire items was performed with a multivariate regression analysis model in order to estimate the possible associations between den‑ tal caries and periodontal disease as dependent variables, as well as the socio-demographic and other epidemiologi‑ cal variables, as independent parameters. Results: A total of 5,568 permanent teeth were extracted for various rea‑ sons during the study. The results showed that the main reasons for tooth extraction were dental caries (37.3% and periodontal disease (35.0%.Tooth extraction due to dental caries was associated with risk indicators of lower educa‑ tional and income level, inadequate oral hygiene and lack of a regular dental follow-up, whereas tooth extraction due to periodontal disease was associated with the same vari‑ ables, to which smoking was added. Conclusions: Dental caries and periodontal disease were the main reasons for tooth extraction in Greece. In addition, significant associ‑ ations were recorded between the causes of tooth extrac‑ tion and the possible risk indicators under analysis
Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Panja, Shamik; Ghosh, Tarak Nath; Sharma, Pawan; Sarkar, Piyali; Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil
This pilot investigation initiated a research-targeted systematic dental homeopathy data collection in the dental outpatient section in a government homeopathic hospital in West Bengal, India. One conventionally trained dentist and 3 homeopathic doctors collected data from 949 appointments of 411 patients over 3 months. A specifically designed Excel spreadsheet enabled recording of consecutive dental appointments that was subjected to data synthesis and analysis in the end. A total of 87.3% conditions were chronic, and chronic periodontitis was most frequent (27.5%). Positive outcome was observed in 72.3% appointments. Strongly positive outcomes (scores of +2 or +3) were achieved most notably in toothache (84.6%). Single medicines were prescribed in 83.5% encounters, and mostly in tincture form (29.9%). Arnica montana constituted of 17.8% prescriptions. Considerable insight was gained into the homeopathic dental practice scenario in West Bengal, India. Positive findings suggest that dental homeopathy is a promising area for research in near future.
Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Higo, Yukari; Ohno, Maki; Tsutsui, Takeo W; Tsutsui, Takeki
Root canal antiseptics are topically applied to root canals within the pulpless teeth to treat the root canal and periapical infections. Because the antiseptics that are applied to root canals can penetrate through dentin or leak out through an apical foramen into the periodontium and distribute by the systemic circulation, it is important to study the safety of these antiseptics. In the present study, we examined the ability to induce chromosome aberrations in human dental pulp cells of five root canal antiseptics, namely, carbol camphor (CC), camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP), formocresol (FC), calcium hydroxide, and iodoform which are most commonly used in dental practice. Statistically significant increases in the levels of chromosome aberrations were induced by CC, FC, or iodoform in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, CMCP and calcium hydroxide failed to induce chromosome aberrations in the absence or presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The percentages of cells with polyploid or endoreduplication were enhanced by FC or iodoform. Our results indicate that the root canal antiseptics that exhibited a positive response are potentially genotoxic to human cells.
Hakim, Foroud; Kachalia, Parag R
Staying ahead of the technology curve is an ongoing challenge for all dentists. Ignoring advancements in technology and the related improvements in diagnostics and delivery of care, as well as the impact technology may have on productivity in practice, is simply not an option for the modern clinician who aims to maintain a successful contemporary practice. This article delivers some insight into the challenges that arise when upgrades in technology and the related acquisition investment are considered.
Ou, C Y; Ciesielski, C A; Myers, G; Bandea, C I; Luo, C C; Korber, B T; Mullins, J I; Schochetman, G; Berkelman, R L; Economou, A N
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission from infected patients to health-care workers has been well documented, but transmission from an infected health-care worker to a patient has not been reported. After identification of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient who had no known risk factors for HIV infection but who had undergone an invasive procedure performed by a dentist with AIDS, six other patients of this dentist were found to be HIV-infected. Molecular biologic studies were conducted to complement the epidemiologic investigation. Portions of the HIV proviral envelope gene from each of the seven patients, the dentist, and 35 HIV-infected persons from the local geographic area were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Three separate comparative genetic analyses--genetic distance measurements, phylogenetic tree analysis, and amino acid signature pattern analysis--showed that the viruses from the dentist and five dental patients were closely related. These data, together with the epidemiologic investigation, indicated that these patients became infected with HIV while receiving care from a dentist with AIDS.
Ilić Dragan V.
Full Text Available Introduction. Radiovisiography (RVG as the latest imaging technique in dentistry with the minimal radiation exposure of the patient and numerous possibilities to process the images has many advantages over classic radiography. Case report. We presented an interesting clinical endodontic case of primary posted diagnosis of traumatic periodontitis of upper right canine upon orthodontics treatment. As the patient previously had been exposed to alleged high dose of radiation the patient agreed to minimal exposition using digital RVG. The options of the tool bar of RVG Trophy device enabled the solving of ethiologic factor of presented periodontitis. The enigma of the symptoms on the ’overfilled’ root canal was solved zooming and 3-D analysis avoiding periapical surgery owing to the patience of the patient and the dentist in a couple of days. Conclusion. By applying RVG technique the time for diagnostic procedure is much shorter in comparison with traditional dental radiography enabling archiving and follow-up the presented case in the course of time.
Goldstein, Alan T.; Coluzzi, Donald J.; Sulewski, John G.; White, Joel M.
This presentation addresses the interplay between commerce and conscience. The relationship between industry and academia must be free of both true and apparent conflict of interest. Obviously, the matter is of great importance, since as scientists and clinicians, our integrity is our most valuable asset. This is no less true for the manufacturers of dental laser technology. Ethics, then, is a bottom-line issue for all concerned. Often, in spite of good intentions, there has been no clear-cut policy on this issue. Occasionally, when there has been policy, there has been no mechanism for implementation. Universities have conflict-of-interest requirements, while industry and others in the profession do not. In the academic sphere, we are obligated to be open, thorough, honest and scrupulous in our research and educational activities. Recently, the Board of Directors of the Academy of Laser Dentistry unanimously passed a resolution clarifying their position on conflict-of-interest issues. We offer it to SPIE so that ultimately, we may face our profession and business colleagues squarely, and with full and faithful disclosure. Issues of conflict of interest, principal investigators, financial interests, and recommendations for full disclosure are presented.
American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.
The proceedings of the second in a series of workshops on dental hygiene education and practice are presented. The opening remarks are by Cheryl Westphal. Papers categorized as "Considerations for the Professionalization of Dental Hygiene" are as follows: "Socio-Economic Viewpoint" (Gary Gaumer); "Political Science Viewpoint" (Lelia Helms);…
Daalmans, M.T.; Vissia, M.S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Aim of this study was to get more insight into the career choice, plans and expectations, and practice pattern preferences of male and female dental students in The Netherlands. A structured questionnaire was sent out to all 5th year dental students in The Netherlands in the academic year 2001/2002
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP regarding breast self-examination (BSE in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12. Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68. The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.
Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara
The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 46.5%. Almost half of the workers i.e., 456 (53.6%) used brush to clean their teeth. Majority of the subjects i.e., 784 (92.2%) cleaned their teeth once a day. It was found that 466 (54.8%) used toothpaste for maintaining oral hygiene. Almost half of the subjects consumed tobacco in form of gutkha, cigarette, and in multiple forms. The results of the study showed that dental caries and poor oral hygiene are major public health problems among the factory workers. Primary oral health-care programs like dental screening and oral health education at regular intervals should be made mandatory, which will help to prevent accumulation of health-care demands of the factory employees.
Full Text Available Objectives: Cases of antimicrobial resistance are increasing, partly due to inappropriate prescribing practices by dentists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescrib- ing practices and knowledge of dentists with regards to antibiotics. Moreover, this study aimed to determine whether the prescriptions comply with the recommended guidelines and whether clinical audit can alter the prescribing practices of dentists leading to better use of antibiotics in the dental service.Materials and Methods: A clinical audit (before/after non-controlled trial was carried out in two dental clinics in the northeast of England. Retrospective data were collected from 30 antibiotic prescriptions, analysed and compared with the recommended guide- lines. Data collected included age and gender of patients, type of prescribed antibiotics and their dosage, frequency and duration, clinical condition and reason for prescribing. The principles of appropriate prescribing based on guidance by the Faculty of General Dental Practice in the United Kingdom (UK, FGDP, were discussed with the dental clini- cians. Following this, prospective data were collected and similarly managed. Pre and post audit data were then compared. Changes were tested for significance using McNemar's test and P value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: After intervention, data revealed that antibiotic prescribing practices of dentists improved, as there was an increase in the percentage of prescriptions that were in accor- dance with the FGDP (UK guidelines.Conclusion: In view of the limited data collected, this study concludes that there are inap- propriate antibiotic prescribing practices amongst general dental practitioners and that clinical audit can address this situation, leading to a more rational use of antibiotics in dental practice.
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43% reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57% believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient.
Full Text Available Dental caries comprise the single most chronic disease affecting children today. Evidence increasingly suggests that for successful prevention of dental caries, preventive interactions must begin within the first year of life. Pediatricians are responsible for the primary care of the child and are well positioned to begin this process if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits and refer appropriately. Insufficient information about their role in prevention of dental caries led us to conduct a survey among pediatricians in Bangalore urban to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries.
An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of instruction upon the dental health behavior of university students. The experimental group of 68 subjects, all elementary education majors, were exposed to a three--stage dental health motivational model: Dental Health Skills Instruction (four hours of laboratory instruction), Cognitive…
Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Qian, Fang; Finkelstein, Michael W
Successful integration of critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) concepts throughout didactic and clinical dental curricula require faculty support. Critical thinking and EBD definitions and practice continue to evolve, and not all dental faculty members were exposed to such concepts during their education. The objective of this study was to understand faculty members' perspectives on both critical thinking and EBD. An online survey was designed to assess full- and part-time faculty members' understanding, practice and teaching of critical thinking and EBD, interest in and perceived significance of EBD, and perceived barriers to teaching critical thinking and EBD at one U.S. dental school. Forty-three faculty members completed the survey for a 41 percent response rate. Most respondents (46 percent) defined critical thinking as the use of evidence or the scientific method in decision making and EBD as clinical practice based on "science only" (39 percent) or "quality science only" (34 percent). Based on their individual definitions, over 75 percent of the respondents reported incorporating critical thinking into didactic and clinical teaching; 79 percent and 47 percent, respectively, reported incorporating EBD into their didactic and clinical teaching. While these faculty members confirmed the importance of teaching students EBD, they identified barriers to teaching as time, knowledge, and resources. These results, which reflect one school's efforts to understand faculty perceptions and practices of EBD, suggest that faculty training and resource support are necessary for successful curricular integration of critical thinking and EBD.
Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to design, implement and evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive course on non-clinical competencies that dentists must possess for a successful dental practice.Materials and Methods: In this interventional before-after study an expert panel of five academic staff members and five general practitioners derived the topics for a course on successful dental practice, and aggregated them in the form of a two-day course. It was held for 46 randomly selected dentists in January 2010, at the School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The participants completed an anonymous questionnaire asking about their self-perceived need to receive training in each of the proposed topics and their self-assessed knowledge about each topic before and after attending the course.Results: Participants gave a higher priority to the necessity of training on “ergonomics and professional health” and communication skills in post-test compared to pre-test (P<0.05. The self-assessed knowledge of dentists improved significantly after attending the course in seven domains: ergonomics and occupational health, workplace design, documentation principles and IT applications in dentistry, national rules and regulations of dental practice, medical emergencies, dental ethics and communication skills (P<0.05. More than 70% of the participants were completely satisfied or satisfied with practical implication of the course, conformity of the contents with the title and course settings.Conclusion: The designed course seemed to be successful in revealing the need of participants for further education. Considering the high satisfaction rate of the attendants, this course can serve as a model for continuing education purposes.
San Martin Laura
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia. Methods The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047. A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400 were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions. Results The survey population demographics included 190 men (48% and 206 women (52% with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4 years and 9.3 (± 7.5 years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb (p=0.001, but no sex differences between working sector (public/private. The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4. Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale. Statistically significant correlations were
Holden, Alexander C L; Spallek, Heiko
The National Law that regulates the dental and other healthcare professions in Australia sets out regulations that dictate how dental practices are to advertise. This study examines the extent to which the profession complies with these regulations and the potential impact that advertising may have upon professionalism. A Facebook search of 38 Local Government Areas in Sydney, New South Wales was carried out to identify dental practices that had pages on this social media site. A framework for assessment of compliance was developed using the regulatory guidelines and was used to conduct a netnographic review. 266 practice pages were identified from across the 38 regions. 71.05% of pages were in breach of the National Law in their use of testimonials, 5.26% of pages displayed misleading or false information, 4.14% of pages displayed offers that had no clear terms and conditions or had inexact pricing, 19.55% of pages had pictures or text that was likely to create unrealistic expectations of treatment benefit and 16.92% of pages encouraged the indiscriminate and unnecessary utilisation of health services. This study found that compliance to the National Law by the Facebook pages surveyed was poor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wilkinson, Denise M; Smallidge, Dianne; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori
Health care education requires students to connect classroom learning with patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore dental hygiene students' perceptions of teaching tools, activities and teaching methods useful in closing the gap between theory and practice as students transition from classroom learning into the clinical phase of their training. This was an exploratory qualitative study design examining retrospective data from journal postings of a convenience sample of dental hygiene students (n=85). Open-ended questions related to patient care were given to junior and senior students to respond in a reflective journaling activity. A systematic approach was used to establish themes. Junior students predicted hands-on experiences (51%), critical thinking exercises (42%) and visual aids (27%) would be the most supportive in helping them connect theory to practice. Senior students identified critical thinking exercises (44%) and visual aids (44%) as the most beneficial in connecting classroom learning to patient care. Seniors also identified barriers preventing them from connecting theory to patient care. Barriers most often cited were not being able to see firsthand what is in the text (56%) and being unsure that what was seen during clinical practice was the same as what was taught (28%). Students recognized the benefits of critical thinking and problem solving skills after having experienced patient care and were most concerned with performance abilities prior to patient care experiences. This information will be useful in developing curricula to enhance critical thinking and problem solving skills. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Chakradhar, K; Doshi, D; Srikanth Reddy, B; Kulkarni, S; Padma Reddy, M; Sruthi Reddy, S
Of the overall 9.5 million deaths annually in India, nearly 100,000 are due to organ failure. To save and extend lives, organ donation and organ transplantation have become the only hope. Health care professionals (HCPs) are a key element in facilitating cadaveric organ donation process. To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding organ donation among undergraduate dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 undergraduate dental students of the Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A 27-item self-administered questionnaire, which assessed the levels of knowledge (Q1-13), positive attitude (Q14-24) and practice habits (Q25-27) regarding organ donation with dichotomous scale (Yes/No). As compared to males, females reported better mean±SD scores in knowledge (8.22±1.51) and practice (0.91±0.8); higher mean±SD attitude scores (8.55±1.56) were reported among males (porgan donation and transplantation.
Hayakawa, Y; Shibuya, H; Ota, Y; Kuroyanagi, K
This report describes the radiation dosage reduction possible in the general dental practice with two CCD (charge-coupled device)-based intraoral radiographic systems: the RVG-S (Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France) and the Sens-A-Ray (Regam Medical Systems, Sundsvall, Sweden). Radiation dosages (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images were measured at the cone tip using an ionization chamber type 660-1 (Nuclear Associates, Victoreen, Inc., Carle Place, New York, USA). When the RVG-S was used with an Oramatic 70 (Trophy Radiologie) X-ray generator, dosages at the cone tip ranged from 322 to 612 microGy. These corresponded to 40-60% of the dosages necessary when using Ektaspeed dental X-ray film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, New York, USA) with a Heliodent 70 (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) X-ray generator. At 60 kVp, the Sens-A-Ray reduced the dosage in the order of 30% compared with Ektaspeed dental X-ray film. Reduction in radiation dosage is one of the benefits of digital intraoral radiographic systems in general dental clinics. The RVG-S provides greater dose savings than does the Sens-A-Ray.
Coleman, D C
Dental chair units (DCUs) contain integrated systems that provide the instruments and services for a wide range of dental procedures. DCUs use water to cool and irrigate DCU-supplied instruments and tooth surfaces during dental treatment. Water is supplied to these instruments by a network of interconnected narrow-bore (2-3 mm) plastic tubes called dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). Many studies over the last 40 years demonstrated that DUWL output water is often contaminated with high densities of micro-organisms, predominantly Gram-negative aerobic heterotropic environmental bacteria, including Legionella and Pseudomonas species. Untreated DUWLs host biofilms that permit micro-organisms to multiply and disperse through the water network and which are aerosolized by DCU instrument use, thus exposing patients and staff to these micro-organisms, to fragments of biofilm and bacterial endotoxins. This review concentrates on how practical developments and innovations in specific areas can contribute to effective DUWL biofilm control. These include the use of effective DUWL treatment agents, improvements to DCU supply water quality, DCU design changes, development of automated DUWL treatment procedures that are effective at controlling biofilm in the long-term and require minimal human intervention, are safe for patients and staff, and which do not cause deterioration of DCU components following prolonged use.
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available The activities developed in health area are of great importance, because they have the aim to preserve the life of the men, and therefore, must be performed by authorized persons. The increase of the number of dental schools, the decline at the education quality and a higher admission of students with low ability to exercise their profession, are facts that bring disastrous consequences for society. These facts are, also, reflected at the moral, ethical and technical-scientific performance of the professional. The purpose of this clinic case is to show that although there is a significant suplly of education institutions, there is a lack of scientific and adequate technical knowledgement from the graduated dentals surgeons. The patient MSL, 17 year old, female, went to a dental clinic presenting a tray type Vernis, attached to the lower arch. After clinical evaluation, it was showed that an incorrect material was used for the impression technique, being impossible to take out the tray by the conventional mann r. The planning for the removal of the tray was through the divide of it. Thus, the consequence of the lack of knowledge in the use of impression materials had caused a great incovinience to the patient. It can be concluded that the rate of malpractice is directly related to the professional preparation, highlighting the importance of quality dental education for a responsible clinical practice.
Halboub, Esam Saleh; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Jamaei, Aisha Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among senior dental students. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 145 4th- and 5th-year dental students at the Faculty of Dentistry, Sana’a University, Yemen. The self-administered questionnaire was comprised of 20 open- and close-ended items regarding barrier techniques, vaccination status, infection control practices, and awareness. Data were analyzed with a Chi-square test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The response rate was 72% (145 out of 204 potential respondents). Overall, 71.7% of the students had been vaccinated for hepatitis B and only 9.5% were tested for post-hepatitis B virus immunization serology. While the vast majority (96.6%) reported always wearing gloves for all dental procedures, the use of face masks and eyewear were reported by only 53.8% and 14.0% of students, respectively, with no significant difference between genders and year of study (P > 0.05). A significantly higher percentage of 5th-year students (58.9%) showed positive attitudes toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases, as compared to only 31.0% of 4th year students (P < 0.01). A great number of students (62%) reported non-sterile occupational percutaneous and mucous injuries while treating their patients. Conclusions: These unsatisfactory findings highlight the necessity of continued infection control education in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control among dental students at Sana’a University. PMID:26028896
Dalaya, Maya; Ishaquddin, Syed; Ghadage, Mahesh; Hatte, Geeta
In today's world of education, we concentrate on teaching activities and academic knowledge. We are taught to improve our clinical skills. Soft skills refer to the cluster of personality traits, social graces, and personal habits, facility with language, friendliness and personal habits that mark people to varying degrees. Soft Skills are interpersonal, psychological, self-promoted and non-technical qualities for every practitioner and academician, whereas hard skills are new tools or equipment and professional knowledge. Hence, more and more clinicians now days consider soft skills as important job criteria. An increase in service industry and competitive practices emphasizes the need for soft skills. Soft Skills are very important and useful in personal and professional life.
Al-Jobair AM; Baidas LF; Al-Hamid AA; Al-Qahtani SG; Al-Najjar AT; Al-Kawari HM
Asma M Al-Jobair,1,2 Laila F Baidas,1,2 Anfal A Al-Hamid,2 Sara G Al-Qahtani,2 Amani T Al-Najjar,2 Huda M Al-Kawari1,2 1Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, 2College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. Materials and methods: This retrospecti...
Akhyar Dyni Zakyah
Full Text Available Introduction: Braces is the treatment of choice for malocclusion. However, in recent years malocclusion no longer serves as the reason behind the orthodontic treatment. Many people use it for the fashion purposes and some of them got it from a dental quack. The purpose of this study was to understand factors that influenced citizen of Bandung to go to dental quack practice for orthodontics treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling technique consisting of 30 samples. Inclusion criteria were subject wearing metal braces from dental quack, live within area of Bandung, and willing to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria was subjects that refused to participate in the study. Results: The study showed that 73% of the subjects use the treatment for aligning teeth over getting along with the trend or the perception of beauty from using colorful bracket rubber. 63% chose a dental quack because of the suggestions from friends who had done it before them. Low income combined with the need for orthodontics treatment and inadequate information about dental braces influencing subjects choice to go to a dental quack. The study showed that socioeconomic environment highly influenced the decision to wear braces from a dental quack. Conclusion: The low price factor was the main reason for dental quack braces highly demanded. Common people need to be educated to get proper treatment for malocclusion and to go for improper provider of dental treatment.
Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad;
Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical...
Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.
Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500
Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Karunakar, P
The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (Pbreast cancer screening behavior.
Faggion, Clóvis M; Tu, Yu-Kang
Evidence-based dentistry is a concept that when applied to clinical practice may improve the quality of dental treatment. However, dentists' reluctance to change their behavior may be a barrier to the implementation of the process. The main purpose of this study was to demonstrate that standard operating procedures (SOPs) may help dentists to apply scientific evidence to their dental practice. SOPs are written instructions on how to execute some specific tasks. A flowchart model demonstrated how an ordinary clinical procedure (composite restoration) can be performed using evidence-based information to support each executed step. Implementing the model into daily practice is straightforward, and the results are accessible to the whole dental team. In addition, the flowchart can be regularly updated with high-quality dental literature such as systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials and randomized controlled trials. This proposed model may help to bridge the gap between research and clinical dental practice by serving as a practical tool to improve the knowledge of dental practitioners and the quality of treatment.
Podgórska, Marta; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Chojecka, Agnieszka
The dental health-care settings is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic stuffmust adopt certain basic routines while practicing. Infections may be transmitted in the dental operatory through direct contact with blood, oral fluids or other secretions; via indirect contact with contaminated instruments, equipment or environmental surfaces; or by contact with airborne contaminants present in either droplet splatter or aerosols of oral and respiratory fluids. Strategies to prevent dental patient infections have focused on disinfection and sterilization. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dentistry. The sample comprised 100 dentists, who completed questionnaires. Based on inquires the conditions for disinfection and sterilization of medical devices were assessed. The following issues were taken into consideration: the way of disinfection and preparation of the disinfectants, the localization of disinfection, preparing to disinfection, washing and packing of dental devices, the frequency of disinfection, methods of sterilization and the monitoring system, type of sterilizers and the available cycles. The dental practices are well equiped to proceed the steam sterilization, but 33% of dentists don't know the available cycles in their autoclaves. Only 35% of them made sterilization process protocols. Very common are three failures of instruments disinfections: multiple use of disinfectant, adding of disinfectant, adding new instruments. There is still need for improvement in disinfection and sterilization in dental practice, especially including: monitoring and documentation of sterilization process, proper use of disinfectants according to manufactures instructions, frequent disinfection of surfaces which contact with patients. Dental stuff should take part in advanced training courses about disinfection and
Waits, Joe; Cretton-Scott, Erika; Childers, Noel K; Sims, Pamela J
Pain management is important when dealing with pediatric dental patients. The use of local anesthetics can be especially challenging for children taking psychotropic medications. The purpose of this paper was to identify pertinent information regarding drug interactions between vasoconstrictor/local anesthetic combinations and medications for the management of psychiatric or behavior disorders in children. Many of the reported interactions are controversial, largely theoretical with very limited clinical evidence, and not well defined. However, when considering the potential for significant increased blood pressure when local anesthesia containing a vasoconstrictor is used, a thorough under standing of the pharmacological actions of medications used to treat psychiatric or behavioral disorders and vasoconstrictors can help dental professionals minimize the potential risk of drug interactions in their practice.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Products and Rabbit Products Denial of Service § 70.41 Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice found to be made or...
