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Sample records for dental insurance market

  1. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  2. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Ravi S S; Jindal, R

    2011-01-01

    Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008) focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  3. Insurance fraud on the Czech insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    Jastremská, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with insurance fraud on the Czech insurance market. The introductory section describes the actual state of the insurance market. Insurance fraud is presented in terms of legislation, their species and the general alarming indicators. The next section deals with internal fraud and depictures a brief profile of the typical internal fraudster, indicators of their suspicious behavior and ways of prevention. The following chapter describes the external fraud in the life and non-li...

  4. The Swedish national dental insurance and dental health care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1981-01-01

    Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described.......Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described....

  5. MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS OF INSURANCE MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sabirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.

  6. Serbian insurance market: Select issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Mirjana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day insurance companies face a number of risks arising from the insurance industry itself, as well as risks arising from insurance company operations. In this constant fight against risks insurance companies use different models and methods that help them better understand, have a more comprehensive view of, and develop greater tolerance towards risks, in order to reduce their exposure to these risks. The model presented in this paper has been developed for implementation in insurance risk management directly related to insurance company risk, i.e. it is a model that can reliably determine the manner and intensity with which deviations in the initial insurance risk assessment affect insurance company operations, in the form of changes in operational risks and consequently in insurance companies’ business strategies. Additionally we present the implementation of the model in the Serbian market for the period 2005-2010.

  7. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky,Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  8. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies.

  9. WORLD INSURANCE MARKET DEVELOPMENT UNDER DIGITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Motashko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of digitalization in the insurance market is investigated, the advantages of digital technology to the insurance market are considered. The main trends of world insurance market under digitalization are analyzed. Key landmarks of insurance companies in modern conditions are distinguished.

  10. Insure Kids Now (IKN) (Dental Care Providers)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Insure Kids Now (IKN) Dental Care Providers in Your State locator provides profile information for oral health providers participating in Medicaid and Children's...

  11. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS IN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroe Andreea

    2013-07-01

    In this paper there are showed and debated some situation in which psychological effects like loss aversion, reference point, status-quo and framming effects can influence the deccision of the consumer and are not consistent with the standard economic model.In addition to this aspects, Cumulative Prspect Theory enhance the fact that decision makers overestimate low peobabilities and underestimate high probabilities,thus buying inadequate insurance in many situation.in thiss sense, in order to support this idea I tried to make a qualitative presentation of the model used on the insurance market using Prelec function which is the function related with the Cumulative Prospect Theory which can be used in the insurance context.The weak points of the theory of expected utility are explained through this new perspectives and nevertheless aspects like insensivity to bad news concerning incomes,elasticity of price,displacements of status-quo and default,disposition effect and equity premium are taken into consideration.As example,I chose a Kunreuther experiment about insurance decision in with is underlyined the fact that for moderate risk people buy insurance with premiums that exceed the expected loss.There are demands for low deductibles in the the markets for extended guarantees and insurances for mobile phones where was observed that the insurance underwriting rate increases with the probability of loss keeping the expected loss constant.It is better to mention that the theory and the model that are presented here comes as complementary to the economic standard theory not as a substitute.

  12. 78 FR 62441 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO85 VA Dental Insurance Program--Federalism AGENCY: Department of... direct final action to amend its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents...

  13. 78 FR 63143 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO86 VA Dental Insurance Program--Federalism AGENCY: Department of... its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans...

  14. Comparative analysis of life insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malynych, Anna Mykolayivna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive analysis of statistic insight into development of the world and regional life insurance markets on the basis of macroeconomic indicators. The author located domestic life insurance market on the global scale, analyzed its development and suggested the methods to calculate the marketing life insurance index. There was also approbated the mentioned methods on database of 77 countries all over the world. The author also defined the national rating on the basis of marketing life insurance index.

  15. Considerations on Albanian Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Sharku

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The life insurance sector is an important sector of the economy all over the world. Life insurance provides the economy and the individuals as well, a variety of fundamental financial services.Regardless the importance it has all around the world, life insurance market in Albania is still underdeveloped comparing not only to the Western European countries, but to the region countries as well. The comparative analysis of insurance market is carried out by means of two indexes: insurance density and penetration index. The life insurance market in Albania is facing several problems which will be further explained in the paper, together with some recommendations to be taken in account by Albanian insurance companies and the Albanian government as well.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Ianc Maria Mirabela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is the economic activity that individuals and businesses are threatened by some danger that, if it would cause damage to health or even life or they can destroy property, agree to remove the financial effects of possible losses transfer to specialized companies in exchange for a sum of money. The specialized companies agree to take over and compensate the financial effects of production risk are called companies or insurance companies. The transfer of the possible financial losses from risk bearers insurance companies called insurance. The insurance and reinsurance operations are conducted in a regulated framework that brings together supply and demand of insurance, insurance market framework known. The insurance market is performing most specific contracts.

  17. Pricing General Insurance in a Competitive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Burcã Ana-Maria; Bãtrînca Ghiorghe

    2012-01-01

    In insurance industry, the lack of a proper pricing policy will generate suboptimal results. The price has to be competitive and actuarially adequate in order to reflect the dimension of risk. In a competitive market, the pricing policy of insurance companies acquires the capacities of a dynamic process. In this pricing war, the insurance company must analyze each component of pricing. Insurance companies use various statistical methods to set prices, taking in consideration the interaction b...

  18. Facilitating Consumer Learning in Insurance Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We model a monopoly insurance market where consumers can learn their accident risks at a cost c. We then ask: What are the welfare effects of a policy that reduces c? If c is sufficiently small (c < c*), the optimal contract is such that the consumer gathers information. For c < c*, both insurer ...

  19. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL DENTAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica BULAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the key trends of the market, and segments the global dental equipment and consumables market by components and into various geographic regions in way of market size. It discusses the key market drivers, main players, restraints and opportunities of the global dental equipment and consumables market.

  20. The consequence of financial crises in Albanian insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Albanian insurance market is not influenced considerably from current financial crisis. Early yet phase of development with the very low penetration level explains steadiness of insurance market to exposure influence of global financial crisis. Another factor contributed to stability of insurance market is focusing insurance businesses more on the compulsory insurance segment which is not fully liberalized. Conservative investment policies of Albanian insurers also contributed to avoiding influence of market risks induced by world financial crisis.

  1. Romanian Insurance Market Facing Globalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru G. Badea

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian insurance market has passed through a permanent process of growth which ended up in 2004 to exceed the threshold of 1 billion Euros, in the frame of a small awareness and confidence of the population towards insurance, even now after 15 years. The globalization process of the financial markets affected also the Romanian market even before Romania became member of the European Union. The globalization brought about benefits (especially under the form of increase in the quality of the services provided to clients but also disadvantages for local companies (significant costs in logistics and training in order to cope with the international groups.

  2. INSURANCE MARKET. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINEL NEDELUŢ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is a contract made by a company or society, or by the state, to provide a guarantee for loss, damage, illness, death etc in return for regular payments. In other words it is a means by which one pays a relatively small known cost for protection against an uncertain and much larger cost. Still, this contract (insurance policy makes it possible for the insured to cover only losses that are measurable in terms of money and caused strictly by hazardous events, independent from own doing. If no such events should happen, the benefits won’t exist in a tangible, material form, but will take the shape of security against ruin. Since the insurance industry has developed more during the last decade due to the powerful players that have entered the market, the services provided by the insurance companies, and not only their products have evolved a lot in order to meet the requirements of the consumers, and to make them familiar with this type of investments. Therefore all the means of advertising became essential in this process of implementation and familiarization with this area of activity: mass-media advertising, insurance brokerage companies, the internet are all parts of this process.

  3. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COMMERCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Zaraswati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to: 1 compare the effect of premium earnings products of health insurances after the launching of national social health insurance (JKN-BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial for health; 2 analyze the internal and external factors of private/commercial health insurance companies; 3 formulate a marketing strategyy for health insurance product after the operation of JKN-BPJS for health.  It is a challenge for commercial health insurance to survive and thrive with the existence of JKN-BPJS for health which is compulsory to Indonesia’s citizens to be a member. The research begins by analyzing premium earnings of the commercial health insurance company one year before and after the implementation of JKN-BPJS for health, the intensive interviews and questionnaires to the chosen resource person (purposive samplings, the analysis on Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE, External Factor Evaluation (EFE, Matrix IE and SWOT are used in the research. Then it is continued by arranging a strategic priority using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP.  The result from the research is there is totally no decreasing premium earnings for the commercial health insurance company although the growth trend shows a slight drop.  The appropriate strategy for the health insurance company in the commercial sector is the differentiation where the implication is involving customer service quality improvement, product innovation, and technology and infrastructure development.      Keywords:  commercial health insurance company, Marketing Strategy, AHP Analysis, national social health insurance

  4. Dropped out or pushed out? Insurance market exit and provider market power in Medicare Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelech, Daria

    2016-11-30

    This paper explores how provider and insurer market power affect which markets an insurer chooses to operate in. A 2011 policy change required that certain private insurance plans in Medicare form provider networks de novo; in response, insurers cancelled two-thirds of the affected plans. Using detailed data on pre-policy provider and insurer market structure, I compare markets where insurers built networks to those they exited. Overall, insurers in the most concentrated hospital and physician markets were 9 and 13 percentage points more likely to exit, respectively, than those in the least concentrated markets. Conversely, insurers with more market power were less likely to exit than those with less, and an insurer's market power had the largest effect on exit in concentrated hospital markets. These findings suggest that concentrated provider markets contribute to insurer exit and that insurers with less market power have more difficulty surviving in concentrated provider markets.

  5. Incentives and Insurance in International Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    77 ---- 4 S -- 175 p I or~ -C7s t~z 4_ O&r h%.0~4j\\- Si A RAND NOTE * . INCENTIVES AND INSURANCE IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS Daniel F . Kohler...Markets 6. PE04RPOwnGa ORG. REPOr owtA86ER AUTHOR(O 6. CONTRACT OR1 GRANT 11UM411Ctej Daniel F . Kohler MDA9O3-83-C-0148 %’ 9. P90FoAMN* OR1GANSRATION...Insurance and Loan Guarantee, by Daniel F . Kohler and Kip T. Fisher, N-1951-USDP, January 1983. * The Effects of Export Credit Subsidies on Western

  6. Dental insurance and dental service use by U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2011-01-01

    Oral health has a significant effect on health, and for women, poor oral health can lead to poor birth outcomes and can affect their child's health. Nursing interventions to improve the oral health of at-risk women have the potential to increase maternal and child systemic and oral health. The identification of women at a high risk for poor oral health is a necessary to develop and evaluate these interventions. This study examined the factors related to dental insurance and dental service use for women of childbearing age in the United States. A secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was completed to examine the predisposing, enabling, and need variables associated with dental insurance status and dental service use in a representative random sample of 1,071 women. The results showed that over 40% of women had no dental insurance. Women with less education, lower income, and dental need were significantly less likely to have dental insurance. Dental utilization by the uninsured was low and a racial/ethnic disparity was noted. A lack of dental insurance and dental service utilization is a significant concern. Nurses working with low-income women should educate the population about oral health and advocate for policies to increase dental insurance coverage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effects of insurance carrier market power on dentists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L Jackson; Guay, Albert H; House, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    Market power among dental insurance carriers is a carrier's ability to reimburse dentists at rates below what would exist in more competitive areas. Competition among carriers for dentists' participation in their networks protects dentists from highly discounted fees. The authors examined the extent to which dental insurance carriers facing less competition increase fee discounts. The authors selected a sample of dentists from listings of general practitioners. They identified 219 metropolitan areas and contacted 11,542 dentists in those areas by mail, telephone or both. A total of 8,017 dentists completed surveys (a response rate of 69.46 percent). The authors' key focus was the possible relationship between carrier market power and the size of the fee discount. The authors compared discounts across metropolitan areas with their differing levels of insurance coverage and carrier market shares. Carrier market power was directly related to the sizes of fee discounts. The larger discounts were found where there was significant dental insurance coverage and few carriers providing this coverage. Dentists' net incomes were significantly less in areas with larger fee discounts. Dental insurance carrier market power leads to increased fee discounts. These higher discounts reduce dentists' earnings. Although the larger discounts may result in lower overall patient costs, this patient benefit is temporary. Ultimately, the number of practicing dentists in these communities will decrease as dentists seek improved practicing conditions elsewhere. This reduction will lead to overall fee increases until the earning potential of dentists is restored.

  8. Labor Market Effects of Unemployment Insurance Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, includ

  9. Labor market effects of unemployment insurance design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatsiramos, K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Great Recession unemployment insurance (UI) is once again at the heart of the policy debate. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and empirical evidence on the labor market effects of UI design. We also discuss policy issues related to UI design, including the st

  10. Planning of marketing activity in an insurance company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.A. Smirnova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article theoretical approaches in relation to planning of marketing activity in an insurance company are examined. Stages of marketing activity planning in insurance company are offered.

  11. How dental utilisation in the Netherlands was affected by a radical reform of the dental insurance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, E.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Felling, A.J.A.; Severens, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of the 1995 insurance system reform on dental utilisation. STUDY DESIGN: Four categories of patients experiencing homogeneous insurance changes - public/private insurance with and without additional private dental insurance--were analysed. The reform was

  12. How dental utilisation in the Netherlands was affected by a radical reform of the dental insurance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, E.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Felling, A.J.A.; Severens, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of the 1995 insurance system reform on dental utilisation. STUDY DESIGN: Four categories of patients experiencing homogeneous insurance changes - public/private insurance with and without additional private dental insurance--were analysed. The reform was hypothes

  13. Insuring unit failures in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, S.; Conejo, A.J.; Carrion, M. [Univ. Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    An electric energy producer participates in futures markets in the hope of hedging the risk of trading in the pool. However, this producer is required to supply the energy associated with all its signed forward contracts even if some of its units are forced out due to unexpected failures. In this case, the producer must purchase some of the energy needed to meet its futures market commitments in the pool, which may result in high losses if the pool prices happen to be higher than the forward contract prices. To mitigate these losses, the producer can take out insurance against the forced outages of its units. Using a stochastic programming model, this paper analyzes the convenience of signing an insurance against unit failure by an electric energy producer and its impact on forward contracting decisions. Results from a realistic case study are provided and analyzed. (author)

  14. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SIMULATION OF THE INSURANCE COMPANY’S MARKETING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Klepikova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the development of marketing strategy of the insurance company with using of mathematical modeling of structures. The algorithm was developed for calculating the coefficient of “probability of insurance policy acquisition” which accumulates the influence of factors related to the feature of providing insurance services and financial activities of the insurance company.

  16. Market analysis property insurance in Russia in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rysskih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the state of property insurance market. The authors analyze premiums and payments of property insurance in 2010-2014 in the Russian Federation. The main trends and prospects of development of the insurance market in 2015 are determined.

  17. Approaches to the formation of financial security companies in the insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    The features of the insurance market as a special sphere of financial relations that arise between the subjects of the insurance market and financial market and economic relations in the insurance market, which form the 1st level of financial security of insurance companies, especially the investment activities of insurers in the financial market, where a 2 level of financial security insurance companies.

  18. CURRENT COORDINATES OF THE INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA

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    Bente Corneliu Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the insurance activity is well known to the Romanian market ever since the 14th century, when insurance was all about mutual help, this activity evolved rapidly in the period before the First World War and in the period between the World Wars, and it manifested itself as the entrance on the market of insurance companies representatives from countries as Austria, Italy, Great Britain. facultative insurance.

  19. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Insurer market structure and variation in commercial health care spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Michael R; Naimer, Sivia; Landrum, Mary B; Gibson, Teresa B; Chandra, Amitabh; Chernew, Michael

    2014-06-01

    To examine the relationship between insurance market structure and health care prices, utilization, and spending. Claims for 37.6 million privately insured employees and their dependents from the Truven Health Market Scan Database in 2009. Measures of insurer market structure derived from Health Leaders Inter study data. Regression models are used to estimate the association between insurance market concentration and health care spending, utilization, and price, adjusting for differences in patient characteristics and other market-level traits. Insurance market concentration is inversely related to prices and spending, but positively related to utilization. Our results imply that, after adjusting for input price differences, a market with two equal size insurers is associated with 3.9 percent lower medical care spending per capita (p = .002) and 5.0 percent lower prices for health care services relative to one with three equal size insurers (p market might lead to higher prices and higher spending for care, suggesting some of the gains from insurer competition may be absorbed by higher prices for health care. Greater attention to prices and utilization in the provider market may need to accompany procompetitive insurance market strategies. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. NATIONAL INSURANCE MARKETS IN FORMATION OF EURASIAN ECONOMIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sembekov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some of the problems of national insurance markets of Kazakhstan, Belarus and the Russian Federation in terms of integration associations of the Customs Union, the Eurasian Economic Community, activities of the Eurasian Economic comission for future of EES. Presented the analysis of general indicators of the insurance markets that characterize the level of development. Based on a comparative analysis concluded conclusions and recommendations in order to ensure the competitiveness of the insurance market in Kazakhstan.

  2. Examining dental expenditure and dental insurance accounting for probability of incurring expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, Dana; Smith, Valerie; Gnanamanickam, Emmanuel; Brennan, David

    2017-04-01

    There are few studies of dental service expenditure in Australia. Although dental insurance status is strongly associated with a higher probability of dental visiting, some studies indicate that there is little variation in expenditure by insurance status among those who attend for care. Our objective was to assess the overall impact of insurance on expenditures by modelling the association between insurance and expenditure accounting for variation in the probability of incurring expenses, that is dental visiting. A sample of 3000 adults (aged 30-61 years) was randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll. Dental service expenditures were collected prospectively over 2 years by client-held log books. Questionnaires collecting participant characteristics were administered at baseline, 12 months and 24 months. Unadjusted and adjusted ratios of expenditure were estimated using marginalized two-part log-skew-normal models. Such models accommodate highly skewed data and estimate effects of covariates on the overall marginal mean while accounting for the probability of incurring expenses. Baseline response was 39%; of these, 40% (n = 438) were retained over the 2-year period. Only participants providing complete data were included in the analysis (n = 378). Of these, 68.5% were insured, and 70.9% accessed dental services of which nearly all (97.7%) incurred individual dental expenses. The mean dental service expenditure for the total sample (those who did and did not attend) for dental care was AUS$788. Model-adjusted ratios of mean expenditures were higher for the insured (1.61; 95% CI 1.18, 2.20), females (1.38; 95% CI 1.06, 1.81), major city residents (1.43; 95% CI 1.10, 1.84) and those who brushed their teeth twice or more a day (1.50; 95% CI 1.15, 1.96) than their respective counterparts. Accounting for the probability of incurring dental expenses, and other explanatory factors, insured working-aged adults had (on average) approximately 60% higher individual

  3. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... VADIP- participating private insurer from forming non-VADIP contractual relationships with anyone...) Resin-based composite restorations. (iv) Endodontic services. (A) Pulp capping. (B) Pulpotomy and... and/or medications. (D) Treatment of postsurgical complications. (E) Crowns. (F) Bridges. (G)...

  4. HOW AFFECTED WAS WORLD INSURANCE MARKET BY GLOBAL CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic and financial crisis triggered in 2008 had a significant impact with effects in economical life worldwide. Insurance industry wasn't spared but was less affected than other sectors of the world economy. The aim of the present paper is to underline the main crisis effects on global insurance market through a comparative study between different regions from the world, taking into consideration the main indicators which give us an insurance market dimension, such as: gross premium volume, insurance density and insurance penetration.

  5. Some Aspects Regarding the Analysis of the Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw-up an analysis of the life insurance market in Romania. This survey is drawn up for the period 2003-2006 and the data used for this analysis were taken over from the Annual Reports published by the Insurance Supervision Commission. Life insurance market in Romania is a steady growing market as a result of the economic growth and the purchase power but is still far away from the development stage of the European markets.

  6. Utilization of Preventive Dental Services Before and After Health Insurance Covered Dental Scaling in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Eun; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Nam-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Health insurance reduces the economic burden of diseases and enhances access to medical services. This study compared, among social classes, the utilization of preventive dental service before and after health insurance covered dental scaling. We analyzed time-series secondary data for 3  175  584 participants from 253 survey areas nationwide in the Community Health Survey (2009-2014) in Korea. The weighted proportion of participants who underwent dental scaling was defined as the scaling rate. Data regarding demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected. Scaling rates continuously increased over the 6-year period, particularly in 2014. College graduates had significantly higher scaling rates. Monthly income and scaling rate were positively related. Differences by education decreased over time. Differences by income were particularly high between 2012 and 2014. For women, the temporal rate was 2 times higher for professionals than for the unemployed. Despite increased dental scaling rates since the health coverage change in 2013, socioeconomic differences persist.

  7. INSURANCE MARKETING OF INNOVATIONS IN THE REGIONAL MARKET OF SERVICES UNDER PRESENT CONDITIONS: STRATEGIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative development of insurance activities must be directed towards creation of new insurance products. Up-to-date innovative insurance marketing should be carried out on the basis of an efficient innovative process management system. For a big insurance company with a largeclient base, high service standards may be warranted only through implementation of innovations linked with newest information technologies.

  8. Big Data and Insurance: Advantageous Selection in European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976 argued that people signal their risk profile through their insurance demand, i.e. individuals with a high risk profile would buy insurance as much as they can, while people who are not going to buy any insurance are the ones with a lower risk profile. This issue is commonly known as adverse selection. Even if their prediction seems to work quite well in a lot of different markets, Cutler et al. (2008 proved that there exist some insurance markets in United States in which the expected result is completely different. In the wake of this study, we provide empirical evidences that there are some European insurance markets in which the low risk profile agents are the ones who buy more insurance.

  9. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahdavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do.Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Irans supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual's characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined.Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance.Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market.

  10. Forms of market strategies in the European insurance sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lado, Nora; Rivera Camino, Jaime

    1996-01-01

    The liberalization of the European insurance market has provoked a necessity for firms to develop multinational strategies. Thus, these strategies should be capable of maintaining their normal competitiveness inspite ofthe different countries and markets. From a theoretical perspective, this artiele investigates the influence of the national environments on the firms' competitive marketing strategies. The different strategic modalities that the insurance firms in two European countries, Spain...