Nayak, Meghanand T; Sahni, Priya; Singhvi, Abhishek; Singh, Anjali
Teaching dental anatomy includes observation and analysis of natural teeth and carving wax models to accurately reproduce the morphology of teeth. The aim of this survey was to assess the importance of tooth carving in its relevance to clinical practice in the opinion of practicing clinicians throughout west India. Faculties of 27 dental colleges and dental practitioners of the Rajasthan and Gujarat states in western India were contacted through e-mail, telephone and mail. A total of 1866 subjects were contacted of which 1722 responded. The perceived relevance of tooth carving in clinical practice was assessed through a 14-item multiple choice questionnaire. Questions ranged from the queries of clinicians' interest in tooth carvings, their opinion of the practical significance of this exercise during their training to their clinical practice, and their recommendations regarding tooth carving. A total of 69.1% of respondent practitioners believe that the tooth carving exercise influences their clinical practice, and 93.4% recommend tooth carving to be continued in the undergraduate dental curriculum. The results indicated that most dentists in west India valued what they learned through tooth carving and that they use this knowledge in their practice. This information supports the continued teaching of tooth carving in the undergraduate dental curriculum.
Aizawa, F; Yonemitsu, M; Aizawa, Y; Hanada, N; Akada, H
A survey was conducted in December 1993 by sending questionnaires to all 566 dentists of the Iwate Dental Association. The questionnaires consisted of 68 items including infection control practices, knowledge, and attitudes towards AIDS/HIV. The response rate was 51.1 percent (N = 289). The average age of dentists in the sample was 43.7 +/- 9.5 (S.D.) (range: 28 to 85). Data was evaluated statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney's U test and Chi-square test, and significant differences were observed. Gloves, masks, and other protective garments were generally worn, but most dentists did not always use them during the full course of treatment limiting usage to surgical treatment, and when treating patients in "high-risk groups". Other infection control procedures, such as instrument sterilization, did not comply with the guidelines of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Two dentists responded that they had treated AIDS patients and three dentists treated possible AIDS/HIV patients in their dental offices. Despite 71.3% expressing a belief that they have a moral responsibility as a dentist to treat AIDS/HIV patients only 15.6% were willing to treat AIDS/HIV patients. Over 40% of the respondents were not certain as to whether they had treated AIDS/HIV patients or not, and over 60% believed AIDS/HIV patients would come to their dental offices in the near future. Therefore, to practice dentistry on AIDS/HIV patients safely, dentists must provide effective infection control in their dental offices on the assumption that all patients are AIDS/HIV positive, and additional information about AIDS/HIV and adequate training on procedures in the care of AIDS/HIV patients are needed.
Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R
Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Methods We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. Results We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Conclusions By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.
Goetz, Katja; Hasse, Philipp; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen M
The consideration of organisational aspects, such as shared goals and clear communication, within the health care team is important to ensure good quality care. In primary health care, the instrument Survey of Organizational Attributes for Primary Care (SOAPC) is available to measure organisational attributes of care. However, there is no instrument available for dental care. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties and test-retest reliability of the version of SOAPC adapted for dental care, namely the Survey of Organizational Attributes in Dental Care (SOADC). The SOADC consists of 21 items in the following four subscales: communication; decision making; stress/chaos; and history of change. Convergent construct validity was measured using the job satisfaction scale. A total of 287 dental-care practices were asked to participate in the validation study. Psychometric properties and test-retest reliability were observed. A total of 43 dental-care practices responded to the survey. At baseline, 178 dental-care staff completed the questionnaire, and 4 weeks later 138 did so. Internal consistency, measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.718 or higher in the subscales. The test-retest reliability for each subscale and the overall SOADC score demonstrated good correlations over the 4-week test-retest interval, except for 'history of change'. A strong correlation with the aggregated job-satisfaction scale showed high convergent construct validity of SOADC. The consideration of organisational aspects from the perspective of dental-care teams is important for providing good quality of care. The SOADC is a reliable instrument with good psychometric properties and is suitable for the evaluation of organisational attributes in dental-care practices. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.
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de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W
Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries and overweight in childhood can be targeted using a common risk factor approach, it is necessary to establish whether the two diseases are indeed linked. The aim of the present study was therefore to use anthropometric data obtained professionally to investigate the association between Body Mass Index and dental caries experience in children aged 5-8 years receiving treatment in a referral centre for paediatric dental care in the Netherlands. Children's dmft and dmfs scores were calculated using dental records and sociodemographic data were also extracted from these records. Dentists were trained to measure standing height and weight in a standardised way. Body Mass Index was calculated by dividing kilograms by height squared (kg/m(2)). Extended International (International Obesity Task Force) body mass index cut-offs were used to define 'no overweight' and 'overweight' (with the latter category including obesity). No statistically significant differences were found between the mean dmft or dmfs scores of the two groups (overweight and non-overweight), even after correction for the effect of the potential confounders sex, socio-economic status and ethnicity. The percentage of caries-active children in the non-overweight group was almost the same as in the overweight group. No statistically significant differences were found. We hypothesised to find a positive association between body mass index and dental caries experience in children aged 5-8 years attending our practice. However, this study did not find a relationship of this kind. A common risk factor approach for the prevention of caries and overweight is therefore not supported by our study.
Full Text Available Background: Dental profession is susceptible to various postural and nonpostural occupational risks. Aim : To determine knowledge, practice, and condition of work place regarding ergonomic posture among dental students from Bhopal city, Central India. Also to observe any correlation among knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores. Materials and Methods : A self-administered questionnaire study was conducted among 231 dental students. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: Knowledge, practice, and condition of work place. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean of knowledge, practice of clinical posture, and condition of work place. Pearson′s correlation coefficient has been applied to compute correlation among knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. Results : We found that 70% of dental students perform torsion of the body and cervical flexion to improve vision and prefer direct vision when working. Only 59% reported that they are working with ergonomically designed dental unit and instruments. Most of them reported that the work stool is not comfortable. Mean knowledge, practice, and condition of work place scores were 3.93 (1.26, 5.01 (1.58, and 2.60 (1.14, respectively. Significant differences between the groups were noted for means of practice scores (P ≤ 0.01. Significant linear correlation was seen between knowledge-practice scores (r = 0.20 (P ≤ 0.01, practice-condition of work place scores (r = 0.14 (P ≤ 0.05, and knowledge-condition of work place scores (r = 0.14 (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion : The knowledge of ergonomic postural requirements and their clinical application among the dental students surveyed were not satisfactory. A multifactorial approach that includes preventive education, postural and positioning strategies, proper selection, and use of ergonomic equipment should be employed.
Thivichon-Prince, Béatrice; Barsotti, Odile; Girard, Raphaele; Morrier, Jean-Jacques
To measure the compliance and the quality of HH practices and the knowledge of the healthcare workers' of the university dental care center. All educators and students present were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each healthcare professional was observed in care situation over a period of 30 min. The knowledge, attitudes and opinions were collected through a questionnaire. Number of healthcare professionals included was 190 (64.4%). Study group consisted of 151 students (74.4%) and 39 educators (42.4%). Out of a total number of expected disinfection of hands (993), 396 were made (39.9%). Educators had a higher compliance rates than students (63.7-35.8%, P = 10(-9)). Large differences were found between care situations (compliance higher before the first care to a patient and lower during installation of patient in dental X-ray area or at exit of dental X-ray area). Concerning hand rubbing (HR), 36.6% were performed correctly, and the main error was all steps of HR not observed (54.4%), and shorter duration (46.7%). The observance and the quality of HR were associated with better knowledge. This data suggests areas of improvement: (1) A comprehensive intervention including care organization/clinic ergonomics/planning/anticipation of materials needed for care; (2) the development of HH education program should include the educators, since the behavior of students is strongly influenced and formed by their mentor's attitude and behaviors.
Dallolio, Laura; Scuderi, Amalia; Rini, Maria S.; Valente, Sabrina; Farruggia, Patrizia; Bucci Sabattini, Maria A.; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Acacci, Anna; Roncarati, Greta; Leoni, Erica
Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02%) and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%), respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions. PMID:24552789
Full Text Available Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02% and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%, respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions.
Dallolio, Laura; Scuderi, Amalia; Rini, Maria S; Valente, Sabrina; Farruggia, Patrizia; Sabattini, Maria A Bucci; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Acacci, Anna; Roncarati, Greta; Leoni, Erica
Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02%) and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%), respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions.
McGoldrick, David M
Acute dislocation of the temporomandibular joint is a situation that, although rare, may present to the dentist in practice at any time. A number of activities, such as removal of a tooth, may cause dislocation. The event is painful and distressing for the patient, their family and the dental team. Prompt management minimises discomfort, distress and long-term morbidity to the patient. We describe the aetiology of acute dislocation and outline a number of techniques that will aid the clinican in dealing with this event.
Happy Adeyinka Adedapo
Conclusion: Self-medication practices were quite high in this study, and these practices were also prevalent among the educated people. Drug control enforcement needs to be intensified and dental public health education needs to be given greater priority in the overall public health campaigns.
Riley, Joseph L; Qvist, Vebeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L
This study surveyed Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) member dentists (from four regions in the U.S. and Scandinavia) who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment in patients aged 6 to 18. Among respondents, 73...
Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Pasquarella, Cesira; Bergomi, Margherita; Fabiani, Leila; Monarca, Silvano; Petti, Stefano
Background The present study assessed microbial contamination in Italian dental surgeries. Methods An evaluation of water, air and surface microbial contamination in 102 dental units was carried out in eight Italian cities. Results The findings showed water microbial contamination in all the dental surgeries; the proportion of water samples with microbial levels above those recommended decreased during working. With regard to Legionella spp., the proportion of positive samples was 33.3%. During work activity, the index of microbial air contamination (IMA) increased. The level of microbial accumulation on examined surfaces did not change over time. Conclusion These findings confirm that some Italian dental surgeries show high biocontamination, as in other European Countries, which highlights the risk of occupational exposure and the need to apply effective measures to reduce microbial loads. PMID:18644099
Kaimenyi, J T; Ndung'u, F L
The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive and AIDS patients amongst 71 dental auxiliaries using on a self administered questionnaire. 65 (91.5%) returned the questionnaire. In general, respondents' knowledge was fair. 87.7% felt that dentistry as practised in Kenya today carries a high risk of transmission of HIV primarily because of improper sterilization of instruments. 72.3% had changed their sex habits since they became aware of the dangers posed by indiscriminate sex. Over 67% used gloves and masks routinely when assisting in the management of AIDS patients. Over 33% did not use protective eye wear and protective covers on operatories routinely because they were not provided by the employer. 27.7% felt that AIDS and HIV positive health workers should stop treating patients. 64.6% advocated that the cost of buying materials and equipment to prevent cross infection be met by the patient and the employer or dentist. 23.1% supported the idea that HIV positive and AIDS patients be isolated from uninfected individuals. In conclusion, a substantial number of dental auxiliaries were wanting in their knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV positive/AIDS patients.
Kelly, P G; Smales, R J
To determine the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for restoring large tooth substance loss in adults. Long-term survival estimates and discounted costs for 245 large indirect restorations were used to calculate their incremental cost-effectiveness over 15 years when compared with direct placement Class II cusp-overlay amalgams and Class IV multisurface resin composites, placed in 100 patients from three private dental practices. The direct placement restorations were more cost-effective than the indirect restorations at all time intervals over the 15-year study period. The full gold crown and the ceramometal crown were the most cost-effective indirect posterior and anterior restorations respectively. The cast gold onlay and the porcelain jacket crown were the least cost-effective indirect posterior and anterior restorations respectively. When clinically practicable, large direct placement restorations should be placed initially in preference to indirect restorations.
Gilbert, Gregg H; Richman, Joshua S; Qvist, Vibeke
Clinical researchers have attempted many methods to translate scientific evidence into routine clinical practice, with varying success. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide an important, practitioner-friendly venue to test these methods. Dentist practitioner-investigators from the Den...
Johnson, Barbara Brooks
Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or... PRODUCTS THEREOF Violations § 354.46 Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or practices. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or fraudulent act or practice made or committed by any person...
ELENA EMILIA STEFAN
Full Text Available Revocation is a method of terminating the legal effects of an administrative act.Just like the general theory of law admits that any subject of law, author of a manifestation of will, is able to withdraw it, in the administrative law there is also possibility for the authority that issued the administrative act to abrogate its own act under certain circumstances.Thus, this study aims at making a presentation of the legal regime of the revocation of administrative acts, starting from aspects such as terminology, legal grounds, reasons, term, and ending with the analysis of the applicable legislation on revocation, particularly of the law on administrative disputes, and much more. Hence, revocability appears to be the fundamental principle of the legal regime of administrative acts, in close connection with the principle of stability of legal relationships.
Elena Emilia TEFAN
Full Text Available Revocation is a method of terminating the legal effects of an administrative act. Just like the general theory of law admits that any subject of law, author of a manifestation of will, is able to withdraw it, in the administrative law there is also possibility for the authority that issued the administrative act to abrogate its own act under certain circumstances. Thus, this study aims at making a presentation of the legal regime of the revocation of administrative acts, starting from aspects such as terminology, legal grounds, reasons, term, and ending with the analysis of the applicable legislation on revocation, particularly of the law on administrative disputes, and much more. Hence, revocability appears to be the fundamental principle of the legal regime of administrative acts, in close connection with the principle of stability of legal relationships.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, the monitoring of prompt and effective treatment for malaria with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is conducted largely through household surveys. This measure; however, provides no information on case management processes at the health facility level. The aim of this review was to assess evidence from health facility surveys on malaria prescribing practices using ACT, in the presence and absence of ACT stock, at time and place where treatment was sought. Methods A systematic search of published literature was conducted. Findings were collated and data extracted on proportion of patients prescribed ACT and alternative anti-malarials in the presence and absence of ACT stock. Results Of the 14 studies identified in which ACT prescription for uncomplicated malaria in the public sector was evaluated, just six, from three countries (Kenya, Uganda and Zambia, reported this in the context of ACT stock. Comparing facilities with ACT stock to facilities without stock (i ACT prescribing was significantly higher in all six studies, increasing by a range of 21.3% in children Conclusions Prescriber practices vary based on ACT availability. Although ACT prescriptions increased and alternative anti-malarials prescriptions decreased in the presence of ACT stock, ACT was prescribed in the absence, and alternative anti-malarials were prescribed in the presence of, ACT. Presence of stock alone does not ensure that treatment guidelines are followed. More health facility surveys, together with qualitative research, are needed to understand the role of ACT stock-outs on provider prescribing behaviours and preferences.
Shao, Li-Na; Qiu, Li-Hong; Zhan, Fu-Liang; Xue, Ming
To apply problem-based learning (PBL) combined with standardized patients(SP) in during-course practice of endodontics for undergraduate dental students, in order to improve the teaching quality. One hundred and four undergraduate dental students of China Medical University School of Stomatology were randomly divided into 2 groups, 52 students in each group. One group were taught with PBL combined with SP while the other group with lecture-based learning (LBL) alone. The teaching effect was measured with examination and questionnaire survey. The data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 11.5 software package. Students in PBL combined with SP group was better than LBL group in case analysis, didactic tests, practical tests and total scores, and there was significant difference between the two groups (PPBL combined with SP group in basic theoretical knowledge scores, and there was significant difference between the two groups (PPBL combined with SP method were welcomed by undergraduate dental students. The abilities of undergraduate dental students can be improved by PBL combined with SP in different aspects. PBL combined with SP achieves satisfactory teaching effect, and can be applied in during-course practice of endodontics to undergraduate dental students.
Brown, L F
Wide variations documented in the provision of periodontal services have raised concerns about possible under- and over-servicing. The aim of this study was to compare various methods used to measure the provision of periodontal services. The methods compared were procedure logs to measure service mix, audits of patients' records and patients' recall of treatment received at their last series of dental visits. The study was conducted among private general dental practices in Adelaide, South Australia. The first aspect of the study compared 2,290 patients' recall of receiving periodontal information, including oral hygiene instruction, or periodontal treatment at their last dental visit(s) with notations of their dental records. Discordance was high, with disagreement occurring in 71.5 per cent of cases for patient education, and 42.2 per cent of cases for periodontal treatment. Comparison of the ranking of the provision of periodontally-related services by 24 dental practices according to the three data collection methods showed that the ranking of a practice was significantly related to the data collection method used (Friedman's two-way ANOVA; P < 0.05). It was concluded that methods used to measure the provision of periodontal care are fallible, and that more than one method may be needed to record the full range of preventive and treatment services.
Friedlander, L; McElroy, K; Daniel, B; Cullinan, M; Hanlin, S
This study aimed to investigate treatment protocols and opinions towards direct pulp capping (DPC) amongst New Zealand (NZ) general dental practitioners (GDP) through a Practice Based Research Network (PBRN) study. Mixed-methods approach using qualitative thematic and quantitative analysis. An on-line survey containing Likert scale items and open-ended questions was distributed to GDPs on the Dental Council of New Zealand (DCNZ) register (2012) to collect information on practitioner demographics, treatment protocols, continuing professional development (CPD) and philosophies towards DPC. RESULTs: Two hundred and ten GDPs from North and South Islands providing care in main centres and rural areas engaged with the PBRN and participated in the study. Almost all performed DPC treatment although it was not a common procedure. DPC was perceived as 'successful' or 'very successful' by 95% of respondents, mostly for cases of reversible pulpitis. Most provided DPC for patients of all ages but younger patients were perceived to have the best clinical outcomes. Calcium hydroxide and MTA were the most commonly used materials for DPC. MTA was believed to have the best outcome but cost and handling properties were barriers to its use. The majority of respondents had participated in CPD related to vital pulp therapy and regarded this treatment as conservative and providing time and financial benefits compared with more invasive treatment. Clinicians' timeframes for assessing healing were variable, and combined clinical and radiographic findings were considered most useful. New Zealand dentists perceive DPC as a successful and conservative treatment in selected cases. The findings have provided insights into engagement of NZ dentists in using research to inform everyday clinical practice through a PBRN study.
Luiz Felipe Fernandes GONÇALVES
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and practical approachesof dental students from UFPB regarding B hepatitis.Method: 197 students from the 1st to the 10th semesters of theDental Course of the Federal University of Paraíba were enrolled inthe study. The students filled in a two-part questionnaire arguingabout: I forms of prevention, routes of transmission and vaccinalscheme of B hepatitis; and II use of individual protective equipment(IPE and occurrence of occupational accidents. Students from the1st to the 4th semesters answered only the questions from part I,while the other students answered the questions from both partsof the questionnaire. Data were submitted to descriptive statisticsand chi-square test. P values <0.05 were considered significant.Results: 89.3% of the respondents affirmed to know the routes oftransmission and forms of prevention of B Hepatitis. Dental/medical/surgical procedures were the most often cited route of transmission(92.6%, while biosecurity was the most recognized form ofprevention (92%. 72.1% of the students had received the B hepatitisvaccine. However, only 50% presented a complete vaccinal schemeand only 9.95% had been tested for seroconversion after receiving3 doses of the vaccine. Occupational accidents occurred in 39students (33.3% and only 17 (43.6% received post-exposureprophylaxis. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.012between the 5th-10th students and the 1st-4th students regardingtheir knowledge of B hepatitis.Conclusion: A high percentage of students from the surveyedpopulation were aware of routes of transmission and forms ofprevention of B hepatitis. However, an equally high percentage ofstudents had incomplete vaccinal scheme and were not tested forseroconversion after receiving 3 doses of the vaccine, beingtherefore vulnerable to B hepatitis.
Henn, Scott A; Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L
BACKGROUND High-level disinfectants (HLDs) are used throughout the healthcare industry to chemically disinfect reusable, semicritical medical and dental devices to control and prevent healthcare-associated infections among patient populations. Workers who use HLDs are at risk of exposure to these chemicals, some of which are respiratory and skin irritants and sensitizers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate exposure controls used and to better understand impediments to healthcare workers using personal protective equipment while handling HLDs. DESIGN Web-based survey. PARTICIPANTS A targeted sample of members of professional practice organizations representing nurses, technologists/technicians, dental professionals, respiratory therapists, and others who reported handling HLDs in the previous 7 calendar days. Participating organizations invited either all or a random sample of members via email, which included a hyperlink to the survey. METHODS Descriptive analyses were conducted including simple frequencies and prevalences. RESULTS A total of 4,657 respondents completed the survey. The HLDs used most often were glutaraldehyde (59%), peracetic acid (16%), and ortho-phthalaldehyde (15%). Examples of work practices or events that could increase exposure risk included failure to wear water-resistant gowns (44%); absence of standard procedures for minimizing exposure (19%); lack of safe handling training (17%); failure to wear protective gloves (9%); and a spill/leak of HLD during handling (5%). Among all respondents, 12% reported skin contact with HLDs, and 33% of these respondents reported that they did not always wear gloves. CONCLUSION Findings indicated that precautionary practices were not always used, underscoring the importance of improved employer and worker training and education regarding HLD hazards.
Newadkar, Ujwala Rohan; Chaudhari, Lalit; Khalekar, Yogita K
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the awareness and practices of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for oral health-care management among dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 dental students of final year and internship selected by simple random sampling using a close-ended questionnaire. Results: Among the total respondents, 52% were females and 48% were males. Nearly, 14% of the students were not aware of the different categories of the CAM and 12% of them were not aware of its implication in oral health-care management. Conclusion: Majority of the students was aware of CAM, yet they do not follow the use of the same for their patient's oral health-care management. Hence, a small provision regarding the knowledge of CAM should be imposed under the undergraduate curriculum for the dental students so that it should be implemented in their practice in future.
Quick, Karin K
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the nature of the role played by self- and peer assessment in the development of dental students' reflective practice skills and the value gained through structured encounters with standardized patients. Four standardized patient encounters in an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) format served as a learning experience for students to demonstrate decision making and communication skills in complex scenarios regarding issues of ethics. Self- and peer assessment and peer-to-peer discourse were used to enhance student reflection. A sample of 16 peer pairs was randomly selected from the population of 108 fourth-year students who participated in the 2014 Clinical Dental Ethics OSCE. Data were collected from self- and peer assessment forms. Five overall performance themes (personal affect, verbal communication, professional demeanor, relationship-building, and patient management) and three student learning themes (application and knowledge, ways to change, and impressed with peer/increased confidence in self) were identified. The results showed that peer assessment ratings were consistently higher than those in the self-assessments, but overall the students deemed both their peers' and their own decision making and communication skills to be quite good. These students rated their experience with the OSCE and self- and peer assessments as positive, appreciating the importance of reflection and learning from their peers. These results provide support for the continued formative use of standardized patient OSCEs and self- and peer assessment to help students develop skills in decision making, communication, professionalism, and reflection.
Hingston, Emma Jane; Parmar, Sharlene; Hunter, Margaret Lindsay
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans, leaving the dental profession to look for viable substitutes to formocresol in the vital pulpotomy technique. This study was designed to examine the attitudes and practices of Community Dental Service (CDS) staff in Wales in relation to vital pulpotomy for primary molars 18 months following the IARC's press release. The study employed a postal questionnaire. Questionnaires were returned by 79 (78.2%) of the CDS staff surveyed, yielding a sample of 65 dentists practising the technique. The most commonly used pulpotomy agents were formocresol, paraformaldehyde and ferric sulphate. Twenty-seven (41.5%) dentists expressed concern regarding their preferred pulpotomy agent and 17 (26.2%) were considering changing their technique. Only one respondent (1.5% of the sample) routinely took preoperative radiographs; follow-up radiographs were routinely taken by only three dentists (4.6%). Only 44 respondents (67.7%) always used local anaesthesia for this form of treatment. Amalgam was the most commonly used restorative material. Twenty-two respondents (33.8%) stated that they would pulp treat a primary molar on more than one occasion. The results of this study suggest that there is need for relevant continuing professional development courses for CDS staff in Wales.
Togoo, Ra; Nasim, Vs; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, Sm
It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures.
Mendia, Jonathan; Cuddy, Michael A; Moore, Paul A
Providing needed dental treatment, managing oral infection, and controlling pain are essential functions of dentists for helping patients maintain overall health during pregnancy. Medications commonly required for dental care consist of local anesthetics and associated vasoconstrictors, centrally and peripherally acting analgesics, sedative and anxiolytic agents, and antibiotics. Therapeutic drugs routinely used in dental practice are selected because of their known safety and effectiveness. However, for a pregnant patient requiring dental care, the agents routinely prescribed should be reevaluated for potential risks to the mother and/or fetus. The decision to administer a specific drug requires that the benefits outweigh the potential risks of the drug therapy. This article reviews and updates the recommendations for using dental therapeutic agents, thereby enabling general practitioners to select the safest drugs when treating pregnant dental patients.
Little, Miles; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Kerridge, Ian
To examine the nature, scope and significance of virtues in the biographies of medical practitioners and to determine what kind of virtues are at play in their ethical behaviour and reflection. A case study involving 19 medical practitioners associated with the Sydney Medical School, using semi-structured narrative interviews. Narrative data were analysed using dialectical empiricism, constant comparison and iterative reformulation of research questions. Participants represented virtuous acts as centrally important in their moral assessments of both themselves and others. Acts appeared to be contextually virtuous, rather than expressions of stable character traits, and virtue was linked to acts that served to protect or enhance fundamental values attached to ontological security and human flourishing. Virtue ethics, in this sense, was the single most important ethical system for each of the participants. Virtue ethics, construed as the appraisal of acts in contexts of risk, danger or threat to foundational values, emerged as the 'natural' ethical approach for medical practitioners in this case study. Teaching medical ethics to students and graduates alike needs to accommodate the priority attached to virtuous acts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Heft, Marc W
with restorative intervention in lesions that have penetrated only the enamel surface. This study surveyed dentists from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) who had reported doing at least some restorative dentistry (n = 901). Dentists were asked to indicate the depth at which they would restore...
Esam S Halboub
Full Text Available Dealing with diagnostic X-ray radiation may result in serious health problems, unless protection guidelines are followed. This became prevalent immediately a decade following the invention of X-ray radiation, where it had not been known that the accumulative exposure to X-ray radiation may carry huge health hazards. The reoccurrence of various fatal cancer cases compelled the concerned health authorities to develop safety standards to be followed by all X-ray clinics and technicians worldwide. This report documents the clinical case of a dental radiographer, who developed thumbs carcinoma after 15 years of practicing the profession, most likely due to his neglect of the X-ray radiation protection guidelines.
Fotedar, Shailee; Bhardwaj, Vinay; Manchanda, Kavita; Fotedar, Vikas; Sarkar, Avishek De; Sood, Naintara
The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among undergraduate dental students about oral cancer. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among undergraduate dental students between the 3rd and 5th years in H.P Government Dental College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., version 16 for Windows, Chicago, IL, USA). The response rate of the study was 90.6%. There were 23 (21.5%) males and 84 (78.5%) females in the study. There was a predominance of females (78.5%). The average knowledge percentage for the entire population is 81.9% (excellent knowledge). Tobacco and alcohol were correctly identified by 63.5% of the subjects. Squamous cell carcinoma was described as the most common type of oral cancer by 105 (98.3%) of the students. 60.7% of the subjects strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current and adequate, and 99% agreed that there is a need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. About 92.5% of the subjects used to educate their subjects about the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol. The study implies that the knowledge, especially about the etiological factors of oral cancer needs to be reinforced throughout the undergraduate dental courses so that they can use the same in educating and motivating the masses to adapt healthy lifestyles.
Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya Prasad; Mohammed, Mudasser; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Gunjalli, Gururaj
Before arrival into doctor's clinic, child might have acquired an impression of a clinical environment and doctor's appearance. Different kind of doctor's attire may evoke different reactions. By understanding children and parent's perception and preferences about dentist's attire, a suitable dress code could be adopted to establish good rapport with children. To evaluate children and parental perceptions and preferences towards dentist attire. A questionnaire designed with series of photographs of male and female dental students in different attires was responded by 150 parents aged 29 to 63 years and 150 children aged 9 to 13 years. Seventy percent of children participants (n = 104) and 42% of parents participants (n = 63) favored the traditional white coat attire. However, 58% parents (n = 87) significantly preferred non-white coat attires in comparison to 30% of children (n = 46) (χ(2) = 21.61, p 0.05), no-significant association was found between parents and children response to white coat (χ(2) = 0.39, p = 0.53). A highly significant difference was found between the male participants, who favored the male dentist and female participants preferring the female dentist (χ(2) = 47.16, p < 0.001). Our study attempted to rule out the stereotyped concept of 'white coat fear' among children, both children and parents favored traditional white coat attire, contrary to popular misconception 'white coat syndrome'. However, use of child friendly attires could be useful in anxious children for better practice management. How to cite this article: Ellore VPK, Mohammed M, Taranath M, Ramagoni NK, Kumar V, Gunjalli G. Children and Parent's Attitude and Preferences of Dentist's Attire in Pediatric Dental Practice. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):102-107.
Stanford, Clark M; Wagner, Wilfried; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ruggero; Norton, Michael; McGlumphy, Edwin; Schmidt, Joseph
Evaluations of multicenter clinical trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of care in routine implant therapy in clinical practice. Ninety-two clinicians in 75 clinics in 13 countries recruited five subjects per clinic who were in need of a minimum of two dental implants to restore a partially edentulous quadrant and were followed for a minimum of 1 year after loading. A centralized Internet-based case report form was developed to coordinate data recording. Data entry was done by each clinic, with follow-up source verification. The study recruited 549 subjects in 101 clinics with 1,893 implants placed. Three hundred forty subjects completed the 1-year recall (gender distribution of 56% female, 44% male; mean age of 57 years with a range of 18 to 84 years). In all, 1,246 dental implants were followed; a majority of subjects had two to four implants. Twenty-eight percent of subjects received osseous grafting prior to or coincident with implant placement. In the maxilla, 779 (63%) implants were placed, 256 in the anterior and 523 in the posterior; in the mandible, 467 implants were placed, 85 in the anterior and 382 in the posterior arch. The median edentulous period prior to implant placement was 24 months (range, 0 to 480 months); 46% of all patients received implants within 12 months of tooth loss. At 1 year after prosthesis insertion, 15 subjects had lost a total of 17 implants, for a cumulative implant survival rate of 98.6%. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests indicated a higher risk of implant loss at sites with advanced resorption and for wider-diameter implants (5-mm tapered body). There was no statistical relationship with implant loss relative to implant length or anatomic location within the oral cavity. The outcomes support the need for ongoing involvement of clinicians in routine practice assessments of patient-based outcomes of implant therapy.
Cantrell, Lezlie M.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify, compile, and describe how community college graduate dental hygienists perceived their initial dental hygiene curriculum preparation and how they subsequently adapted their curriculum preparation in order to perform their responsibilities in their first clinical dental hygiene job.…
Cantrell, Lezlie M.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify, compile, and describe how community college graduate dental hygienists perceived their initial dental hygiene curriculum preparation and how they subsequently adapted their curriculum preparation in order to perform their responsibilities in their first clinical dental hygiene job.…
Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that leadership and management skills protect dental practices against the effects of an economic recession. Methods: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study. Dentists (n=232 were randomly selected to participate in an online survey in which they were asked about their practice activity. Results: A total of 162 questionnaires were returned (response rate 70%. Results indicated that improved leadership and management skills are positively related to the probability that a practice remained stable or increased its productivity during the economic recession: OR=2.39 (95% CI; 1.08-5.3. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dental practices applying leadership and management skills are related to attract and retain patients, as measured by increased numbers of both initial consultations and continued patronage (return visits; and keep the economic crisis’ impact on revenue manageable.
... advertisement, if those stores do not have the advertised products in stock and readily available to customers... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. 424.1 Section 424.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES RETAIL FOOD...
Primitivo Roig; Elsbeth Kalenderian; Jaime Pinilla
Objective: To test the hypothesis that leadership and management skills protect dental practices against the effects of an economic recession. Methods: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study. Dentists (n=232) were randomly selected to participate in an online survey in which they were asked about their practice activity. Results: A total of 162 questionnaires were returned (response rate 70%). Results indicated that improved leadership and management skills are positively related to th...
... rulemaking authority over a motor vehicle dealer that is predominantly engaged in the sale and servicing of... necessary to reflect nomenclature and other technical amendments required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Notably..., replacing appropriate ] nomenclature to reflect the transfer of authority to the Bureau, and changing...
Laramie, Angela K; Bednarsh, Helene; Isman, Beverly; Boiano, James M; McCrone, Susan H
Dental healthcare workers (DHWs) are at risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBPs). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration Bloodborne Pathogens Standard requires employers to have a written exposure control plan (ECP) detailing methods and means to reduce and manage occupational BBP exposures. Because little information is available on whether ECPs are created and used, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Organization for Safety, Asepsis and Prevention conducted an online survey to determine if dental practices had an ECP, whether present ECPs had the necessary components, and if impediments existed to prevent having an ECP in place. Respondents were primarily from nonfranchised practices (69%) and dentists who owned the practice (63%). Seventy-two percent of survey participants had an ECP, and 20% were unaware of any federal requirements for an ECP prior to the survey. Engineering controls were used by many practices, although the type varied. Fifteen percent of practices did not offer the hepatitis B vaccine for employees. The survey revealed many dental practices were unaware of or were lacking required elements of the ECP. Findings from this survey indicate DHWs would benefit from increased education regarding methods to prevent occupational exposures to BBPs.
Full Text Available Background: According to World Oral Health report 2003, the prevalence of periodontitis is 86% in India. Dental care can sometimes be a forgotten part of a healthy life style. While its importance is often underestimated, the need for regular dental care cannot be overstated. Oral health has been neglected for long in India. The scarce literature on dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits and behavior among the adult population in Rajasthan prompted us to assess the preventive oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices in patients attending outpatient department of Vyas Dental College and Hospital (VDCH, Jodhpur through this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients in the age group 15-50 years were selected using random sampling technique. A self-administered structured questionnaire including 16 multiple choice questions was given to them. The results were analyzed using percentage. Results: The result of this study shows an acute lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices. In Jodhpur, few people use tooth brush. Conclusions: Hence, there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral health and impart education about correct oral hygiene practices.
Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.The paper below details a summary of the findings of the seventh critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal identified no evidence on the epidemiological scale of cross-infection caused in dental practices and therefore also of the cost impact of cross-infection caused in primary dental practices. As a result, no 'cost of illness', or cost-benefit assessment, exists or is feasible at this time.
Tunde Joshua Ogunrinde
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental care knowledge, and practice of secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Four hundred and twelve secondary school adolescents were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data on dental care knowledge and practice obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with level of significance set at 5%. Result: Consumption of sticky, sugary and chocolaty food items was perceived by a majority (81.8% as unhealthy to dental health and 66.3% perceived consumption of fruits and vegetables as healthy to the teeth. Vertical brushing technique was mentioned by 69.7% of respondents as the best method of brushing the teeth, and 89.6% stated that teeth should be brushed twice daily. Majority 57.0% of respondents open caps of soft drink bottles with their teeth and 74.3% used toothpicks to remove food trapped in between teeth. Majority (82.8% perceived that dentist should be visited for check-up once in 6 months, however, only 31.6% of respondents had visited dentists before. There was a statistically significant relationship between tooth brushing technique and type of school attended by the respondents (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents have good oral health knowledge but poor dental health practice.
Young, Douglas A; Nový, Brian B; Zeller, Gregory G; Hale, Robert; Hart, Thomas C; Truelove, Edmond L
The caries lesion, the most commonly observed sign of dental caries disease, is the cumulative result of an imbalance in the dynamic demineralization and remineralization process that causes a net mineral loss over time. A classification system to categorize the location, site of origin, extent, and when possible, activity level of caries lesions consistently over time is necessary to determine which clinical treatments and therapeutic interventions are appropriate to control and treat these lesions. In 2008, the American Dental Association (ADA) convened a group of experts to develop an easy-to-implement caries classification system. The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs subsequently compiled information from these discussions to create the ADA Caries Classification System (CCS) presented in this article. The ADA CCS offers clinicians the capability to capture the spectrum of caries disease presentations ranging from clinically unaffected (sound) tooth structure to noncavitated initial lesions to extensively cavitated advanced lesions. The ADA CCS supports a broad range of clinical management options necessary to treat both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions. The ADA CCS is available for implementation in clinical practice to evaluate its usability, reliability, and validity. Feedback from clinical practitioners and researchers will allow system improvement. Use of the ADA CCS will offer standardized data that can be used to improve the scientific rationale for the treatment of all stages of caries disease. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pretty, Iain A; Maupomé, Gerardo
Parts 5 and 6 of this series examine innovations in diagnostic and management procedures and assess their potential to become everyday tools of the dental clinician. This paper examines some of the diagnostic tools supporting a philosophical shift in mainstream dental practice from concern with extensively decayed teeth to a focus on detecting incipient demineralized tissues. With the latter approach, the incipient carious process can be reversed by promoting enamel remineralization and thus eliminating the need for restorative intervention. Numerous methods and devices have been developed to detect, diagnose and monitor such lesions, and several have been produced in versions that may appeal to dental practitioners. This paper considers 3 of these methods and devices: the DIAGNODent laser device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence and the Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination device. Each technique is illustrated, the research on its effectiveness is assessed to determine usefulness to the practitioner, and the comparative advantages of the 3 adjunct tools are discussed.
Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush
Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3-5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5-16 -year-olds attending grade 1-5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Caries prevalence for 5-6 -year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5-6 -year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year
Barton, Karen L; Schofield, Susie J; McAleer, Sean; Ajjawi, Rola
...'. The aim of this paper is to present a case study demonstrating how an entire programme's assessment and feedback practices were re-engineered and evaluated in line with evidence from the literature in the interACT...
Andrews, Elizabeth A
In the ever-changing landscape of education, health professions programs must be adaptable and forward-thinking. Programs need to understand the services students should be educated to provide over the next 25 years. The movement to increase collaboration among health professionals to improve health care outcomes is a significant priority for all health professions. Complex medical issues frequently seen in patients can best be addressed with interprofessional health care teams. Training future health care providers to work in such teams facilitates collaborative care and can result in improved outcomes for patients. What skills will dental students need in 2040 to practice as part of these interprofessional teams? Important skills needed for success are collaboration, communication, professionalism, and the ability to manage medically complex patients. These abilities are in alignment with the four Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) core competency domains and will continue to be key skills necessary in the future. Transitioning to a one university approach for preclinical and clinical training along with development of an all-inclusive electronic health record will drive this model forward. Faculty training and continuing education for clinicians, residents, and allied health providers will be necessary for comprehensive adoption of a team-based collaborative care system. With the health care delivery system moving towards more patient-centered, team-based care, interprofessional education helps future clinicians develop into confident team members who will lead health care into the future and produce better patient outcomes. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."
Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM
Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures. PMID:23440030
The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)
The author traces the development of speech act theory from Wittgenstein and Austin through Searle to Grice and shows how their work led to the notional functional approach to language teaching, which is based on the learner and his/her communicative needs. (CFM)
Kothe, Christian; Hissbach, Johanna; Hampe, Wolfgang
Although some recent studies concluded that dexterity is not a reliable predictor of performance in preclinical laboratory courses in dentistry, they could not disprove earlier findings which confirmed the worth of manual dexterity tests in dental admission. We developed a wire bending test (HAM-Man) which was administered during dental freshmen's first week in 2008, 2009, and 2010. The purpose of our study was to evaluate if the HAM-Man is a useful selection criterion additional to the high school grade point average (GPA) in dental admission. Regression analysis revealed that GPA only accounted for a maximum of 9% of students' performance in preclinical laboratory courses, in six out of eight models the explained variance was below 2%. The HAM-Man incrementally explained up to 20.5% of preclinical practical performance over GPA. In line with findings from earlier studies the HAM-Man test of manual dexterity showed satisfactory incremental validity. While GPA has a focus on cognitive abilities, the HAM-Man reflects learning of unfamiliar psychomotor skills, spatial relationships, and dental techniques needed in preclinical laboratory courses. The wire bending test HAM-Man is a valuable additional selection instrument for applicants of dental schools.
Shankar, Thatapudi; Gowd, Snigdha; Suresan, Vinay; Mantri, Sneha; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Mishra, Prateek; Panday, Pragya
The aim of this study was to assess the denture hygiene knowledge and practices among patients using complete dentures attending a postgraduate dental hospital in Jabalpur city. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between hygiene knowledge and practices to the denture wearer's gender, education, and income. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving the complete denture patients attending the Department of Prosthodontics. The study subjects were randomly selected by recruiting old dentures wearers visiting the Department of Prosthodontics for a recall visit or for new dentures on the odd dates of the month. All subjects signed an informed consent before filling the questionnaire. The institutional review committee approved the study. Descriptive statistics included computation of frequencies and percentages. Nonparametric test, namely, chi-square test, was used for further data analysis; p-value dentures for more than 5 years. In this study, 51 (10.2%) subjects reported never having been advised by their dentists as to how to clean their dentures. Among all the subjects interviewed, 264 (52.8%) reported to clean the oral tissues daily. This study disclosed that 66 (13.2%) of the subjects usually slept with their dentures. Maximum subjects in illiterate group had experienced bad breath sometimes when compared with subjects in postgraduate group (χ(2) = 47.452, p denture cleaning according to gender (χ(2) = 101.076, p denture wearers have limited knowledge of denture cleansing and oral hygiene practices. Hygiene habits and practices may not always present a positive correlation with the gender, educational level, and income of the subjects. Periodic recall for evaluation of denture and mucosal surfaces along with reinforcement of denture hygiene instructions will go a long way in helping the patients reap maximum benefits out of their prostheses.
C. Steven Wolff
Full Text Available Recent experiences would suggest that there is a significant discrepancy in the number of doctors retiring and transitioning their practices and the number of younger practitioners wishing to assume ownership and build a career. Peaks and valleys in dental school enrollment over the last forty years should have produced an abundance of retirement aged doctors wishing to place their practices on the market to a smaller pool of buyers. Such is currently not the case. Doctors in their sixties have experienced recent stock market downturns in 2000 and 2008, the “9-11” tragedy and a drop in both the value and liquidity of the housing market. The ready access to refinance or second mortgage funds may even find some doctors upside down on personal, vacation and investment real estate. All of this combined has had considerable negative impact on their net worth. Health care costs continue to increase and most dentists are personally responsible for their premiums. Combine all of this with the current low level of secure returns on invested capital along with a significant increase in life expectancy over the last two generations and many decide they are simply unable to retire as planned. The fear of running out of money is stronger than their will to pursue retirement. This article examines in some detail the reasons for this imbalance and the effects they are having on practice transitions, practice values and the market for associate employment. We will also explore what the future may hold for both retiring and new career doctors.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or... Misrepresentation, deceptive, or fraudulent act or practice. Any willful misrepresentation or any deceptive or... identification in the labeling or advertising of any product. [71 FR 42011, July 24, 2006] ...
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A
A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.
Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Schwambach, Carolina Wolff; de Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira
This study evaluated the activities of dentists, dental care and oral hygiene practices in the long-term care institutions of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil). A semi-structured questionnaire was handed out to the coordinators of 37 philanthropic and 30 private institutions. The data was compared by the chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests. 81% of the questionnaires were answered. The majority of the private (74.2%) and philanthropic institutions (87%) do not have a dentist (p=0.21). The location, period of existence, type institution kind and number of residents weren't factors regarding the presence of a dentist (p>0.05). 67% of the philanthropic institutions with equipped consultation rooms had dentists, though there were none when there was no consultation room. Even without consultation rooms, 13% of the private institutions had dentists. When necessary, 69.6% of the philanthropic institutions refer the elderly to public health centers, while 58.1% of the private institutions refer them to their family dentists. A higher percentage of the private institutions adopted systematic oral hygiene procedures (p=0.01), with a considerable divergence of treatment reported. There is a need to include a dentist on the health staff in the institutions and for systematization of oral hygiene practices.
Mays, Keith A
Community-based dental education (CBDE) enhances students' clinical expertise, improves their cultural competence, increases access to care, and fosters community engagement. As emphasis on CBDE has increased over the last decades, the aim of this survey study was to determine how CBDE is currently being implemented in U.S. dental schools. The study used a 20-item, author-designed survey emailed in April to August 2015 to 60 of the 65 U.S. dental schools, excluding those that had been recently established. Of the 60 schools, representatives of 33 responded, resulting in a 55% response rate: 70% public and 30% private. These respondents reported that the extramural sites being used the most were community clinics (90.9%), Federally Qualified Health Clinics (66.7%), public health clinics (54.5%), and Indian Health Service clinics (42.4%). The majority of responding schools (63.6%) had ten or more sites available for rotations, and the rotation lengths were 1-2 weeks (29%), 2-4 weeks (25%), 4-6 weeks (29%), 6-8 weeks (3.2%), and 8-10 weeks (12.9%). Most of the respondents (78.8%) reported that their students were unable to be assessed for clinical competencies at external clinical sites, but roughly half allowed students to receive clinical credit. After students completed their rotations, the majority of the respondents (81.8%) reported that students were required to produce a reflection, and 87.9% reported that students completed a post-rotation survey. Considering the benefits of CBDE for students' education and for improving access to oral health care, it is encouraging that over 45% of the responding schools required their students to spend four weeks or longer on external rotations.
The balanced scorecard is a strategic management system that impels managers to focus on the performance metrics that drive success. It measures the business process and links a management method for process improvement to strategic goals. A medical practice can use a balanced scorecard to improve operational performance and quality or service, which generates higher levels of patient satisfaction and better financial management.
James J McGrath
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to see if there was any correlation between the variables of age, gender, practice location and longevity, and type of practice on the risk-taking behavior of dentists in Connecticut. Risk-taking behavior was defined as the willingness to adopt new technologies. A questionnaire was used to gather data, and a series of questions were then posed to estimate the degree to which the responding dentists would be willing to implement the technology into their practices. Materials and Methods: Three hundred Connecticut dentists were randomly selected from a list of dentists that was provided by Benco Dental Supply Company. A questionnaire was written and mailed to all 300 dentists with a return envelope inside. One hundred twenty-nine dentists responded. The questionnaire contained questions to gather demographic information about the respondents. It posed a hypothetical situation that described a new imaging technology that was recently brought into the market. The only differences between this technology and current imaging machines were that it did not emit any radiation, and it was twice as expensive as comparable imaging technologies. A risk score was calculated based on the responses to the three main questions. Those who would adopt the technology quickly or immediately received higher risk scores, and those who would wait or would not buy the technology at all received low risk scores. The data were then analyzed with SPSS software to detect if there were statistically significant differences between different groups of dentists. Results: Male dentists were found to have higher risk scores than their female counterparts. Men in the 30-39-years age range had the highest risk scores, while women in this age range had the lowest. As age increased, the difference between the sexes decreased. Specialists were found to have higher risk scores compared to general dentists of the same gender; however, male
Pabel, Sven-Olav; Pabel, Anne-Kathrin; Schmickler, Jan; Schulz, Xenia; Wiegand, Annette
The aim of this study was to evaluate if differential learning in a preclinical dental course impacted the performance of dental students in a practical exam (preparation of a gold partial crown) immediately after the training session and 20 weeks later compared to conventional learning. This controlled study was performed in a preclinical course in operative dentistry at a dental school in Germany. Third-year students were trained in preparing gold partial crowns by using either the conventional learning (n=41) or the differential learning approach (n=32). The differential learning approach consisted of 20 movement exercises with a continuous change of movement execution during the learning session, while the conventional learning approach was mainly based on repetition, a methodological series of exercises, and correction of preparations during the training phase. Practical exams were performed immediately after the training session (T1) and 20 weeks later (T2, retention test). Preparations were rated by four independent and blinded examiners. At T1, no significant difference between the performance (exam passed) of the two groups was detected (conventional learning: 54.3%, differential learning: 68.0%). At T2, significantly more students passed the exam when trained by the differential learning approach (68.8%) than by the conventional learning approach (18.9%). Interrater reliability was moderate (Kappa: 0.57, T1) or substantial (Kappa: 0.67, T2), respectively. These results suggest that a differential learning approach can increase the manual skills of dental students.
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.
Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V
Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services
Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
effect of socio-behavioral risk factors on perceived dental health, perceived need for dental care, and experience of dental symptoms. A cross-sectional survey of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight capital cities in China; the response rate was 92%. The study population was chosen by multistage......The objectives of this study were: to describe perceived dental health status and oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in Chinese urban adolescents; to assess the associations of oral health variables with socio-economic status and school performance; and to analyse the relative...