  11. Premium variation in the individual health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, B; Pauly, M V

    2001-03-01

    Recent proposals to decrease the number of uninsured in the U.S. indicate that the individual health insurance market's role may increase. Amid fears of possible risk-segmentation in individual insurance, there exists limited information of the functioning of such markets. This paper examines the relationship between expected medical expense and actual paid premiums for households with individual insurance in the 1996-1997 Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. We find that premiums vary less than proportionately with expected expense and vary only with certain risk characteristics. We also explore how the relationship between risk and premiums is affected by local regulations and market characteristics. We find that premiums vary significantly less strongly with risk for persons insured by HMOs and in markets dominated by managed care insurers.

  12. Financial Convergence Analysis: Implication for Insurance and Pension Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper is one of a set of articles dedicated to the new phenomenon in the global and national financial markets – financial convergence – and is focused on theoretical issues. The hypothesis of the article is to argue whether the financial convergence determines the directions of financial market (namely, insurance and pension sectors development. Adequately the goal of this paper is to analyze the existence of convergence processes in the insurance and pension markets. Methods of systematic and logical analysis are used. In the first part authors give brief history of the convergence phenomenon research. Then the paper analyses influence of financial convergence on insurance and pension markets, manifested in the following effects: mix of financial institutions functions; distribution channels advantages, increase of insurance and pension funds companies’ competitiveness; governance models convergence. The major results of the study are: demographic shifts in different developed and emerging markets countries caused the need to reform the social security systems and public pension schemes and refocus them to the market-based financial convergence model; pension funds, acting as institutional investors, are the leading players in the contemporary global financial market; competition at the financial market causes the expansion of a number of services offered by various organizations: banks, insurance companies, pension funds and so on, which offer a wide range of services not directly related to their core businesses; the mixing of financial institutions functions from the insurance, pension and banking sectors, increased competition for customers at the national and global financial market.

  13. Inequalities of dental prosthesis use under universal healthcare insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Takeuchi, Kenji; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Social inequalities in oral health exist in various countries. In Japan, a country with universal healthcare insurance policy, people can receive medical and dental care and pay only 10-30% of the total cost of treatment. Additionally, very poor Japanese can receive care without any charge, by the benefit of public assistance. These policies are considered to affect oral health inequalities. This study examined the association between using a dental prosthesis and household income among older Japanese people. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) project in 2010. Of the 8576 people aged 65 years or more living in Iwanuma, Japan, 5058 responded. We used 4001 respondents with no missing values. We stratified into two groups by having 20 teeth or not. Then, cross-tabulation, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted for these two groups. The covariates are sex, age, education, and size of household. Of the all respondents included in the analyses, poorer respondents tended to have lower proportions with 20 or more teeth, and 54.6% respondents used dental prostheses. In the respondents with 19 or fewer teeth, higher-income group tended to show significantly higher dental prosthesis use. But the poorest income group showed high prevalence of dental prosthesis use as same as highest income group. Multiple logistic regression among respondents with 19 or fewer teeth showed that after adjustment for sex, age, education, and size of household, compared with the respondents with annual incomes of US$ dental prosthesis (OR = 0.48 [95% CI = 0.28-0.83], 0.56 [95% CI = 0.33-0.95], respectively). The other respondents did not show significant differences. Although universal healthcare insurance covered dental prostheses, a social gradient in dental prosthesis use was still observed. Low-income respondents tended to not use dental prosthesis, but the

  14. Does the Market Choose Optimal Health Insurance Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Consumers, when buying health insurance, do not know the exact value of each treatment that they buy coverage for. This leads them to overvalue some treatments and undervalue others. We show that the insurance market cannot correct these mistakes. This causes research labs to overinvest in

  15. The Effect of Dental Insurance on the Use of Dental Care For Older Adults: A Partial Identification Analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Brent; Moeller, John; Manski, Richard J.; Pepper, John

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of dental insurance on the use of dental services using a potential outcomes identification framework designed to handle uncertainty created by unknown counterfactuals – that is, the endogenous selection problem – as well as uncertainty about the reliability of self-reported insurance status. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we estimate that utilization rates of adults older than 50 would increase from 75% to around 80% under universal dental coverage. PMID:24890257

  16. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategy in Southeast European Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agić-Šabeta Elma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today’s highly volatile and unpredictable market conditions, there are very few investment strategies that may offer a certain form of capital protection. The concept of portfolio insurance strategies presents an attractive investment opportunity.

  17. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...

  18. Evaluation of the harmonization process of the Czech insurance market with the single insurance market of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Čejková

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the Czech insurance industry, it has been 13 years since the passage of the Insurance Act in 1991, which did away with the monopoly and allowed competition in this business sector. In our evaluation, we can state that the positives outweigh the negatives. A relatively high pace of growth in total premiums written was achieved and the ratio of premiums written to GDP increased, up to 4,0% in 2002. In comparison with EU countries, the Czech insurance market is behind in 2 global indicators: the ratio of premiums written to GDP and the share of life insurance in total premiums written. The Czech insurance market must count on greater competition from foreign insurance companies, as the Czech Republic was May 1, 2004, accepted as a member of the European Union.

  19. ECONOMIC NATURE OF THE FINANCIAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shirinyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.

  20. THE ROLE OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING ON INSURANCE MARKET DURING THE CRISIS PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel CONSTANTIN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a research regarding the implications of presenteconomic crisis on a market created to cover various risks that could affectboth individuals and companies. The main objective of the research was toestablish the coordinates of the insurance market at the EU countries level inorder to find solutions that insurance companies could use for avoiding thenegative impact of the crisis and to re-launch the local insurance market. Theoutcomes of our research have shown a low development of Romanianinsurance market, this one being among the lowest developed market in theEuropean Union. Taking into consideration the psychological impact of thecrashes recorded by the biggest worldwide insurers, the best solution forlocal companies is to use the tools of relationship marketing that coulddevelop the confidence of customers in insurance services.

  1. Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chimobi Omoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.

  2. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  3. Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (pservice providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs.

  4. Market orientation intensity and business perfomance in the insurance sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lado, Nora; Miguel Ángel MARTÍNEZ MARTÍNEZ

    1997-01-01

    Market Orientation (MO) has taken a central role in discussions about strategic management and marketing (Day, 1992). And yet despite its importance, MO has been the subject of few theoretical and empirical studies (Kohli and Jaworski, 1990). The empirical study reported in this paper focuses on the relationship between the degree of market orientation and the business performance of insurance companies in Spain. The results of the study indicate that there is empirical support for the existe...

  5. Lifetime cover in private insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Connelly, Luke B

    2005-03-01

    In the last few decades, private health insurance rates have declined in many countries. In countries and states with community rating, a major cause is adverse selection. In order to address age-based adverse selection, Australia has recently begun a novel approach which imposes stiff penalties for buying private insurance later in life, when expected costs are higher. In this paper, we analyze Australia's Lifetime Cover in the context of a modified version of the Rothschild-Stiglitz insurance model (Rothschild and Stiglitz, 1976). We allow empirically-based probabilities to increase by age for low-risk types. The model highlights the shortcomings of the Australian plan. Based on empirically-based probabilities of illness, we predict that Lifetime Cover will not arrest adverse selection. The model has many policy implications for government regulation encouraging long-term health coverage.

  6. Biased selection within the social health insurance market in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ramon; Zambrano, Andres

    2006-12-01

    Reducing the impact of insurance market failures with regulations such as community-rated premiums, standardized benefit packages and open enrolment, yield limited effect because they create room for selection bias. The Colombian social health insurance system started a market approach in 1993 expecting to improve performance of preexisting monopolistic insurance funds by exposing them to competition by new entrants. This paper tests the hypothesis that market failures would lead to biased selection favoring new entrants. Two household surveys are analyzed using Self-Reported Health Status and the presence of chronic conditions as prospective indicators of individual risk. Biased selection is found to take place, leading to adverse selection among incumbents, and favorable selection among new entrants. This pattern is absent in 1997 but is evident in 2003. Given that the two incumbents analyzed are public organizations, the fiscal implications of the findings in terms of government bailouts, are analyzed.

  7. Employer health insurance and local labor market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M S; Long, S H

    2001-01-01

    Theory suggests that an employer's decisions about the amount of health insurance included in the compensation package may be influenced by the practices of other employers in the market. We test the role of local market conditions on decisions of small employers to offer insurance and their dollar contribution to premiums using data from two large national surveys of employers. These employers are more likely to offer insurance and to make greater contributions in communities with tighter labor markets, less concentrated labor purchasers, greater union penetration, and a greater share of workers in big business and a small share in regulated industries. However, our data do not support the notion that marginal tax rates affect employers' offer decision or contributions.

  8. Regulating Consumer Demand in Insurance Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schwarcz (Daniel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, it has become increasingly clear that Expected Utility Theory (EUT) is a remarkably poor theory of how and why individuals purchase insurance. However, the normative implications of this conclusion have remained largely unexplored. This Article takes up this issue. It ar

  9. Market valuation in the framework of modern life insurance mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Petrač

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional actuarial life insurance mathematics, liabilities to beneficiaries (technical reserves are calculated based on conservative assumptions of mortality and interest rates. However, this approach was found to be incomplete since it does not contain the market component which has become essential due to the development of the financial market. Since about 80% of total liabilities of life insurance companies are made up of technical reserves, this issue has a major impact on the overall performance of insuran - ce companies. The introduction of financial components into the actuarial valuation resulted in actuarial mathematics using more and more the elements of financial mathematics thus creating new, modern life insurance mathematics. Using a simple example, this paper compares the traditional and market approaches to valuation. For this purpose, one of the principles of modern life insurance mathematics, the principle of equivalence, was observed. The above market approach to valuation, together with operational risk management, forms the basis of Solvency II Directive, the new legislative and regulatory framework for insurance and reinsurance companies in the European Union.

  10. Monopoly, monopsony, and market definition: an antitrust perspective on market concentration among health insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, David A; Kovacic, William E

    2004-01-01

    James Robinson uses the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) to compute the concentration of commercial health insurance markets in most of the states during the past four years. The HHI is the analytical foundation for the federal antitrust merger guidelines, so we consider his findings from an antitrust perspective. Market concentration provides an important benchmark for antitrust analysis, but it does not, standing alone, indicate the presence of problematic (anticompetitive) behavior or a problem that antitrust law can solve. Even if it did, there are major problems in treating individual states as discrete insurance markets. Unless the market is correctly defined, any analysis of market concentration is thoroughly unreliable.

  11. Development of the agricultural insurance market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vávrová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to risk management of agriculture companies is the way to ensure the efficiency of agricultural production even affected by natural disasters, to ensure the continuity of agricultural business and ultimately affect the level of development of rural regions. The instrument that solves the problem of reduction and elimination of risks associated with agricultural production is a systemic approach to the insurance of agricultural production, both crop insurance and livestock insurance, linked to a support program for SME in agriculture.This presented paper aims to identify and discuss the possibility of eliminating risks possibly threate­ning the agricultural production and to analyze forms of covering risks associated with agricultural production on the commercial insurance market in the Czech Republic. The paper analyzes the current situation and current development of the agricultural insurance on the insurance market in the Czech Republic.This paper was written as a part of the research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title „The Czech economics in the processes of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market“, following the goals and methodology of the research project.

  12. DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS IN THE LIFE INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An essential aspect in the life and evolution of man since ancient times was the concern for the future, fear combined with care and wisdom certainly accomplished something. The events of our lives fast moving and often they occur unpredictably. We need to make sure that our family is safe and receiving all the financial support it needs. Evolving from simple function of protection in case of death, life insurance became more complex, and at the moment we can choose one of the following forms of insurance. Life insurance is a form of financial protection of human in case of an accident, illness, disability or death. In this regard we propose an analysis of the life insurance market in Romania.

  13. Evaluating viral marketing: isolating the key criteria in insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gooyandeh Hagh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine the key criteria that viral marketing practitioners believe should be implemented to measure about the success of viral marketing campaigns in insurance industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale where the effects of four independent variables, personal, message, media and tools characteristics are measured on an Iranian insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion. Cronbach alphas were measured for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. Using regression analysis, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between insurance firm’s reputation as well as service expansion and four independent variables.

  14. Managing and operating the reserve market as one insurance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Youfei; Cai, Bin [Electric Dispatch Center, JiangXi Electric Power Company (JXEPC), NanChang, JiangXi (China); Wu, F.F.; Ni, Y.X. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong (China)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, it is suggested that the preference of an individual consumer for its power supply reliability should be considered when scheduling the system reserve. The mechanism of 'provider insurance' is introduced and the reserve market is to be managed as an insurance system. In our modeling, the generator who provides the insurance of reliable power supply via its reserve, should always collect the payment (the premium), and be rewarded with the spot market price for its called reserve. The consumer who buys the insurance, pays premium and thus obtains a reliable power supply (the claim). It is argued that such a market mechanism will result in the maximum social welfare. Moreover, it is shown that there is a kind of 'moral hazard in reverse' fact that will further improve the market efficiency. Later on, discussions on implementing the proposed method are given, and an illustrative example is provided to show basic features of the proposed method. (author)

  15. Market Structure and Hospital-Insurer Bargaining in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbersma, R.S.; Mikkers, M.C.; Motchenkova, E.; Seinen, I.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, competition was introduced in part of the hospital market in the Netherlands. Using a unique dataset of transaction and list prices between hospitals and insurers in the years 2005 and 2006, we estimate the influence of buyer and seller concentration on the negotiated prices in the first tw

  16. Management and marketing for the general practice dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Earl; Bhatia, Sanjeev

    2008-07-01

    This article reviews trends in the dental marketplace. Marketing is an essential element of dentistry. Communicating treatment options with patients is one aspect of marketing. Treatment planning helps patients understand the relationships between oral health, occlusion, temporomandibular joint function, and systemic health. Through marketing, dental practice owners inform patients of ever-changing treatment modalities. Understanding treatment options allows patients to make better, informed choices. More options leads to a higher level of care and more comprehensive dental treatment. Managing a practice requires tracking its financial health. Economic statistics measure the effect of management decisions that mark the direction of a dental practice.

  17. Competition between health maintenance organizations and nonintegrated health insurance companies in health insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Edmond; Bardey, David

    2015-12-01

    This article examines a model of competition between two types of health insurer: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and nonintegrated insurers. HMOs vertically integrate health care providers and pay them at a competitive price, while nonintegrated health insurers work as indemnity plans and pay the health care providers freely chosen by policyholders at a wholesale price. Such difference is referred to as an input price effect which, at first glance, favors HMOs. Moreover, we assume that policyholders place a positive value on the provider diversity supplied by their health insurance plan and that this value increases with the probability of disease. Due to the restricted choice of health care providers in HMOs a risk segmentation occurs: policyholders who choose nonintegrated health insurers are characterized by higher risk, which also tends to favor HMOs. Our equilibrium analysis reveals that the equilibrium allocation only depends on the number of HMOs in the case of exclusivity contracts between HMOs and providers. Surprisingly, our model shows that the interplay between risk segmentation and input price effects may generate ambiguous results. More precisely, we reveal that vertical integration in health insurance markets may decrease health insurers' premiums.

  18. TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSURANCE MARKET: NATIONAL AND WORLD ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sholoiko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The key indicators of development of the insurance market of Ukraine and foreign countries in the pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods are considered. It is done to reveal basic national and world trends, make forecast of development of the domestic insurance market and give suggestions of the directions of improvement of functioning of the Ukrainian insurance market.

  19. Market structure and hospital-insurer bargaining in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbersma, R S; Mikkers, M C; Motchenkova, E; Seinen, I

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, competition was introduced in part of the hospital market in the Netherlands. Using a unique dataset of transactions and list prices between hospitals and insurers in the years 2005 and 2006, we estimate the influence of buyer and seller concentration on the negotiated prices. First, we use a traditional structure-conduct-performance model (SCP-model) along the lines of Melnick et al. (J Health Econ 11(3): 217-233, 1992) to estimate the effects of buyer and seller concentration on price-cost margins. Second, we model the interaction between hospitals and insurers in the context of a generalized bargaining model similar to Brooks et al. (J Health Econ 16: 417-434, 1997). In the SCP-model, we find that the market shares of hospitals (insurers) have a significantly positive (negative) impact on the hospital price-cost margin. In the bargaining model, we find a significant negative effect of insurer concentration, but no significant effect of hospital concentration. In both models, we find a significant impact of idiosyncratic effects on the market outcomes. This is consistent with the fact that the Dutch hospital sector is not yet in a long-run equilibrium.

  20. The use of capital market instruments in investment of European insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Wolski, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    The financial and the insurance markets are increasingly penetrating each other, accounting for the fact that insurers are more and more often seen as major institutional investors of capital markets. The capital market offers a range of new opportunities, although it is not devoid of faults, mercilessly exposed by consecutive stock market collapses. Do insurance companies use the capital market instruments? And if so, to what extent? The conducted analysis has pointed at growing involvement ...

  1. Solidarity and the Market in the Area of Insurance Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondelj Ivona

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The text provides a detailed analysis of the significance and role of the principle of solidarity in compulsory and supplementary insurance schemes. The analysis is focused on solidarity as the benchmark when deciding on the applicability or non-applicability of the rules on effective competition on the market in the EU. The principle of solidarity is closely linked to the objectives of social policy, which demand special treatment in the intense market arena. The selected interpretations of the Court of Justice of the EU carry great importance, considering the discretion of Member States in the area of social policy. The text provides an elaboration and final remarks concerning the principle of solidarity which is able to shelter (more or less the provision of insurance services in the EU.

  2. Adverse selection: does it preclude a competitive health insurance market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A

    1992-10-01

    In sum, although fixed dollar subsidies have the great virtue of ferreting out cross subsidies, society may not be satisfied with the results. The scenario described by Marquis is only one of many. People seem to want lifetime insurance offering low premiums if things go bad rather than premiums that change annually as health outcomes are realized [see, e.g., Light (1992)]. But nondiversible risk may be too great for a market in life contracts to exist.

  3. The Ukrainian Dental Market: Characteristics of Demand for Services in the Segment of Dental Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slipchenko Tetiana O.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the market for dental services in Ukraine in the implantology segment, studying the demand factors for these services and developing a system of measures to manage the demand for dental implantation services. It has been proven that the market for dental services according to a complex of its attributes is more in line with the type of market of monopolistic competition. One of the promising ways of developing the dental market is to transform producers of dental services into the vertically integrated holdings. As one of the specific features of the dental services market is allocated the asymmetry of information, which leads to a conflict between the medical and economic interests of dentists. The price and non-price factors of demand for dental implantation services were determined, the prime cost structure of a dental service was analyzed. The characteristic attributes of a medical service have been defined as consistently defined actions or a complex of actions by medical personnel aimed at prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, which have a self-contained complete meaning and a certain price.

  4. Forest insurance market participants’ game behavior in China: an analysis based on tripartite dynamic game model

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Ma; Yang Zuo; Kaili Liu; Yue Qi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In forest insurance market, there are three main participants including the insurance company, the forest farmer and the government. As different participant has different benefit object, there will be a complex and dynamic game relationship among all participants. The purpose of this paper is to make the game relationship among all participants in forest insurance market clear, and then to put forward some policy suggestions on the implementation of forest insurance from the view of...

  5. The effect of health and dental insurance on US children's dental care utilization for urgent and non-urgent dental problems - 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naavaal, Shillpa; Barker, Laurie K; Griffin, Susan O

    2017-12-01

    We examined the association between utilization of care for a dental problem (utilization-DP) and parent-reported dental problem (DP) urgency among children with DP by type of health care insurance coverage. We used weighted 2008 National Health Interview Survey data from 2,834 children, aged 2-17 years with at least one DP within the 6 months preceding survey. Explanatory variables were selected based on Andersen's model of healthcare utilization. Need was considered urgent if DP included toothache, bleeding gums, broken or missing teeth, broken or missing filling, or decayed teeth and otherwise as non-urgent. The primary enabling variable, insurance, had four categories: none, private health no dental coverage (PHND), private health and dental (PHD), or Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). Predisposing variables included sociodemographic characteristics. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to identify explanatory variables' association with utilization-DP. Using logistic regression, we obtained adjusted estimates of utilization-DP by urgency for each insurance category. In bivariate analyses, utilization-DP was associated with both insurance and urgency. In multivariate analyses, the difference in percent utilizing care for an urgent versus non-urgent DP among children covered by Medicaid/SCHIP was 32 percentage points; PHD, 25 percentage points; PHND, 12 percentage points; and no insurance, 14 percentage points. The difference in utilization by DP urgency was higher for children with Medicaid/SCHIP compared with either PHND or uninsured children. Expansion of Medicaid/SCHIP may permit children to receive care for urgent DPs who otherwise may not, due to lack of dental insurance. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...... met the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised by the review authors. The available evidence suggests that there is a general effect of participating in ALMP. The findings are mixed, however, depending on the approach used to investigate the effect, with no effect found of being assigned...

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities in dental care for publicly insured children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourat, Nadereh; Finocchio, Len

    2010-07-01

    Poor oral health has important implications for the healthy development of children. Children in Medicaid, especially Latinos and African Americans, experience high rates of tooth decay, yet they visit dentists less often than privately insured children. Even Latino and African American children with private insurance are less likely than white children to visit dentists and have longer intervals between dental visits. Furthermore, Latino and African American children in Medicaid are more likely than white children in Medicaid to have longer intervals between visits. These findings raise concerns about Medicaid's ability to address disparities in dental care access and, more broadly, in health care.

  8. Risk Classification Efficiency and the Insurance Market Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Porrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that the insurance market is characterized by asymmetric information, its efficiency has traditionally been based to a large extent on risk classification. In certain regulations, however, we can find restrictions on these differentiations, primarily the ban on those considered to be “discriminatory”. In 2011, following the European Union Directive 2004/113/EC, the European Court of Justice concluded that any gender-based discrimination was prohibited, meaning that gender equality in the European Union had to be ensured from 21 December 2012. Another restriction was imposed by EU and national competition regulation on the exchange of information considered as anti-competitive behavior. This paper aims to contribute to the recent policy debate in the EU, evaluating the negative economic consequences of these regulatory restrictions in terms of market efficiency.