Boy, Sonja; Crossley, David; Steenkamp, Gerhard
Developmental tooth abnormalities in dogs are uncommon in general veterinary practice but understanding thereof is important for optimal management in order to maintain masticatory function through preservation of the dentition. The purpose of this review is to discuss clinical abnormalities of the enamel and general anatomy of dog teeth encountered in veterinary dental referral practice and described in the literature. More than 900 referral cases are seen annually between the two referral practices. The basis of the pathogenesis, resultant clinical appearance, and the principles of management for each anomaly will be described. Future research should be aimed toward a more detailed analysis of these conditions so rarely described in the literature. PMID:26904551
Zisi, Sonila; Bortollini, Sergio; Muntianu, Ligia; Papakoca, Kiro; Mihai BURLIBASA
Microbial biofilms play an essential role in oral pathology, in the etiology of dental caries, periodontopathy, but also in surface contamination of dental materials (and here we refer to prosthetic material such as acrylic materials usedfor dentures, occlusal rims, try-in dentures, dental alloys used in fixed dental restorations, impression materials, etc.)
Moradi Khanghahi, Behnam; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Naghavi Behzad, Mohammad; Azami-Aghdash, Saber
Background and aims Infection control is an important issue in dentistry, and the dentists are primarily responsible for observing the relevant procedures. Therefore, the present study evaluated knowledge, attitude, practice, and status of infection control among Iranian dentists through systematic review of published results. Materials and methods In this systematic review, the required data was collected searching for keywords including infection, infection control, behavior, performance, practice, attitude, knowledge, dent*, prevention, Iran* and their Persian equivalents in PubMed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, and Magiran databases with a time limit of 1985 to 2012. Out of 698 articles, 15 completely related articles were finally considered and the rest were excluded due to lake of relev-ance to the study goals. The required data were extracted and summarized in an Extraction Table and were analyzed ma-nually. Results Evaluating the results of studies indicated inappropriate knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control among Iranian dentists and dental students. Using personal protection devices and observing measures required for infection control were not in accordance with global standards. Conclusion The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control in Iranian dental settings were found to be inadequate. Therefore, dentists should be educated more on the subject and special programs should be in place to monitor the dental settings for observing infection control standards. PMID:23875081
Eric Priyo Prasetyo
Full Text Available The people generally tend to associate a dental practice with a strange clinical atmosphere and a range of strange looking instruments, and furthermore pain during dental treatments. This condition more or less raises an anxiety to the patient and affects the patient’s regular dental attendance. Since anxiety has a significant role to the perception of pain, many attempts to make the patients relax are therefore needed to be done. Along with the advanced era, the development of science and technology affects the world of dental practice. Dentists are encouraged to provide better dental services and treat their patients holistically. In order to fulfill this, additional facilities such as music are needed. It was found that patients who listened to the preferred music before, during, and after their dental treatment tended to have the lower rate of anxiety. This decreased anxiety was the result of greatly increased feelings of relaxation and calmness, since music could dramatically influence physiological and psychological processes. Music based on preference also provided most patients a non-threatening and pleasurable experience. Recently, music as part of dental practice has been widely used in America and Europe. This article is purposed to inform that music as an additional facility plays an important role in reducing the patient’s anxiety to provide better dental care and patient management.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), 2009
Taking care of someone with a developmental disability requires patience and skill. As a caregiver, you know this as well as anyone does. You also know how challenging it is to help that person with dental care. It takes planning, time, and the ability to manage physical, mental, and behavioral problems. Dental care isn't always easy, but you can…
Victorelli, Gabriela; Flório, Flávia Martão; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; de Souza Fonseca Silva, Almenara
The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis of waste management practices among a group of Brazilian dental students (n=64) before and after implementing two different pedagogical methods: 1) the students attended a two-hour lecture based on World Health Organization standards; and 2) the students applied the lessons learned in an organized group setting aimed toward raising their awareness about socioenvironmental issues related to waste. All eligible students participated, and the students' learning was evaluated through their answers to a series of essay questions, which were quantitatively measured. Afterwards, the impact of the pedagogical approaches was compared by means of qualitative categorization of wastes generated in clinical activities. Waste categorization was performed for a period of eight consecutive days, both before and thirty days after the pedagogical strategies. In the written evaluation, 80 to 90 percent of the students' answers were correct. The qualitative assessment revealed a high frequency of incorrect waste disposal with a significant increase of incorrect disposal inside general and infectious waste containers (p<0.05). Although the students' theoretical learning improved, it was not enough to change behaviors established by cultural values or to encourage the students to adequately segregate and package waste material.
Shilpa Ashish Warhekar
Full Text Available Introduction: Dentists are at an increased risk of being infected. Some patients may be unaware of their infected status while some patients are unwilling to tell the dentists their disease status. Gloves should be worn in almost all patient procedures. Aim: To assess association between thickness, tactile perception, and permeability of commercial latex examination gloves used in dental practice. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was conducted in Central India. A total of 600 gloves, 120 each from five brands (Kaltex, Nulife, Smartcare, Handshield, Medi-image were used. Thickness was measured using stereomicroscope. Permeability to fluids was evaluated through 0.2% erythrosine dye. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923 was used to check for microbial permeability. Tactile sensibility was assessed by 2-point discriminator test using 2-point-calipers on 30 volunteers. Chi-square test and Binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: Mean thickness of gloves was 0.1333 (range: 0.1028-0.1799. Dye and microbial test showed 10.6% and 43.3% permeability of gloves, respectively. No significant difference was observed among brands. Thicker gloves (0.1285-0.1542 yielded lower touch sensibility (odds ratio: 0.783, P < 0.05. Decrease in tactility was recorded in 78.6% of volunteers with gloves compared to no gloves. Conclusion: Considerable microbial permeability suggests commercial examination gloves are unsafe. Balance between thickness, permeability and touch sensation should be established to decrease permeability maintaining same touch sensibility.
Inukai, Junko; Sakurai, Miwa; Nakagaki, Haruo
OBJECTIVES: The profession of dental hygienist is one of the few in which the primary function of the practitioner is to prevent oral disease and to promote the well-being of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical training conditions in schools of dental hygiene in eight...... countries (the USA, Canada, the UK, Sweden, Denmark, Thailand, South Korea and Japan). METHODS: In 2006, we sent out a questionnaire in which we asked dental hygiene schools about how they educate dental hygiene students. RESULTS: The techniques taught to students in schools in Western industrialised...... are trained to perform local anaesthesia and to fill and extract deciduous teeth although the country does not have a specific qualification system. CONCLUSIONS: The contents of clinical training and education in schools of dental hygiene differ greatly among countries....
Johnson, Thomas M; Badovinac, Rachel; Shaefer, Jeffry
Surveys were sent to Harvard School of Dental Medicine students and graduates from the classes of 2000 through 2006 to determine their current primary means of achieving mandibular anesthesia. Orthodontists and orthodontic residents were excluded. All subjects received clinical training in the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block and two alternative techniques (the Akinosi mandibular block and the Gow-Gates mandibular block) during their predoctoral dental education. This study tests the hypothesis that students and graduates who received training in the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, the Akinosi mandibular block, and the Gow-Gates mandibular block will report more frequent current utilization of alternatives to the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block than clinicians trained in the conventional technique only. At the 95 percent confidence level, we estimated that between 3.7 percent and 16.1 percent (mean=8.5 percent) of clinicians trained in using the Gow-Gates technique use this injection technique primarily, and between 35.4 percent and 56.3 percent (mean=47.5 percent) of those trained in the Gow-Gates method never use this technique. At the same confidence level, between 0.0 percent and 3.8 percent (mean=0.0 percent) of clinicians trained in using the Akinosi technique use this injection clinical technique primarily, and between 62.2 percent and 81.1 percent (mean=72.3 percent) of those trained in the Akinosi method never use this technique. No control group that was completely untrained in the Gow-Gates or Akinosi techniques was available for comparison. However, we presume that zero percent of clinicians who have not been trained in a given technique will use the technique in clinical practice. The confidence interval for the Gow-Gates method excludes this value, while the confidence interval for the Akinosi technique includes zero percent. We conclude that, in the study population, formal clinical training in the Gow-Gates and
Mertz, Elizabeth; Wides, Cynthia; White, Joel
This study assesses dental clinicians' pre- and post-implementation attitudes, skills, and experiences with three clinical decision support (CDS) tools built into the electronic health record (EHR) of a multi-specialty group dental practice. Electronic surveys designed to examine factors for acceptance of EHR-based CDS tools including caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA), periodontal disease management by risk assessment (PEMBRA) and a risk assessment-based Proactive Dental Care Plan (PDCP) were distributed to all Willamette Dental Group employees at 2 time points; 3 months pre-implementation (Fall 2013) and 15 months after implementation (winter 2015). The surveys collected demographics, measures of job experience and satisfaction, and attitudes toward each CDS tool. The baseline survey response rate among clinicians was 83.1% (n = 567) and follow-up survey response rate was 63.2% (n = 508). Among the 344 clinicians who responded to both before and after surveys, 27% were general and specialist dentists, 32% were dental hygienists, and 41% were dental assistants. Adherence to the CDS tools has been sustained at 98%+ since roll-out. Between baseline and follow-up, the change in mean attitude scores regarding CAMBRA reflect statistically significant improvement in formal training, knowing how to use the tools, belief in the science supporting the tools, and the usefulness of the tool to motivate patients. For PEMBRA, statistically significant improvement was found in formal training, knowing how to use the tools, belief in the science supporting the tools, with improvement also found in belief that the format and process worked well. Finally, for the PDCP, significant and positive changes were seen for every attitude and skill item scored. A strong and positive correlation with post-implementation attitudes was found with positive experiences in the work environment, whereas a negative correlation was found with workload and stress. Clinicians highly
Berg, Rob; Call, Richard L; Maguire, Kerry; Berkey, Douglas B; Karshmer, Bernard A; Guyton, Brad; Tawara-Jones, Karen
The University of Colorado Denver School of Dental Medicine has operated a community-based dental education program for all of its students since 1985. A database of student productivity has been maintained in a standardized format, capable of multiyear compilation, since 1994. This study utilizes twelve years of these data to profile the type and amount of clinical treatment that can be provided by a typical fourth-year dental student during a 100-day community-based training experience. Between 1994 and 2006, the school's 423 graduates provided a mean of 922 treatment procedures per student at a mean of 498 patient visits per student. During a typical four-week clinical affiliation, each student provided a mean of approximately twenty-seven restorations on permanent teeth, sixteen restorations on primary teeth, and twenty-four oral surgery procedures (extractions). Students also gained considerable experience in periodontics, fixed and removable prosthodontics, and endodontics. Self-assessed competency ratings tended to increase after completing the program, as did willingness to treat underserved populations after graduation. About 16 percent of graduates reported planning to practice in the public sector after completing dental school. A community-based experience such as this appears to offer an opportunity to substantially augment dental students' clinical training experiences.
Riley, Joseph L; Qvist, Vebeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Rindal, D Brad; Richman, Joshua S; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V
This study surveyed Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) member dentists (from four regions in the U.S. and Scandinavia) who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment in patients aged 6 to 18. Among respondents, 73% of dentists reported performing caries risk assessment among these patients, while 14% assessed caries risk by using a special form. Regions in which most dentists were in a private practice model were the least likely to perform caries risk assessment, while regions where most dentists practiced in a large group practice model were the most likely to use a special form for caries risk assessment. Recent graduates from dental school were more likely to use a caries risk assessment compared to older graduates. Current oral hygiene, decreased salivary flow, and the presence of active caries were rated as the most important caries factors. Some differences by region were also evident for the risk factor ratings. These results suggest that not all community dentists assess caries risk. The results of this study also indicate considerable variability in dentists' views concerning the importance of specific caries risk factors in treatment planning and weak evidence that caries risk assessment is driving clinical practice when preventive treatment recommendations are being considered.
S T Prashanth
Full Text Available Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about the role of sugar in producing dental decay, and frequency of visit to the dentist. All children were screened and DMF and def scores were recorded and oral hygiene status were assessed by Green and Vermillion index. Results: Green and Vermillion index. Kruskal Wallis Chi square test was performed and no statistically significant results were obtained with DMF and def scores as well as OHI scores across different ages in the range of 8 to 13 years. A highly statistically significant result was obtained with dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of visually impaired children. Conclusions: The present study shows not much worsening of oral health status in the study population. A little extra care by the parent or caretaker regarding oral hygiene can give drastic results in reduction of dental caries.
Abdulwahab, Mohammad; Al-Sayegh, Fatima; Boynes, Sean G; Abdulwahab, Hawra; Zovko, Jayme; Close, John
The objective of this study was to examine the public health relevance of the prevalence of dental fear in Kuwait and the resultant barrier that it creates regarding access to dental care. The study analysis demonstrated a high prevalence of dental fear and anxiety in the Kuwaiti population and a perceived need for anesthesia services by dental care providers. The telephone survey of the general population showed nearly 35% of respondents reported being somewhat nervous, very nervous, or terrified about going to the dentist. In addition, about 36% of the population postponed their dental treatment because of fear. Respondents showed a preference to receive sedation and anesthesia services as a means of anxiety relief, and they were willing to go to the dentist more often when such services were available. People with high fear and anxiety preferred to receive some type of medication to relieve their anxiety. In conclusion, the significance and importance of the need for anesthesia services to enhance the public health of dental patients in Kuwait has been demonstrated, and improvements are needed in anesthesia and sedation training of Kuwaiti dental care providers.
Sonja Catharina Boy
Full Text Available Developmental tooth abnormalities in dogs are uncommon in general veterinary practice but understanding thereof is important for optimal management in order to maintain gnathic function through conservation of the dentition. The purpose of this review is to discuss abnormalities of enamel structure and macroscopic tooth anatomy in dogs encountered in veterinary dental referral practice in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The basis of the pathogenesis, resultant clinical appearance and the management principles of each anomaly will be considered. Future research should aim to provide a detailed individual tooth mineralization schedule for dogs.
Aragon, Cecilia E; Burneo, Jorge G
Epilepsy, which is characterized by the risk of recurrent seizures, is a chronic disease that afflicts about 200,000 Canadians at any one time. Dentists with a thorough knowledge of seizure disorders and the medications used to treat them can provide necessary dental and oral health care to these patients. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of epilepsy, seizures and antiepileptic drugs and provide information on dental-related issues, as well as guidelines for the management of an acute seizure in the dental office.
Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Rindal, D Brad
BACKGROUND: Practice-based research networks offer important opportunities to move recent advances into routine clinical practice. If their findings are not only generalizable to dental practices at large, but can also elucidate how practice characteristics are related to treatment outcome......, their importance is even further elevated. Our objective was to determine whether we met a key objective for The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN): to recruit a diverse range of practitioner-investigators interested in doing DPBRN studies. METHODS: DPBRN participants completed an enrollment...... questionnaire about their practices and themselves. To date, more than 1100 practitioners from the five participating regions have completed the questionnaire. The regions consist of: Alabama/Mississippi, Florida/Georgia, Minnesota, Permanente Dental Associates, and Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden). We...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidance on the cleaning of dental instruments in primary care has recently been published. The aims of this study are to determine if the publication of the guidance document was enough to influence decontamination best practice and to design an implementation intervention strategy, should it be required. Methods A postal questionnaire assessing current decontamination practice and beliefs was sent to a random sample of 200 general dental practitioners. Results Fifty-seven percent (N = 113 of general dental practitioners responded. The survey showed large variation in what dentists self-reported doing, perceived as necessary or practical to do, were willing to do, felt able to do, as well as what they planned to change. Only 15% self-reported compliance with the five key guideline-recommended individual-level decontamination behaviours; only 2% reported compliance with all 11 key practice-level behaviours. The results also showed that our participants were almost equally split between dentists who were completely unmotivated to implement best decontamination practice or else highly motivated. The results suggested there was scope for further enhancing the implementation of decontamination guidance, and that an intervention with the greatest likelihood of success would require a tailored format, specifically targeting components of the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, perceived behavioural control, intention and implementation intention theory (action planning. Conclusion Considerable resources are devoted to encouraging clinicians to implement evidence-based practice using interventions with erratic success records, or no known applicability to a specific clinical behaviour, selected mainly by means of researchers' intuition or optimism. The methodology used to develop this implementation intervention is not limited to decontamination or to a single segment of primary care. It is also in accordance with the preliminary
McCracken, Michael S; Louis, David R; Litaker, Mark S; Minyé, Helena M; Oates, Thomas; Gordan, Valeria V; Marshall, Don G; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Gilbert, Gregg H
To: (1) determine which impression and gingival displacement techniques practitioners use for single-unit crowns on natural teeth; and (2) test whether certain dentist and practice characteristics are significantly associated with the use of these techniques. Dentists participating in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network were eligible for this survey study. The study used a questionnaire developed by clinicians, statisticians, laboratory technicians, and survey experts. The questionnaire was pretested via cognitive interviewing with a regionally diverse group of practitioners. The survey included questions regarding gingival displacement and impression techniques. Survey responses were compared by dentist and practice characteristics using ANOVA. The response rate was 1777 of 2132 eligible dentists (83%). Regarding gingival displacement, most clinicians reported using either a single cord (35%) or dual cord (35%) technique. About 16% of respondents preferred an injectable retraction technique. For making impressions, the most frequently used techniques and materials are: poly(vinyl siloxane), 77%; polyether, 12%; optical/digital, 9%. A dental auxiliary or assistant made the final impression 2% of the time. Regarding dual-arch impression trays, 23% of practitioners report they typically use a metal frame tray, 60% use a plastic frame, and 16% do not use a dual-arch tray. Clinicians using optical impression techniques were more likely to be private practice owners or associates. This study documents current techniques for gingival displacement and making impressions for crowns. Certain dentist and practice characteristics are significantly associated with these techniques. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Nascimento, Marcelle M.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Qvist, Vibeke; Bader, James D.; Rindal, D. Brad; Williams, O. Dale; Gewartowski, Daniel; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Gilbert, Gregg H.
Objective To quantify the reasons for placing restorations on non-carious tooth defects (NCTD) by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists, and associated tooth, patient and dentist characteristics. Methods Data were collected on placement of 1,301 restorations due to NCTD by 178 DPBRN dentists. Information included: (1) main clinical occurrence or reason, other than dental caries, for restoring previously un-restored permanent tooth surfaces, (2) characteristics of patients who received treatment, (3) dentists’ and dental practices’ characteristics, (4) tooth and surfaces restored, and (5) restorative materials employed. Results Restorations were most often placed to treat abrasion, abfraction, and erosion (AAE) lesions (46%) and tooth fracture (31%). Patients older than 40 years received restorations mainly due to AAE (pcarious tooth surfaces among DPBRN practices. Premolar and anterior teeth of patients older than 40 years are most likely to receive restorations due to AAE; molars are most likely to receive restorations due to tooth fracture. Both types of NCTD are most often restored with RBC. PMID:22130438
Shweta Suresh Bhayade
Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, dental caries is the most common disease of the early childhood. Its increased prevalence in younger age group have been predictive of oral health problems in future, affecting oral health and development leading to several morbid conditions of oral and general health. Prevalence and incidence of dental caries is highly influenced by a number of risk factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, dietary patterns, and oral hygiene habits. Aim: To assess social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur. Materials and Methodology: A cross sectional study in 27 Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur was carried out over a period of two months and a total of 324 subjects attending the Anganwadis were enrolled. Social, demographic and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries were assessed in the study population. Results: Out of 324 subjects, 206 had dental caries and 38 were found to be malnourished. A significant association was found among age, malnutrition, parent′s educational status, oral hygiene practices, total number of siblings, and dental caries. Conclusion: Anganwadis should be addressed routinely on effective oral and general health promoting strategies which must include education of parents, oral and general health issues, risk factors for dental caries, and malnutrition in children below 5 years of age.
Kim, Reuben Han-Kyu; Yang, Paul; Sung, Eric C
As medical technology advances in the area of cancer therapeutics, dental practitioners will encounter patients with active cancer or a history of cancer. Typically, these patients may have had or are undergoing therapies such as surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combination of therapies. These patients may present with multiple side effects that dental practitioners can manage or prevent. We discuss some of these concerns and provide management strategies.
Hu, Jian; Yu, Hao; Shao, Jun; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Yining
Background: Computer-assisted tools are rarely adopted for dental education in China. In China, 3D digital technology, such as Virtual Reality Systems, are often rejected in the dental field due to prohibitive pricing. There is also a reluctance to move away from traditional patterns of dental education. Objective: The current study is one of a…
Hu, Jian; Yu, Hao; Shao, Jun; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Yining
Background: Computer-assisted tools are rarely adopted for dental education in China. In China, 3D digital technology, such as Virtual Reality Systems, are often rejected in the dental field due to prohibitive pricing. There is also a reluctance to move away from traditional patterns of dental education. Objective: The current study is one of a…
Jong-Lenters, M. de; Dommelen, P. van; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.
Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries an
de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W
BACKGROUND: Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries a
de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; van Dommelen, Paula; Schuller, Annemarie A; Verrips, Erik H W
BACKGROUND: Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries a
de Jong-Lenters, M.; van Dommelen, P.; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.
Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries an
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b introduction of solid food, c intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d fluoride exposure, and e oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.
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van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Rurup, Mette L.; Buiting, Hilde M.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.; Hanssen-de Wolf, Johanna E.; Janssen, Anke G. J. M.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Rietjens, Judith A. C.; Prins, Cornelis J. M.; Deerenberg, Ingeborg M.; Gevers, Joseph K. M.; van der Maas, Paul J.; van der Wal, Gerrit
BACKGROUND: In 2002, an act regulating the ending of life by a physician at the request of a patient with unbearable suffering came into effect in the Netherlands. In 2005, we performed a follow-up study of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other end-of-life practices. METHODS: We mailed q
Sobotta, Bernhard A J; John, Mike T; Nitschke, Ina
To describe dental treatment needs and demands of crew on a cruise ship during a world cruise. The routine dental documentation of a two months period at sea on a cruise ship carrying 999 crew was analysed. Age, gender, diagnosis, treatment performed, percentage of emergency and routine procedures, number of appointments, duration of appointment and time since last visit to the dentist were recorded. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile. Subjects were n = 56 crew with a mean age of 37 (+/- 12.0) years. Out of 114 patient contacts n = 29 (25%) were for emergency treatment. Caries and its sequelae accounted for 85% of time spent treating emergencies and 50% of routine treatment time. The two most frequent treatment options during emergency appointments were extractions and endodontics. In routine cases fillings and periodontal treatment were dominating. Per 1000 persons per month crew required 14.5 emergency plus 42.5 routine appointments. 80 % of crew had seen a dentist within 12 months before their shipboard dental appointment. Oral health-related quality of life was most impaired in case of emergency patients with a particular emphasis on the diagnosis of pulpal disease. High numbers of dental emergencies largely due to caries indicated that International Labour Organisation (ILO) recommendations requiring seafarers to be dentally fit were not adhered to. It is suggested that some doctors performing pre-sea medical examinations may not adequately diagnose caries. A pre-sea examination by a dental professional has the potential to reduce the number of emergency port referrals to dentists. Treatment costs and attitude to preventive dental care were identified as barriers impeding the access of low-wage crew to the ship's dental clinic. Cosmetic dentistry and prophylaxis attracted those crew with an interest in prevention and the ability to pay the fees. In large cruise ships there is a substantial
Full Text Available Objective: To explore undergraduate dental students′ mobile technological preferences and their use in learning and patient management in dentistry. Materials and Methods: An online survey questionnaire (62 Questions in five parts was designed to investigate the impact of mobile technology in dental education amongst the Bachelor in Dental Science and Graduate Dental Science (1 st -5 th year students, at the School of Dentistry, Griffith University, Australia. Participation was voluntary. Results: In total, 251 dental students consented to participate in the study. The majority of participants were in the age group of 18-25 (65.3%. Mobile devices were used by 93.2% of the respondents for various activities including for educational purposes. Laptops and smartphones′ ownership was almost similar; however, 75.7% favoured laptop as the primary device for resource storage, study, research, and organization of study materials. Social media were used by 52% of the 5th year respondents for studies and course-related activities. Majority of the students (78.8% indicated that mobile devices with their software applications could positively assist in patient education and management; however, the relative lack of user-friendly quality applications meant that only 15%-25% of students used software applications for these purposes. Conclusion: The large student ownership of mobile devices and increased interest in its use to enhance learning experiences should encourage universities and software developers to funding research into mobile learning.