  9. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  10. Promoting Value for Consumers: Comparing Individual Health Insurance Markets Inside and Outside the ACA's Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Hall, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    The new health insurance exchanges are the core of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) insurance reforms, but insurance markets beyond the exchanges also are affected by the reforms. This issue brief compares the markets for individual coverage on and off of the exchanges, using insurers' most recent projections for ACA-compliant policies. In 2016, insurers expect that less than one-fifth of ACA-compliant coverage will be sold outside of the exchanges. Insurers that sell mostly through exchanges devote a greater portion of their premium dollars to medical care than do insurers selling only off of the exchanges, because exchange insurers project lower administrative costs and lower profit margins. Premium increases on exchange plans are less than those for off-exchange plans, in large part because exchange enrollment is projected to shift to closed-network plans. Finally, initial concerns that insurers might seek to segregate higher-risk subscribers on the exchanges have not been realized.

  11. PERFORMANCES OF INSURANCE MARKET IN MONTENEGRO IN CONDITIONS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Cerović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Insurance market of Southeast European countries is characterized by significant changes due to uneven economic growth and development. At markets of developed countries, life insurance premium has the leading position in total insurance premium. Due to insufficient economic development of Montenegro, and inadequate awareness and distrust of citizens, compulsory insurances make the biggest part in the total portfolio of the insurance market in Montenegro. The insurance industry was not fully exposed to crisis and drastic changes have not been expected within this type of industry. The global financial crisis did not have a direct negative impact on the insurance market in Montenegro, but rather the indirect one that may be identified through the decline in purchasing power of citizens, decrease in the lending activity of the banks, and through possible recession. Since the financial markets both in Montenegro and in the region are not sufficiently developed, the insurance companies were not able to invest funds in sophisticated securities and financial derivatives, while the Law on Insurance, on the other hand, limited the companies to invest available monetary assets in risky securities, such as stocks. Insurance development trends primarily depend on economic growth, while strict rules and other regulations dominantly affect the improvement and development of insurance market in every country. Therefore, the control of business of insurance companies, licensed brokers and insurance agents, directing insurance companies to invest free funds into non-risky forms of property and adequate promotion of insurance activities can provide reduction in negative impacts of economic events, i.e. affect insurance companies so that they realize the best possible business results in this and later period.

  12. Development of Investment Activities of Commercial Insurance Companies in Slovak, Czech and Austrian Insurance Markets in 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Meheš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with investments of commercial insurance companies operating in Slovak, Czech and Austrian insurance market in the period of 2004–2009. First of all, development of technical reserves volume as an important prerequisite of investing of commercial insurance companies will be characterized. After that, we evaluate financial placements and investment activities – ratio of total investments and technical reserves. We also present statistical tests by means of which we examine the existence of the relation between the volume of technical reserves and the volume of investments of commercial insurance companies.

  13. Hospital prices and market structure in the hospital and insurance industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Asako S; Vogt, William B; Gaynor, Martin

    2010-10-01

    There has been substantial consolidation among health insurers and hospitals, recently, raising questions about the effects of this consolidation on the exercise of market power. We analyze the relationship between insurer and hospital market concentration and the prices of hospital services. We use a national US dataset containing transaction prices for health care services for over 11 million privately insured Americans. Using three years of panel data, we estimate how insurer and hospital market concentration are related to hospital prices, while controlling for unobserved market effects. We find that increases in insurance market concentration are significantly associated with decreases in hospital prices, whereas increases in hospital concentration are non-significantly associated with increases in prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized insurers is estimated to decrease hospital prices by 6.7%.

  14. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.

  15. [Market share of the for-profit and not-for-profit sector from health insurance expenditures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncz, Imre; Dózsa, Csaba; Sebestyén, Andor; Gulácsi, László

    2004-08-22

    The aim of the study is to analyze the market share of for-profit private and not-for-profit sector from the expenditures on medical services of the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF), to show its changes in the last years and to show on which field they can be found. The data derives from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) covering the period 1995-2002. The analysis includes the medical provisions (primary care, health visitors, dental care, out- and inpatient care, home care, kidney dialysis, CT-MRI). In 1995 only 6.91% (12.5 billions Ft) of total expenditure for medical services went to for-profit private providers. By 2002 the market share of private providers increased to 15.95% (78.5 billions Ft). During the same period we realized a dynamic increase in the market share of non-profit sector: from 1.04% in 1995 to 2.58% in 2002. The role of private providers is dominant in the case of general practitioners, dental care, transportation, kidney dialysis, CT/MRI and home care (home nursing). The financial data of the NHIF showed the dynamic increase of market share of for-profit private providers and non-profit sector in many field of health care, although they role in the two most important fields (out- and inpatient care) is still negligible.

  16. Forest insurance market participants’ game behavior in China: An analysis based on tripartite dynamic game model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In forest insurance market, there are three main participants including the insurance company, the forest farmer and the government. As different participant has different benefit object, there will be a complex and dynamic game relationship among all participants. The purpose of this paper is to make the game relationship among all participants in forest insurance market clear, and then to put forward some policy suggestions on the implementation of forest insurance from the view of game theory. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, the static game model between the insurance company and the forest farmer is set up. According to the result of static game model, it’s difficult to implement forest insurance without government. Secondly, the tripartite dynamic game model among the government, the insurance company and the forest farmer is proposed, and the equilibrium solution of tripartite dynamic game model is acquired. Finally, the behavioral characteristics of all participants are analyzed according to the equilibrium solution of tripartite dynamic game model. Findings: the government’s allowance will be an important positive factor to implement forest insurance. The loss of the insurance company, which the lower insurance premium brings, can be compensated by the allowance from the government. The more the government provides allowance, the more actively the insurance company will implement forest insurance at a low insurance premium. In this situation, the forest farmer will be more likely to purchase the forest insurance, then the scope of forest insurance implementation will expend. Originality/value: There is a complex and dynamic game relationship among all participants in forest insurance market. Based on the tripartite dynamic game model, to make the game relationship between each participant clear is conducive to the implementation of forest insurance market in China.

  17. Differences in utilization of dental procedures by children enrolled in Wisconsin Medicaid and Delta Dental insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Xiang, Qun; Szabo, Aniko; Eichmiller, Fredrick; Okunseri, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have directly compared dental procedures provided in public and private insurance plans for enrollees living in dental health professional shortage areas (DHPSAs). We examined the rates for the different types of dental procedures received by 0-18-year-old children living in DHPSAs and non-DHPSAs who were enrolled in Medicaid and those enrolled under Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDW) for years 2002 to 2008. Medicaid and DDW dental claims data for 2002 to 2008 was analyzed. Enrollees were divided into DDW-DHPSA and non-DHPSA and Medicaid-DHPSA and non-DHPSA groups. Descriptive and multivariable analyses using over-dispersed Poisson regression were performed to examine the effect of living in DHPSAs and insurance type in relation to the number of procedures received. Approximately 49 and 65 percent of children living in non-DHPSAs that were enrolled in Medicaid and DDW received at least one preventive dental procedure annually, respectively. Children in DDW non-DHPSA group had 1.79 times as many preventive, 0.27 times fewer complex restorative and 0.51 times fewer endodontic procedures respectively, compared to those in Medicaid non-DHPSA group. Children enrolled in DDW-DHPSA group had 1.53 times as many preventive and 0.25 times fewer complex restorative procedures, compared to children in Medicaid-DHPSA group. DDW enrollees had significantly higher utilization rates for preventive procedures than children in Medicaid. There were significant differences across Medicaid and DDW between non-DHPSA and DHPSA for most dental procedures received by enrollees. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF THE INSURANCE MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA IN TERMS OF CONCENTRATION INDEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeptelici Viorica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the insurance market in the Republic of Moldova during the first semester of 2011 was characterized by modest trends as regard the key indicators of the sector. Twenty four insurance companies and 68 insurance/reinsurance brokers operated during this period. Accordingly, competitive players are present on this segment, while the appearance of new players will boost the development of the insurance sector in the future.

  19. THE NEW DIMENSIONS OF THE INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA IN THE CONDITIONS OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA MIHAELA NAGY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Insurance in modern society has developed both because of the awareness of risks and increase of their range, as a result of new techniques and technologies, explosive growth in transport, as well as other economic and social issues arising from growth and complexity generating stress of daily life. In Romania in 2009 the volume of subscribed gross premiums decreased, the Romanian insurance market is influenced by the global and European insurance market.

  20. Self-insurance and the potential effects of health reform on the small-group market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2010-12-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) as amended by the Health Care Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 makes landmark changes to health insurance markets. Individual and small-group insurance plans and markets will see the biggest changes, but PPACA also affects large employer and self-insured plans by imposing rules for benefit design and health plan practices. Over half of workers--most often those in very large firms--are covered by self-insured health plans in which employers (or employee groups) bear all or some of the risk of providing insurance coverage to a defined population of workers and their dependents. As PPACA provisions become effective, some have argued that smaller firms that offer insurance may opt to self-insure their health benefits because of new small-group market rules. Such a shift could affect risk pooling in the small-group market. This paper examines the definition and prevalence of self-insured health plans, the application of PPACA provisions to these plans, and the possible effects on the broader health insurance market, should many more employers decide to self-insure.

  1. Neuroscience Role on Marketing Insurance (Senses Impact on Reducing Marketing Costs)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan, Fatemeh; HASSANPOUR, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Although the insurance industry as one of the most important needs of today's population lives in the comfort and safety of bankruptcy and incurring financial losses and damage to people during his lifetime has helped but for various reasons, including lack of awareness and economic problems in developing countries, particularly low-income communities and developing and less attention has been seriously. The aim of the present study, a description of the different marketing methods ...

  2. Analysis of the Romanian Insurance Market Based on Ensuring and Exercising Consumers` Right to Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the financial market of insurance, consumer protection represents an important component contributing to the stability, discipline and efficiency of the market. In this respect, the activity of educating and informing insurance consumers on ensuring and exercising their right to claim plays a leading role in the mechanism of consumer protection. This study aims to improve the decision-making capacity of the financial services consumers from the Romanian insurance market through better information on ensuring and exercising their right to claim under the legislation. Thus, by applying three data analysis techniques – principal components analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis – to the data regarding the petitions that were registered by the 41 insurance companies which operated in the Romanian market in 2012, a classification that assesses the insurance market transparency is achieved, resulting in a better information for consumers and, hence, the improvement of their protection through reducing the level of transactions that are harmful to consumers

  3. Marketing the dental practice: eight steps toward success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Patrick J; Eisner, Alan B

    2006-10-01

    The authors provide a suggested framework for completing a comprehensive evaluation of practice processes and routines. Their approach focuses on improving the professional image of dentists and the methods they use to market themselves. A practice can benefit by implementing a program to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the practice and how these strengths and weaknesses affect patients' experiences. A word-of-mouth marketing campaign relies on the cultivation of opinion leaders, but opinion leaders cannot be cultivated until they have been identified. Dental practice marketing campaigns cannot be based on assumptions; they must be based on facts. Practice Implications. Improving relationships with patients will lead to increased patient retention, reduced marketing costs and greater personal satisfaction. By focusing on strengths, clinicians will improve patients' experiences in the dental office.

  4. Institutional Change in Delivery of Dental Services: A Marketing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Noel

    1982-01-01

    The recent appearance and growth of new delivery systems for dental services is examined from a marketing perspective. Analysis reveals that the growth of low priced, high throughput operations is consistent not only with marketing principles, but with the development of American retail institutions in general. Options for independent dentists in the face of this new competitive environment are discussed. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:679-683.) PMID:7091457

  5. Market Share Matters: Evidence Of Insurer And Provider Bargaining Over Prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Chernew, Michael E; McWilliams, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    Proposed mergers among large US health insurers and growing consolidation among providers have renewed concerns about the effects of market concentration on commercial health care prices. Using multipayer claims for physician services provided in office settings, we estimated that-within the same provider groups-insurers with market shares of 15 percent or more (average: 24.5 percent), for example, negotiated prices for office visits that were 21 percent lower than prices negotiated by insurers with shares of less than 5 percent. Analyses stratified by provider market share suggested that insurers require greater market shares to negotiate lower prices from large provider groups than they do when negotiating with smaller provider groups. For example, office visit prices for small practices were $88, $72, and $70, for insurers with market shares of market-share categories. These results suggest that mergers of health insurers could lower the prices paid to providers, particularly providers large enough to obtain higher prices from insurers with modest market shares. Continued monitoring will be important for determining the net effects of the countervailing trends of insurer and provider consolidation on the affordability of health care.

  6. Successful implementation effect of insurance services in money and capital financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Tahmasebi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important sectors of the economy of each country is capital market. Economic growth can lead to the development and prosperity of the capital market. On the other hand to achieve the desired economic development, without existence of effective financial institutions and appropriate equipment of financial resources, it is impossible. In this regard, efficient financial systems through seeking information about investment opportunities, integrate and mobilize savings, monitoring investments and exert corporate governance can facilitate the exchange of goods and services, distribution and risk management, reducing transaction costs and data analysis may lead to better allocation of resources and ultimately economic growth. Insurance companies and generally insurance industry in each country is the most important and active financial institutions operating in the financial market especially capital markets in addition to securing economic activity could have basic role in mobility of financial markets and providing funds to invest in the economic activity through the provision of insurance services. In this study, successful financial services of insurance and investment funds in insurance companies such as Dana, Alborz, and Asia have been studied in Tehran. According to the hypothesis, there is a significant correlation between successful implementation of insurance services and money and capital financial markets. There is a significant correlation between different types of insurance services (institution-building, instrument making, and general insurance policies and money and capital financial markets.

  7. PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - A BASIC INSTRUMENT IN STRATEGIC PLANNING. CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Practice proved that strategic planning is a necessary process for insurance companies. This process can help companies to adapt more easily to environmental changes. The strategic planning of the activity of an insurance company cannot be realized without a careful analysis of the evolution of the market and without studying the company's market position. A classic model used in the portfolio analysis is the Boston Consulting Group model. In this paper we have used the model for studying the activity of the leader of the Romanian insurance market. In 2009 Alliantz Tiriac had 17 types of insurance in the portfolio. Each class of insurance was considered a strategic business unit. We have studied the insurance portfolio by using secondary data from specialized publications, such as the Romanian Insurance Supervisory Commission. Using the data, we have calculated for Alliantz Tiriac, for each class of insurance, the relative market share. The company was leader on the market for five classes of insurance. The economic crisis had a severe impact on the evolution of the Romanian insurance market: from the 17 classes of insurance studied: nine had registered a decrease of the market, eight had registered an increase, but only for three of them the growth exceeded 10%. Using the relative market share and the market growth we have identified the “cash cows”: there are five classes of insurance in this category, among which the “Insurance for land vehicles (CASCO” which represented more than half of the sales (55.82%; unfortunately, in the case of this insurance type there was a very significant decrease of the market in 2010 compared to 2009: -25.12%, the “question marks” – there are three classes of insurance in this category, and the “dogs”. Due to the crisis, a large number of the company's products are in this category and there are no “star” products. This work was supported by CNCSIS – UEFISCSU, project number 915 / 2009

  8. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  9. Analysis of the life insurance market in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeski Cvetko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance in the Republic of Macedonia has a short history, if we do not count the experience of ZOIL Makedonija before the independence of Republic of Macedonia. The recent history of life insurance covers the last seven years and the segment of life insurance comprises about 6% of the total insurance market in the Republic of Macedonia. In this paper we analyse the development of life insurance in the Republic of Macedonia in recent history, taking the gross premiums of two of the best companies that are working in the segment of life insurance. Besides analysing the influence of the basic determinants of the development of life insurance (GDP, monetary stability, social insurance, etc. we analyse the model of time series, with the purpose of making a model and forecasting future values of the series.

  10. High and varying prices for privately insured patients underscore hospital market power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Chapin; Bond, Amelia M; Reschovsky, James D

    2013-09-01

    Across 13 selected U.S. metropolitan areas, hospital prices for privately insured patients are much higher than Medicare payment rates and vary widely across and within markets, according to a study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) based on claims data for about 590,000 active and retired nonelderly autoworkers and their dependents. Across the 13 communities, aver­age hospital prices for privately insured patients are about one-and-a-half times Medicare rates for inpatient care and two times what Medicare pays for outpa­tient care. Within individual communities, prices vary widely, with the highest-priced hospital typically paid 60 percent more for inpatient services than the lowest-priced hospital. The price gap within markets is even greater for hospital outpatient care, with the highest-priced hospital typically paid nearly double the lowest-priced hospital. In contrast to the wide variation in hospital prices for pri­vately insured patients across and within markets, prices for primary care physi­cian services generally are close to Medicare rates and vary little within markets. Prices for specialist physician services, however, are higher relative to Medicare and vary more across and within markets. Of the 13 markets, five are in Michigan, which has an unusually concentrated private insurance market, with one insurer commanding a 70-percent market share. Despite the presence of a dominant insurer, almost all Michigan hospi­tals command prices that are higher than Medicare, and some hospitals com­mand prices that are twice what Medicare pays. In the eight markets outside of Michigan, private insurers generally pay even higher hospital prices, with even wider gaps between high- and low-priced hospitals. The variation in hospital and specialist physician prices within communities underscores that some hospitals and physicians have significant market power to command high prices, even in markets with a dominant insurer.

  11. A Compendium on Dental Insurance and the Oral Health of Army Dependents: 1986-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    edentulous individuals who wore dentures, dentate individuals who were caries-free (DMFT/deft= 0) and had good periodontal health (no calculus and no...Sick call patients have strikingly greater need for full mouth scaling than random/routine patients . Periodontal surgery needs show less variation...government civilian and private sector employers enroll their entire workforce in a dental insurance plan and pay the full premium for their employees. This

  12. REINSURANCE BUSINESS ON INSURANCE MARKET OF THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Panić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cases in insurancebusiness, the insurer takes the risk which by thelevel of insurance or probable maximum loss(PML exceeds its financial capacity. The insurercan cover with reinsurance and coinsurance thepart of the contractual obligations that exceed thecapacity of the insurance company. Coinsuranceoccurs when risk is shared among several insurers,and reinsurance occurs when the excess of risk istransferred from one to more reinsurers.Reinsurance is the process which enables theinsurance company to avoid the risk of disasters inthe insurance mechanism. Reinsurance is the reinsuranceor insurance of the insurance."Reinsured" is an insurance company whoseinsurance risks are reinsured in whole or in part,while the "reinsurer" is the company of reinsurancebusiness. Reinsurance is of highly importance forthe safety of management of the insurers, because itincreases the capacity of risk-taking in insurance,protects one's own safety and safety of thereinsured. In addition, this can be supported by acommon saying which is used in the insurancesector and that is: "good insurance begins withreinsurance."

  13. [The transformation of the dental services market and the battle over a monopoly in 19th century dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiana Leite

    2006-01-01

    The article analyzes the process by which dentistry acquired the status of a profession. The setting is the mid-nineteenth-century United States, where the West's first professional dental organizations were founded, and the focus is on some aspects of the development of a dental market and on the professional disputes among practitioners of the dental trade, who wanted a monopoly within this field of knowledge. Certain outside factors played a major role in the emergence of the profession, including changes in patterns of sugar consumption (which spread dental caries disease throughout society) as well as the expansion of the dental service market. The subsequent proliferation of distinct groups of dental practitioners--both qualified and unqualified to practice dentistry--and their competition for a place in the dental market reflect the battle waged to establish jurisdiction in this field and the emergence of dentistry as a 'modern profession'.

  14. An optimal life insurance policy in the investment-consumption problem in an incomplete market

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    Egami, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers an optimal life insurance for a householder subject to mortality risk. The household receives a wage income continuously, which is terminated by unexpected (premature) loss of earning power or (planned and intended) retirement, whichever happens first. In order to hedge the risk of losing income stream by householder's unpredictable event, the household enters a life insurance contract by paying a premium to an insurance company. The household may also invest their wealth into a financial market. The problem is to determine an optimal insurance/investment/consumption strategy in order to maximize the expected total, discounted utility from consumption and terminal wealth. To reflect a real-life situation better, we consider an incomplete market where the householder cannot trade insurance contracts continuously. To our best knowledge, such a model is new in the insurance and finance literature. The case of exponential utilities is considered in detail to derive an explicit solution. We al...

  15. Application of Discriminant Analysis on Romanian Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis is a supervised learning technique that can be used in order to determine which variables are the best predictors of the classification of objects belonging to a population into predetermined classes. At the same time, discriminant analysis provides a powerful tool that enables researchers to make predictions regarding the classification of new objects into predefined classes. The main goal of discriminant analysis is to determine which of the N descriptive variables have the most discriminatory power, that is, which of them are the most relevant for the classification of objects into classes. In order to classify objects, we need a mathematical model that provides the rules for optimal allocation. This is the classifier. In this paper we will discuss three of the most important models of classification: the Bayesian criterion, the Mahalanobis criterion and the Fisher criterion. In this paper, we will use discriminant analysis to classify the insurance companies that operated on the Romanian market in 2006. We have selected a number of eigth (8 relevant variables: gross written premium (GR_WRI_PRE, net mathematical reserves (NET_M_PES, gross claims paid (GR_CL_PAID, net premium reserves (NET_PRE_RES, net claim reserves (NET_CL_RES, net income (NE—_INCOME, share capital (SHARE_CAP and gross written premium ceded in Reinsurance (GR_WRI_PRE_CED. Before proceeding to discriminant analysis, we performed cluster analysis on the initial data in order to identify classes (clusters that emerge from the data.

  16. Deposit insurance, discipline market, moral hazard and risk in Banking: A quantitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jialun

    2009-01-01

    The cross-country evidences from two empirical approaches presented in this paper show that explicit deposit insurance scheme reduces market discipline by decreasing capital ratio and required interest rate, while it increases bank’s risk by increasing loan loss reserve and decreasing liquidity ratio. I also use a dataset of deposit insurance design features to examine how different design features e.g. coverage, management affect deposit interest rates and market discipline. Keywords: Dep...