Newby, J P; Keast, J; Adam, W R
The evidence available suggests that many dentists on graduation do not feel competent managing medical emergencies; a problem requiring improved undergraduate training. This study developed a comprehensive simulation based training programme for final year undergraduate dental students and assessed student attitudes towards training. Final year dental students (n = 52) from The University of Melbourne were required to complete simulation training incorporating an interactive tutorial and realistic, simulated emergency scenarios conducted in the students' real clinical environment. A post-participation questionnaire utilizing a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) assessed student attitudes. Student responses supported simulation training, evidenced by the following selected questionnaire responses: achieved greater confidence in managing emergencies 4.65 ± 0.48 (n = 52); prefer lecture to simulation 1.46 ± 0.74 (n = 52); simulation training is important in undergraduate teaching 4.86 ± 0.35 (n = 43). Realistic simulation training in management of medical emergencies for dental students is an effective adjunct to traditional lecture style teaching. Given the importance of this subject, this mode of training would benefit students if incorporated into undergraduate dental courses. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.
Telsavaara, Terhi V T; Arrigo, Bruce A
The Debbie Smith or "Justice for All" Act was passed on November 1, 2004. The act addresses the problem of collecting and analyzing DNA evidence from backlogged rape kits sitting in crime laboratories around the country. Presently, no empirical data exist by which to assess the soundness of the legislation. However, the act clearly affects discrete operations within the forensic and criminal justice systems. This article explores the relative merits of the Debbie Smith law, highlighting changes in Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs, law enforcement, court administration, correctional treatment, and juvenile justice practices. Concerns linked to the likely impact of the "Justice for All" Act raise significant questions about its overall programmatic utility and treatment efficacy.
DENTAL RECORDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DENTIST AND PATIENT PROTECTION, AND ITS MAINTENANCE IS CONSIDERED AN ETHICAL AND LEGAL OBLIGATION OF THE DENTIST: Ethical, because it satisfies the duty of care that the dentist has toward his patient and legal, as it is an investment for future protection against medico-legal complications. In addition to its legal and ethical role, the dental fraternity in India is slowly waking up to its importance in forensic dentistry. Dentists could play a vital role in assisting forensic investigators in providing information that would help in the identification of perpetrators or victims of crime and natural or manmade disaster situations. This information would be easily available and accessible through well-maintained patient records under dental care.
Hamedani Sh. DDS, MSc
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association (ADA), along with 10 other academic associations and societies recently (December 2012) published their mutual clinical practice guideline “Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures.” This evidence-based guideline ,detailed in 325 pages, has three recommendations and substitutes the previous AAOS guideline. The new published clinical guideline is a protocol to pre...
Taghizadeh Ganji A.
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results."nResults: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively."nConclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.
Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Heft, Marc W
with restorative intervention in lesions that have penetrated only the enamel surface. This study surveyed dentists from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) who had reported doing at least some restorative dentistry (n = 901). Dentists were asked to indicate the depth at which they would restore...... that they would restore a proximal enamel lesion, while 24% would do so once the lesion had reached into the outer third of the dentin. For a low caries risk patient, 39% of respondents reported that they would restore an enamel lesion, and 54% would do so once the lesion had reached into the outer third...... of the dentin. In multivariate analyses that accounted for dentist and practice characteristics, dentists in large group practices were less likely to intervene surgically for enamel caries, regardless of patient's caries risk....
Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Eleazer, Paul D.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Worley, Donald C.
Introduction A preliminary study done by a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network precursor observed that 44% of general dentists (GDs) reported always using a rubber dam (RD) during root canal treatment (RCT). This full-scale study quantified use of all isolation techniques, including RD use. Methods Network practitioners completed a questionnaire about isolation techniques used during RCT. Network Enrollment Questionnaire data provided practitioner characteristics. Results 1,490 of 1,716 eligible GDs participated (87%); 697 (47%) reported always using a RD. This percentage varied by tooth type. These GDs were more likely to always use a RD: do not own a private practice; perform less than 10 RCT/month; have postgraduate training. Conclusions Most GDs do not use a RD all the time. Ironically, RDs are used more frequently by GDs who do not perform molar RCT. RD use varies with tooth type and certain dentist, practice, and patient characteristics. PMID:26015159
Singh, Prakashni; King, Temalesi
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease. These factors include the presence of cariogenic micro-organisms, fermentable carbohydrates in diet, susceptible tooth and time. Diet appears to strongly affect caries development. The aim of this study was to examine the feeding practices of infants and pre-school children in the Central Division of the Fiji Islands and suggest appropriate preventive dental strategies. A sample of 102 children aged 6-36 months was randomly selected. Information on feeding practices and oral hygiene habits was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents from the post-natal clinics. Children were categorized into age groups of 6-12, 13-24 and 25-36 months. Most of the children (55.5%) were bottle fed in the 6-12 months age group and 44.5% were breast-fed. However percentage of children being breast-fed decreased markedly increased with age. Most of them were breast-fed at some stage. The children who were bottle-fed increased in the 13-24 months age group but decreased in 25-36 months group. Snacks were given between meals for most of the children. Sugar was used as the common sweetener among bottle-fed children. Parents are definitely in need of appropriate advice on feeding and oral hygiene practices. An oral health education programme needs to be mounted at post-natal clinics.
Alamri, Hadi Mohammed; Sadrameli, Mitra; Alshalhoob, Mazen Abdullah; Sadrameli, Mahtab; Alshehri, Mohammed Abdullah
This article reviews the various clinical applications of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A literature search was conducted via PubMed for publications related to dental applications of CBCT published between January 1998 and June 15, 2010. The search revealed a total of 540 articles, 129 of which were clinically relevant and analyzed in detail. A literature review demonstrated that CBCT has been utilized for oral and maxillofacial surgery, endodontics, implantology, orthodontics, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, periodontics, and restorative and forensic dentistry. This literature review showed that the different indications for CBCT are governed by the needs of the specific dental discipline and the type of procedure performed.
Chadwick, R Graham; Mason, Andrew G
This investigation sought to: (a) determine the agents used by nine dentists to treat dentine hypersensitivity and measure their effectiveness; (b) evaluate the adoptive ease and apparent success of the most effective treatment when used by all nine dentists; and (c) validate a novel categorical ranking score for dentine hypersensitivity. A clinical audit methodology was used in the setting of general dental practice. In the initial data-collection round, patients presenting with dentine hypersensitivity were treated using the dentist's favoured regimen. Evaluation of agent effectiveness was made by patient completion of a pre- and post-treatment visual analogue scale (VAS) for the frequency (f) and severity (s) of hypersensitivity. A four-point categorical ranking scale (CRS) was also used to assess the impact of hypersensitivity upon lifestyle (L) (1=No sensitivity/effect on what I eat/drink; 2=Sometimes sensitive, rarely interfering with what I eat/drink; 3=Sometimes sensitive, occasionally interfering with what I eat/drink; 4=Always sensitive, always interfering with what I eat/drink). The most successful treatment was determined and used by all participating dentists. Its effectiveness was then assessed using the same criteria. Four agents were routinely used to treat hypersensitivity: (Duraphat (D) (Colgate), Duraphat & Sensodyne (DS) (GlaxoSmithKline), Sensodyne (S) (GlaxoSmithKline), Seal & Protect (SP) (De Trey, Dentsply). All produced statistically significant (P<0.001) reductions in VAS (Tukey) and CRS (Kruskal-Wallis) scores, except for DS and S. Of these, the greatest percentage reduction was seen for SP (f=72.01%, s=71.19%, L=45.98%). When SP was applied by all dentists, similar percentage reductions were seen (f=68.74%, s=75.85%, L=38.33%). The CRS, in both data-collection rounds, correlated well with the corresponding VAS scores (Spearman R for f=0.77 (P<0.001) and for s=0.80 (P<0.001). For the dentists in this audit, the use of SP was found to be
Al-Fouzan, Khalid S.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment by general dental practitioners working in private dental centers in different cities within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 400 general dental practitioners. Completed questionnaires were analyzed in term of simple summary statistics. A total of 252 (63%) practitioners responded. The majority of the respondents were Syrians (59%) and Egyptians (32%). Ninety-one per cent of the respondents indicated that they performed root canal treatment. Amongst those who carried out root canal treatment, only seven practitioners (3%) used rubber dam for isolation. More than half of the respondents (55%) used saline to irrigate canals during treatment. Forty-six per cent of practitioners used formocresol as an inter appointment medicament. The standardized and step-back preparation techniques were the method of choice for the majority of the respondents (91%). Ninety-seven per cent of the practitioners used stainless steel hand instruments to prepare root canals and the majority (92%) used gutta-percha for obturation. Seventy-four per cent of the respondent used cold lateral condensation. The average number of radiographs routinely taken for root canal treatment was four. Ninety-three per cent indicated that they usually completed a root canal treatment of molar teeth in three or more visits. Eighty-eight per cent of the practitioners preferred waiting for 1 or 2 weeks to restore the teeth permanently. Results of this study confirm that many general dental practitioners are not following quality guidelines for endodontic treatment. PMID:23960485
Al-Fouzan, Khalid S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment by general dental practitioners working in private dental centers in different cities within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 400 general dental practitioners. Completed questionnaires were analyzed in term of simple summary statistics. A total of 252 (63%) practitioners responded. The majority of the respondents were Syrians (59%) and Egyptians (32%). Ninety-one per cent of the respondents indicated that they performed root canal treatment. Amongst those who carried out root canal treatment, only seven practitioners (3%) used rubber dam for isolation. More than half of the respondents (55%) used saline to irrigate canals during treatment. Forty-six per cent of practitioners used formocresol as an inter appointment medicament. The standardized and step-back preparation techniques were the method of choice for the majority of the respondents (91%). Ninety-seven per cent of the practitioners used stainless steel hand instruments to prepare root canals and the majority (92%) used gutta-percha for obturation. Seventy-four per cent of the respondent used cold lateral condensation. The average number of radiographs routinely taken for root canal treatment was four. Ninety-three per cent indicated that they usually completed a root canal treatment of molar teeth in three or more visits. Eighty-eight per cent of the practitioners preferred waiting for 1 or 2 weeks to restore the teeth permanently. Results of this study confirm that many general dental practitioners are not following quality guidelines for endodontic treatment.
Full Text Available Background: Injuries from occupational accidents are associated with agents of biological risk, as they are the gateway to serious and potentially lethal infectious diseases that can be spread by contact between people. Several studies have demonstrated that dental students are among the most vulnerable to blood borne exposure. Materials and Methods: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding risk of HIV transmission through accidental needle stick injury amongst dental students and providing supportive and proper guidelines regarding needle stick injuries and HIV infection. Study Design: This was a cross sectional study done at a dental college attached to a tertiary care hospital which included third, fourth year students and interns. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi square test. Results: Of the 120 students 13(11% were not even aware that virus could be transmitted through infected needle. A significant proportion of the third year students i.e. 27 (67.5% were not aware of correct method of disposal of disposable needles and syringes as against interns 17(42.5%. Around 31(26% said that they would promote active bleeding at the site of injury and 37(30% said they would take post exposure prophylaxis. Conclusion: Dental professionals are at a risk of occupational acquisition of HIV primarily due to accidental exposure to infected blood and body fluids. There is a need of correcting the existing misconceptions through education programmes early in the course and providing supportive and proper guidelines regarding needle stick injuries and HIV infection.
Jong-Lenters, M. de; van Dommelen, P.; Schuller, A.A.; Verrips, E.H.W.
Background Obesity and dental caries are widely-recognised problems that affect general health. The prevention of both dental caries and obesity have proven very difficult: children and their parents may need professional support to achieve behaviour change. To find out whether both dental caries and overweight in childhood can be targeted using a common risk factor approach, it is necessary to establish whether the two diseases are indeed linked. The aim of the present study was therefore to...
Kloeffler, G Davis
Dental professionals can intervene in head, neck and facial pain found in female patients who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are three theories for why women are predisposed to pain: hormonal differences, nervous system rewiring and sympathetic issues. This article includes case studies of three patients who are representative of these theories. A rapid, nonintrusive intervention will also be described.
Ashima Garg Sood
Conclusions: There is need for education regarding hazards associated with improper waste disposal at all levels of dental personnel. It is imperative that waste should be segregated and disposed off in a safe manner to protect the environment as well as human health.
Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s, the focus of studies on tooth wear has steadily shifted from the general condition towards the more specific area of dental erosion; equally, a shift has occurred from studies in adults to those in children and adolescents. During this time, understanding of the condition has increased greatly. This paper attempts to provide a critical overview of the development of this body of knowledge, from earlier perceptions to the present. It is accepted that dental erosion has a multifactorial background, in which individual and lifestyle factors have great significance. Notwithstanding methodological differences across studies, data from many countries confirm that dental erosion is common in children and young people, and that, when present, it progresses rapidly. That the condition, and its ramifications, warrants serious consideration in clinical dentistry, is clear. It is important for the oral healthcare team to be able to recognize its early signs and symptoms and to understand its pathogenesis. Preventive strategies are essential ingredients in the management of patients with dental erosion. When necessary, treatment aimed at correcting or improving its effects might best be of a minimally invasive nature. Still, there remains a need for further research to forge better understanding of the subject.
Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Johansson, Anders
Since the mid-1990s, the focus of studies on tooth wear has steadily shifted from the general condition towards the more specific area of dental erosion; equally, a shift has occurred from studies in adults to those in children and adolescents. During this time, understanding of the condition has increased greatly. This paper attempts to provide a critical overview of the development of this body of knowledge, from earlier perceptions to the present. It is accepted that dental erosion has a multifactorial background, in which individual and lifestyle factors have great significance. Notwithstanding methodological differences across studies, data from many countries confirm that dental erosion is common in children and young people, and that, when present, it progresses rapidly. That the condition, and its ramifications, warrants serious consideration in clinical dentistry, is clear. It is important for the oral healthcare team to be able to recognize its early signs and symptoms and to understand its pathogenesis. Preventive strategies are essential ingredients in the management of patients with dental erosion. When necessary, treatment aimed at correcting or improving its effects might best be of a minimally invasive nature. Still, there remains a need for further research to forge better understanding of the subject. PMID:22505907
Fred H. Besthorn
Full Text Available It was only weeks after the planes crashed into the twin towers on that bright, sunlit morning of September 11th, 200l, that it became apparent that the most important challenge now facing American democracy was how well would we strike a balance between liberty and security. This paper will look at the history of civil liberties in light of threats to national security. It will examine components of the US Patriot Act, how these provisions are being applied and the potential implication of the act on social work education and practice. Suggestions of how social work might respond to these new realities will be discussed.
McCracken, Michael S; Louis, David R; Litaker, Mark S; Minyé, Helena M; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V; Marshall, Don G; Gilbert, Gregg H
The objectives of this study were to quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown and test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are associated significantly with this likelihood. Dentists in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In 4 clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. The authors used these responses to calculate a dentist-specific crown factor (range, 0-12). A higher score implied a higher likelihood of recommending a crown. The authors tested certain characteristics for statistically significant associations with the crown factor. A total of 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists (83%) responded. Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, or endodontically treated or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, practitioners in the Southwest, and practitioners with a balanced workload were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who used optical scanners for digital impressions. There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. Although consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied according to type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture-whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations-prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... children on the Internet. 312.3 Section 312.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.3 Regulation of unfair... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts...
Bader, James D.
Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…
James Rufus John
Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.
Sobotta, Bernhard A J; John, Mike T; Nitschke, Ina
To describe oral health of passengers and crew attending the dental service aboard during a two months world cruise. In a retrospective, descriptive epidemiologic study design the routine documentation of all dental treatment provided at sea was analysed after the voyage. Subjects were n = 57 passengers (3.5 % of 1619) with a mean age of 71 (+/- 9.8) years and n =56 crew (5.6 % of 999) with a mean age of 37 (+/- 12.0) years. Age, gender, nationality, number of natural teeth and implants were extracted. The prosthetic status was described by recording the number of teeth replaced by fixed prosthesis and number of teeth replaced by removable prosthesis. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and characterised by the OHIP sum score. Women attended for treatment more often than men. Passengers had a mean number of 20 natural teeth plus substantial fixed and removable prosthodontics. Crew had a mean of 26 teeth. British crew and Australian passengers attended the dental service above average. Crew tended to have a higher average OHIP-14 sum score than passengers indicating an increased rate of perceived problems. Emergency patients from both crew and passengers have a higher sum score than patients attending for routine treatment. In passengers the average number of teeth appears to be higher than that of an age matched population of industrialized countries. However, the passengers' socioeconomic status was higher which has an effect on this finding. Socioeconomic factors also serve to explain the high standard of prosthetic care in passengers. Crew in general present with less sophisticated prosthetic devices. This is in line with their different socioeconomic status and origin from developing countries. The level of dental fees aboard in comparison to treatment costs in home countries may explain some of the differences in attendance. Passengers have enjoyed high standards of prosthetic care in
Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell J; James, Ali; Mackenzie, Louis; Thompson, Owen; Pal, A; Sands, Peter; Palin, William M
This paper evaluates the five year clinical evaluation of restorations formed in a low shrinkage stress resin composite material (3M ESPE Filtek Silorane, Seefeld, Germany) and placed in the general dental practices of five members of the PREP Panel, a group of UK practice-based researchers. Results indicated satisfactory performance of the material under evaluation, other than for marginal staining, which affected 60% of the restorations evaluated after five years, albeit with less than 10% of the circumference of the restorations being affected. The low shrinkage stress material, Filtek Silorane™, demonstrated good clinical performance in the majority of parameters which were assessed at five years. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Becker, Daniel E
Appropriate preoperative assessment of dental patients should always include analysis of their medications. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common group of medical disorders that dentists encounter, and the number of drugs prescribed for managing these conditions is staggering. This justifiably raises concern and probable confusion regarding side effects and possible drug interactions with medications the dentist may deem necessary for dental care. This continuing education article is the first in a series that will address essential pharmacology of medications commonly prescribed for chronic medical care. A reasonable understanding of these agents will allow the dentist to better appreciate the medical status of their patients and avoid adverse interactions with drugs they might administer or prescribe. PMID:18085840
Abdel-Fattah, R A
Malpractice lawsuit cases due to temporomandibular joint/soft tissue injuries following dental therapy are increasing. Therefore, dentists and their staffs must know how to recognize, document and avoid any possible aggravation or precipitation of TMJ disorder. TMJ anatomy, biomechanics and mechanisms of TMJ injuries are presented. Etiological factors such as psychological factors, parafunctional activities, malocclusion, trauma, iatrogenic causes, systemic conditions, developmental disorders, neoplastic growth or medications are discussed. Preventive measures addressed include: history-taking, patient examination, complete records, the assessment of the patient's general condition, documentation of pre-existing findings, informing and educating the patient, performing only the necessary procedures, modifying appointments, selecting less traumatic dental techniques, avoiding sudden occlusal alterations and preparedness to handle unwanted complications.
Makhija, Sonia K; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Gilbert, Gregg H; Litaker, Mark S; McClelland, Jocelyn A; Louis, David R; Gordan, Valeria V; Pihlstrom, Daniel J; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Mungia, Rahma; McCracken, Michael S
Dentists enrolled in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a study questionnaire about techniques and materials used for single-unit crowns and an enrollment questionnaire about dentist/practice characteristics. The objectives were to quantify dentists' material recommendations and test the hypothesis that dentist's and practice's characteristics are significantly associated with these recommendations. Surveyed dentists responded to a contextual scenario asking what material they would use for a single-unit crown on an anterior and posterior tooth. Material choices included: full metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), all-zirconia, layered zirconia, lithium disilicate, leucite-reinforced ceramic, or other. 1777 of 2132 eligible dentists responded (83%). The top 3 choices for anterior crowns were lithium disilicate (54%), layered zirconia (17%), and leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (13%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist's gender, race, years since graduation, practice type, region, practice busyness, hours worked/week, and location type. The top 3 choices for posterior crowns were all-zirconia (32%), PFM (31%), and lithium disilicate (21%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist's gender, practice type, region, practice busyness, insurance coverage, hours worked/week, and location type. Network dentists use a broad range of materials for single-unit crowns for anterior and posterior teeth, adopting newer materials into their practices as they become available. Material choices are significantly associated with dentist's and practice's characteristics. Decisions for crown material may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. Dentists should be cognizant of this when developing an evidence-based approach to selecting crown material. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction: The effort to increase patient safety has become one of the main focal points of all health care professions, despite the fact that, in the field of dentistry, initiatives have come late and been less ambitious. The main objective of patient safety is to avoid preventable adverse events to the greatest extent possible and to limit the negative consequences of those which are unpreventable. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain what adverse events occur in each dental care acti...
Dumbing down the profession or meeting the need of more patients by the optimum management of resources? Unequivocally, patient safety and non-maleficence are central to this issue. Restrictions must be imposed to ensure this. Without doubt, continuing competence would have to be demonstrated by the registrant and they would only administer local analgesia after a written prescription by a dentist. Restrictions to infiltration analgesia would also seem prudent. if all involved, including patient representatives, consider this of merit, several issues would have to be resolved such as who wouldnd be responsible for training, the content of the programme a funding for training. This is fundamental for the conception and implementation of such a qualification. Recently, the issue of direct access has been opened. The profession has changed in recent years with more focus being placed on dentists to meet the need of patients burdened by dental disease, particularly the disenfranchised, by utilising the whole dental team. Notwithstanding this and it may seem counter intuitive, but if this role was extended to dental nurses, it may be most adopted in services where time is not so important such as the salaried and other secondary services.
Day, Peter F; Duggal, Monty S
The aim of this study was to investigate the current method for recording trauma in UK dental hospitals. A standard questionnaire was sent out to all 19 UK and Irish dental hospitals to investigate how trauma was recorded both at initial presentation and at review appointments. Where a standard form was used, a copy was requested. Each form was analysed to assess what information was being recorded and whether prompts were used. For the initial presentation of trauma, nine institutions had a standard trauma form, one used a standard form for avulsions only, seven had no form and two did not respond. For subsequent follow-up visits of trauma cases, six hospitals had a standard form, one used a standard from for avulsions only, 10 had no form and two did not respond. There was considerable variation in the questions that were asked at initial presentation of trauma cases and follow-up reviews in dento-alveolar trauma. Without consistent recording, there is little chance that multi-centred prospective clinical trials can take place in the field of dental trauma.
Sandra Omozehio Iwuala
Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.
Cohen, Leonard A.; And Others
Dental attitudes of college students were examined: frequency of past visits; subceptibility to dental conditions; seriousness, preventability, and treatability of dental conditions; and satisfaction with dentists, practices, and other dental conditions. (Authors/CJ)
van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L
The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998-2002) and 5 years after (2003-2007) implementation of the Act. Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10,000 and thereafter to 2.8/10,000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10,000 to 2.6/10,000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10,000 to 3.1/10,000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females.
van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L
Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998–2002) and 5 years after (2003–2007) implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10 000 and thereafter to 2.8/10 000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10 000 to 2.6/10 000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10 000 to 3.1/10 000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. PMID:20353671
... have been broadly termed dental fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is a condition that causes ... less than 2 milligrams per liter. What causes dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is caused by taking in ...
... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...