  17. Solidarity in competitive markets for supplementary health insurance: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Paolucci; Femmeke Prinsze; Pieter JA Stam; Wynand PMM van de Ven

    2006-01-01

    Many countries are considering the option of reducing the share of mandatory health insurance (MHI) and to increasingly rely on voluntary (supplementary) health insurance (VHI) schemes to cover health care expenditures. It is well-known that competitive markets for VHI tend to risk-rated premiums. After discussing the determinants of riskrating in competitive VHI markets, we provide empirical evidence of the potential reduction of (risk-) solidarity caused by the transfer of benefits from MHI...

  18. [Labor market structure and access to private health insurance in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Flavia; Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Maia, Ana Carolina

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to describe health insurance coverage among different types of workers in Brazil. Health insurance coverage and labor market insertion are used to define homogeneous groups of workers. The Grade of Membership method is used to build a typology of workers. The database was the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) for 1998 and 2003, including a health survey. Five worker profiles were defined. The key variables were: health insurance coverage, schooling, and work status. The main findings show a positive association between health insurance coverage, income from work, and trade union membership.

  19. The transformation of morals in markets: death, benefits, and the exchange of life insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    This article adopts an institutional approach to describe the changing secondary market for life insurance in the United States. Since the 1990s, this market, in which investors buy strangers' life insurance policies, has grown in the face of considerable moral ambivalence. The author uses news reports and interviews to identify and describe three conceptions of this market: sacred revulsion, consumerist consolation, and rationalized reconciliation. Differences among the conceptions are considered in view of the institutional legacy of life insurance and its success in organizing practices, perceptions, and understandings about markets and death. From this case, the author draws implications for analyses of morals in markets, an important and emergent topic within economic sociology.

  20. Life insurance investment and stock market participation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Trevisan, Elisabetta; Weber, Guglielmo

    2013-03-01

    In most European countries life insurance has played a key role in household portfolios, to the extent that it has often been the first asset ever purchased. In this paper we use life history data from a host of European countries to investigate the role of life insurance investment in shaping individuals' attitudes towards participation in stocks and mutual funds. We show that individuals who purchased a life insurance policy are more likely to invest in stocks and mutual funds later. On the one hand, these findings support the notion that life insurance policies play an educational role in financial investment. On the other hand, they are also consistent with behavioural models where economic agents are first concerned with avoiding unacceptable adverse scenarios by purchasing low risk investments, such as life insurance policies, and then invest in riskier assets, such as stocks and mutual funds, to obtain higher economic returns.

  1. Modeling Flood Insurance Penetration in the European Non-Life Market: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, P.; Thomson, M.-K.; Das, A.

    2012-04-01

    Non-life property insurance plays a significant role in assessing and managing economic risk. Understanding the exposure, or property at risk, helps insurers and reinsurers to better categorize and manage their portfolios. However, the nature of the flood peril, in particular adverse selection, has led to a complex system of different insurance covers and policies across Europe owing to its public and private distinctions based on premiums provided as ex ante or ex post, socio-economic characterization and various compensation schemes. To model this significant level of complexity within the European flood insurance market requires not only extensive data research, close understanding of insurance companies and associations as well as historic flood events, but also careful evaluation of the flood hazard in terms of return periods and flood extents, and the economic/ financial background of the geographies involved. This abstract explores different approaches for modeling the flood insurance penetration rates in Europe depending on the information available and complexity involved. For countries which have either a regulated market with mandatory or high penetration rate, as for example found in the UK, France and Switzerland, or indeed countries with negligible insurance cover such as Luxembourg, assumptions about the penetration rates can be made at country level. However, in countries with a private insurance market, the picture becomes inherently more complex. For example in both Austria and Germany, flood insurance is generally restricted, associated with high costs to the insured or not available at all in high risk areas. In order to better manage flood risk, the Austria and German government agencies produced the risk classification systems HORA and ZÜRS, respectively, which categorize risk into four risk zones based on the exceedance probability of a flood occurrence. Except for regions that have preserved mandatory flood inclusion from past policies

  2. Renewing professionalism in dental education: overcoming the market environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Richard S

    2007-02-01

    The most important mission of dental education is development of student professionalism. It is only within the context of professionalism that specialized knowledge and technical expertise find meaning. Altruism, integrity, caring, community focus, and commitment to excellence are attributes of professionalism. Its backbone is the obligation of service to people before service to self--a social contract. Professionalism can and should be acquired by targeted interventions, not as an assumed by-product of dental education. Top-down, rule-based professionalism is contrasted with its experience-based, mentor-mediated, socially driven counterpart. Moral principles are inherent in professional development and the professional way of life. Unfortunately, American society, including higher education, glorifies a market mentality centered on expansion and profit. Through formal and hidden curricula, dental schools send mixed messages to students about the importance of professionalism. Institutional consensus on professionalism should be developed among faculty, administration, and students through passionate advocacy and careful analysis of dentistry's moral convictions. The consensus message should communicate to stakeholders that morality and ethics "really count." Maximum student exposure to faculty exemplars, substantial service-learning experiences, and portfolio use are likely to enhance professionalism, which should be measured for every student, every semester, along with faculty and institutional assessment. Research reveals a significant relationship between levels of student moral reasoning and measures of clinical performance and shows that moral reasoning ability can be enhanced in dental students. Valid and reliable surveys exist to assess student moral reasoning. Documented student unprofessional behavior is a predictor of future state professional board disciplinary action against practitioners, along with low admissions test scores and course failures in

  3. Health insurance coverage, income distribution and healthcare quality in local healthcare markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianov, Damian S; Pagán, José A

    2013-08-01

    We develop a theoretical model of a local healthcare system in which consumers, health insurance companies, and healthcare providers interact with each other in markets for health insurance and healthcare services. When income and health status are heterogeneous, and healthcare quality is associated with fixed costs, the market equilibrium level of healthcare quality will be underprovided. Thus, healthcare reform provisions and proposals to cover the uninsured can be interpreted as an attempt to correct this market failure. We illustrate with a numerical example that if consumers at the local level clearly understand the linkages between health insurance coverage and the quality of local healthcare services, health insurance coverage proposals are more likely to enjoy public support.

  4. Data needs for policy research on state-level health insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kosali

    2008-01-01

    Private and public health insurance provision in the United States operates against a backdrop of 50 different regulatory environments in addition to federal rules. Through creative use of available data, a large body of research has contributed to our understanding of public policy in state health insurance markets. This research plays an important role as recent trends suggest states are taking the lead in health care reform. However, several important questions have not been answered due to lack of data. This paper identifies some of these areas, and discusses how the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality could push the research agenda in state health insurance policy further by augmenting the market-level data available to researchers. As states consider new forms of regulation and assistance for their insurance markets, there is increased need for better warehousing and maintenance of policy databases.

  5. A comparison of dental service use among commercially insured women in Minnesota before, during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peilei; Bargman, Eric P; Garrett, Nancy A; Devries, Andrea; Springman, Steve; Riggs, Sheila

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined and compared dental services used by women before, during and after pregnancy. In their study, the authors combined medical and dental claims data for 3,462 pregnant women in Minnesota with commercial dental insurance who had been pregnant between Jan. 1, 2004, and Dec. 31, 2005. The authors used McNemar pairwise comparisons, with each subject serving as her own control and her use of various dental services before pregnancy as her own baseline, to evaluate and compare the dental services used during and after pregnancy. During pregnancy, subjects' use of several dental services-radiographs, restorative services, third-molar extractions and anesthesia-decreased significantly (P dental providers, health care plan administrators and policymakers as they consider recommendations regarding oral health care for women during pregnancy.

  6. 76 FR 71271 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    .... * * * * * Direct marketing. The sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an... Internet and other information technologies to provide increased opportunities for citizen access to... meet the Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes; and the...

  7. Community rating in the absence of risk equalisation: lessons from the Irish private health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Shinnick, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.

  8. Three essays on regulated markets. Renewable energies, hospital competition and health insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unfried, Matthias

    2012-11-15

    This doctoral thesis presents an analysis of regulated markets especially focusing on the behavior of the actors, the effects of regulatory interventions on market outcome, and the necessity of the regulation itself. With respect to the particular characteristics, three different markets are analyzed: the German market for photovoltaic capacity, the German hospital sector, and the market for health insurance with respect to outpatient care. Chapter two provides an analysis of the German system of feed-in tariffs for photovoltaic power with respect to effectiveness and efficiency. To ensure a certain volume of investment in photovoltaic capacity investors receive fixed feed-in tariffs for 20 years for each unit of energy they feed into the grid. This remuneration is reduced according to a certain cut-off scheme for devices which will be installed in the future. In the past view years, an enormous volume of photovoltaic devices has been installed, especially in the weeks before the cut-offs. To analyze the efficiency and the effectiveness of the German feed-in tariff system, first, the determinants of such investment are analyzed by estimating an Error Correction model. The results of the estimation are used to simulate alternative mechanisms of adjusting the feed-in tariffs and compare them to the current regime in terms of target achievement and social costs. One of the key results is that the current system causes early investments, but does not induce over-investment. Moreover, it is shown that a system of continuously adjusted feed-in tariffs could be more appropriate than the current regime and that the adjustment should be related to the investment costs. In chapter three, the German hospital market which is characterized by regulated treatment fees and several different ownership types is analyzed. This part of the thesis tries to answer the question how the existence of non-profit hospitals influences market outcome and welfare compared to a market where

  9. The Shifting Shape of Risk: Endogenous Market Failure for Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Koch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers an economy where risk is insurable, but selection determines the pool of individuals who take it up. First, we demonstrate that the comparative statics of these economies do not necessarily depend on its marginal selection (adverse versus favorable, but rather other characteristics. We then use repeated cross-sections of medical expenditures in the U.S. to understand the role of changes in the medical risk distribution on the fraction of Americans without medical insurance. We find that both the level and the shape of the distribution of risk are important in determining the equilibrium quantity of insurance. Symmetric changes in risk (e.g., shifts in the price of medical care better explain the shifting insurance rate over time. Asymmetric changes (e.g., associated with a shifting age distribution are not as important.

  10. Life Insurance - Their Characteristics Importance and Actuality On The Romanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Claudia Ionescu

    Full Text Available For the twenty-first century life, there cannot be a real, long-term and sustained progress, without insurance. Let’s only consider the avalanche of natural disasters and acts of terrorism in recent years that have affected many parts of the world, brought suffering to millions of people and caused huge economic losses. The common knowledge that a country’s economic strength lays in bankingand insurance needs no arguments. It is not accidental that the most stable economies, where even population’s prosperity is remarkable, are found in countries where insurance is well represented in economic life. In a modern economy, insurances play an important role due to its contribution to financial stability, by promoting effective control of various risk categories and mobilizing people’s savings. This paper plans to identify the main characteristics, trends and developments of life insurance products and their market, as well as the interactions between the insurance sector, banks and financial markets and to highlight some of the determinants of insurance demand. Also, another topic addressed is the current economic context, and the effects of inflation and economic recession on this sector. Finally, this paper contains a short observation of the evolution of this particular market, striving to make a “prediction” of the immediate prospects of this activity.

  11. Adverse events during pediatric dental anesthesia and sedation: a review of closed malpractice insurance claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicka, Maggie C; Dembo, Jeffrey B; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Nash, David A; Bush, Heather M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study of closed malpractice insurance claims was to provide descriptive data of adverse events related to child sedation and anesthesia in the dental office. The malpractice claims databases of two professional liability carriers were searched using pre-determined keywords for all closed claims involving anesthesia in pediatric dental patients from 1993-2007. The database searches resulted in 17 claims dealing with adverse anesthesia events of which 13 involved sedation, 3 involved local anesthesia alone, and 1 involved general anesthesia. Fifty-three percent of the claims involved patient death or permanent brain damage; in these claims, the average patient age was 3.6 years, 6 involved general dentists as the anesthesia provider, and 2 involved local anesthesia alone. Local anesthetic overdoses were observed in 41% of the claims. The location of adverse event occurrence was in the dental office where care was being provided in 71% of the claims. Of the 13 claims involving sedation, only 1 claim involved the use of physiologic monitoring. Very young patients (≤ 3-years-old) are at greatest risk during administration of sedative and/or local anesthetic agents. Some practitioners are inadequately monitoring patients during sedation procedures. Adverse events have a high chance of occurring at the dental office where care is being provided.

  12. SOLVENCY II: THE IMPLICATIONS OF ITS APPLICATION ON THE ROMANIAN INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Marius Ciotina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solvency II is a European directive whose purpose is to update the regulations concerning the insurance market. This is more than a set of rules on the solvency of insurance companies and is a comprehensive set of rules on the entire insurance market from solvency, liquidity and information asymmetry between actors to an insurance transaction. The aim of this article is to present the implications of applying Solvency II in Romania and the changes that will occur on the insurance market. We also present the advantages of moving from the current regulation, namely Solvency I to Solvency II Directive, both by comparative analysis between both directly and through analysis of test results QIS5 applied in Romania. We will also show the current situation of the insurance market by emphasizing evolution and the solvency margin of solvency for the last six years from 2007, the year before the financial crisis and in 2012, the year for which there last available data.

  13. Ethical Issues in Insurance Marketing.The Case of Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorab Georgy Sadri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a paper based on empirical investigation conducted in Western India between 2002 and 2012 especially at a time when the Indian economy is in a stage of transition from state capitalism to free market capitalism, albeit both of a retarded variety. It takes the 7 Ps of services marketing and cross verifies responses against seven dimensions of ethical conduct. The study is based on questionnaires followed by interviews. The target respondents were life insurance employees of banc assurance involved in marketing life insurance policies to customers in the urban sector. The study brought to the fore the fact that commissions were more important that telling the truth while selling policies. In the process ethical considerations conveniently went out of the window. To protect the interest of the unsuspecting clients a plea is made to have governance machinery in place that will make the insurance marketing personnel accountable for what and how they sell their wares. This need is especially felt in a country where the social security net is virtually non existent and the erstwhile joint family system is on a fast decline. In such circumstances a lack of ethical norms on the part of the insurer is an unacceptable sociological proposition and borders on gross unethical behaviour. The task of people management experts to address this issue is of the paramount importance and urgency if the Indian life insurance industry is to sustain its social image in a highly competitive market where foreign players are steadily entering the domestic scene.

  14. Insurance-markets Equilibrium with Sequential Non-convex Straight-time and Over-time Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    This note describes the lottery- and insurance-market equilibrium in an economy with non-convex straight-time and overtime employment. In contrast to Hansen and Sargent (1988), the overtime-decision is a sequential one. This requires two separate insurance market to operate, one for straight-time work, and one for overtime. In addi- tion, given that the labor choice for regular and overtime hours is made in succession, the insurance market for overtime needs to open once the insurance market ...

  15. The Evolution of Romania's Market Stability and Performance Indicators of the Life Insurance Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mirabela FLOREA IANC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidently, life insurance helps to reduce the burden that weighs upon the state concerning social protection, leading to the release of resources for investment and provision of goods and essential public services (education, health, justice, public order or national defense. Also, life insurance have a major impact, even if indirectly, on financial markets and on economic development as a whole. Because of high amounts they manage and the vast horizon of time they have available, insurers and pension funds is one of the most important sources of capital for financial markets of developed countries. As a result, life insurance is, from the point of view of economy financing, an alternative to the traditional banking system.

  16. Re-insurance in the Swiss health insurance market: Fit, power, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christian P R; Beck, Konstantin

    2016-07-01

    Risk equalization mechanisms mitigate insurers' incentives to practice risk selection. On the other hand, incentives to limit healthcare spending can be distorted by risk equalization, particularly when risk equalization payments depend on realized costs instead of expected costs. In addition, cost based risk equalization mechanisms may incentivize health insurers to distort the allocation of resources among different services. The incentives to practice risk selection, to limit healthcare spending, and to distort the allocation of resources can be measured by fit, power, and balance, respectively. We apply these three measures to evaluate the risk adjustment mechanism in Switzerland. Our results suggest that it performs very well in terms of power but rather poorly in terms of fit. The latter indicates that risk selection might be a severe problem. We show that re-insurance can reduce this problem while power remains on a high level. In addition, we provide evidence that the Swiss risk equalization mechanism does not lead to imbalances across different services.

  17. Risk Adjustment, Reinsurance Improved Financial Outcomes For Individual Market Insurers With The Highest Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Cohen, Michael L; Keenan, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) reformed the individual health insurance market. Because insurers can no longer vary their offers of coverage based on applicants' health status, the ACA established a risk adjustment program to equalize health-related cost differences across plans. The ACA also established a temporary reinsurance program to subsidize high-cost claims. To assess the impact of these programs, we compared revenues to claims costs for insurers in the individual market during the first two years of ACA implementation (2014 and 2015), before and after the inclusion of risk adjustment and reinsurance payments. Before these payments were included, for the 30 percent of insurers with the highest claims costs, claims (not including administrative expenses) exceeded premium revenues by $90-$397 per enrollee per month. The effect was reversed after these payments were included, with revenues exceeding claims costs by $0-$49 per month. The risk adjustment and reinsurance programs were relatively well targeted in the first two years. While there is ongoing discussion regarding the future of the ACA, our findings can shed light on how risk-sharing programs can address risk selection among insurers-a pervasive issue in all health insurance markets.

  18. Asymmetric Information in Iranian’s Health Insurance Market: Testing of Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Farhad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Hadian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric information is one of the most important issues in insurance market which occurred due to inherent characteristics of one of the agents involved in insurance contracts; hence its management requires designing appropriate policies. This phenomenon can lead to the failure of insurance market via its two consequences, namely, adverse selection and moral hazard. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the status of asymmetric information in Iran’s health insurance market with respect to the demand for outpatient services. Materials/sPatients and Methods: This research is a cross sectional study conducted on households living in Iran. The data of the research was extracted from the information on household’s budget survey collected by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2012. In this study, the Generalized Method of Moment model was used and the status of adverse selection and moral hazard was evaluated through calculating the latent health status of individuals in each insurance category. To analyze the data, Excel, Eviews and stata11 software were used. Results: The estimation of parameters of the utility function of the demand for outpatient services (visit, medicine, and Para-clinical services) showed that households were more risk averse in the use of outpatient care than other goods and services. After estimating the health status of households based on their health insurance categories, the results showed that rural-insured people had the best health status and people with supplementary insurance had the worst health status. In addition, the comparison of the conditional distribution of latent health status approved the phenomenon of adverse selection in all insurance groups, with the exception of rural insurance. Moreover, calculation of the elasticity of medical expenses to reimbursement rate confirmed the existence of moral hazard phenomenon. Conclusions: Due to the existence of the phenomena of adverse selection and moral hazard

  19. Asymmetric Information in Iranian's Health Insurance Market: Testing of Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Farhad; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Hadian, Mohammad

    2015-04-19

    Asymmetric information is one of the most important issues in insurance market which occurred due to inherent characteristics of one of the agents involved in insurance contracts; hence its management requires designing appropriate policies. This phenomenon can lead to the failure of insurance market via its two consequences, namely, adverse selection and moral hazard. This study was aimed to evaluate the status of asymmetric information in Iran's health insurance market with respect to the demand for outpatient services. This research is a cross sectional study conducted on households living in Iran. The data of the research was extracted from the information on household's budget survey collected by the Statistical Center of Iran in 2012. In this study, the Generalized Method of Moment model was used and the status of adverse selection and moral hazard was evaluated through calculating the latent health status of individuals in each insurance category. To analyze the data, Excel, Eviews and stata11 software were used. The estimation of parameters of the utility function of the demand for outpatient services (visit, medicine, and Para-clinical services) showed that households were more risk averse in the use of outpatient care than other goods and services. After estimating the health status of households based on their health insurance categories, the results showed that rural-insured people had the best health status and people with supplementary insurance had the worst health status. In addition, the comparison of the conditional distribution of latent health status approved the phenomenon of adverse selection in all insurance groups, with the exception of rural insurance. Moreover, calculation of the elasticity of medical expenses to reimbursement rate confirmed the existence of moral hazard phenomenon. Due to the existence of the phenomena of adverse selection and moral hazard in most of health insurances categories, policymakers need to adjust contracts so

  20. Pitching plans to the uninsured. Insurers increasingly see viable market in growing pool of middle-class workers who don't have health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Laura B

    2003-02-24

    It's a bold new world in healthcare insurance. A few years ago, insurers would have been reluctant to use advertising dollars to reach the uninsured. But now, as the average income of the typical uninsured person is climbing and Congress is pondering initiatives to expand coverage, the market is gaining zealous suitors. "Things are really heating up," says Merrill Matthews Jr., left, director of the Council for Affordable Health Insurance.

  1. Is the medical loss ratio a good target measure for regulation in the individual market for health insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Abraham, Jean M; Simon, Kosali

    2015-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2011, individual market health insurers must meet a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) of 80%. This law aims to encourage 'productive' forms of competition by increasing the proportion of premium dollars spent on clinical benefits. To date, very little is known about the performance of firms in the individual health insurance market, including how MLRs are related to insurer and market characteristics. The MLR comprises one component of the price-cost margin, a traditional gauge of market power; the other component is percent of premiums spent on administrative expenses. We use data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2001-2009) to evaluate whether the MLR is a good target measure for regulation by comparing the two components of the price-cost margin between markets that are more competitive versus those that are not, accounting for firm and market characteristics. We find that insurers with monopoly power have lower MLRs. Moreover, we find no evidence suggesting that insurers' administrative expenses are lower in more concentrated insurance markets. Thus, our results are largely consistent with the interpretation that the MLR could serve as a target measure of market power in regulating the individual market for health insurance but with notable limited ability to capture product and firm heterogeneity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Cosmetic Dentistry Market: High cost of dental imaging systems could restrain the growth

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic dentistry refers to any work related to dental that changes and improves the look of a person's gums and/or bite, teeth. It primarily focuses on enhancement dental aesthetics in position, color, alignment, shape, size and overall smile appearance. Growing focus on dental aesthetics, increasing consumer awareness, growing dental tourism in emerging markets and increasing disposable incomes of middle-class population in developing nations are the major factors driving the growth of the...

  3. The political culture of healthcare: why substantial dental care in Canada is covered by government insurance only in Québec - lessons for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaer, P J; Younis, M Z; Benjamin, P L; Al-Hajeri, M

    2011-06-10

    This opinion paper explains the unique and favourable terms of dental health insurance coverage available to residents (both permanent and temporary) of the Province of Québec, Canada. In comparison, the United States and British Canada are the poor stepchildren of government-mediated provision of dental health coverage. The differences in dental healthcare provision between these regions are a question of culture - more specifically, of differing socio-political cultures and different perspectives on the importance of dental care. Lawmakers in the United States can learn from this policy of government-administered dental insurance that appears to work well in Québec.