Full Text Available Professiography of work activity is an important part of a modern system of professional orientation. In the course of research aimed at developing hygienic bases of professiographic assessment of the major dental specialties and determining prospects for its use in the practice of modern preventive medicine it was found, that in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting peculiarities of higher nervous activity of the organism and necessary for successful mastery of dental specialties, professionally-important functions should be considered such things as balance and mobility of nervous processes, strength of excitation and inhibition processes, speed of differentiated visual-motor reactions and endurance of the nervous system; in the structure of psychophysiological functions that reflect features of visual sensory system of the organism – the most important indicators are visual acuity, critical rate of fusion of light nictations, differentiated linear good eye, speed of visual perception and differential light sensitivity; in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting features of somatosensory analyzer of the organism – the most important their characteristics are overall coordination, combined coordination of arm movements, coordination of arms under the control of vision and coordination of movements of the fingers.
de Amorim, Lilian de Fátima Guedes; da Costa, Luciane Ribeiro Resende Sucasas; Estrela, Carlos
To determine the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in children younger than 7 years and the effect of predisposing clinical factors on their occurrence. Dental records of 2725 children younger than 7 years seen in a private pediatric dental clinic in Goiânia, Brazil, from February 1993 to December 2008 were analyzed. A group of 150 children without traumatic injuries and with similar characteristics to those of the trauma group were used to study predisposing clinical factors as follows: lip coverage (adequate/inadequate), overbite (normal/negative/deep), and overjet (less or greater than 3 mm). Frequency distribution and a chi-square test were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at 5%. Clinical and radiographic data of 412 injured deciduous teeth were found in 383 records. TDI prevalence was 11.9%, with no significant difference between sexes. The maxillary central incisors were the teeth most frequently affected (83.3%), and the most frequent type of injury was subluxation (35.1%). TDI was most prevalent in the 13-to-36-month age group (47.7%). Home (43.5%) was the main place of occurrence, followed by school (10.1%); falls (50.3%) were the most common cause, followed by collisions with objects (18.2%). The first examination or treatment occurred in the first 24 h in 46.5% of the cases. The analysis of the association of predisposing clinical factors with TDI revealed no differences in lip coverage; however, overjet >3 mm and deep and negative overbite were significantly associated with TDI. TDI in primary dentition should receive careful attention, particularly when it affects children younger than 3 years and in the presence of overjet, overbite, or both. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Moretto,Simone Gonçalves; ANFE, Taciana Emília de Almeida; Nagase, Denis Yudi; Kuguimiya, Rosiane Nogueira; Lago, Adréa Dias Neves; Freitas,Patricia Moreira de; Oda, Margareth; Vieira,Glauco Fioranelli
Conhecer a anatomia dos dentes é de fundamental importância na prática das diversas especialidades Odontológicas. Todas as escolas de Odontologia possuem obrigatoriamente em sua grade curricular uma disciplina responsável pelo ensino da anatomia dental, na qual um conteúdo teórico é transmitido aos alunos para reprodução na escultura em cera. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o conteúdo teórico programático está sendo aplicado na escultura prática. Para isso 76 provas teóricas, pl...
Eriksen, H M; Bergdahl, J; Bergdahl, Maud
A patient-centred clinical teaching profile in the undergraduate dental curriculum at The University of Tromsø is described. This teaching profile implies that treatment planning is primarily based on the patients' perceived needs and the students are trained to retrieve information from the patients in this context. The role of the clinical instructor is primarily as a facilitator rather than an expert. The 'best interest of the patient' is not always easy to disclose and consequences related to the patients' levels of understanding, students competence, educational challenges and professional ethics are topics for discussion through the clinical education programme.
Ivelin Morales Fuentes; Rosa Reyes Gil
El mercurio es un metal pesado ampliamente utilizado por el hombre. Se considera muy tóxico por generar afecciones sobre el sistema nervioso central, perturbaciones en el comportamiento y trastornos renales, inmunes y sexuales, entre otros. Desde hace más de un siglo, el mercurio es utilizado en la práctica odontológica por su capacidad de unir metales (amalgamar), su bajo costo y su rápida fijación en la reparación de piezas dentales. Actualmente, existe una gran controversia acerca de la se...
Larijani, Houman Hadad
Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s) of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike. PMID:25663839
Banavaram Anniappan Arvind
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.
Larijani, Houman Hadad; Guggisberg, Marika
Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s) of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike.
Houman Hadad Larijani
Full Text Available Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike.
Pharmacological methods of pain and anxiety control include local anaesthesia and conscious sedation techniques. On occasion the anxiety levels of some patients are so extreme that alternative methods of pain and anxiety control are required.The provision of conscious sedation and even in extreme cases general anesthetic can be useful. These methods are usually very effective in treating nervous patients and offering sedation services helps patients seek dental treatment more readily. However, by decreasing the demand for conscious sedation and certainly the demand for general anaesthetics the risks associated, waiting lists and costs incurred will also be diminished. Despite recent advances in dental techniques and the provision of sedation services there has not been a marked decrease in dental anxiety within the general population.This could be because the anxieties are not being dealt with; they are just being managed by these techniques and patients still cannot cope with having dental treatment without these pharmacological methods. Cognitive behavioural therapy is a non-invasive psychological intervention therapy. Psychological therapies have been shown to decrease dental anxiety.Therefore this therapy could be used to potentially decrease the demand for sedation. Implementing this into a general practice setting could certainly help a number of nervous but motivated patients. It also may improve waiting lists and costs from sedation procedures.The end goal is to help patients receive routine dental care with decreased pharmacological support. It is, however, important for dentists providing this to have sufficient and appropriate training.
Macey, Richard John
Thesis submitted to the University of Manchester by Richard Macey for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy entitled “Detection of Common Dental Diseases by Dental Hygiene-Therapists”, February 2016.Many adult patients that attend NHS dental practices on a regular basis are asymptomatic and do not need any further treatment other than a routine dental examination (“check-up”). As the oral health of the adult population is predicted to improve further, using the General Dental Practitioner to und...
Gantz, D.A.; Goodwin, L.M.
Early on, companies participating in the international independent power industry learned that just because they were doing business abroad, they were not exempt from US law. For example, initial efforts at international development were hampered by the global reach of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. And while compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act has been simplified considerably by the National Energy Act, compliance remains an important consideration for utility affiliates. Similarly, tax planning requires considering not only the US tax system, but that of the host country as well as applicable international tax treaties. One of the most important but least understood US laws affecting international developers is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The FCPA was enacted by Congress in 1977 in reaction to disclosures that certain large US corporations had bribed foreign officials to obtain business. The FCPA is intended to discourage a wide variety of actions considered corrupt. The cost of noncompliance is high, both in actual penalties and the effect on a company's international business reputation. Accordingly, FCPA compliance has become a key issue for the leading international independent power developers, and should be a primary consideration for any company that wants to play a meaningful role in the industry.
Miranda, M; Martinez, L S; Franco, R; Forte, V; Barlattani, A; Bollero, P
The oral anticoagulant therapy is used for the cure and the prevention of thromboembolic diseases. In the last fifty years the warfarin has been considered the oral anticoagulant of choice. However, its use is limited by a narrow therapeutic index and by a complex pharmacodynamics, which requires regular adjustments and monitoring of the dose. Recently, three new oral anticoagulant - dabigatran etexilato (direct thrombin inhibitor), rivaroxaban and apixaban (Xa factor direct inhibitor) - have been approved for use in europe. Increasing the number of patients taking these drugs, it is important that the dentist knows these new oral anticoagulants, their indications and methods of action, in particular for the management of patients, who require invasive treatments. With regard to the management of the patient threated with the new oral anticoagulants (NAO), there have been new significant changes in the procedure compared to the one followed by patients treated with warfarin. This led to the development of new guidelines that the dentist has to follow in order to ensure a safe and appropriate dental treatment and reduce any postoperative complications. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the new oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin, especially in terms of risks of bleeding events and intra and postoperative complications, in patients requiring multiple dental extractions.
Nilchian, Firoozeh; Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Jarah, Zeinab Taghi
This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of visual pedagogy in dental check-ups and preventive practices among children with autism aged 6-12. In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, the cooperation of 40 children with autism age 6-12. The selected children were equally divided into two groups of case and control (n = 20). The obtained…
These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure.
Vermaire, J.H.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; van Herwijnen, L.; van Loveren, C.
A parallel-randomized controlled trial on caries-preventive strategies was conducted in a general dental practice with a mixed socioeconomic background patient population. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, compared to regular care consisting of check-ups twice a year with profes
Vermaire, J.H.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Herwijnen, L. van; Loveren, C. van
A parallel-randomized controlled trial on caries-preventive strategies was conducted in a general dental practice with a mixed socioeconomic background patient population. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, compared to regular care consisting of check-ups twice a year with profes
Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Richman, Joshua S;
not intervene surgically when the restoration in the scenario was amalgam. Dentists participating in a solo or small private practice (SPP) chose surgical intervention more often than dentists participating in large group practices (LGP) or in public health practices (PHP) (p
Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya Prasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Gunjalli, Gururaj
ABSTRACT Background: Before arrival into doctor’s clinic, child might have acquired an impression of a clinical environment and doctor’s appearance. Different kind of doctor’s attire may evoke different reactions. By understanding children and parent’s perception and preferences about dentist’s attire, a suitable dress code could be adopted to establish good rapport with children. Aim: To evaluate children and parental perceptions and preferences towards dentist attire. Materials and methods: A questionnaire designed with series of photographs of male and female dental students in different attires was responded by 150 parents aged 29 to 63 years and 150 children aged 9 to 13 years. Results: Seventy percent of children participants (n = 104) and 42% of parents participants (n = 63) favored the traditional white coat attire. However, 58% parents (n = 87) significantly preferred non-white coat attires in comparison to 30% of children (n = 46) (χ2 = 21.61, p 0.05), no-significant association was found between parents and children response to white coat (χ2 = 0.39, p = 0.53). A highly significant difference was found between the male participants, who favored the male dentist and female participants preferring the female dentist (χ2 = 47.16, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study attempted to rule out the stereotyped concept of ‘white coat fear’ among children, both children and parents favored traditional white coat attire, contrary to popular misconception ‘white coat syndrome’. However, use of child friendly attires could be useful in anxious children for better practice management. How to cite this article: Ellore VPK, Mohammed M, Taranath M, Ramagoni NK, Kumar V, Gunjalli G. Children and Parent’s Attitude and Preferences of Dentist’s Attire in Pediatric Dental Practice. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):102-107. PMID:26379376
Joan Emien Enabulele
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the practice and knowledge of endodontic radiology as well as assess the knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical dental students and interns at University of Benin and University of Benin Teaching hospital respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire which covered practice and knowledge of endodontic radiography, knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Result: Seventy participants were included in the study, 40% were final year students and 24.3% house officers. Majority (95.7% agreed that they exposed radiographs as part of endodontic treatment. Only 18.6% knew that the apices of teeth should be 3mm from the border of the X-ray film, while 24.3% knew that 3mm of periapical bone should be visible on X-ray. Less than half (31.4% knew that paralleling technique was the technique of choice for endodontic radiography and this was statistically Significant in relationship to the status of the of the respondents. A few (4.3% of the respondents had knowledge of new horizons in endodontic imaging. Half of the respondents knew that damage by X-rays is mainly due to formation of free radicals. The most frequently reported radiation hazards was reduced salivary flow, while the least reported was rampant caries. Most knew how to protect patients, themselves, and other persons while exposing radiographs. Conclusion: There is need for inclusion of endodontic radiography in the undergraduate curriculum to ensure proper and correct radiographs during endodontic procedure.
Alcota, M; Ruiz de Gauna, P; González, F E
The authors argue that dental curricula in Latin America are noted for providing highly technical and individualistic training that may fail to address society's problems or instil in the dentist the idea that he/she has a social responsibility to contribute to his/her community. This study's main objectives were to determine whether the curriculum and the faculty teaching practices of the School of Dentistry at the University of Chile contribute to its students' commitment to ethical and social responsibility. This was a qualitative study that investigated the perceptions of sixteen subjects (eight students and eight faculty members). Data were collected in thorough deep interviews. The interview process model conceptualised and organised the information into sets of dimensions and categories. The dimensions studied were ethical commitment and social responsibility. The categories assessed within ethical commitment were honesty, tolerance, responsibility and respect. In the social responsibility dimension, the categories were solidarity, teamwork and concern for and communication with the patient. Analysis of the textual data was performed using a method of content analysis based upon constructed qualitative matrices. Our results show that students and scholars alike realise that ethical commitment and a sense of social responsibility are not promoted in the curriculum. They do, however, recognise the importance of these qualities in dental practitioners. These results indicate that the current curriculum and teaching practices used in our School of Dentistry need to be reviewed and that programmes promoting professionals' commitment to their role in society need to be implemented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Improving and expanding the dental services of a practice can involve purchasing new equipment and even modifying or expanding the physical plant. Operatory design is important to the efficiency with which dental procedures can be performed. Equipment purchases to outfit the dental operatory should be made based on the specific needs and functions of a practice.
Lee, HMG; McGrath, CPJ; Yiu, CKY
Background Clinical practice guidelines on ‘Dental caries prevention and management by caries risk assessment for pre-school children in Hong Kong’ were developed using ADAPTE process and Delphi consensus technique. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of disseminating and implementing the guidelines, and to evaluate their effectiveness in changing clinical practice. Methods The study was conducted in two phases, examining clinical records of pre-school aged patients being treate...
CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS; RAYMOND; REED; BAKER
Recently, we have seen significant media interest directed at U.S. companies operating in China and how the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) may affect them. American businesses in China must be aware that their organization can be
Raju, Vamsee Krishnam; Nanjundaiah, Vanishree; Laksmikantha, Ramesh; Nayak, Sushma Shankar; Kshetrimayum, Nandita
Introduction Dentistry, being one of the healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical standards of conduct. In India, studies done to assess whether the dental practitioners adhere to ethics in their line of work are very meager. Aim The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of ethics in their line of work among practicing dentists from various dental colleges in Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 258 practicing dentists attached to various dental colleges in Bangalore city of Karnataka, India. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the knowledge and practice scores according to gender and qualification. One way ANOVA was used to compare knowledge and practice score according to practice type and practice period. Results Mean knowledge score among males is 8.9 as compared to 9.43 among females and mean practice scores among males was 8.25 as compared to 8.29 in females. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean knowledge and practice scores among graduate dentists and specialists. Mean knowledge score among graduate dentists was 8.44 as compared to 9.36 among specialists and mean practice scores among graduate dentists was 7.7 as compared to 8.53 in specialists. Conclusion A significant association between the knowledge and practice scores was observed, implying that with an increase in knowledge, there was also an increase in the practices of ethics among study population. PMID:27656570
Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services
Noble Solveig; Sutton Matthew; Crealey Grainne; O'Neill Ciaran; Killough Seamus; Donaldson Michael; Milsom Keith M; Tickle Martin; Greer Margaret; Worthington Helen V
Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a c...
Ottenga, Marc E; Mjör, Ivar
This study recorded the number of preclinical lecture and simulation laboratory sessions spent teaching the preparation and placement of amalgam and resin composite posterior restorations. These data were compared to the use of both materials in the operative clinic as placed by third- and fourth-year students. The number of posterior restorations inserted by the students, expressed as a function of the number of restoration surfaces, was also evaluated. The results show that the teaching of posterior restorations pre-clinically has consistently favored amalgam 2.5 to 1 during the last three years. However, clinically, resin composite is being used for posterior restorations 2.3 times more often than amalgam. The only instance that favored amalgam over composite during the last year was in the placement of four surface posterior restorations. This shift in emphasis from amalgam to composite needs to be addressed within dental educational institutions so that newly graduated dentists are prepared to place composite restorations properly.
Mason James M
Full Text Available Abstract Gene-based therapies for tissue regeneration involve delivering a specific gene to a target tissue with the goal of changing the phenotype or protein expression profile of the recipient cell; the ultimate goal being to form specific tissues required for regeneration. One of the principal advantages of this approach is that it provides for a sustained delivery of physiologic levels of the growth factor of interest. This manuscript will review the principals of gene-enhanced tissue engineering and the techniques of introducing DNA into cells. Part 2 will review recent advances in gene-based therapies for dental hard tissue regeneration, specifically as it pertains to dentin regeneration/pulp capping and periodontal regeneration.
Kwon, I W; Safranski, S R; Kim, J H
Advertising is often considered a catalyst which stimulates competition by communicating the important attributes (information) of goods and services to consumers. Theoretically, advertising makes demand responsive to strategic price differences. This advertisement-induced price elasticity puts competitive pressure on the providers' pricing strategy. It has been assumed that this effect also exists in the health care market. This study investigates the impact that the advertising of services has on the price and demand behaviour in the dental care market. The sampling frame includes 1,326 dentists, 558 (44.3%) of whom have advertised their services. The statistical results seem to dispute the claim that advertising lowers the consumer's price and increases the advertising dentist's market share.
Full Text Available Epilepsy denotes any disorder characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal paroxysmal neuronal discharge in the brain. Symptoms range from sensory absences to convulsive movements and loss of consciousness. Antiepileptic drugs are the first line of treatment. However, 20% individuals with epilepsy have drug-resistant seizures despite optimal treatment. For those with refractory epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an effective alternative therapeutic approach. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet that mimics the biochemical effects of fasting. There are many disparate mechanistic theories of how this diet protects against seizures. Key insights indicate that it has effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain. This paper discusses the implicitly significant and diverse biochemical changes affected by this unique therapeutic approach that may have a bearing on oral health and the delivery of dental care to individuals with refractory epilepsy.
Sharma, A; Mathur, V P
Epilepsy denotes any disorder characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal paroxysmal neuronal discharge in the brain. Symptoms range from sensory absences to convulsive movements and loss of consciousness. Antiepileptic drugs are the first line of treatment. However, 20% individuals with epilepsy have drug-resistant seizures despite optimal treatment. For those with refractory epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an effective alternative therapeutic approach. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet that mimics the biochemical effects of fasting. There are many disparate mechanistic theories of how this diet protects against seizures. Key insights indicate that it has effects on intermediary metabolism that influence the dynamics of the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems in brain. This paper discusses the implicitly significant and diverse biochemical changes affected by this unique therapeutic approach that may have a bearing on oral health and the delivery of dental care to individuals with refractory epilepsy.
CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS; RAYMOND; REED; BAKER
Bookkeeping and documentation provisions of the FCPA To ensure proper paper trails are created, documented and retained, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) requires that proper accounting and internal controls be established for foreign entities. These requirements are basic, and prudent organizations should maintain these provisions. The act
Full Text Available Dental materials are specific materials that were developed as a general materials for specific aplication in oral environment. To determinate the functional properties of this materials, we are obligated to use nonstandard approach and specific methods. In this study, two methodologies of material testing-artificial agging and quantification of visual informations for life circle assessment of hydroxyapatite (Hap based materials, were used. Hap was chemically synthetized which produced the material with high purity and crystallinity. Artificially produced Hap is used in stomatology for repair of bone tissue, as a filling for periodontal defects, and as a preservative augmentation for alveolar ridges. In the mean time those materials are used for definitive root canal obturation in endodontic therapy procedure as an apical plug or as complete filling material. This research was focused on the analysis of the bonding properties of the Hap based materials to the root canal walls. The methodology of artificial agging was used together with the quantification of visual informations in purpose to quantify the Hap bonding properties and bonding quality. Experiments were done in-vitro, with the artificia saliva as the agressive agent. The experimental tooths were analyzed by the high resolution optical microscope for the morphological characterisation of the bonding layer. The model for the bond life circle assessment was developed. Hap based materials proved that has favorable properties for the dental use. The presented results proved that the combination of two methodologies (artificial agging and quantification of visual informations could be used as the tool for analyzing the material-dentine interaction.
Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A
The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children's access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, "A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States." We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices.
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ≥ 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Waters, Cerith S; Frude, Neil; Flaxman, Paul E; Boyd, Jane
To examine the effects of a 1-day acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) workshop on the mental health of clinically distressed health care employees, and to explore ACT's processes of change in a routine practice setting. A quasi-controlled design, with participants block allocated to an ACT intervention or waiting list control group based on self-referral date. Participants were 35 health care workers who had self-referred for the ACT workshop via a clinical support service for staff. Measures were completed by ACT and control group participants at pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Participants allocated to the waitlist condition went on to receive the ACT intervention and were also assessed 3 months later. At 3 months post-intervention, participants in the ACT group reported a significantly lower level of psychological distress compared to the control group (d = 1.41). Across the 3-month evaluation period, clinically significant change was exhibited by 50% of ACT participants, compared to 0% in the control group. When the control group received the same ACT intervention, 69% went on to exhibit clinically significant change. The ACT intervention also resulted in significant improvements in psychological flexibility, defusion, and mindfulness skills, but did not significantly reduce the frequency of negative cognitions. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that the reduction in distress in the ACT condition was primarily associated with an increase in mindfulness skills, especially observing and non-reactivity. These findings provide preliminary support for providing brief ACT interventions as part of routine clinical support services for distressed workers. A 1-day ACT workshop delivered in the context of a routine staff support service was effective for reducing psychological distress among health care workers. The brief nature of this group intervention means it may be particularly suitable for staff support and primary care mental
van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Rurup, Mette L; Buiting, Hilde M; van Delden, Johannes J M; Hanssen-de Wolf, Johanna E; Janssen, Anke G J M; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rietjens, Judith A C; Prins, Cornelis J M; Deerenberg, Ingeborg M; Gevers, Joseph K M; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Wal, Gerrit
In 2002, an act regulating the ending of life by a physician at the request of a patient with unbearable suffering came into effect in the Netherlands. In 2005, we performed a follow-up study of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other end-of-life practices. We mailed questionnaires to physicians attending 6860 deaths that were identified from death certificates. The response rate was 77.8%. In 2005, of all deaths in the Netherlands, 1.7% were the result of euthanasia and 0.1% were the result of physician-assisted suicide. These percentages were significantly lower than those in 2001, when 2.6% of all deaths resulted from euthanasia and 0.2% from assisted suicide. Of all deaths, 0.4% were the result of the ending of life without an explicit request by the patient. Continuous deep sedation was used in conjunction with possible hastening of death in 7.1% of all deaths in 2005, significantly increased from 5.6% in 2001. In 73.9% of all cases of euthanasia or assisted suicide in 2005, life was ended with the use of neuromuscular relaxants or barbiturates; opioids were used in 16.2% of cases. In 2005, 80.2% of all cases of euthanasia or assisted suicide were reported. Physicians were most likely to report their end-of-life practices if they considered them to be an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, which was rarely true when opioids were used. The Dutch Euthanasia Act was followed by a modest decrease in the rates of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The decrease may have resulted from the increased application of other end-of-life care interventions, such as palliative sedation. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Hoogstraten, J.; den Dekker, J.; Eijkman, M.A.J.; Schouten, B.
The introduction of the 'Medical Treatment Contract Act' in the Netherlands 5 years ago, established some major rights and duties of both patients and members of the medical profession. The aim of this study was to assess Dutch dentists' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy with regard to several
Full Text Available [english] Although some recent studies concluded that dexterity is not a reliable predictor of performance in preclinical laboratory courses in dentistry, they could not disprove earlier findings which confirmed the worth of manual dexterity tests in dental admission. We developed a wire bending test (HAM-Man which was administered during dental freshmen’s first week in 2008, 2009, and 2010. The purpose of our study was to evaluate if the HAM-Man is a useful selection criterion additional to the high school grade point average (GPA in dental admission. Regression analysis revealed that GPA only accounted for a maximum of 9% of students’ performance in preclinical laboratory courses, in six out of eight models the explained variance was below 2%. The HAM-Man incrementally explained up to 20.5% of preclinical practical performance over GPA. In line with findings from earlier studies the HAM-Man test of manual dexterity showed satisfactory incremental validity. While GPA has a focus on cognitive abilities, the HAM-Man reflects learning of unfamiliar psychomotor skills, spatial relationships, and dental techniques needed in preclinical laboratory courses. The wire bending test HAM-Man is a valuable additional selection instrument for applicants of dental schools.
Sheikh, Soheyl; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Singla, Isha; Gupta, Rajesh; Aggarwal, Amit; Singh, Ravinder; Gupta, Deepak
Radiographs are used extensively in dentistry to supplement the clinical examination of the patients. Technical advances in X-ray equipment and imaging systems have allowed significant reduction in radiation doses of patients during intraoral and extraoral radiography. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness of dental professionals of northern India regarding dose-reduction techniques and radiographic equipment. The survey covered 370 dentists in the states of Punjab and Haryana in northern India. Information on the demographic characteristics of the dentists, radiographic equipment, techniques, and radiation protection was obtained with a 30-point questionnaire. The respondents knowledge concerning the technical details of their equipment was limited, with 82.3% not being aware about the kilovoltage peak of their machine. Up to 10.8% dentists were not aware about the speed of film. The most preferred technique for periapical radiography was the bisecting angle technique, which was used by 94.1% dentists. In the present study the results indicate that for minimizing any unnecessary radiation, attempts should be made to improve dentists' knowledge about radiation-dose-reduction techniques. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Murray, H; Locker, D; Kay, E J
While substantial proportions of the population of Ontario, Canada continue to have teeth extracted, little is known about the reasons for this loss. In this survey of Ontario general dental practitioners, 128 dentists provided information on 6143 patients they saw during a reference week. Approximately one-in-seven of these patients had or were going to have one or more extractions as part of their current course of treatment. The mean number of extractions for patients having at least one tooth taken out was 2.3 (SD = 2.5). Emergency patients were more likely than regular patients to have at least one extraction but, on average, had fewer teeth taken out. Orthodontic considerations were the main reason for tooth loss in childhood, caries continued to be an important cause of tooth loss at all ages and periodontal disease accounted for more teeth lost after 40 years of age than caries. This study differs from almost all others in finding that, overall, more permanent teeth were extracted because of periodontal disease than because of caries. The former accounted for 35.9% of teeth lost and the latter for 28.9%. While this may be due to methodological differences between this and other studies, it is consistent with epidemiological data on periodontal disease in the Ontario population and data showing that Ontarians receive little in the way of periodontal care.
McCracken, Michael S; Litaker, Mark S; George, Ashley J; Durand, Scott; Malekpour, Sepideh; Marshall, Don G; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Carter, Lauren; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H
Objectives were to determine the likelihood that a clinician accepts an impression for a single-unit crown and document crown remake rates. The authors developed a questionnaire that asked dentists about techniques used to fabricate single-unit crowns. The authors showed dentists photographs of 4 impressions and asked them to accept or reject each impression. The authors correlated answers with dentist and practice characteristics. Other questions pertained to laboratory use and crown remake rates. The response rate was 83% (1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists). Of the 4 impressions evaluated, 3 received consistent responses, with 85% agreement. One impression was more equivocal; 52% accepted the impression. The likelihood of accepting an impression was associated significantly with the clinician's sex, race, ethnicity, and practice busyness. Clinicians produced 18 crowns per month on average, and 9% used in-office milling. Most dentists (59%) reported a remake rate of less than 2%, whereas 17% reported a remake rate greater than 4%. Lower remake rates were associated significantly with more experienced clinicians, optical impressions, and not using dual-arch trays. Although dentists were largely consistent in their evaluation of impressions (> 85%), nonclinical factors were associated with whether an impression was accepted or rejected. Lower crown remake rates were associated with more experienced clinicians, optical impressions, and not using dual-arch trays. These results provide a snapshot of clinical care considerations among a diverse group of dentists. Clinicians can compare their own remake rates and impression evaluation techniques with those in this sample when developing best practice protocols. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mantri, Sneha; Vinay, S; Deogade, Suryakant; Mishra, Prateek; Galav, Ankit; Sharma, Kush
The use of denture adhesives (DA) and their role in prosthodontics has been a conflicted topic both in clinical practice and dental education. The use of adhesives, are viewed as poor reflection of their clinical skills and prosthetic expertise or to provide retention to an ill-fitting prosthesis by many dentists. These conflicting views have raised many doubts among practicising dentists on the use of DAs in their clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of DA use among private dental practitioners' of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private dental practitioners of Jabalpur city. A total of 172 private dental practitioners of Jabalpur made up the sample of the study. A comprehensive, closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was employed which was designed to collect the sociodemographic details and to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of DA use among private dental practitioners'. The institutional review committee approved the study. Data were imported to the SPSS 13.01 program to draw the means and percentages. Majority of the dentists were males (55 %), preponderance (68 %) of the dentists were in the 21-30 years age-group. Greater part of the study population comprised of general dental practitioners (GDPs) (81 %). When the subjects were questioned if DA were soluble in saliva, 32 % of the GDPs replied wrongly. Similarly 25 % of the GDPs didn't know that using DA with incompletely removed old DA affected tissue health. Zinc containing DA are recently held responsible for causing neurological diseases on their prolonged usage, 71 % of the GDPs and 74 % of other specialists were unaware in this context. A total of 115 (83 %) GDPs, 6 (100 %) prosthodontists and 22 (81 %) other specialist's used DA as a beneficial adjunct in their clinical practice. DA being used frequently by the
Kakatkar, Vinay R
Impression making is an important step in fabricating complete dentures. A survey to know the materials used and techniques practiced while recording complete denture impressions was conducted. It is disheartening to know that 33 % practitioners still use base plate custom trays to record final impressions. 8 % still use alginate for making final impressions. An acceptable technique for recording CD impressions is suggested.
Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuys, R.H.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Creugers, T.J.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to expand the knowledge on the incidence of complete cusp fractures of posterior teeth in Dutch general practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 3-month period, data were obtained from 28 general practitioners, representing 46,394 patients. For each new case of co
Hopcraft, Matthew; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; Calache, Hanny
Prior to 2009, dental therapists' scope of clinical practice in Victoria was limited to patients 25 years or younger. However, increases in dental demand by adults 26+ years required an alternative approach to service delivery. This paper outlines the self-reported confidence and knowledge level of dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion of an educational program aimed at providing them with the skills to treat adults aged 26+ years. The study also surveyed dentists in the practice about the dental therapists' knowledge and the impact of their extended scope of practice on the clinics' operation. After completion of their educational program, the dental therapists who participated were surveyed at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion to assess their self-reported confidence levels and knowledge. Senior dentists at the clinic were surveyed to understand the impact of the subsequent change in practice of the dental therapists who undertook this training, as well as any concerns of perceived educational gaps. Surveys showed increased self-reported confidence levels by the dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of the program. Dental therapists and mentoring dentists identified that further education was needed in areas such as oral medicine, pathology, medically compromised patients, medications, prosthodontics, and referrals. Dental therapists felt confident and knowledgeable postprogram to treat patients 26+ years, within their scope of practice. Dentists generally felt that dental therapists, after completing the educational program, were confident and knowledgeable. Educational areas to focus on in future programs were identified. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Johnson, P M
Occupational regulation of health personnel is important to professional associations and their members, the public that relies on their services and the regulatory agencies responsible for their conduct. There is increasing interest in ensuring that dental hygiene regulation fosters the continuing evolution of the profession and its contribution to oral health. The keynote address for the 2007 Regulatory Forum on Dental Hygiene, this paper discusses the rationale for and issues pertaining to occupational regulation, outlines the evolvement of dental hygiene and identifies regulatory options for the profession. Professional regulation exists to ensure public safety, health and welfare. However, negative political-economic side effects coupled with environmental pressures have resulted in increased scrutiny for health professionals. One such profession is dental hygiene. Its evolution has been dramatic, in particular over the past few decades, as illustrated by its rapidly increasing numbers and broader distribution globally, gradual shift to the baccalaureate as the entry-level educational requirement and increase in postgraduate programs and expanding scope of practice and increased professional autonomy. Regulatory changes have been more gradual. Regulation is mandatory for the vast majority of dental hygienists. Of the options available, the practice act - the most rigorous type, is predominant. Globally, regulation tends to be administered directly by the government (n = 9 countries) more so than indirectly through a dental board (n = 4) or self-regulation (n = 3). Whether regulated directly or indirectly, dental hygienists increasingly are seeking a greater role in shaping their professional future. Self-regulation, its responsibilities, misperceptions and challenges, is examined as an option.
Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Hilberink, S.R.; Maassen, I.M.; Segaar, D.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.
In a controlled study, primary care dental professionals in the intervention group were encouraged to provide smoking cessation advice and support for all smoking patients with the help of a stage-based motivational protocol. The barriers and facilitators reported by the dental professionals on two
Tahir, Shaila; Rafique, Adeela; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Saleem, Akif; Khan, Amanullah
Interaction of pharmaceutical companies (PC) with healthcare services has been a reason for concern. In medicine, awareness of the ethical implications of these interactions have been emphasized upon, while this issue has not been highlighted in dentistry. This study undertook a cross-sectional rapid assessment procedure to gather views of dentists in various institutions towards unethical practices in health care and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the need f...
Anderson, Max H
A manager of a dental benefits program defines fraud and abuse in the dental context. Such practices may cost as much as four billion dollars annually and have a damaging effect on the trust the profession places in the profession and on the way dentists relate to each other.
Thornley, P; Quinn, A; Elley, K
This study reports on an investigation into clinical audit (CA) educational and service delivery outcomes in a dental foundation training (DFT) programme. The aim was to investigate CA teaching, learning and practice from the perspective of foundation dentists (FDs) and to record suggestions for improvement. A qualitative research methodology was used. Audio recordings of focus group interviews with FDs were triangulated by an interview with a group of training programme directors (TPDs). The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using a 'Framework' approach within Nvivo Data Analysis Software. FDs report considerable learning and behaviour change. However, TPDs have doubts about the long-term effects on service delivery. There can be substantial learning in the clinical, managerial, communication and professionalism domains, and in the development of time management, organisational and team-working skills. Information is provided about use of resources and interaction with teachers and colleagues. CA provides learning opportunities not produced by other educational activities including 'awkward conversations' with team-members in the context of change management and providing feedback. This is relevant when applying the recommendations of the Francis report. This paper should be useful to any dentist conducting audit or team training. Suggestions are made for improvements to resources and support including right touch intervention. Trainers should teach in the 'Goldilocks Zone'.
Rogers, S N; O'donnell, J P; Williams-Hewitt, S; Christensen, J C; Lowe, D
The objective of this study was to obtain age and sex-specific reference values for the University of Washington head and neck cancer questionnaire version 4 (UW-QoLv4) and to compare this with patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cross-sectional reference data was collected from 372 patients in six local general dental practices, 349 of whom presented for routine appointments. Quota sampling was used to collect data for similar numbers of patients by gender by four age bands (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 yr). The longitudinal sample consisted of 450 consecutive patients undergoing primary surgery for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma presenting to the Regional Maxillofacial Unit Liverpool, between the years 1995 and 2002. At baseline the key differences were anxiety, pain, swallowing, chewing, and mood. At 1yr there were big differences in all domains with deterioration in the oral cancer group. The difference was least notable in pain, shoulder, mood and anxiety. Reference data from a non-cancer population is very important when considering UW-QoL domains as an outcome parameter in clinical trials and also when discussing health-related quality of life outcomes with patients and their families.
Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve
Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.
r.arketplace, the orthodontic community continued to pioneer clinical automation through diagnosis, treat- (1) patient registration, identification...profession." New York State Dental Journal 34:76, 1968. 17. Ehrlich, A., The Role of Computers in Dental Practice Management. Champaign, IL: Colwell...Council on Dental military dental clinic. Medical Bulletin of the US Army Practice. Report: Dental Computer Vendors. 1984 Europe 39:14-16, 1982. 19
Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad
Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.
Ashith B Acharya
Full Text Available The doctor/dentist-patient relationship has transformed over the last two decades. Health professionals are increasingly viewed as providers of service for consideration. The Consumer Protection Act (CPA was enacted in 1986 for better protection of the interests of consumers as well as to provide a simple and quick mechanism for redressing consumer grievances. Since 1995, health professionals have been included within the ambit of the CPA, empowering the patient to file lawsuits (in case of perceived negligence in consumer courts. This review explores the definitions of ′consumer′, ′services′, and ′negligence′, discussing their implications with respect to civil and criminal liability of dentists, while providing relevant case examples and court guidelines in landmark judgments. It is concluded that the potential for civil lawsuits against dentists for negligent actions is existent, although the prospect of a dentist being held liable for criminal negligence is low.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation; deceptive or fraudulent acts or... Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Violations § 28.32 Misrepresentation; deceptive or... any or all benefits of the Act: (a) Any knowing misrepresentation or deceptive or fraudulent act or...
Pesson, D M; Bakou, O D; Didia, E L E; Kouame, A; Blohoua, M R J J; Djeredou, K B
Access to cervical margins allows the practitioner to record the entire cervical margin in order to provide a true copy to the technician. This requires a gingival displacement obtainable by different techniques. This study aimed to assess the implementation of gingival displacement methods prior to impression taking in fixed prosthodontics. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional survey of sample of 71 dentists practising in Abidjan, Ivory Coast; which ran from October 2nd, 2010 to November 14th, 2010. A survey form was administered to dentists. The questionnaire was organised around the following headings: identification of dentists and practice of gingival displacement methods. The data processing done using software Epi Info 6 and Excel XP on Window XP, allowed calculation of frequencies, means and proportions and the establishment of connection between variables with the chi2 test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. The results of the survey indicate that non-surgical methods of gingival displacement, including retraction cords and temporary crowns are those they use most frequently (76.4%) because the vast majority of practitioners (87.22%) believe the most traumatic to the periodontium are surgical methods. Our study showed that the gingival displacement methods are frequently carried out in daily practice, regardless of the topography of the abutment teeth and their number, but with a preference for non-surgical methods, particularly those using retraction cords and temporary crowns. The use of injectable gingival displacement paste is not harmful to the periodontal tissues, easy to use and have a very efficient haemostatic action. It should also be known and practiced.
Dunston, Bryan; Coll, James A
The purpose of this study was to repeat a 1997 survey of current pulp therapy practice. The directors of dental school predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs (N=56) and board certified pediatric dentists (N=1200) were surveyed in 2005. More dental schools (83%) taught indirect pulp therapy (IPT) compared to 1997. Significantly more used glass ionomer for IPT with most dental schools and diplomates not re-entering a tooth after IPT. Over 30% of schools and diplomates do direct pulp cops using glass ionomer. For pulpotomy, diluted formocresol usage decreased in dental schools (54%) while ferric sulfate significantly increased (24%) and full strength remained at 22%. Shorter placement of pulpotomy medication was noted and ZOE alone the preferred base. Pulpectomy was advocated by 85% of 2005 schools and diplomates with ZOE filler use decreasing while iodoform/calcium hydroxide filler use increasing. More pediatric dentists are using glass ionomer for IPT and direct pulp capping, and there was a trend away from the use of 1:5 diluted formocresol with more using ferric sulfate for pulpotomy. For pulpectomy, most use ZOE but iodoform pastes and calcium hydroxide have increased in usage since 1997 Disagreements continue concerning when to use certain pulp therapies and some directors and diplomates did not follow the AAPD guidelines.
Bowen, Denise M
Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.
Tahir, Shaila; Rafique, Adeela; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Saleem, Akif; Khan, Amanullah
Interaction of pharmaceutical companies (PC) with healthcare services has been a reason for concern. In medicine, awareness of the ethical implications of these interactions have been emphasized upon, while this issue has not been highlighted in dentistry. This study undertook a cross-sectional rapid assessment procedure to gather views of dentists in various institutions towards unethical practices in health care and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the need for the formulation and implementation of guidelines for the interaction of dentists with the pharmaceutical and device industry in the best interest of patients. A group of 209 dentists of Lahore including faculty members, demonstrators, private practitioners and fresh graduates responded to a questionnaire to assess their attitudes and practices towards pharmaceutical companies' marketing gifts. The study was conducted during 2011 and provided interesting data that showed the pharmaceutical industry is approaching private practitioners more frequently than academicians and fresh graduates. Private practioners accepted the gifts but mostly recognized them as unethical (over 65%). Both groups considered sponsoring of on-campus lectures as acceptable (over 70%). Respondents are not fully aware of the ethical demands which are imperative for all health care industries, and there is a dire need of strict guidelines and code of ethics for the dentist's interaction with the pharmaceutical and device industry so that patient interest is protected.
Tahir, Shaila; Rafique, Adeela; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Saleem, Akif; Khan, Amanullah
Interaction of pharmaceutical companies (PC) with healthcare services has been a reason for concern. In medicine, awareness of the ethical implications of these interactions have been emphasized upon, while this issue has not been highlighted in dentistry. This study undertook a cross-sectional rapid assessment procedure to gather views of dentists in various institutions towards unethical practices in health care and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the need for the formulation and implementation of guidelines for the interaction of dentists with the pharmaceutical and device industry in the best interest of patients. A group of 209 dentists of Lahore including faculty members, demonstrators, private practitioners and fresh graduates responded to a questionnaire to assess their attitudes and practices towards pharmaceutical companies’ marketing gifts. The study was conducted during 2011 and provided interesting data that showed the pharmaceutical industry is approaching private practitioners more frequently than academicians and fresh graduates. Private practioners accepted the gifts but mostly recognized them as unethical (over 65%). Both groups considered sponsoring of on-campus lectures as acceptable (over 70%). Respondents are not fully aware of the ethical demands which are imperative for all health care industries, and there is a dire need of strict guidelines and code of ethics for the dentist’s interaction with the pharmaceutical and device industry so that patient interest is protected. PMID:23967370
Lallam, C; Decup, F
The long-term clinical management of caries and periodontal diseases requires a double approach, one that is concerned with both treatment and prevention. Dentists should recognise the risk factors and their likely triggers to be able to implement the right strategy as early as the diagnostic phase. This comprehensive assessment can easily be done in general practice. All it takes is to combine the patient's general information with the systemic and behavioural factors, and the clinical observations with the local factors. The resulting patient profile can thus effectively support treatment by providing the necessary explanations, advice or prescriptions in relation with the clinical procedures. The modifiable risk factors need to be monitored and the behaviours changed to stabilise or limit disease progression. The practitioner's active approach is meant to meet the patient's demand for preventive counselling.
Budd, M L; Davies, M; Dewhurst, R; Atkin, P A
Objectives To evaluate the compliance of NHS dental practice websites in Wales, UK, with the 2012 GDC document Principles of ethical advertising, before its introduction (2011) and again after its introduction (2014).Methods All practices in Wales with an NHS contract and dental practice website were identified. The content of the website was evaluated to determine if it complied with the principles outlined in the 2012 GDC document Principles of Ethical Advertising.Results Twenty-five percent of the 446 practices sampled in 2011 had a website, compared to 44% of the 436 practices sampled in 2014. The principles best complied with were; displaying the name, geographic address, and telephone number of the practice (100% for both years). None of the websites compared the qualifications or skills of its practitioners to others, therefore 100% complied with this principle. Displaying team members' professional qualification and the country from which this is obtained was fairly well represented; 92% and 61% respectively in 2014; an improvement from only 50% and 49% respectively in 2011. Principles worst complied with were displaying the GDC's address (3% 2011; 9% 2014) or link to the GDC website (11% 2011; 7% 2014) and details of the practice complaints procedure (1% 2011; 5% 2014). Overall, no practice complied with all of the compulsory principles.Conclusion In both 2011 and 2014 no practice website was compliant with all the principles outlined in the 2012 GDC document Principles of ethical advertising. Reflecting results from previous studies, this study showed that compliance is slowly improving, yet over 4 years after the introduction of the mandatory principles, it remains that no practice website is 100% compliant.
Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M
This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.
Marchili, Nicola; Ortu, Eleonora; Pietropaoli, Davide; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa
Stomatognathic system is strictly correlated to other anatomical regions; many studies investigated relationship between temporomandibular joint and posture, several articles describe cranio-facial pain from dental causes, such as trigger points. Until now less interest has been given to connections between dental occlusion and ophthalmology, even if they are important and involving. Clinical experience in dental practice claims that mandibular latero-deviation is connected both to eye dominance and to defects of ocular convergence. The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the twelve cranial nerves. The trigeminal system represents the connection between somitic structures and those derived from the branchial arches, collecting the proprioception from both somitic structures and oculomotor muscles. The intermedius nucleus of the medulla is a small perihypoglossal brainstem nucleus, which acts to integrate information from the head and neck and relays it on to the nucleus of the solitary tract where autonomic responses are generated. This intriguing neurophysiological web led our research group to investigate anatomical and functional associations between dental occlusion and vision. In conclusion, nervous system and functional pathways strictly connect vision and dental occlusion, and in the future both dentists and oculists should be more and more aware of this correlation for a better diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27733873
Yamalik, Nermin; Nemli, Secil Karakoca; Carrilho, Eunice; Dianiskova, Simona; Melo, Paulo; Lella, Anna; Trouillet, Joel; Margvelashvili, Vladimer
Based on evidence-based dentistry (EBD) being a relatively new concept in dentistry, the attitudes, perceptions and level of awareness of dentists regarding EBD, and perceived barriers to its implementation into daily practice, were comparatively analysed in six countries of the FDI (World Dental Federation-Federation Dentaire Internationale)-European Regional Organization (ERO) zone (France, Georgia, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia and Turkey). For this purpose, a questionnaire, 'The Relationship Between Dental Practitioners and Universities', was developed by the FDI-ERO Working Group and applied by National Dental Associations (NDAs). A total of 850 valid responses were received, and cumulative data, comparisons between countries and potential impact of demographic variables were analysed. Regarding EBD, similar percentages of respondents reported that they 'know what it is' (32.8%) and 'they practice' (32.1%). Most respondents believed that 'EBD is beneficial' (89.1%); however, they had different thoughts regarding 'who actually benefited from EBD'. Of the participants, 60% believed that 'dentists experience difficulties in implementing EBD'. Although lack of time, lack of education and limited availability of evidence-based clinical guidelines were among the major barriers, there were differences among countries (P<0.05). Significant differences were also observed between countries regarding certain questions such as 'where EBD needed to be taught' (P<0.05), as both undergraduate and continuing education were suggested to be suitable. Age, practice mode and years of practice significantly affected many of the responses (P<0.05). There was a general, positive attitude toward EBD; however, there was also a clear demand for more information and support to enhance dentists' knowledge and use of EBD in everyday practice and a specific role for the NDAs.
Quadri, F A; Hendriyani, H; Pramono, A; Jafer, M
The prevalence of dental decay is expected to rise in many developing countries due to the growing consumption of sugars. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of sweet food and beverage consumption among schoolchildren in Jazan, Saudi Arabia and to determine the relationship with dental caries. In a cross-sectional, descriptive study 853 children aged 6-15 years (520 boys and 333 girls) were assessed by questionnaire and clinical examinations. Caries prevalence (≥ 1 dft/DMFT) was high (91.3%). While knowledge was generally good, 83.5% boys and 85.8% girls had poor attitudes to sweet foods and > 90% frequently consumed sweet foods/beverages. Multiple regression analysis showed that children whose mothers were less educated (OR 2.46; 95% CI: 1.15-5.28) and children with poor dietary attitudes and practices (OR 4.05; 95% CI: 2.33-7.03 and OR 7.80; 95% CI: 4.50-13.52 respectively) were more likely to have dental caries. Well-directed health promotion programmes are needed in Jazan.
Peacock, W Frank; Rafique, Zubaid; Singer, Adam J
Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF-) related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban-have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE) in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.
W. Frank Peacock
Full Text Available Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation- (NVAF- related stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE are cardiovascular diseases associated with significant morbidity and economic burden. The historical standard treatment of VTE has been the administration of parenteral heparinoid until oral warfarin therapy attains a therapeutic international normalized ratio. Warfarin has been the most common medication for stroke prevention in NVAF. Warfarin use is complicated by a narrow therapeutic window, unpredictable dose response, numerous food and drug interactions, and requirements for frequent monitoring. To overcome these disadvantages, direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs—dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban—have been developed for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE in patients with NVAF and for the treatment of VTE. Advantages of DOACs include predictable pharmacokinetics, few drug-drug interactions, and low monitoring requirements. In clinical studies, DOACs are noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of NVAF-related stroke and the treatment and prevention of VTE as well as postoperative knee and hip surgery VTE prophylaxis, with decreased bleeding risks. This review addresses the practical considerations for the emergency physician in DOAC use, including dosing recommendations, laboratory monitoring, anticoagulation reversal, and cost-effectiveness. The challenges of DOACs, such as the lack of specific laboratory measurements and antidotes, are also discussed.
Ya-ping YANG; Yu-hong LI; Ai-hua ZHANG; Lan BI; Ming-wen FAN
Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge.Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted according to authoritative guidelines. Mice and gnotobiotic rats were intranasally immunized with clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with chitosan. Antibody levels of serum IgG and salivary SlgA were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and caries activity was evaluated by the Keyes method. pGJA-P/VAX and pVAX1 prepared by a laboratory-scale commercial kit were used as controls.Results: The production process proved to be scalable and reproducible. Impurities including host protein, residual RNA, genomic DNA and endotoxin in the purified plasmid were all under the limits of set specifications. Intranasal vaccination with clinical-grade pGJA-P/ VAX induced higher serum IgG and salivary SlgA in both mice and gnotobiotic rats. While in the experimental caries model, the enamel (E), dentinal slight (Ds), and dentinal moderate (Dm) caries lesions were reduced by 21.1%, 33.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The production process under GMP was efficient in preparing clinical-grade pGJA-P/VAX with high purity and intended effectiveness, thus facilitating future clinical trials for the anti-caries DNA vaccine.