  4. On how access to an insurance market affects investments in safety measures, based on the expected utility theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorheim Abrahamsen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.b.abrahamsen@uis.n [University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Asche, Frank [University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway)

    2011-03-15

    This paper focuses on how access to an insurance market should influence investments in safety measures in accordance with the ruling paradigm for decision-making under uncertainty-the expected utility theory. We show that access to an insurance market in most situations will influence investments in safety measures. For an expected utility maximizer, an overinvestment in safety measures is likely if access to an insurance market is ignored, while an underinvestment in safety measures is likely if insurance is purchased without paying attention to the possibility for reducing the probability and/or consequences of an accidental event by safety measures.

  5. Equity in children's dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-02-11

    One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children's dental caries (tooth decay) in Calgary, Canada, in 2009/10 when CWF was in place, and in 2013/14, after it had been discontinued. We analyzed data from population-based samples of schoolchildren (grade 2) in 2009/10 and 2013/14. Data on dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent teeth) were gathered via open mouth exams conducted in schools by registered dental hygienists. We examined the association between dental caries and 1) presence/absence of dental insurance and 2) small area index of material deprivation, using Poisson (zero-inflated) and logistic regression, for both time points separately. For small-area material deprivation at each time point, we also computed the concentration index of inequality for each outcome variable. Statistically significant inequities by dental insurance status and by small area material deprivation were more apparent in 2013/14 than in 2009/10. Results are consistent with increasing inequities in dental caries following cessation of CWF. However, further research is needed to 1) confirm the effects in a study that includes a comparison community, and 2) explore possible alternative reasons for the findings, including changes in treatment and preventive programming.

  6. SATISFACTION OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE ACTIVITIES OF THE DENTAL LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minko M. Milev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analysis of the attitude of dental physicians, dental technicians, patients and students of dental technology, about the marketing communication in the work of dental technical laboratories. Material and Methods: The main study was conducted on the territory of Northeastern Bulgaria, using direct anonymous paper questionnaires in the period between April and July 2015. A total of 700 respondents were interviewed, distributed into four groups (dental physicians, dental technicians, students of dental technology and patients of dental laboratories. Results and Discussion: The study was designed to investigate the satisfaction with marketing communications among all participants in dental laboratory activities. Satisfaction of dental physicians with aspects of marketing communication of dental laboratories was 47,39% (n=127, and a negative answer was given from 22,76% (n = 61 of respondents. The majority of dental technicians (75,91%, n=104 were satisfied with aspects of marketing communication with dental clinics/dental physicians, while 29,85% (n = 80 weren’t satisfied. The study of the satisfaction with the communication among the students showed that 60,42% (n=116 of them were satisfied and lack of satisfaction with communication was reported by 1,56% (n=3 of the respondents. Among the studied patients, 81,55% (n=84 felt satisfied with the communication carried out at the dental clinics, and 8,74% (n = 9 among patients were not satisfied. Conclusion: The integrated communications may successfully achieve the goals of a given communication campaign by a well-coordinated utilisation of the different kinds of IMC instruments: advertising, public relations (PR, personal sales, sales promotions and others. The desired synergy is attained when all the IMC instruments are synchronised and mutually enhanced.

  7. Insurance coverage of customers induces dishonesty of sellers in markets for credence goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Neururer, Daniel; Sutter, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Honesty is a fundamental pillar for cooperation in human societies and thus for their economic welfare. However, humans do not always act in an honest way. Here, we examine how insurance coverage affects the degree of honesty in credence goods markets. Such markets are plagued by strong incentives for fraudulent behavior of sellers, resulting in estimated annual costs of billions of dollars to customers and the society as a whole. Prime examples of credence goods are all kinds of repair services, the provision of medical treatments, the sale of software programs, and the provision of taxi rides in unfamiliar cities. We examine in a natural field experiment how computer repair shops take advantage of customers' insurance for repair costs. In a control treatment, the average repair price is about EUR 70, whereas the repair bill increases by more than 80% when the service provider is informed that an insurance would reimburse the bill. Our design allows decomposing the sources of this economically impressive difference, showing that it is mainly due to the overprovision of parts and overcharging of working time. A survey among repair shops shows that the higher bills are mainly ascribed to insured customers being less likely to be concerned about minimizing costs because a third party (the insurer) pays the bill. Overall, our results strongly suggest that insurance coverage greatly increases the extent of dishonesty in important sectors of the economy with potentially huge costs to customers and whole economies.

  8. Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance markets: The case of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, John

    2010-11-01

    Ireland has a system of private health insurance (PHI) which acts as a voluntary alternative to the benefits provided under the Irish public health system. As part of this, community rating has long been a cornerstone of the Irish private health insurance market with the objective to make PHI affordable to everyone regardless of their risk profile. Until the mid-1990s one insurer had a legal monopoly. However, in 1996, following the Third Non-Life Insurance Directive, the market was opened up to competition and a number of regulations were introduced to support community rating. This includes the introduction of a risk equalisation system. Its aim was to prevent selection and thus protect the community rating system while still enabling a competitive health insurance market. There have been significant obstacles to the introduction of risk equalisation due to political, legal and implementation issues. The objective of this paper is to review the history, structure and likely effectiveness of risk equalisation in Ireland. The paper provides lessons for other countries with risk equalisation systems or seeking to introduce such a system. Amongst other conclusions, it outlines the difficulties in introducing risk equalisation.

  9. The role of workfare in striking a balance between incentives and insurance in the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    Workfare policies are often introduced in labour market policies to improve the trade-off between incentives and insurance as an alternative to benefit reductions. Most of the debate on such policies has focussed on the direct effect of those participating in the scheme, and in particular...... unemployment. It is also shown that the direct search effects of workfare policies are a poor indicator of the overall effect workfare policies have on labour market policies....

  10. The Financial Market of the Cross and Up-Selling Insurers from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita-Maria Filip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest threat for the worldwide financial system is the recession at global level, which wouldhave a major impact on the insurance industry. The differences between the results of European companiesduring the crisis, had a close connection with the aggressive or defensive investment strategies. Although thebank assurance agreements exist and they are developing further, the partnerships of this type didn’t have theexpected success in Romania, so far. Once with the market penetration from Romania of some insurers ofEuropean size, more specialized companies have launched bank assurance partnerships with banks, especiallyin the view of distribution of life insurances, and more recently, of the promoting the package of currentaccount, products of savings – credit in the housing domain, pension funds, credits for small companies,mortgages and the one of personal needs. The success of this type of sale is still to come and put in doubt, atthis point, the efficiency of promoting the banking products by insurers.

  11. Cross-subsidization in the market for employment-related health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monheit, A C; Selden, T M

    2000-12-01

    This paper uses data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey to examine the nature of equilibrium in the market for employment-related health insurance. We examine coverage generosity, premiums, and insurance benefits net of expenditures on premiums, showing that despite a degree of market segmentation, there was a substantial amount of pooling of heterogeneous risks in 1987 among households with employment-related coverage. Our results are largely invariant to (i) firm size and (ii) whether or not employers offer a choice among plans. Our results suggest the need for caution concerning incremental reforms that would weaken the link between employment and insurance without substituting alternative institutions for the pooling of risks.

  12. Reform of the Individual Insurance Market in New Jersey: Lessons for the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Joel C; Monheit, Alan C

    2016-08-01

    The individual health insurance market has played a small but important role in providing coverage to those without access to group insurance or public programs. With implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the individual market has attained a more prominent role. However, achieving accessible and affordable coverage in this market is a long-standing challenge, in large part due to the threat of adverse risk selection. New Jersey pursued comprehensive reforms beginning in the 1990s to achieve a stable, accessible, and affordable individual market. We review how adverse risk selection can pose a challenge to achieving such objectives in the individual health insurance market. We follow this discussion by describing the experience of New Jersey through three rounds of legislative reform and through the first year of the implementation of the ACA coverage provisions. While the New Jersey reforms did not require individuals to purchase coverage, its experiences with direct and indirect market subsidies and regulations guiding plan design, issuance, and rating have important implications for how the ACA may achieve its coverage goals in the absence of the controversial individual purchase mandate.

  13. Risk equalisation in voluntary health insurance markets: A three country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, John; Paolucci, Francesco; McLeod, Heather; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2010-11-01

    The paper summarises the conclusions for health policy from the experience of three countries who have introduced risk equalisation subsidies, in their voluntary health insurance (VHI) markets. The countries chosen are Australia, Ireland and South Africa. All of these countries have developed VHI markets and have progressed towards introducing risk equalisation. The objective of such subsidies is primarily to make VHI affordable while encouraging efficiency in health care production. The paper presents a conceptual framework to understand and compare risk equalisation subsidies in VHI markets. The paper outlines how such subsidies are organised in each of the countries and identifies problems that arise in their implementation. We conclude that the objectives of risk equalisation, in VHI markets are no different to those in countries with mandatory insurance systems. We find that the introduction of risk equalisation subsidies is complex and that countries seeking to introduce risk equalisation in VHI markets must carefully consider how such subsidies advance their overall health policy goals. Furthermore, we conclude that such subsidies must be structured correctly as otherwise incentives exist for risk selection which may threaten affordability and efficiency. Our overall conclusion is that also in voluntary health insurance markets risk equalisation has a role in meeting the related public policy objectives of risk solidarity and affordability, and without it these objectives are severely undermined.

  14. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a... Special Provisions. The price election you choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship...: (A) Grown fresh market tomatoes for commercial sales; or (B) Participated in the management of...

  15. The Private Market for Long-Term Care Insurance in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; Finkelstein, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the growing literature on the market for private long-term care insurance, a market notable for its small size despite the fact that long-term care expenses are potentially large and highly uncertain. After summarizing long-term care utilization and insurance coverage in the United States, the paper reviews research on the supply of and the demand for private long-term care insurance. It concludes that demand-side factors impose important limits on the size of the private market and that we currently have a limited understanding of how public policies could be designed to encourage the growth of this market. PMID:20046809

  16. An Application of EVT, GPD and POT Methods in the Albanian Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its relatively fast development, the insurance sector in Albania suffers from laco of experience, and lack of a database with historical records to make risk assessments feasible and to enable risk calculation. Consequently the newly established companies that operate in the insurance market in Albania cope with difficulties to make accurate calculations of reinsurance premium, i.e. the premium paid by a ceding company to an reinsurer in exchange of the liability assumed by the reinsurer. Given the situation, this research paper aims to provide an alternative way to make pure premium estimations. We have taken in consideration a dataset of fire insurance and other perils' claims, which have taken place in the Albanian insurance market during 2007 t 2014 period. Prices have been inflated to take into account the inflation of the period. There are n=401 fire insurance and other peril losses, the largest of them is Euro 1.203.798, the average is 20.156 Euro and the standard deviation is s= 83.037 Euro. The skewness coefficient of 9,94, indicates that the right tail is heavy, with considerable scope for llarge losses.

  17. Spousal labor market effects from government health insurance: Evidence from a veterans affairs expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Melissa A; Lahey, Joanna N

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the total impact of health insurance receipt on household labor supply is important in an era of increased access to publicly provided and subsidized insurance. Although government expansion of health insurance to older workers leads to direct labor supply reductions for recipients, there may be spillover effects on the labor supply of uncovered spouses. While the most basic model predicts a decrease in overall household work hours, financial incentives such as credit constraints, target income levels, and the need for own health insurance suggest that spousal labor supply might increase. In contrast, complementarities of spousal leisure would predict a decrease in labor supply for both spouses. Utilizing a mid-1990s expansion of health insurance for U.S. veterans, we provide evidence on the effects of public insurance availability on the labor supply of spouses. Using data from the Current Population Survey and Health and Retirement Study, we employ a difference-in-differences strategy to compare the labor market behavior of the wives of older male veterans and non-veterans before and after the VA health benefits expansion. Although husbands' labor supply decreases, wives' labor supply increases, suggesting that financial incentives dominate complementarities of spousal leisure. This effect is strongest for wives with lower education levels and lower levels of household wealth and those who were not previously employed full-time. These findings have implications for government programs such as Medicare and Social Security and the Affordable Care Act.

  18. The role of workfare in striking a balance between incentives and insurance in the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    Workfare policies are often introduced in labour market policies to improve the trade-off between incentives and insurance as an alternative to benefit reductions. Most of the debate on such policies has focussed on the direct effect of those participating in the scheme, and in particular....... This implies that unemployed not yet in workfare may search more for regular jobs, and employed may accept lower wages since the outside option becomes less attractive. Introduction of workfare policies into an unemployment insurance scheme is shown to contribute to a reduction in both open and total...

  19. A marketing strategy for the dental public health profession: what is it? Why is it needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Rusinowitz, L

    1988-01-01

    A personnel management problem exists within dental public health that interferes with its mission of improving the nation's oral health. A major cause of this problem may be that many administrators who write position descriptions and hire professional staff are unaware of differences between clinical and public health dental practitioners. A marketing plan has been developed to address this lack of awareness about proper use of dental public health professionals. Its main goal is to establish more appropriate personnel and employment practices within dental public health. The expected outcomes of this plan could assist both recipients of dental public health services and members of the profession. The purpose of this article is to introduce the marketing strategy to dental public health professionals.

  20. Development of model for insurance risk management and its application to insurance companies operating in the Serbian market

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana M. Ilic; Veselin Avdalovic; Milica D. Obadovic

    2011-01-01

    The literature on the topic of risk management in insurance generally separately treat insurance risk and insurance company risk, however such a separate treatment of risk excludes a third type of risk which is defined here, that is the risk of incorrectly calculating insurance risk, which causes uncertainties and disruptions in the operations of an insurance company and its concept of risk management arising from its activities. This paper presents a Model developed for insurance risk manage...

  1. INSURANCE FRAUD It is required the emergence of a specialized entity at the level of the market in the fight against insurance fraud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRU G. BADEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We all live in a world of more and more kneaded and growing challenges. On the background of globalization and computerization, the global economy and national economies are becoming more and more sophisticated and unpredictable. Risks are multiplying, some of which results in the large consequences. Between insurance and risks there is a strong causal connection and of course an economical one. Over time, and especially in recent decades with increasing frequency and severity of risks, mankind has sought protection measures. One of these solutions is the insurance. Insurance - as a means of protection in terms of compensation point of view financial losses incurred by the insured - have expanded and diversified considerably in recent decades. The essential purpose of insurance is therefore protection against risks. Yet, somehow paradoxically, insurance "carries with it" a hidden risk that is not easy to detect and counter. This is the risk of fraud that kneads increasingly more insurers. Of course, we encounter fraud in most areas of activity: in the sphere of production, services, finance and banking, etc. In this article we intend to make a brief foray into the field of insurance fraud within the context of national and international evolution of the insurance market, without getting into the technical details of this phenomenon causing serious damage.

  2. Slovenian Complementary Health Insurance Reform – Dichotomy between the Internal Market and the Social Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complementary health insurance is divided between the internal market (market principles and social dimension, wherein the state has an extremely difficult task, as it must create the conditions necessary for the fair and efficient functioning of the health care financing system. Slovenia has failed to successfully accomplish this task, which consists of both ensuring the social dimension and also facilitating the operation of market principles. The aim of this article is not on the functioning of market principles, which are covered by the field of economics, but is instead on analyzing the dichotomy between the internal market (the rules that govern the functioning of the internal market and the social dimension (the rules that enable the exercise of the social function, and, in this light, analyzes the legal regulation of the Slovenian complementary health insurance. Analysis of the legal regulation highlights the shortcomings in ensuring the social dimension, shortcomings which are, with the help of the measures proposed in the concluding section of the article, remedied by the author.

  3. Willingness to pay for health insurance: an analysis of the potential market for new low-cost health insurance products in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson-Wright, Emily; Asfaw, Abay; van der Gaag, Jacques

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzes the willingness to pay for health insurance and hence the potential market for new low-cost health insurance product in Namibia, using the double bounded contingent valuation (DBCV) method. The findings suggest that 87 percent of the uninsured respondents are willing to join the proposed health insurance scheme and on average are willing to insure 3.2 individuals (around 90 percent of the average family size). On average respondents are willing to pay NAD 48 per capita per month and respondents in the poorest income quintile are willing to pay up to 11.4 percent of their income. This implies that private voluntary health insurance schemes, in addition to the potential for protecting the poor against the negative financial shock of illness, may be able to serve as a reliable income flow for health care providers in this setting.

  4. Optimal Hedging and Pricing of Equity-Linked Life Insurance Contracts in a Discrete-Time Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Josephy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method of optimal hedging and pricing of equity-linked life insurance products in an incomplete discrete-time financial market. A pure endowment life insurance contract with guarantee is used as an example. The financial market incompleteness is caused by the assumption that the underlying risky asset price ratios are distributed in a compact interval, generalizing the assumptions of multinomial incomplete market models. For a range of initial hedging capitals for the embedded financial option, we numerically solve an optimal hedging problem and determine a risk-return profile of each optimal non-self-financing hedging strategy. The fair price of the insurance contract is determined according to the insurer's risk-return preferences. Illustrative numerical results of testing our algorithm on hypothetical insurance contracts are documented. A discussion and a test of a hedging strategy recalibration technique for long-term contracts are presented.

  5. Initial experience with a first-to-market member accountability-based insurance product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Douglas R; Nelson, David R

    2010-10-01

    We describe the initial experience with a first-to-market health insurance product design based on principles of both member and purchaser accountability. Two benefit levels were offered, enhanced and standard. Qualification for the enhanced benefit level was obtained through members' commitment to follow their physicians' recommended treatment plan. Employers were offered a discount of 10% in exchange for offering this new product and promoting a healthy work environment. Membership in the product grew beyond expectations, and several health improvements were noted.

  6. The Efficiency of the European Non-Life Insurance: CEO Power, Macroeconomic, and Market Characteristics Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Bahloul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies focusing on the determinant of the insurance market efficiency have increased in the last decade. In fact, many factors, like the CEO’s power, can influence the efficiency in the insurance firm. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between efficiency, measured by the cost function using the stochastic frontier approach (SFA methodologies, and the market structure, as well as the macroeconomic variables. In addition, it focuses on identifying the impact of the integration of the CEO power variable in the cost function on this relation. The result shows that after the consideration of the CEO power score in the cost efficiency, the relation between insurance efficiency and the determinant of market development, as well as the domestic economy, has changed and become more significant. The result also shows that the firms become more efficient and more profitable with a higher concentration ratio and this is in accordance with the structure-conduct-performance (SCP theory.

  7. Regulating stop-loss coverage may be needed to deter self- insuring small employers from undermining market reforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    As implementation of the Affordable Care Act reshapes the US health insurance market, state policy makers should be prepared to revisit regulation of stop-loss coverage-a form of reinsurance-for small businesses...

  8. EVOLUTION OF ECONOMY AND ITS IMPACT ON INSURANCE MARKET – A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra TEODORESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic context has a strong impact on the insurance sector. On the one hand, the decisions related to sector regulation could influence the life of the insurance companies. On the other hand, taxes and other measures that may affect purchasing power, economic instability represent a threat. It is a fact that insurances are products that customers and companies access them when economic conditions are predictable and budgets could be accurately predicted. The paper mainly analyzes in terms of indicators, the impact of the economy on the insurance sector. We are talking about the interrelationships between Gross Written Premiums (the insurance "Budget" and some macroeconomic indicators characterizing the Romanian economy, such as Gross Domestic Product, net average earnings, the average number of employees etc. Statistical analysis is performed for a 12-year period during 2002-2013. This analysis is based on official statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, the National Forecasting Commission and the National Bank of Romania. The methodology consists of correlation and regression analysis. Of the variables used in the study we mention: Gross Domestic Product, the number of employees, employment, net average earnings, the activity rate of the working age population (15-64 years, non-governmental domestic credit. The analysis of correlation between the studied variables reveals that is a strong correlation between Gross Written Premiums and GDP, the number of employees, average earnings and non-government domestic credit.. Thus, economic growth, rising incomes, the increasing number of employees and facilitating credit conditions could be some elements that would lead to sustainable growth of the insurance market.

  9. Price elasticities in the German Statutory Health Insurance market before and after the health care reform of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Danner, Marion; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the change in price elasticity of health insurance choice in Germany after a reform of health insurance contributions. Using a comprehensive data set of all sickness funds between 2004 and 2013, price elasticities are calculated both before and after the reform for the entire market. The general price elasticity is found to be increased more than 4-fold from -0.81 prior to the reform to -3.53 after the reform. By introducing a new kind of health insurance contribution the reform seemingly increased the price elasticity of insured individuals to a more appropriate level under the given market parameters. However, further unintended consequences of the new contribution scheme were massive losses of market share for the more expensive sickness funds and therefore an undivided focus on pricing as the primary competitive element to the detriment of quality.

  10. Influence of the prudential supervision over the capitalization of the Romanian insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elly NAGHI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a decade when all activities are globalized, including insurance, the recent focus of the supervisory authorities became the leveling of the legal framework concerning the solvency requirements of the companies acting on the market (as a consequence of the 2008 crisis, much more acute in USA than in Europe, where Basel Agreement decreased the fall of the banking sector. The present paper analyses the way in which the main solvency regimes applied at international level influence the equity of the insurance companies, especially the increase in the solvency capital required by the supervisors, taking into consideration the risk profile of the company. Moreover, the paper provides a blueprint of the methods to ensure the financial stability of the national industry, in order to respond adequately to systemic and systematic risks.

  11. Price game and chaos control among three oligarchs with different rationalities in property insurance market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Zhang, Junling

    2012-12-01

    Combining with the actual competition in Chinese property insurance market and assuming that the property insurance companies take the marginal utility maximization as the basis of decision-making when they play price games, we first established the price game model with three oligarchs who have different rationalities. Then, we discussed the existence and stability of equilibrium points. Third, we studied the theoretical value of Lyapunov exponent at Nash equilibrium point and its change process with the main parameters' changes though having numerical simulation for the system such as the bifurcation, chaos attractors, and so on. Finally, we analyzed the influences which the changes of different parameters have on the profits and utilities of oligarchs and their corresponding competition advantage. Based on this, we used the variable feedback control method to control the chaos of the system and stabilized the chaos state to Nash equilibrium point again. The results have significant theoretical and practical application value.

  12. SOLVENCY II – THE NEW EU SOLVENCY REGIME ON THE INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia CLIPICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main causes that lead to insurer’s solvency issues such as the underwriting, investment or reinsurance deficiencies have remained the same over time. However, their incidence is increasing, as well as their complexity. Solvency II, the latest directive in this field is intended to be the legislative act that will settle the solvency issue on the European insurance market. The Solvency II Directive will lead to a new approach to the supervision process at the common European level, based on economic principles for assessing the assets and liabilities. It will use common principles when taking into account the multitude and variety of risks to which the company is exposed. These will form the basis for establishing the level of the capital and updating the calculation methods for the capital of the insurance companies under unusual circumstances. The article summarizes the Directive and describes some difficulties arising in connection with its rendering and implementation at the Member State level.

  13. Price game and chaos control among three oligarchs with different rationalities in property insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Zhang, Junling

    2012-12-01

    Combining with the actual competition in Chinese property insurance market and assuming that the property insurance companies take the marginal utility maximization as the basis of decision-making when they play price games, we first established the price game model with three oligarchs who have different rationalities. Then, we discussed the existence and stability of equilibrium points. Third, we studied the theoretical value of Lyapunov exponent at Nash equilibrium point and its change process with the main parameters' changes though having numerical simulation for the system such as the bifurcation, chaos attractors, and so on. Finally, we analyzed the influences which the changes of different parameters have on the profits and utilities of oligarchs and their corresponding competition advantage. Based on this, we used the variable feedback control method to control the chaos of the system and stabilized the chaos state to Nash equilibrium point again. The results have significant theoretical and practical application value.

  14. Sizing up the individual market for health insurance: a comparison of survey and administrative data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean M; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Boudreaux, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Provisions within the Affordable Care Act, including the introduction of subsidized, Exchange-based coverage for lower income Americans lacking access to employer coverage, are expected to greatly expand the size and importance of the individual market. Using multiple federal surveys and administrative data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, we generate national-, regional-, and state-level estimates of the individual market. In 2009, the number of nonelderly persons with individual coverage ranged from 9.55 million in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to 25.3 million in the American Community Survey. Notable differences also exist between survey estimates and National Association of Insurance Commissioners administrative counts, an outcome likely driven by variation in the type and measurement of individual coverage considered by surveys relative to administrative data. Future research evaluating the impact of the Affordable Care Act coverage provisions must be mindful of differences across surveys and administrative sources as it relates to the measurement of individual market coverage.

  15. Medical Underwriting In Long-Term Care Insurance: Market Conditions Limit Options For Higher-Risk Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Portia Y; Grabowski, David C; Cohen, Marc; Shi, Xiaomei; Stevenson, David G

    2016-08-01

    A key feature of private long-term care insurance is that medical underwriters screen out would-be buyers who have health conditions that portend near-term physical or cognitive disability. We applied common underwriting criteria based on data from two long-term care insurers to a nationally representative sample of individuals in the target age range (50-71 years) for long-term care insurance. The screening criteria put upper bounds on the current proportion of Americans who could gain coverage in the individual market without changes to medical underwriting practice. Specifically, our simulations show that in the target age range, approximately 30 percent of those whose wealth meets minimum industry standards for suitability for long-term care insurance would have their application for such insurance rejected at the underwriting stage. Among the general population-without considering financial suitability-we estimated that 40 percent would have their applications rejected. The predicted rejection rates are substantially higher than the rejection rates of about 20-25 percent of applicants in the actual market. In evaluating reforms for long-term care financing and their potential to increase private insurance rates, as well as to reduce financial pressure on public safety-net programs, policy makers need to consider the role of underwriting in the market for long-term care insurance.

  16. Some insights for a relationship marketing model integrating SERVQUAL and customer loyalty in dental clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Perez, Ana Maria; Grijalvo Martin, Maria Mercedes; Mercado Idoeta, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The demand of new services, the emergence of new business models, insufficient innovation, underestimation of customer loyalty and reluctance to adopt new management are evidence of the deficiencies and the lack of research about the relations between patients and dental clinics. In this article we propose the structure of a model of Relationship Marketing (RM) in the dental clinic that integrates information from SERVQUAL, Customer Loyalty (CL) and activities of RM and combines the vision of...

  17. Analyzing solvency with extreme value theory: an application to the Spanish motor liability insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez-Fructuoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of extreme claims is fundamental to assess solvency capital requirements (SCR established by Solvency II. Basing on the Extreme Value Theory (EVT, this paper performs a parametric estimation to fit the motor liability insurance historical datasets of two significant and representative companies operating within the Spanish market to a Generalized Pareto Distribution. We illustrate how EVT improves classical adjustments, as it considers outliers apart from mass risks, what leads to optimize the pricing decision-making and fix a risk transfer position.

  18. Can Insurers Pay for the "Big One"? Measuring the Capacity of an Insurance Market to Respond to Catastrophic Losses

    OpenAIRE

    J. David Cummins; Doherty, Neil A.; Anita Lo

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the capacity of the U.S. property-liability insurance industry to finance major catastrophic property losses. The topic is important because catastrophic events such as the Northridge earthquake and Hurricane Andrew have raised questions about the ability of the insurance industry to respond to the "Big One," usually defined as a hurricane or earthquake in the $100 billion range. At first glance, the U.S. property-liability insurance...

  19. How to institute and develop a strategic marketing plan for your pediatric dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacht, E S

    1994-01-01

    As what may be the most important element in a successful pediatric dental practice, marketing is often misunderstood. It requires careful planning and a long-term commitment. Before implementing your marketing plan, understand the definition of marketing and what it will mean to your practice. To develop your plan, ask yourself several important questions that will help you analyze where you are now, as well as where you want to be. Then, promote your practice by incorporating 12 important qualities into your plan. The plan is the blueprint for your efforts to repeatedly, consistently, and positively communicate with your market for the long term.

  20. Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance markets: The case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Luke B; Paolucci, Francesco; Butler, James R G; Collins, Paul

    2010-11-01

    In April 2007, Australia introduced a risk equalisation (RE) scheme (de facto a claims equalisation scheme), which replaced an extant reinsurance scheme that had operated since 1976. This scheme is one of a number of policy measures that the Australian Government has instituted to support the voluntary private health insurance (PHI) market which is subject to mandatory community rating and the attendant problem of selection. The latter has been a persistent concern in the Australian PHI market since the introduction of Australia's universal, compulsory national health insurance scheme Medicare. This paper presents a brief overview of Australia's health care financing arrangements and, in particular, focuses on the history, structure and functioning of the RE scheme. It provides an exposition of the operation of the scheme and empirical evidence of the scheme's effects in its first full year of operation, 2007-08. The paper makes three contributions: first, it provides the only detailed overview of the functioning of the Australian RE scheme published to date; second, it presents the first empirical measures of the scheme's operation at the level of the 38 individual PHI funds; and third, it describes the systematic differences in the scheme's operation with respect to large and small funds. Thus, this paper provides a number of insights into the operation and outcomes of the Australian RE scheme following its first year of operation.

  1. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  2. Enlightened advertising: A role for dental marketing in enhancing dental literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary discusses the importance of accuracy in toothpaste advertising and explores ways in which ensuring such accuracy could help to address the present need for improved dental literacy among the general public.

  3. Are you using "gray-market" or counterfeit dental products?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2010-01-01

    .... Here, Christensen discusses the prevalence of gray-market and counterfeit products, manufacturers' concerns about them, the need for communication between the dentist and the staff member ordering...

  4. Consumer evaluation of complaint handling in the Dutch health insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendel Sonja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How companies deal with complaints is a particularly challenging aspect in managing the quality of their service. In this study we test the direct and relative effects of service quality dimensions on consumer complaint satisfaction evaluations and trust in a company in the Dutch health insurance market. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. Survey data of 150 members of a Dutch insurance panel who lodged a complaint at their healthcare insurer within the past 12 months were surveyed. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing validated multi-item measures. These measures assess the service quality dimensions consisting of functional quality and technical quality and consumer complaint satisfaction evaluations consisting of complaint satisfaction and overall satisfaction with the company after complaint handling. Respondents' trust in a company after complaint handling was also measured. Using factor analysis, reliability and validity of the measures were assessed. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between these variables. Results Overall, results confirm the hypothesized direct and relative effects between the service quality dimensions and consumer complaint satisfaction evaluations and trust in the company. No support was found for the effect of technical quality on overall satisfaction with the company. This outcome might be driven by the context of our study; namely, consumers get in touch with a company to resolve a specific problem and therefore might focus more on complaint satisfaction and less on overall satisfaction with the company. Conclusions Overall, the model we present is valid in the context of the Dutch health insurance market. Management is able to increase consumers' complaint satisfaction, overall satisfaction with the company, and trust in the company by improving elements of functional and technical quality. Furthermore, we show that functional and

  5. Word of Mouth Marketing in Mouth and Dental Health Centers towards Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Ekiyor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influencing the shopping style of others by passing on the experiences of goods purchased or services received is a way of behavior that has its roots in history. The main objective of th is research is to analyze the effects of demographic factors within the scope of word of mouth marketing on the choices of mouth and dental health services. Consumers receiving service from mouth and dental health centers of the Turkish Republic Ministry o f Health constitute the environment of the research. The research conducted in order to determine the mouth and dental health center selection of consumers within the scope of word of mouth marketing. The research has been conducted in Ankara through simpl e random sampling. The sample size has been determined as 400. In terms of word of mouth marketing which has been determined as the third hypothesis of the study, as a result of the analysis of the statistical relationship between mouth and dental health c enter preference and demographic factor groups, it has been determined that there is a meaningful difference in terms of age, level of education, level of income and some dimensions of marital status and that no meaningful difference has been found in term s of gender. It has been attempted to determine the importance of word of mouth marketing in healthcare services

  6. Study of the Character of Functional Links Between the Main Integral Indicators of the Market of Voluntary Personal Insurance in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko Vasyl O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a multi-factor econometric model that demonstrates availability of a linear dependence of insurance settlements on a number of “life” insurance companies and gross insurance premiums in the market of personal insurance of Ukraine. Values of parameters of the econometric method satisfy conditions of validity and efficiency and their insignificant shift is justified by the use of the ridge regression. Use of the latter was necessary, since a multi-collinearity was detected. A conclusion could be made from this model about monopolisation of the market of personal insurance in Ukraine. Similar conclusion could be made on the basis of the developed by us econometric model of dependency of a number of “life” insurance companies on average monthly spendings of the population with consideration of the inflation. The article conducts assessment of the market of voluntary personal insurance with the help of the model data and makes conclusion on its future prospects.

  7. 百慕大保险市场结构研究%Study on the Structure of Bermuda Insurance Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 王晓曦

    2015-01-01

    百慕大与美国以及欧洲保险市场并称为世界三大保险市场,在全球保险以及再保险市场具有举足轻重的地位。论文对百慕大保险市场现状和结构进行研究,首先回顾了百慕大保险市场的发展历程,而后阐述了百慕大保险市场监管和税收方面优势和特征以及这些优势对保险公司组建的积极影响,进而利用翔实地统计数据分析了百慕大保险市场的公司数量、公司类型和公司规模。对于百慕大保险市场在全球再保险市场中的地位和作用以及百慕大保险市场经营绩效和信用评级状况,论文也给予了详细论述。%Bermuda insurance market, US insurance market and the European insurance are the three most important insurance markets in the world. This article provides an economic review and statistical analysis of the Bermuda in-surance market. It begins with a brief history of the Bermuda market to set the stage for the subsequent discussions. The discussion then turns to the Bermuda regulatory and tax systems and their effects on company formation in Ber-muda. The advantages of Bermuda as an insurance domicile are then outlined. The statistical analysis provides an overview of the structure of the Bermuda market in terms of the number, type, and size of firms. The role of Ber-muda insurers in the global reinsurance market is discussed and analyzed. The article also analyzes the performance and the financial ratings of Bermuda ( re) insurance companies.

  8. Analysis of the Marketing Ethics Problem from Insurance Marketing Staff%保险营销人员营销伦理问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓星; 张晓

    2012-01-01

    义利并重,诚信,公平、公正、公开是保险营销的基本伦理原则;欺骗和隐瞒,贿赂和回扣,胁迫和权力交易是保险营销中常见的伦理失范现象。理想的保险行业规范则是:完善保险市场基础性法规制度建设,加强保险监督管理委员会监管力度;提高保险从业人员的素养水平;构建自我伦理,实践自我调适,维护保险行业秩序。%Equal emphasis on obligation and benefit,as well as integrity,fairness,justice and openness are the basic ethical principles of the insurance market.Deception and disguise,bribery and kickbacks,enforcement and power trading are some common losing ethics phenomenon in insurance market.The ideal standards of insurance industry are as follows: perfecting the basic laws and regulations of institutional improvement,enhancing supervision of China Insurance Regulatory Commission,improving literacy level of insurance staff;forming self-ethics,realizing self-adjustment to maintain the order of the insurance industry.

  9. The impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty enhancement (Case study: Kerman Iran insurance company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolaziz Abtin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, only those tradings that just focus on the effectiveness of the marketing mix elements can shift their direction towards relationship marketing and establishing effective relationship management with customers. In today's competitive world, customers are in the center of companies’ attention and their satisfaction is the main factor in gaining competitive advantage. The fundamental prerequisite for achieving customers’ satisfaction is to fully meet or exceed their needs, wants, desires, expectations, and their willingness to purchase products. To gain competitive advantage, the companies should pay more attention to customers’ needs and meet them better than their rivals. This paper aims to investigate the impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty enhancement in Kerman Iran insurance company. This study was carried out through a survey method using questionnaires as the main instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between loyalty as dependent variable and trust, satisfaction, management, communication, and competence as independent variables and revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between variables.

  10. 保险市场的信息不对称分析%On Information Asymmetry of Insurance Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓明

    2014-01-01

    Information asymmetry is the major reason to cause frangibility of insurance market.Countermea-sures are proper development of insurance intermediary institutions,regulation of information exposure,enhance-ment of insurance market supervision and awareness of laws and regulations.%保险市场的信息不对称是导致保险市场脆弱性的主要原因。克服保险市场信息不对称的主要措施是规范发展保险中介机构、规范保险市场的信息披露、加强对保险市场的监管和加强法律法规的宣传。

  11. Culture, state and varieties of capitalism: a comparative study of life insurance markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  12. Demography and market impacts on dental practices’ development in Bulgaria during the period of transition 1990-2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lydia Katrova; Krassimir Tzokov

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to present the impact of demography and market dynamics on the organizational and technological development of dental practices in Bulgaria during the period of socio...

  13. 人寿保险行业市场结构及影响因素研究%Research on Market Structure and Influence Factors of Life Insurance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才芳; 杨俣涛; 陈收

    2015-01-01

    准入退出壁垒、市场集中度、规模经济和范围经济以及产品差异化等是影响人寿保险业市场结构的主要因素。中国保险市场准入、退出的行政性政策壁垒较高,市场集中度较高,属于寡占 III 型市场结构;寿险业保费规模、保险密度、保险深度、保险资产总额占 GDP 的比重、保险资产总额占整个金融资产的比重较低;寿险产品同质化现象较严重。鉴此,应降低市场进入壁垒,建立市场退出机制,达到优化市场结构,提高资源配置效率目的。%Entry & exit barriar,industry market concentration,economy of scale,economy of scope,product differentiation are the main influencing factors of the market structure of the life insurance access and exit mechanism.The study found that:the administrative policies and barri-ers of China's insurance market entry and exit is also high;China's life insurance industry market concentration gradually decreased,but compared with the developed countries,China's life insur-ance industry is of a high degree of market concentration,market structure is oligopolistic type III;China's life insurance premium scale,insurance density,insurance depth,total insurance as-sets accounted for the proportion of GDP,total insurance assets accounted for the proportion of financial assets is relatively low;life insurance products homogenization phenomenon is serious, participating insurance products become the focus and trend of development of the life insurance company;reducing the insurance market entry barriers,and the establishment of the delisting mechanism properly is conducive to optimizing the structure of life insurance market,and impro-ving the allocation efficiency of the life insurance industry resources.

  14. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  15. 78 FR 64873 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and that the term ``spouse'' referred only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or wife. Thus, the availability of same-sex... health insurance coverage for children under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Public...

  16. The impact of clustering of extreme European windstorm events on (re)insurance market portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Alvarez-Diaz, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally the occurrence of windstorm loss events in Europe has been considered as independent. However, a number of significant losses close in space and time indicates that this assumption may need to be revised. Under particular atmospheric conditions multiple loss-causing cyclones can occur in succession, affecting similar geographic regions and, therefore, insurance markets. A notable example is of Lothar and Martin in France in December 1999. Although the existence of cyclone families is well-known by meteorologists, there has been limited research into occurrence of serial windstorms. However, climate modelling research is now providing the ability to explore the physical drivers of clustering, and to improve understanding of the hazard aspect of catastrophe modelling. While analytics tools, including catastrophe models, may incorporate assumptions regarding the influence of dependency through statistical means, the most recent research outputs provide a new strand of information with the potential to re-assess the probabilistic loss potential in light of clustering and to provide an additional view on probable maximum losses to windstorm-exposed portfolios across regions such as Northwest Europe. There is however, a need for the testing of these new techniques within operational (re)insurance applications, and this paper provide an overview of the most current clustering research, including the 2009 paper by Vitolo et. al., in relation to reinsurance risk modelling, and to assess the potential impact of such additional information on the overall risk assessment process. We examine the consequences of the serial clustering of extra-tropical cyclones demonstrated by Vitolo et al. (2009) from the perspective of a large European reinsurer, examining potential implications for: • Pricing • Accumulation And • Capital adequacy

  17. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  18. INSURANCE MARKET DEVELOPMENT BEFORE AND AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONTEXT OF ETHICS AND CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL ARMEAN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis can generate instability in any field. High levels of perceived corruption, unethical behavior or high unemployment rate can be several relevant examples that can influence well-being. The purpose of this study is to group and compare EU countries in two important moments: before and after the financial crisis using clusters analysis. Our contributions consist in a new effort to understand the life insurance market. For example, in 2006 countries such as: Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Spain, Sweden or the UK were remarked by the lowest perceived corruption and inflation, medium levels of the population growth and highest: ethical behavior of firms, human development, penetration rate and employment, while Romania and other countries were characterized by the lowest levels of development and highest perceived corruption and inflation. In 2014, Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden or the UK recorded the best values of our indicators. In addition, the situation of Romania has not improved significantly between 2006 and 2014.

  19. PREDICTION OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS OF THE INSURANCE MARKET DEVELOPMENT IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION IN 2010 WITH APPLICATION OF THE SIMULATION MODELING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Vedmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Key parameters characterizing a level of development of insurance business in a region are the following indicators: insurance density and insurance penetration. To analyze the level of the given indicators for the market of the Sverdlovsk region in 2010, methods of simulation modeling have been applied. Two assumptions concerning probabilistic distribution of initial parameters have been considered in the issue; the given parameters are: normal distribution and level distribution.

  20. The different impact of conventional interest rates on Islamic stock market, Islamic banking and Islamic insurance: evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Arshad Nuval; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to close the gap of the lack of empirical evidence surrounding the different impact of conventional interest rates on Islamic finance components – Islamic stock markets, Islamic banking and Islamic insurance (called takaful). Such evidence remains imperative in order for the Islamic finance system to formulate effective countermeasures against changes in conventional interest rates. Using Malaysia as a case in point, this paper employs time-series techniques to establish long...

  1. Risk-Based Pricing and Risk-Reducing Effort: Does the Private Insurance Market Reduce Environmental Accidents?

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Yin; Howard Kunreuther; Matthew White

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether risk-based pricing promotes risk-reducing effort. Such mechanisms are common in private insurance markets, but are rarely incorporated in government assurance programs. We analyze accidental underground fuel tank leaks--a source of environmental damage to water supplies--over a fourteen-year period, using disaggregate (facility-level) data and policy variation in financing the cleanup of tank leaks over time. The data suggest that eliminating a state-level governme...

  2. The impact of advertising on price and practice volume. A case study of dental markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, I W; Safranski, S R; Kim, J H

    1993-02-01

    Advertising is often considered a catalyst which stimulates competition by communicating the important attributes (information) of goods and services to consumers. Theoretically, advertising makes demand responsive to strategic price differences. This advertisement-induced price elasticity puts competitive pressure on the providers' pricing strategy. It has been assumed that this effect also exists in the health care market. This study investigates the impact that the advertising of services has on the price and demand behaviour in the dental care market. The sampling frame includes 1,326 dentists, 558 (44.3%) of whom have advertised their services. The statistical results seem to dispute the claim that advertising lowers the consumer's price and increases the advertising dentist's market share.

  3. Risk selection and heterogeneous preferences in health insurance markets with a public option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that if private health insurance plans compete alongside a public option, they may endanger the latter's financial stability by cream-skimming good risks. This paper argues that two factors may contribute to the extent of cream-skimming: (i) degree of horizontal differentiation between public and private options when preferences are heterogeneous; (ii) whether contract design encourages choice of private insurance before information about risk is revealed. I explore the role of these factors empirically within the unique institutional setting of the German health insurance system. Using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design to disentangle adverse selection and moral hazard, I find no compelling support for extensive cream-skimming of public option by private insurers despite their ability to fully underwrite risk. A model of demand for private insurance supports the idea that heterogeneity in non-pecuniary preferences and long-term structure of private insurance contracts may be muting cream-skimming in this setting.

  4. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  5. Customer Representatives As Part-Time Marketers Of Online Services : Case: Tapiola General Mutual Insurance Company

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Jere

    2011-01-01

    The empirical study that this thesis is based on was ordered to be conducted by Tapiola General Mutual Insurance Company, a Finnish customer-owned insurance company that offers its customers general insurance. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the current online services-related competence of customer representatives working at Tapiola General’s customer interface, namely at the company’s branch offices and its contact center. There is great demand within Tapiola General for a b...