Dillen, van S.; Hiddink, G.J.
Background - In this review study, we are the first to explore whether the practice nurse (PN) can act as case manager lifestyle counselling regarding weight management in primary care. Methods - Multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO) were searched to identify relevant literature after 19
Rafai, Nicole; Lemos, Martin; Kennes, Lieven Nils; Hawari, Ayichah; Gerhardt-Szép, Susanne; Classen-Linke, Irmgard
Establishing a strong link early on between preclinical coursework and the clinical context is necessary for students to be able to recognize the practical relevance of the curriculum during their preclinical anatomical courses and to transfer knowledge more easily. Our objective was to enhance the clinical relevance of a preclinical anatomy course for second-year medical students of dentistry by implementing an interdisciplinary skills training course on "Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles" and to measure the learning outcomes. For the curricular development of the expanded course module, Kern's 6-step approach was applied including subjective evaluation. We used a peer-teaching format supported by an e-learning application. A randomized control study measured effects of the two components (skills training, e-module) on learning outcomes. Four learning methods were compared: (1) lecture, (2) lecture + e-module, (3) lecture + skills training, (4) lecture + skills training + e-module. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was used to measure and compare learning outcomes. The two-way variance analysis demonstrated that participation in the skills training had a statistically significant effect on the OSCE results (p = 0.0007). Students who participated in the skills training did better (φ 107.4 ± 14.4 points) than students who only attended the lecture (φ 88.8 ± 26.2 points). Students who used the e-module but did not attend the skills training earned a slightly but not significantly higher average number of points (φ 91.8 ± 31.3 points) than those who only attended the lecture. The learning outcomes of the skills training were again significantly increased when the training was combined with the e-module (φ 121.8 ± 21.8 points), thus making it the ideal method for achieving the learning objectives defined in this study. The "Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles" interdisciplinary skills training course
Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...
Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.
Ramponi, Denise R
Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.
Lee, Gillian H M; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y
Clinical practice guidelines on 'Dental caries prevention and management by caries risk assessment for pre-school children in Hong Kong' were developed using ADAPTE process and Delphi consensus technique. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of disseminating and implementing the guidelines, and to evaluate their effectiveness in changing clinical practice. The study was conducted in two phases, examining clinical records of pre-school aged patients being treated by non-academic clinical staff in the Paediatric Dentistry Clinic of a dental teaching hospital in Hong Kong. The clinical guidelines were introduced to the staff in a departmental seminar at the end of pre-intervention phase. Post-intervention phase began one month after the introduction of guidelines. Clinical records for three consecutive months were reviewed against standards and recommendations derived from the newly developed clinical guidelines in both phases. The results were assessed by Chi-square test, ANOVA and regression analyses. A total of 237 and 147 clinical records were reviewed in pre-intervention and post-intervention phases, respectively. Guideline adherence percentage increased significantly on almost all aspects of the guidelines in the post-intervention phase (P practice (P best practice. The findings have implication for widespread implementation.
TRICARE; Changes included in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007; authorization of anesthesia and other costs for dental care for children and certain other patients. Final rule.
This final rule implements section 702 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007, Public Law 109-364. The rule provides coverage of contracted medical care with respect to dental care beyond that care required as a necessary adjunct to medical or surgical treatment. The entitlement of institutional and anesthesia services is authorized in conjunction with non-covered dental treatment for patients with developmental, mental, or physical disabilities or for pediatric patients age 5 or under. This final rule does not eliminate any contracted medical care that is currently covered for spouses and children. The entitlement of anesthesia services includes general anesthesia services only. Institutional services include institutional benefits associated with both hospital and in-out surgery settings. Patients with developmental, mental, or physical disabilities are those patients with conditions that prohibit dental treatment in a safe and effective manner. Therefore, it is medically or psychologically necessary for these patients to require general anesthesia for dental treatment.
A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.
Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V
Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared with 213 (39%) in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to
Landes, Constantin A; Hoefer, Sebastian; Schuebel, Florian; Ballon, Alexander; Teiler, Anna; Tran, Andreas; Weber, Roxane; Walcher, Felix; Sader, Robert
Basic skills in oral/CMF surgery should be taught effectively to dental students as surgical skills training is traditionally under-represented in the dental curriculum compared to its later need in daily clinical practice. Rigid curricular time frames and prospectively condensed professional education foster new effective teaching and examination formats. Transmitting and assessing clinical competence objectively (independent of subjective bias), reliably (repeatable, inter-rater consistency) and valid (representative, structured task selection) was intended and evaluated in oral/CMF surgery skills acquisition starting in summer 2009. A small-group practical skills training (PST) day initiated a one-week practical training course, covering previously formulated learning objectives. An objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) was held at the end of each semester. Theoretical background knowledge and clinical skills should have to be memorized within a representative number of practical tasks (test stations). A first semester (26 students) used classical practical training alone as controls, the following semesters (171 students) had PST, considered as a study group. All 197 students were assessed with OSCE's over a 3-year period. An instructor held PST based on presentations, videos and practical training, including mannequins, with pairs of students. This included history taking, communication and interpretation of laboratory/image diagnostics, structured clinical facial examination, fracture diagnosis, venipuncture, suturing, biopsy and wire loops on pig jaws for manual and clinical skills, which were later incorporated in OSCE stations. OSCE average results increased from 63.3 ± 9.7% before and to 75.5 ± 10% after the inclusion of PST (p skills as evaluated by OSCE.
[Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].
Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki
It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.
Imfeld, Thomas N.; And Others
A method for predicting high dental caries increments for children, based on previous research, is presented. Three clinical findings were identified as predictors: number of sound primary molars, number of discolored pits/fissures on first permanent molars, and number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of first permanent molars with white…
Dillen, van, J.; Hiddink, G.J.
Background - In this review study, we are the first to explore whether the practice nurse (PN) can act as case manager lifestyle counselling regarding weight management in primary care. Methods - Multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO) were searched to identify relevant literature after 1995. Forty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In addition, all studies were judged on ten quality criteria by two independent reviewers. Results - Especially in the last three years, man...
Saengtipbovorn, Saruta; Taneepanichskul, Surasak
Currently, there is an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the elderly. Chronic inflammation from diabetes mellitus effects glycemic control and increases risk of diabetes complications. To assess the effectiveness of a Lifestyle Change plus Dental Care (LCDC) program by improved knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the elderly with type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two Health Centers (HC 54 intervention and HC 59 control) between October 2013 and April 2014. Sixty-six diabetic patients per health center were recruited. At baseline, the intervention group attended a 20-minute lifestyle and oral health education program, individual lifestyle counseling using motivational interviewing, application of self-regulation manual, and individual oral hygiene instruction. At 3-month follow-up, the intervention group received individual lifestyle counseling and oral hygiene instruction. The intervention group received booster education every visit by viewing a 15-minute educational video. The control group received the routine program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up for knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measure ANOVA. After the 6-month follow-up, repeated measure ANOVA analysis showed that participants in the intervention group had significantly higher knowledge and attitude toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. The participants in the intervention group were more likely to exercise, modify diet, have foot examinations, always wear covered shoes, participate in self-feet screening, use dental floss, and use inter-proximal brush than the control group with statistically significant differences. The combination of lifestyle change and dental care in one program improved knowledge, attitude
刘建彰; 王磊; 朱明太; 张丽君
本文初步探讨了牙体解剖学实习教学的方法及其效果.通过引导思考、"强调目的"的教学方式,使学生由浅入深地积极思考各种操作目的、各种牙体解剖结构的作用,以及这些结构是如何与生理功能相互作用而实现其功能的,使学生养成"知其然更知其所以然"的习惯.这样,既有助于学生更加深入地理解牙体解剖结构的特点和作用,又能够将学生所掌握的解剖学理论知识引向口腔生理学等学科,初步建立口腔医学的学习思路.结果表明,上述教学方法的改革提高了教学质量,其效果得到了学生的肯定.%This article discussed the teaching methods and its effects of the dental anatomic practice. Through questions, stressing objective, students acquired the main points of the dental anatomic practice, and got deeply knowledge of physiological functions of the dental anatomy. The students mastered this subject quite fast and easy. The most important, they could get natural transition to the study of the oral physiology et al. Based upon above teaching reform, teaching effects were appraised by the students,and teaching quality was improved.
Full Text Available The GMA committee for dentistry of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA considers its’ main purpose the representation and interconnection of all aspects of dentistry with and within the GMA. Teaching and assessing practical skills during training is traditionally of great importance in dental education. This is also reflected in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Dental Education (NKLZ. Practical skills are not comprised in a separate chapter as they are in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medical Education (NKLM, but are considered in all sections of the NKLZ for the purpose of interdisciplinary patient- or disease-specific application, targeting the educational level of acting competency. The implementation of the associated joined interdisciplinary integrated educational concept has undoubtedly been a challenge for dental curriculum development against the backdrop of German Dental Licensure Act dating back to 1955.
Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.
Full Text Available Dentists prescribe approximately 10% of antibiotics dispensed in UK community pharmacies. Despite clear clinical guidance, dentists often prescribe antibiotics inappropriately. This cluster-randomised controlled trial used routinely collected National Health Service (NHS dental prescribing and treatment claim data to compare the impact of individualised audit and feedback (A&F interventions on dentists' antibiotic prescribing rates.All 795 antibiotic prescribing NHS general dental practices in Scotland were included. Practices were randomised to the control (practices = 163; dentists = 567 or A&F intervention group (practices = 632; dentists = 1,999. A&F intervention practices were allocated to one of two A&F groups: (1 individualised graphical A&F comprising a line graph plotting an individual dentist's monthly antibiotic prescribing rate (practices = 316; dentists = 1,001; or (2 individualised graphical A&F plus a written behaviour change message synthesising and reiterating national guidance recommendations for dental antibiotic prescribing (practices = 316; dentists = 998. Intervention practices were also simultaneously randomised to receive A&F: (i with or without a health board comparator comprising the addition of a line to the graphical A&F plotting the monthly antibiotic prescribing rate of all dentists in the health board; and (ii delivered at 0 and 6 mo or at 0, 6, and 9 mo, giving a total of eight intervention groups. The primary outcome, measured by the trial statistician who was blinded to allocation, was the total number of antibiotic items dispensed per 100 NHS treatment claims over the 12 mo post-delivery of the baseline A&F. Primary outcome data was available for 152 control practices (dentists = 438 and 609 intervention practices (dentists = 1,550. At baseline, the number of antibiotic items prescribed per 100 NHS treatment claims was 8.3 in the control group and 8.5 in the intervention group. At follow-up, antibiotic
Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
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Alphen, J.E. van; Donker, G.A.; Marquet, R.L.
The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. AIM: To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasi
Masella, Richard S
Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.
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Full Text Available Introduction: Ethics is a science of ideal human character and behavior in situations where the distinction should be made between what is right and wrong. Dental jurisprudence is a set of legal regulations set forth by each state's legislature describing the legal limitations and regulations related to the practice of dentistry. Objectives: (1 To assess the dental practitioners' awareness about dentists (Code of Ethics regulation and jurisprudence. (2 To assess the awareness of dentists regarding Consumer Protection Act (COPRA and its implications in dentistry. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. A pilot study was conducted to validate the questionnaire and to get the required sample size which was 346. A specially designed questionnaire consisting of 24 close-ended questions divided into two sections was used. The resulting data were coded, and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 17.0. Results: The results showed that about 65% of the dentists were aware that the Dentist Act was given in the year 1948 and 76% knew that the dentists (Code of Ethics regulation was given by the Dental Council of India. Only 33% knew that it is not unethical for a dental surgeon to supply or sell drugs related to dentistry in his clinic. Only 31% responded correctly that it is not necessary to obtain informed consent for clinical examination and routine radiography. Nearly, half of the respondents (43% were not aware of professional indemnity insurance. Conclusion: The study concludes that majority of the dental practitioners are aware of dental ethics but their knowledge on jurisprudence and COPRA needs to be enriched. Although recommendations can be made to the dental profession to alter their behavior, real improvement is unlikely without changes in legislation and social policy.
Countless studies have been conducted on questioning techniques in education. However, little research has been focused on the use of reflective practice in relation to teachers' questioning techniques in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math education. Within this action research study of my own teaching, six lessons were taught, observed, and reflected upon. The main focus was on whether and how reflective practice influences questioning. Through the analysis of video footage, conversation transcriptions, reflective journal entries, pre-service teacher survey, and student work, the importance of different questioning techniques became apparent. They demonstrated that reflective practice has an impact on improving questioning skills and, thus, better engaging students in the learning process.
The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure
Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.
To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Kracher, Connie; Breen, Carolyn; McMahon, Kim; Gagliardi, Lorraine; Miyasaki, Cara; Landsberg, Katherine; Reed, Constance
The objectives of this article are to describe the dental assistant's role in the dental delivery system; assess the educational structure of the dental assisting profession; and project factors likely to impact the future role of the dental assistant. The article summarizes the current status and trends of the dental assisting profession including general responsibilities, credentialing, and regulation. An overview of the workforce and parameters of employment is provided with a description of the broad scope of practice, education, and licensure options, which vary by state. Existing academic models and enrollment trends in accredited dental programs are included, as are the strengths and weaknesses of the current educational system. Multiple factors may impact the future of this profession. To address the anticipated increase in the demand for and responsibilities of dental assistants, curricular revisions will be needed to prepare for implementation of interprofessional care models in which dental assistants will play a vital role. Well-educated dental assistants will be needed to support viable models of dental care and wellness in the U.S. Enhanced career opportunities and varied employment environments may increase job satisfaction and practice longevity. As protection of the public is of the utmost importance in the dental profession, this evolving dental clinician must be formally educated in all aspects of clinical practice and be permitted to perform delegated patient care, as legally allowed by their states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."
Hagiwara, Makoto; Watanabe, Eiko; Barrett, J Carl; Tsutsui, Takeki
To assess the genotoxicity of 14 chemical agents used as locally applied agents in dental practice, the ability of these agents to elicit chromosome aberrations was examined using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Chromosome aberrations in SHE cells were induced by treatment with three of eight chemical agents used as endodontic medicaments, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formocresol (a mixture of formalin and tricresol), and sodium arsenite. The other five chemical agents, i.e. chloramphenicol, p-chlorophenol, p-phenolsulfonic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and tetracycline hydrochloride exhibited a negative response for chromosome aberrations. Assessment of three dyes used for disclosing dental plaque showed chromosome aberrations induced by basic fuchsin but not by acid fuchsin and erythrosine B. Three local anesthetics, lidocaine hydrochloride, prilocaine hydrochloride, and procaine hydrochloride, were negative for chromosome aberrations. Among the ten chemical agents that exhibited a negative response in the assay, p-chlorophenol, sodium hypochlorite, and erythrosine B induced chromosome aberrations in SHE cells when treated in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The percentages of cells with polyploidy or endoreduplication were enhanced by formocresol, sodium arsenite, p-chlorophenol, p-phenolsulfonic acid, sodium hypochlorite, erythrosine B, prilocaine hydrochloride, and procaine hydrochloride in the absence or presence of exogenous metabolic activation. Our results indicate that the chemical agents that had a positive response in the present study are potentially genotoxic to mammalian cells.
This study examines results of a practical drawing task given to a cohort of first year dental surgery students at Kings College Dental Institute, London. It compares and relates their success in drilling and removing caries and pulp tissue from a virtual tooth using the hapTEL virtual learning system, with each individuals' drawing skills.…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for dentists and dental hygienists, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct,…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…
Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth: multiple-regression modeling of observational clinical data from The National Dental PBRN
Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Rindal, D. Brad; Qvist, Vibeke; Litaker, Mark S.; Benjamin, Paul; Flink, Håkan; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Johnson, Neil
Purpose Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. We used actual clinical data to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. Methods We combined data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229 participating network dentists. Analysis of variance and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal and proximal caries compared to dentin lesions, accounting for dentist and patient clustering. Results Network dentists from 5 regions placed 6,891 restorations involving occlusal and/or proximal caries lesions. Enamel restorations accounted for 16% of enrolled occlusal caries lesions and 6% of enrolled proximal caries lesions. Enamel occlusal restorations varied significantly (pEnamel proximal restorations varied significantly (penamel caries restorations can guide strategies to improve provider adherence to evidence-based clinical recommendations. PMID:25000667
McManus, Kathleen A; Rodney, Robert C; Rhodes, Anne; Bailey, Steven; Dillingham, Rebecca
With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014, many safety net resources, including state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), incorporated ACA Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) into their healthcare delivery model. This article highlights the benefits of the ACA for persons living with HIV. It also describes the range of strategies employed by state ADAPs to enroll patients in QHPs. The Virginia ADAP ACA implementation experience is described to illustrate one ADAP's shift to purchasing QHPs in addition to providing direct medications. Virginia ADAP is in a Medicaid nonexpansion state and funds the full costs of the QHP premiums, deductibles, and medication copayments. Virginia's experience is applicable to other Medicaid nonexpansion states and to state ADAPs in Medicaid expansion states, who are looking for options for their Medicaid ineligible clients. This article provides practical details of Virginia ADAP's ACA implementation as well as insights and best practices at both the state and clinic level.
Sablok, Gitika; Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Burgess, John; Boyle, Brendan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the HRD practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in Australia to understand the value that MNEs place on investment in their human capital, particularly managerial talent. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a representative sample of 211 MNEs operating in Australia, this paper…
Mitchell, Donna Mathewson
Visual arts teachers engage in complex work on a daily basis. This work is informed by practical knowledge that is rarely examined or drawn on in research or in the development of policy. Focusing on the work of secondary visual arts teachers, this article reports on a research program conducted in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.…
Mitchell, Donna Mathewson
Visual arts teachers engage in complex work on a daily basis. This work is informed by practical knowledge that is rarely examined or drawn on in research or in the development of policy. Focusing on the work of secondary visual arts teachers, this article reports on a research program conducted in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.…
Swan, E.C.; Bouwman, L.I.; Roos, de N.M.; Koelen, M.
Background. Adolescent obesity calls for evidence-based treatment approaches given its long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. However, research shows there are many problems in the translation of scientific evidence into practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to develop science-
Gilbert, Gregg H; Riley, Joseph L; Eleazer, Paul D; Benjamin, Paul L; Funkhouser, Ellen
Objectives Use of a rubber dam during root canal treatment is considered the standard of care because it enhances patient safety and optimises the odds of successful treatment. Nonetheless, not all dentists use a rubber dam, creating disconnect between presumed standard of care and what is actually done in clinical practice. Little is known about dentists’ attitudes towards use of the rubber dam in their practices. The objectives were to: (1) quantify these attitudes and (2) test the hypothesis that specific attitudes are significantly associated with rubber dam use. Setting National Dental Practice-Based Research Network (NationalDentalPBRN.org). Participants 1490 network dentists. Outcome measures Dentists completed a questionnaire about their attitudes towards rubber dam use during root canal treatment. Three attitude scales comprised 33 items that used a 5-point ordinal scale to measure beliefs about effectiveness, inconvenience, ease of placement, comparison to other isolation techniques and patient factors. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysed the relationship between attitudes and rubber dam use. Results All items had responses at each point on the 5-point scale, with an overall pattern of substantial variation across dentists. Five attitudinal factors (rubber dam effectiveness; inconvenient/time-consuming; ease of placement; effectiveness compared to Isolite; patient factors) and 4 clusters of practitioners were identified. Each factor and cluster was independently and strongly associated with rubber dam use. Conclusions General dentists have substantial variation in attitudes about rubber dam use. Beliefs that rubber dam use is not effective, inconvenient, time-consuming, not easy to place or affected by patient factors, were independently and significantly associated with lower rubber dam use. These attitudes explain why there is substantial discordance between presumed standard of care and actual practice
Suresan, Vinay; Mantri, Sneha; Deogade, Suryakant; Sumathi, K; Panday, Pragya; Galav, Ankit; Mishra, Kanika
Researchers have concentrated their focus on denture wearer's attitude and practice toward denture cleansing despite the fact that they should be more focused on the attitudes of the dentists' themselves towards patient education at the time of denture delivery. It is an obligation of every dentist to motivate, instruct and provide the means and methods of plaque control for their patients. The aim was to assess the denture hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practice towards patient education in denture care among dental practitioners (DPs) of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 168 dental practitioners completed a comprehensive questionnaire. All participants signed an informed consent before answering the questionnaire. The institutional review committee approved the study. Chi-square test for non-parametric study was employed to determine the statistical difference between the two groups. A P-value of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Most of the subjects were qualified with a bachelor degree 142 (85%). 25 (18%) subjects did not associate oral biofilms on complete denture with conditions like denture stomatitis and other serious systemic diseases. Approximately half of the DPs 69 (48%) and specialists 8 (31%) agreed that explaining denture hygiene instructions to old patients can be very time consuming. A recall program for their patients is of importance according to 39 (27%) of DPs and 3 (12%) specialists. It may be concluded that the study subjects had limited knowledge of denture cleansing materials and denture hygiene importance. Attitudes varied among the subjects when it came to sharing information with their patients.
Anissi, H.D. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dentistry; Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Surgery
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the distribution and application of digital intraoral radiographic techniques within general dental practices and to compare these with film-based systems in terms of patient dose reduction. Materials and Methods: 1100 questionnaires were handed out to general dental practitioners. Data was analyzed with respect to the type of system by using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests, i.e. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test (SPSS 20). Results: 64% of the questioned dentists still use film-based radiology, 23% utilize storage phosphor plate (SPP) systems and 13% use a charge-coupled device (CCD). A strong correlation between the number of dentists working in a practice and the use of digital dental imaging was observed. Almost 3/4 of the film users work with E- or F-speed film. 45% of them refuse to change to a digital system. The use of lead aprons was popular, while only a minority preferred thyroid shields and rectangular collimators. A fourfold reduction of exposure time from D-speed film to CCD systems was observed. Due to detector size and positioning errors, users of CCD systems take significantly more single-tooth radiographs in total. Considering the number of radiographs per patient, there is only a slight tendency towards more X-rays with CCD systems. Up to image generation, digital systems seem to be as or even more difficult to handle than film-based systems, while their handling was favored after radiographic exposure. Conclusion: Despite a slight increase of radiographs taken with CCD systems, there is a significant dosage reduction. Corresponding to the decrease in exposure time, the patient dose for SPP systems is reduced to one half compared to film. The main issues in CCD technology are positioning errors and the size of the X-ray detectors which are difficult to eliminate. The usage of radiation protection measures still needs to be improved. (orig.)
Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise
The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative...... systems. The study comprised 1,245 adolescents from 3 municipalities; the historical cohort study design was applied; and data were collected from dental records (public dental service) and dental claims (private practice). At age 16, 12% preferred being enrolled in the private practice system, while 88......% remained in the public dental care system. During the 2-year study period the attendance rate was 99% for the public system, while 90% attended the private practice system (Pdental services were provided more frequently by the public than the private system (P
Salem, Omar; Forster, Christine
This article presents the results of a survey conducted among New South Wales medical practitioners to assess the extent to which the enactment of the Civil Liability Act 2002 (NSW) has reduced the practice of defensive medicine. The new legislation was intended in part to reduce the practice of defensive medicine, both "assurance-type" measures, such as performing additional tests to assure patients they have received all possible care, and "avoidance-type" measures, such as avoiding the treatment of patients who may be at a higher risk for adverse outcomes and therefore at higher risk for filing lawsuits. However, the results of the survey reveal that many medical practitioners in New South Wales remain unaware of the legal reforms and the consequent reduction in their legal liability and continue to practise defensive medicine. This article argues therefore that while the ultimate aim of reducing litigation has been achieved in New South Wales through the introduction of the Civil Liability Act, the underlying and arguably more important aim of providing medical practitioners with a more secure environment in which to practise their profession effectively has not been achieved. The apparent failure to disseminate the legal changes to the medical profession illustrates the limitations of law reform to effectively engender social change without the active use of educative and other implementation initiatives.
Ley, Eugene; And Others
Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)