  6. Default risk, bankruptcy procedures and the market value of life insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; M. Suchanecki

    2007-01-01

    The topic of insolvency risk in connection with life insurance companies has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question is investigated of how the values of the equity and of the liability of a life insurance company are affected by the default risk and the choice of t

  7. 7 CFR 170.10 - Must a participant in the market have insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....10 Section 170.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS MARKET § 170.10...

  8. [Market Concentration in the Statutory Health Insurance of Germany since the Introduction of Free Choice of Sickness Funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, R

    2016-11-01

    Background: The expansion of trust law to the German statutory health insurance (SHI) and the declining numbers of sickness funds suggest a strong concentration process in the German SHI market. The paper examines the level and development of market concentration since the introduction of the free choice of sickness funds in 1996. Data: The study is based on a dataset containing information on membership, contribution rate, openness, area of activity and legal successor for all sickness funds in the period from 1996 to 2013. Methods: Market concentration is measured by the concentration rate (cumulative market share of the largest market participants) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). In addition, the change in the HHI is also disaggregated into 3 factors: opening, switching and fusion of sickness funds. Results: Concentration rate and HHI decreased significantly between 1996 and 2008 due to opening of former closed sickness funds and a switching behaviour from large to small funds. The SHI Competition Enhancement Act of 2007 led to a turnaround. The reform permitted cross-type mergers and introduced a completely new system of budget allocation with the central health fund. The latter put an end to the growing membership of small funds due to adverse selection processes. As a result, market concentration in the German SHI rises. Although recent mega-mergers were uncritical for nationwide competition, the study already indicates the risk of market dominance on the regional level.

  9. Risk selection in a regulated health insurance market: a review of the concept, possibilities and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Richard C; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A

    2013-12-01

    The Dutch basic health insurance is based on the principles of regulated competition. This implies that insurers and providers compete on price and quality while the regulator sets certain rules to achieve public objectives such as solidarity. Two regulatory aspects of this scheme are that insurers are not allowed to risk rate their premiums and are compensated for predictable variation in individual medical expenses (i.e., risk equalization). Research, however, indicates that the current risk equalization is imperfect, which confronts insurers and consumers with incentives for risk selection. The goal of this paper is to review the concept, possibilities and potential effects of risk selection in the Dutch basic health insurance. We conclude that the possibilities for risk selection are numerous and a potential threat to solidarity, efficiency and quality of care. Regulators should be aware that measurement of risk selection is a methodological and data-demanding challenge.

  10. Survey of Medicaid child dental services in Washington state: preparation for a marketing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P; Riedy, C

    1998-06-01

    The authors surveyed Washington state dentists to gain an understanding of their participation in the Medicaid dental program, their willingness to learn more about the program and the degree of importance they attached to preventive care for preschool-aged children. They found that concerns about fees and administrative aspects predominated and concerns about client behaviors were expressed less often. Many dentists indicated a willingness to learn more about the program. These findings will be used to develop a plan to market the Medicaid program to Washington state dentists.

  11. Research on Insurance Pricing in an Incomplete Market%不完全市场的保险定价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣喜民; 赵慧

    2009-01-01

    完全市场上的保险定价问题是人们比较熟悉的研究内容,但它不符合市场实际.本文在不完全市场上研究保险定价的问题.通过对累积保险损失的分析,建立在累积赌付下的保险定价模型;基于对一个无风险资产和有限多个风险资产的投资,建立保险投资定价模型.通过变形,得到相应的保险价格的倒向随机微分方程,并利用倒向随机微分方程的理论和方法,得到了相应的保险价格公式.最后,给出释例进行了分析.本文的研究,不用考虑死亡率、损失的概率分布等因素,为保险定价提供了新的思路,丰富了有限的保险定价方法.%The problem of insurance pricing is understood in the contest of a complete market, but the hypothesis on complete is not correspond to real market. This paper studies the problem of insurance pricing in an incomplete market, throught analysis of insurance aggregate claims, insurance pricing model is established in the condation of insurance aggregate claims,and with investment in assets containing a free-risk bond and a finite number of stocks whose prices are drives by Brownian motion process, insurance investment pricing model is established. Using a way to complete the market, and insurance pricing model and insurance investment pricing model is obtained, and models are deformed to backward stuchastic differential equations of insurance pricing and insurance investment pricing, using theory and mothed of backward stuchastic differential equations, formula for insurance price are given. Final, example is studied in detail. In this paper, the insurance pricing method need not to consider the mortality rates and the probability distributionof losses. The insurance pricing method provides a new thinking for insurance pricing, enrich insurance pricing methods.

  12. Portability of health insurance: COBRA expansions and small group market reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    1995-10-01

    Proposals are currently being put forth to change the health care system incrementally. One area of proposed legislation addresses portability, which allows an individual to change insurers without being subjected to a new waiting period for preexisting conditions. These proposals, discussed in this Issue Brief, contain provisions to limit preexisting condition exclusions, guarantee access to health insurance, guarantee renewal of health insurance, allow individuals to contribute to medical savings accounts on a pretax basis, and change the current law under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA). The proposals would affect insurers, employers, and insured individuals by potentially increasing the cost of providing and purchasing health insurance. Concern about the portability of health insurance primarily arises in situations where an individual is leaving, or would like to leave, a job. If health insurance is not offered by a prospective employer, if the worker must satisfy a waiting period before becoming eligible for coverage, if the benefits package offered through the prospective employer is less generous, or if the employee (or a dependent) has a medical condition that is considered a preexisting condition and would not be covered by the new plan, the employee may opt to remain with his or her current employer--a situation known as job lock. Expansions of COBRA may not have any effect on portability. Employers can charge up to 102 percent of the premium for COBRA coverage, making it unaffordable for many workers. Because cost is a major factor, if there is no reduction in cost (or health care cost inflation) there could be little or no increase in coverage. According to one survey, in 1994 average COBRA costs were $5,301 per COBRA covered worker, compared with $3,420 for active employees. Any expansion of COBRA would almost certainly increase employer cost for health insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Social Marketing Risk-Framing Approaches for Dental Sealants in Rural American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88  = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identifying and prioritizing the effect of marketing mix from the customer’s perspective (4C on the competitiveness of insurance companies using DEMATEL technique: A case study of Tehran Insurance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Manafzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of an organization is debatable based on sources and market-based approach. In this study, the impact of customer-centric marketing mix on the competitiveness of the company was studied. All clients involved in insurance companies in Tehran were the statistical population of the study and a sample of 384 clients were selected. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Relationships between elements of the marketing mix and competitiveness were studied using confirmatory factor analysis technique. The results of the data analysis indicated the significant effect of customer-centric marketing mix on company’s competitiveness. To prioritize the marketing mix factors in terms of the amount of impact on the competitiveness from customers’ perspective, a DEMATEL technique was used. The results also indicated that the highest impact on the competitiveness of the insurance company include the customer costs, value of a customer-friendly, easily buy, and relations.

  15. Facilitating Consumer Learning in Insurance Markets --- What Are The Welfare Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan NM; Schottmüller, Christoph

    What are the welfare effects of a policy that facilitates for insurance customers to privately and covertly learn about their accident risks? We endogenize the information structure in Stiglitz's classic monopoly insurance model. We first show that his results are robust: For a small information...... acquisition cost c, the consumer gathers information and the optimal contracts are close to the ones in the Stiglitz model. If c is so low that the consumer already gathers information (c insurer and consumer benefit from a policy that reduces c further. For c > c, marginally reducing c hurts...... the insurer and weakly benefits the consumer. Paradoxically, a reduction in c that is "successful," meaning that the consumer gathers information after the reduction but not before it, can hurt both parties. The reasons for this are that, after the reduction, (i) the cost is actually incurred and (ii...

  16. Withdraw of insurers from ACA markets leaving many southwest patients with few or no choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Thirty-one percent of the nation’s counties are projected to have only one insurer offering health plans on the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA exchanges next year, according to the nonpartisan Kaiser Family Foundation (1. Another 31% are projected to have only be only two. Most of the likely one-insurer counties are predominantly rural (Figure 1. Particularly hard hit is Arizona where most of the rural portions of the state will have only one insurer and Pinal County will have none. Rural Nevada is similarly affected along with Utah, Wyoming, Oklahoma and much of the Southeast US. That would give exchange customers in large areas of the U.S. far less choice than they had this year, when only 7% of counties had one insurer and 29% had two (Figure 2. Many insurers are losing money on the health plans they sell through the exchanges. Insurance giants UnitedHealth, Humana, and Aetna have cited ...

  17. Marketing and Utilization of the Active Duty Dependent’s Dental Insurance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    program. of responses rather than to each level of response. Analyses According to Bandura’s " social learning theory :’ consumers were completed using the...Bandura A. Social Learning Theory . Englewood Cliffs. NJ. Prentice Hall Publishers. problem. 18 1977 However, to maximally enhance ADDDIP enrollment

  18. 中国与世界保险市场的联动性研究——寿险与财险市场的比较%Analysis of the Co-movement of China and Global Insurance Markets --Comparable Analysis of Life Insurance and Non-life Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟芳; 谭中

    2012-01-01

    作为世界经济的一部分,我国的保险业与世界保险业的联系越来越紧密。我国保险市场不断学习世界保险市场的先进经验,世界保险市场的发展和变化也不断影响着我国保险市场。许多学者基于经济基础说和市场传染说的理论研究了中国证券市场与世界市场之间同步变化的现象及原因。本文借鉴证券市场联动性分析的理论和方法,利用中国和世界保险市场的数据进行了深入研究。分析结果表明,由于经济规律的同质性,中国寿险市场与世界寿险市场的发展轨迹基本相似,而财险市场的长期均衡性却不明显。短期来看,世界保险市场对中国保险市场的影响不大。但是,世界财产保险市场对中国财产保险市场单向溢出影响还是比较大的。特别是当世界财产保险市场发生了比较大的波动时,对中国财产保险市场的影响就更大。%As a component of the global economy,the ties between the Chinese insurance market and its global counter- parts are stronger and stronger. The Chinese insurance market is constantly drawing on advanced experiences of the inter- national market,while the development of global insurance market also constantly affects that of China. Based on the eco- nomic fundamentals theory and market contagion theory, some researches had explained the phenomenon and causes of the co-movement of the global securities markets. The paper borrowed on the securities market's global co-movement the- ory and method to conduct a research into the similar phenomenon in the insurance market with the insurance market da- ta of China and the global counterparts. The results showed that,due to the homogeneity of economic laws ,the co-move- ment of Chinese insurance market and global insurance market was very significant ,especially in the life insurance mar- ket. But the development of non-life insurance markets followed a significantly different

  19. Optimal Investment with Multiple Risky Assets for an Insurer in an Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2013-01-01

    expected utility of terminal wealth. After the market is completed, we obtain the optimal strategies for quadratic utility and constant absolute risk aversion (CARA utility explicitly via the martingale approach. Finally, computational results are presented for given raw market data.

  20. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; health insurance market rules. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed availability, guaranteed renewability, single risk pools, and catastrophic plans, consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to collectively as the Affordable Care Act. The final rule clarifies the approach used to enforce the applicable requirements of the Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal governmental plans. This final rule also amends the standards for health insurance issuers and states regarding reporting, utilization, and collection of data under the federal rate review program, and revises the timeline for states to propose state-specific thresholds for review and approval by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).

  1. 从中融人寿举牌看险资对资本市场的影响及未来走向%On Influence of Insurance Capital on Capital Market and Future Trend of Insurance Capital from Perspective of "Announcement for 5% Change" Made by Zhongrong Life Insurance Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏智; 苗长青

    2016-01-01

    中融人寿举牌资本市场一方面有长期避险配置的价值;另一方面,能提高保险资金的投资收益。文章通过中融人寿举牌入手,进一步分析险资举牌过程中可能对资本市场产生的影响,并指出未来险资的发展方向。%The "Announcement for 5% Change" in capital market made by Zhongrong Life Insurance Co., Ltd. helps to avoid risks and to raise the income in insurance investment. From the "Announcement for 5% Change" made by Zhongrong Life Insurance Co., Ltd., a further analysis is made of the influence of insurance capital on capital market and of the future trend of insurance capital.

  2. ENHANCING THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE GLOBAL INSURANCE MARKET: CHANGING DRIVERS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rasshyvalov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One-third of worldwide mergers and acquisitions involving firms from different countries make M&A one of the key drivers of internationalization. Over the past five years insurance cross-border merger and acquisition activities have globally paralleled deep financial crisis.

  3. Property flood resilience database: an innovative response for the insurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvin Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The property flood resilience database (PFR-d has been created through a research feasibility study undertaken by the Building Research Establishment, AXA Insurance and Lexis Nexis Risk Solutions in the UK. The project was funded by Innovate-UK and was undertaken over the period of May 2014 to August 2015. There has been a growing realisation that flood management has to move from a position where flood defence (e.g. major river barriers and drainage infrastructure is the only solution to flood risk to one of flood resilience. This shift requires an increase in responsibility for a variety of stakeholders, including property owners. The PFR-d was conceived as a product that code fit within the existing insurance frameworks and systems. The PFR-d is a ‘missing piece of data’ for insurers that could assist in providing more appropriate insurance pricing in high flood risk areas, or where properties have suffered repeat flooding events.

  4. Research of the Behavior of Consumers in the Insurance Market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marešová Petra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to familiarize with research aim, goal of which is to map out consumer behavior in the choice of insurance against death was carried out. This insured risk was chosen because for most insurers in the product offering as one of the key and it occurs within the highly competitive bid. At consumer behavior specification is also taken into account their classifying that can influence potential irrational behavior elements and help to clarify studied dilemma more (e.g. income brackets, age or other demographic information. Results will contribute to decision-making theory enrichment in given specific segment. From view of practice, they will be used in co-operative institution with the aim of a better client comprehension, product optimization and thereby contracts decline prevention and permanent clientele expansion.The results of the research project showed that most consumers under the influence of certain factors act irrationally. These factors include media coverage of the causes of claims discount, offer extension of insurance coverage.

  5. Regulation and competition in the Taiwanese pharmaceutical market under national health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Ming; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey

    2012-05-01

    This article investigates the determinants of the prices of pharmaceuticals and their impact on the demand for prescription drugs in the context of Taiwan's pharmaceutical market where medical providers earn profit directly from prescribing and dispensing drugs. Based on product-level data, we find evidence that the profit-seeking behavior of the medical providers in the prescription drug market transfers the force of competition from the unregulated wholesale market to the regulated retail market and hence market competition still plays an important role in the determination of the regulated price. We also find that the profit-seeking behavior plays a similar role to advertising in that it increases the brand loyalty and hence lowers price elasticity. An important implication of our study is that the institutional features in the pharmaceutical market matter in shaping the nature of pharmaceutical competition and the responsiveness of pharmaceutical consumption with respect to changes in price.

  6. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  7. Market Research of the Russian National and Regional Aspects of Builders Liability Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Andreevich Tsyganov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the ways and level of the protection of the rights of shared construction participants in Russia, and the utilization of builders liability insurance for the purpose to identify the problem regions and the prospects of the development of mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers. The basis for the article was the study of real estate developers in 15 cities with the population over 1 million people. The article presents the data of the types of fund raising for building housing in the cities with the population over 1 million people, the regional differentiation in this parameter is highlighted. The article has explored the implementation of mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers for transfering premises to the shareholders. The main factors considered in the article are the form of registration of the relationship between a developer and an individual — an investor, as well as the mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers. It is shown that in some regions, the level of protection of the participants of shared construction is low. The mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers including the legal requirements for liability insurance and guarantee of credit institution are systematized. In the article, the key term of the liability insurance of builders for default on obligations or improperly performing the obligations on the delivery of residential properties, and also the condition of the guarantee of credit institution on the delivery of residential properties are considered. The regional features of how people participate in the construction of housing are described in the context of mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers. The use of various ensuring mechanisms, the differences in insurance by the commercial organizations and by joining the mutual society are shown. The results of the study can be used at the correction of the state and regional policy in the field of housing

  8. Discussion on marketing operation of medical insurance fund%医疗保险基金的市场化运营浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓉; 艾青

    2012-01-01

    我国医疗保险基金自运行以来,有效保障了人民医疗健康需求,但长期来看我国医疗保险基金收支平衡压力较大,因此需要寻找新的途径缓解基金收支平衡压力。对此,我国社会保障基金和美国医疗保险基金市场化运营的成功经验为我国医疗保险基金的市场化运营提供了经验借鉴,但当前的基金统筹制度、基金投资制度及资本市场环境限制了医疗保险基金市场化运营,建议政府应当逐步构建医疗保险基金市场化运营的政策环境,循序渐进地对其进行市场化运作。%Since the operation of China's medical insurance fund,it has effectively protected the citizens' health, but the medical health insurance fund is facing a serious balance pressure in the long run, so it would be necessary to explore new pathway to relieve this pressure. The marketing operation of the social insurance fund of China and medical health insurance of US has provided much experience to China's health insurance fund. But there are still many problems,such as the fund coordinating system,investment system,and capital market environment,which has hindered the marketing operation of China's medical health insurance, to solve these problems, the government should create a favorable environment for the marketing operation of medical health insurance.

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of recovery and the new stock investors have been rushing in. Many people withdrew their insurance to invest in the stock market, as insurance watchdog statistics showed. Meanwhile, the Chinese trade surplus grew to

  10. Equity in children’s dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children’s dental caries (tooth decay) in Calg...

  11. Auto Insurance Rates for Market-oriented and the Coping Strategies of the Domestic Property Insurance Companies%车险费率市场化及国内财险公司的应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽

    2011-01-01

    "十二五"时期车险费率市场化改革可能在全国范围内推行,这将会对整个车险市场产生深远影响。国内财险公司应积极把握车险费率市场化政策机遇,采取创新产品服务、拓宽销售渠道、控制费用以及互利合作等策略,避免单纯的价格竞争,促进我国车险市场的健康有序发展。%Market-oriented reforms will be adopted in auto insurance rates during this five-year plan in our country,which will also have a profound impact on the auto insurance market.Domestic property insurance companies should actively grasp the opportunity,taking innovative products and services,expanding sales channels,controlling costs and mutually beneficial cooperation and other strategies to avoid pure price competition and promote insurance market to achieve healthy and orderly development.

  12. Drugs Cheaper Than Threepenny: The Market of Extremely Low-Priced Drugs within the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ru Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most drug policy researches paid attention to the financial impact of expensive drugs, the market situation of low-priced drugs in a country was seldom analyzed. We used the nationally representative claims datasets to explore the status within the National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan. In 2007, a total of 12,443 distinct drug items had been prescribed 853,250,147 times with total expenditure of 105,216,950,198 new Taiwan dollars (NTD. Among them, 7,366 oral drug items accounted for 701,353,383 prescribed items and 68,133,988,960 NTD. Besides, 2,887 items (39.2% of oral drug items belonged to cheap drugs with the unit price ≤1 NTD (about 0.03 of US dollar. While the top one item among all oral drugs had already a market share of 5.0%, 30 items 30.3% and 107 items 50.0%, the cheap drugs with aggregate 332,893,462 prescribed items (47.5% of all prescribed oral drug items only accounted for 2,750,725,433 NTD (4.0% of expenditure for oral drugs and 2.6% of total drug expenditure. The drug market of Taiwan’s NHI was abundant in cheap drugs. The unreasonably low prices of drugs might not guarantee the quality of pharmaceutical care and the sustainability of a healthy pharmaceutical industry in the long run.

  13. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; exchange and insurance market standards for 2015 and beyond. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-27

    This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to health insurance issuers, Affordable Insurance Exchanges (``Exchanges''), Navigators, non-Navigator assistance personnel, and other entities under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act). Specifically, the rule establishes standards related to product discontinuation and renewal, quality reporting, non-discrimination standards, minimum certification standards and responsibilities of qualified health plan (QHP) issuers, the Small Business Health Options Program, and enforcement remedies in Federally-facilitated Exchanges. It also finalizes: A modification of HHS's allocation of reinsurance collections if those collections do not meet our projections; certain changes to allowable administrative expenses in the risk corridors calculation; modifications to the way we calculate the annual limit on cost sharing so that we round this parameter down to the nearest $50 increment; an approach to index the required contribution used to determine eligibility for an exemption from the shared responsibility payment under section 5000A of the Internal Revenue Code; grounds for imposing civil money penalties on persons who provide false or fraudulent information to the Exchange and on persons who improperly use or disclose information; updated standards for the consumer assistance programs; standards related to the opt-out provisions for self-funded, non-Federal governmental plans and related to the individual market provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 including excepted benefits; standards regarding how enrollees may request access to non-formulary drugs under exigent circumstances; amendments to Exchange appeals standards and coverage enrollment and termination standards; and time-limited adjustments to the standards relating to the medical loss ratio

  14. Explaining the Growth in US Health Care Spending Using State-Level Variation in Income, Insurance, and Provider Market Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Trish, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The slowed growth in national health care spending over the past decade has led analysts to question the extent to which this recent slowdown can be explained by predictable factors such as the Great Recession or must be driven by some unpredictable structural change in the health care sector. To help address this question, we first estimate a regression model for state personal health care spending for 1991-2009, with an emphasis on the explanatory power of income, insurance, and provider market characteristics. We then use the results from this simple predictive model to produce state-level projections of health care spending for 2010-2013 to subsequently compare those average projected state values with actual national spending for 2010-2013, finding that at least 70% of the recent slowdown in health care spending can likely be explained by long-standing patterns. We also use the results from this predictive model to both examine the Great Recession's likely reduction in health care spending and project the Affordable Care Act's insurance expansion's likely increase in health care spending.

  15. The impact of relationship marketing on customer loyalty enhancement (Case study: Kerman Iran insurance company)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolaziz Abtin; Mostafa Pouramiri

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, only those tradings that just focus on the effectiveness of the marketing mix elements can shift their direction towards relationship marketing and establishing effective relationship management with customers. In today's competitive world, customers are in the center of companies’ attention and their satisfaction is the main factor in gaining competitive advantage. The fundamental prerequisite for achieving customers’ satisfaction is to fully meet or exceed their needs, wants, desi...

  16. Successful implementation effect of insurance services in money and capital financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nemat Tahmasebi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important sectors of the economy of each country is capital market. Economic growth can lead to the development and prosperity of the capital market. On the other hand to achieve the desired economic development, without existence of effective financial institutions and appropriate equipment of financial resources, it is impossible. In this regard, efficient financial systems through seeking information about investment opportunities, integrate and mobilize savings, monitoring...

  17. 基于VB的保险产品营销软件设计研究%Marketing research on the software design of insurance product based on VB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭萍

    2015-01-01

    The insurance industry with the development of network technology has already started toward the development of Internet insurance, Internet insurance business in China also made great full. Based on the analysis of existing software insurance product development problems, put forward using VB to design the marketing of insurance products and software design of network sale system. Software to meet the current situation of the insurance sales, can be an important information reaction of insurance products accurately, has the application value of popularization.%保险业随着网络技术的发展已经开始向着网络保险发展,我国的网络保险业务也取得很大的尽展。本文在分析当前保险产品软件开发存在的问题的基础上,提出采用VB设计保险产品营销软件设计和网络销售系统。软件迎合了当前保险销售的现状,能够准确的反应保险产品的重要信息,有应用推广价值。

  18. Dental injury associated with anaesthesia: an 8-year database analysis of 592 claims from a major French insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Giraudon; Maurice, Guillaume de Saint; Biais, Matthieu; Benhamou, Dan; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine

    2017-08-21

    Introduction Dental injury is the most common incident associated with anaesthesia. Regarding recent recommendations on informed consent and changes in airway management practices, a large series of claims related to dental injury has not been recently described. The aim of this study was to analyse a recent database in order to describe the characteristics of dental injury in France. Methods A database that prospectively collected claims reported to Le Sou Médical-MACSF between January 2003 and December 2010, was analysed. 592 cases were reported. The following characteristics were analysed: number and type of teeth injured, mechanism of injury, anaesthetic procedure, risk factors and dental outcome after injury. Results Amongst the 1514 claims related to anaesthesia, 592 (39.2%) were classified as dental damage. Preoperative informed consent concerning possible perioperative dental injury was documented in only 34.8% of patients. Only one tooth was affected in 65.2% of patients, dental bridge injury in 12.8% of cases and damage to two or more teeth in 14% of patients. Incisors were involved in 50% of cases. Fracture was the most common type of injury (64.2%). Poor dentition was the most common risk factor (23.1%) followed by difficult intubation (15.4%). Both risks were combined in only 7.6% of cases. Tracheal intubation was the highest risk procedure (41.6%). Conclusion Dental injury remains the most common anaesthesia-related claim. Dental examination and documentation in patient medical files requires improvement and better informed consent on dental injury risk needs to be provided to patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Dental Use and Expenditures for Older Uninsured Americans: The Simulated Impact of Expanded Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J; Moeller, John F; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; Pepper, John V; St Clair, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if providing dental insurance to older Americans would close the current gaps in dental use and expenditure between insured and uninsured older Americans. Data Sources/Study Setting We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) supplemented by data from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Study Design We compared the simulated dental use and expenditures rates of newly insured persons against the corresponding rates for those previously insured. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The HRS is a nationally representative survey administered by the Institute for Social Research (ISR). The MEPS is a nationally representative household survey sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Principal Findings We found that expanding dental coverage to older uninsured Americans would close previous gaps in dental use and expense between uninsured and insured noninstitutionalized Americans 55 years and older. Conclusions Providing dental coverage to previously uninsured older adults would produce estimated monthly costs net of markups for administrative costs that comport closely to current market rates. Estimates also suggest that the total cost of providing dental coverage targeted specifically to nonusers of dental care may be less than similar costs for prior users. PMID:25040355

  20. Dental use and expenditures for older uninsured Americans: the simulated impact of expanded coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard J; Moeller, John F; Chen, Haiyan; Schimmel, Jody; Pepper, John V; St Clair, Patricia A

    2015-02-01

    To determine if providing dental insurance to older Americans would close the current gaps in dental use and expenditure between insured and uninsured older Americans. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) supplemented by data from the 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We compared the simulated dental use and expenditures rates of newly insured persons against the corresponding rates for those previously insured. The HRS is a nationally representative survey administered by the Institute for Social Research (ISR). The MEPS is a nationally representative household survey sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). We found that expanding dental coverage to older uninsured Americans would close previous gaps in dental use and expense between uninsured and insured noninstitutionalized Americans 55 years and older. Providing dental coverage to previously uninsured older adults would produce estimated monthly costs net of markups for administrative costs that comport closely to current market rates. Estimates also suggest that the total cost of providing dental coverage targeted specifically to nonusers of dental care may be less than similar costs for prior users. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. 由“三马卖保险”研究中国保险电子营销渠道创新%Analysis on Chinese Insurance Innovative E-marketing Channels from"Three-Ma Sell Insurance"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚希明

    2013-01-01

    Firstly, based on feature of the insurance direct marketing channels and indirect channels, the construction of indirect marketing channel conditions and problems are analyzed. And then, it is considered that "Zhongan Online" has brought the breakthrough significance to indirect marketing channel of Chinese Insurance. Its business models is analyzed from three aspects of the management control, management model and talent reserves and the main problems of the development of China's insurance electronic marketing channels are put forward. Finally, these appropriate countermeasures for the problems are proposed.%本文首先在分析保险营销直接渠道与间接渠道特点的基础上,剖析了我国间接营销渠道营建的条件及问题。继而在对“众安在线”的突破意义和业务模式分析的基础上,从管理控制、管理模式以及人才储备三个方面提出了发展我国保险电子营销渠道的主要问题,并提出相应的对策建议。

  2. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... encouraged to leave their comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp... that prohibit gender rating do not require maternity coverage in all individual market policies, meaning that, since maternity coverage requires additional premium in those states, a total of 40 states...

  3. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... collection of administrative fees from limited resource farmers. FCIC believes this waiver helps to ensure... have a significant economic impact on the quality of the human environment, health, or safety... tomatoes and the U.S. Standards for Grades of Fresh Tomatoes, and the AMS Federal Marketing Order (FMO 966...

  4. Insurance Sector Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Slijkerman

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe model and measure simultaneous large losses of the market value of insurers to understand the impact of shocks on the insurance sector. The downside risk of insurers is explicitly modelled by common and idiosyncratic risk factors. Since reinsurance is important for the capacity of ins

  5. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the 1990s, many countries introduced Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMPs) in an effort to reduce unemployment. The introduction of ALMPs is often motivated by the need to upgrade the skills of especially those suffering long-term unemployment to improve their productivity and...... assistance and education) are part-time and have a short duration (e.g. few days/weeks). It is possible to classify these programmes into a set of four core categories: A: (labour market) training, B: Private sector programmes, C: direct employment programmes in the public sector and D: Job search assistance....... The categories we use broadly correspond to classifications that have been suggested and used by the OECD and Eurostat (OECD, 2004 and Eurostat, 2005), even though there are differences between OECD and Eurostat in how they define and categorise these programmes. OBJECTIVES The objective of this systematic...

  6. FOREIGN EXPERIENCE IN INTERNET INSURANCE OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tlusta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current state and characteristics of the relationship between the insurance entities in the implementation of online insurance in foreign countries. Studied the basic conditions and development trends of the Internet insurance market in the process of informatization of insurance companies. The basic concept of interaction between the subjects of the insurance market through the website were noticed. The study reveals the necessity and expediency of using new approaches of the acquisition of insurance services via Internet. The problems of implementation and development of online insurance remains valid for all countries, regardless of the state of the insurance market and the financial market as a whole.

  7. Nonlife Insurance Pricing:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    We consider the insurance company as a physical system which is immersed in its environment (the financial market). The insurer company interacts with the market by exchanging the money through the payments for loss claims and receiving the premium. Here, in the equilibrium state, we obtain the premium by using the canonical ensemble theory, and compare it with the Esscher principle, the well-known formula in actuary for premium calculation. We simulate the case of car insurance for quantitative comparison.

  8. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    , subsequently, their employability. Other ALMPs are designed to encourage the unemployed to return to work. Typically, compulsory programme participation is required after the individual has received unemployment benefits for a certain period of time. A large variety of different ALMPs exist among countries....... They can consist of job search assistance, training, education, subsidized work and similar programmes. Some of the programmes (such as subsidized work, training and education) demand full-time participation over a long time period (e.g. several months), while other programmes (such as job search...... assistance and education) are part-time and have a short duration (e.g. few days/weeks). It is possible to classify these programmes into a set of four core categories: A: (labour market) training, B: Private sector programmes, C: direct employment programmes in the public sector and D: Job search assistance...

  9. The Mutual Development of the Captive Insurance Market and Reinsurance Market in China%国内自保市场与再保险市场共同发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英

    2012-01-01

    Captive insurance company is either the demand side or the supply side of the reinsurance market. Therefore, it is closely related to the reinsurance market. This paper first analyzed the relationship between captiw insurance company and reinsurance market, and then it used Bermuda as a case to make an empirical analysis tc demonstrate that combination of the captive market and reinsurance market could help to achieve mutual develop- ment of them. Finally, the paper discussed the feasibility of achieving mutual development for the domestic captiv~ market and reinsurance market, and put forward some recommendations.%自保公司既可以是再保险市场的需求方,也可以是再保险市场的供给方,因此,自保公司与再保险市场关系密切。本文首先分析了自保公司和再保险市场的内在关系,然后以百慕大作为案例实证自保市场与再保险市场两者结合有利于实现共同发展,最后探讨了国内自保市场与再保险市场共同发展的可行性及建议。

  10. Structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield preferred provider organization plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Robert W; Lehman, Jedd; Hahn, Lee; Ballard, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 establishes American Health Benefit Exchanges. The benefit design of insurance plans in state health insurance exchanges will be based on the structure of existing small-employer-sponsored plans. The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) preferred provider organization (PPO) health insurance plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The physical therapy benefit within 39 BCBS PPO plans in 2011 was studied for a standard consumer with a standard budget. First, whether physical therapy was a benefit in the plan was determined. If so, then the structure of the benefit was described in terms of whether the physical therapy benefit was a stand-alone benefit or part of a combined-discipline benefit and whether a visit or financial limit was placed on the physical therapy benefit. Physical therapy was included in all BCBS plans that were studied. Ninety-three percent of plans combined physical therapy with other disciplines. Two thirds of plans placed a limit on the number of visits covered. The results of the study are limited to 1 standard consumer, 1 association of insurance companies, 1 form of insurance (a PPO), and 1 PPO plan in each of the 39 states that were studied. Physical therapy is a covered benefit in a typical BCBS PPO health insurance plan. Physical therapy most often is combined with other therapy disciplines, and the number of covered visits is limited in two thirds of plans.

  11. The entrepreneurship insurance of life: the tutelary complex in neoliberal market of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Silveira Lemos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, are presented and analyzed security practices of policies producing healthy bodies. Are problematized (scrutinized the effects of these interventions such as: save, morality, standardise and standardize populations in favor of entrepreneurship by itself and of the other, in neoliberal market of a new religion, which is the pastoral care of health, that is to say, the salvation of health care offered in a complex multiple of arts to lead the ducts of the flocks and the lost sheep. In this article, are presented and analyzed practices of security involves various mechanisms for social security, among whom are a corporal punishment, or lordships, disciplines, biopolíticas and ministries. In the name of the right to health, and biocidadanias medicalizações emerge and pass to cross our subjectivities almost as natural practices, gaining relevance to the extent that also become tools of investments, in calculations of cost and benefit in the relationship between freedom and security.

  12. INTRODUCTION OF INSURANCE REPOSITORY AS AN ALTERNATIVE OF INTERNET INSURANCE IN CLASSICAL MEANING: LEGISLATION ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the legislation and regulation of insurance repositories. The basic conditions and requirements of creating and functioning of the new insurance market institute were studied. The basic requirements for managing personal of insurance repository were noticed. The study reveals the interaction mechanism of insurers and insured at the book-entry insurance policies turnover market via creation of the new institute, which is set to issue and control electronic insurance coverage.

  13. Market Mechanism in Health Insurance Drug Reimbursement%医疗保险药品支付中的市场机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 熊先军

    2015-01-01

    《推进药品价格改革的意见》指明了下一步药品价格改革"市场为主导"的原则和方向,但从当前社会各方反映和某些部门的实际做法来看,对"市场主导"的理解依然有偏差,个别地区医疗保险部门对开展支付标准的具体工作也较为茫然.本文通过阐述市场机制基本概念,分析医药终端市场情况,讨论医疗保险支付中如何体现市场主导和具体注意事项,希望能对大家研究分析药品医保支付标准有所启发.%In Opinions on Promoting Drug Pricing Reform, it has stated clearly that drug pricing reform should adhere to principle of "market-orientation". However, from observation on the social reactions and the practice of relevant departments, there is deviation in understanding "market-orientation". The health insurance departments in some areas are still unsure about the reimbursement criteria. In this article, we will illustrate the basic concept of market mechanism, analyze the situation that medical service and end market have confronted; and discuss how to utilize market-orientation concept in health insurance reimbursement and some concerns in practice, with the expectation of bringing inspiration to study on health insurance drug reimbursement criteria.

  14. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE FOR INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignatiuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current state and future trends for the world and domestic insurance markets are analyzed. The description of business intelligence methodology, tools and their practical implication for insurance companies are provided.

  15. The “Wal-Martization” of Dental Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Willis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment of dental practices is undergoing rapid change. Franchise and network practices are increasing in number because of many underlying economic factors, including supply and demand for services, banking requirements, student debt, proliferation of managed care plans, and healthcare reform. These franchise practices compete very effectively with traditional solo dental practices, leading to the “Wal-Martization“ of dental practice, in which dental services are bought and sold more as a commodity than as an individually unique service. These chains compete with private practices on efficiency, convenience, insurance plan participation, and aggressive marketing. There are advantages and disadvantages for both the patients and dental practitioners for participating in this practice mode. This paper explores the reasons that these entities are growing, and offers suggestions for independent solo practitioners to compete with them.

  16. Market orientation of health insurance products in China—a case study of Chongqing%中国健康保险产品的市场定位——以重庆市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晔婷

    2012-01-01

      In view of marketing issues of health insurance products, diamond orientation model and in-surance marketing management were based on to make a detailed classification of the insurance market, taking the health products of Chongqing Life Insurance Company as the research subject.The manage-ment plan was selected for the target market of health insurance. The research achievements will offer direction for the marketing of Chinese health insurance products.%  针对健康保险产品的市场营销问题,以重庆寿险公司健康险产品为研究对象,依据定位钻石模型及保险营销管理理论,进行保险市场的细分,选出针对健康险目标市场的经营方案。研究结果为中国健康保险产品的市场营销具有指导作用。

  17. Solution of the Development of High-End Health Insurance Market for Private Insurer%商业保险开拓高端健康保险市场的基本思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨星

    2013-01-01

      商业健康保险应在满足民众多层次、多样化健康保障需求,尤其是高端健康保障需求方面下功夫,牢牢把握医改契机,深入分析市场需求,积极争取各地政府和主管部门支持,强化与医疗机构的战略合作,创新服务和管理模式,持续提高服务能力,积极开拓高端健康保险市场。%Private health insurance should make more efforts on meeting people’s needs for multi-level and diversify health security, especially the needs for high level health security, holding the opportunity of the Health Care Reform, indepth analysing the market demand for high-end health insurance, actively seeking the support from local governments and competent departments, strengthening the strategic cooperation with medical institutions, innovating the new model of service and management, enhancing the ability of service, and actively develop the high-end health instance market.

  18. “十二五”期间陕西人身保险市场需求变化研究%Analysis of the Changes in Life Insurance Market Demand of Shaanxi Province During the Twelfth Five-Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馥; 刘珺

    2012-01-01

    The development of life insurance market in Shaanxi Province will be promoted by the substainable development of Shaanxi's economy and society during the Twelfth Five-Year.The demand of life insurance is key index of the development of lif insurance market.The demand of life insurance market is measured by life insurance premiums in Shaanxi.Based on the data in 1990-2009,this paper provides positive analysis on the demand of life insurance market in Shaanxi by cointegration and logarithm function-model.Following the results,it predicts the trends of life insurance market demands in Shanxi during the Twelfth Five-Year plan,to provide theory basis for life insurance market planning.%"十二五"期间,陕西省经济的持续发展为陕西省人身保险市场的发展提供了有利契机。人身保险需求是度量人身保险市场发展状况的重要指标。文章以陕西省人身保险保费收入作为衡量人身保险市场需求的变量,参考保险密度和保险深度等指标,选取1990—2009年的相关数据,采用协整检验,利用自然对数模型对陕西省人身保险市场需求进行实证分析,并据此对"十二五"期间陕西省人身保险市场需求变化趋势进行预测,旨在为陕西省人身保险业规划提供理论依据。

  19. Public Insurance and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    health and unemployment insurance and pensions) is explained and justified by the greater efficiency of the state, in comparison with markets, in addressing market failures such as moral hazard or adverse selection. Our argument is that while insurance, intrinsically and idealistically, may diverge from......Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily...

  20. The Impact of Direct and Indirect of internal marketing on service quality and mediating role of OCB CASE: Iran Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghorbani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Internal Marketing is attracting, developing, motivating, and retaining qualified employees through job-products that satisfy their needs. Organizational citizenship behavior is conceptualized as synonymous with the concept of contextual performance, defined as ‘performance that supports the social and psychological environment in which task performance takes place. Service quality is defined as how well the service meets or exceeds the customers’ expectations on a consistent basis. The conceptual framework presented here derives from a thorough analytical and critical review of the literature on the relationship between internal marketing and the services quality, the role of organizational citizenship behaviors among internal marketing and the services quality and also the impact of internal marketing on the service quality. This study uses a Structure Equation Model (SEM analysis to examine and measure five categories which reflect most of the employees’ discretionary behaviors that can influence the customer-employee interaction facet of Service quality. The statistical population consists of customers who have used services offered by Iran Insurance Company in Isfahan. Random sampling method has been applied to select the appropriate sample. The examinations were done through 190 available questionnaires. Results based on SEM outputs demonstrate acceptance and confirmation of all studied factors. These findings indicate that Internal Marketing has a positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior, Organizational citizenship behavior has a positive effect on service quality and Internal Marketing has a positive and direct effect on service quality.

  1. The economics of health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Insurance plays an important role in the United States, most importantly in but not limited to medical care. The authors introduce basic economic concepts that make medical care and health insurance different from other goods and services traded in the market. They emphasize that competitive pricing in the marketplace for insurance leads, quite rationally, to risk classification, market segmentation, and market failure. The article serves as a springboard for understanding the basis of the reforms that regulate the health insurance market in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  2. Drug coverage insurance as a novel element of private health insurance in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there have been observed increased costs of health care in Poland. The patient's out of pocket expenses on drug have grown too. To the above, the insurance companies have offered patients drug coverage insurance policies since recently. Drug insurance policy covers the cost of purchasing pharmaceutical products not reimbursed by the National Health Fund is a modern product on the Polish health insurance market. The aim of the article is to characterize drug coverage insurance policies on the health insurance market in Poland. The Polish insurance market and entities offered these types of insurance are also presented.

  3. Research on after Olympic Games Time China Sports Insurance Market System's Construction%后奥运时代我国体育保险市场体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璋

    2009-01-01

    The sports insurance market is one of sports healthy development essential conditions, it is an insurance market branch. The sports insurance makes a general reference in the sports domain various populations body, provides the risk safeguard the insurance solution. The Olympic Games time our country sports insurance market system's basic tentative plan, as well as the concrete construction measure, regarding speeds up our country sports insurance market the development, the promotion sports and national economy coordinated development has the very vital significance.%体育保险市场是体育运动健康发展的必备条件之一,它是保险市场的一个分支.体育保险泛指在体育领域内的各种群体,提供风险保障的解决方案.本文在分析我国后奥运时代体育保险市场重要意义的基础上,提出了构建后奥运时代我国体育保险市场体系的基本设想.

  4. Effectiveness of insurance risk management under crisis conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Goncharenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article some historical aspects of insurance, domestic trends in insurance risk management with aspects of international experience, the modern role of insurance and insurance companies in a market economy, factors of risk management system and the nature of the insurance portfolio are analyzed. Factors of risk events in insurance, the spectrum of risks, imbalance of the insurance market in crisis conditions are outlined; expert’s estimations of the insurance market in recent years are examined. Problems of insurance business perform are determined, especially insurance risk management. The ability to use the provisions of European insurance regulation on internal domestic insurance market is analyzed, and also the aspects of integration of Ukrainian insurance market are determined.

  5. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  6. Insurance and prevention: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Mikael

    2011-02-01

    In recent decades, prevention policies--i.e., insurance policies constructed to give incentives to investments in prevention and thereby reduce reliance on insurance--have been much discussed both with regard to different kinds of market insurance and, albeit primarily within a European context and in relation to an ongoing discussion about the need for a shift towards an "active" welfare state, with regard to social insurance. The present contribution identifies normative issues that deserve attention in relation to a general introduction of prevention policies in market insurance and social insurance. It is argued that the importance of these normative issues suggests that arguments and distinctions drawn from moral and political philosophy should play a more prominent role both in the debate on the shift towards an active welfare state and the use of prevention policies in market insurance.

  7. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  8. Analysis on the Insurance Company Marketing Channel Resources Integration and Innovation%保险公司营销渠道资源整合与创新分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军; 刘力臻

    2011-01-01

    In the days that insurance subjects grow increasingly and the product, price and even advertisement of insurance turn homogeneous, keeping innovation in the insurance marketing channel become the focus point and resources of obtaining sustaining competitive advantage. The article analyzes the problems and causes in marketing channels of Chinese insurance companies, and based on the example of PING AN Insurance Company, it uses the marketing theories and combines the features of insurance industry to analyze PING AN's advantage features and try to advocate a suppose of building a new integrated structure of internal channels.%在保险主体日益增多,保险产品、价格乃至广告同质化日趋加剧的今天,保险营销渠道结构的持续性创新成为保险业关注的重心和建立持续竞争优势的源泉。本文分析了我国保险公司渠道营销中存在的问题及其成因,结合营销理论与保险业的相关特点,以平安保险公司为例,解析其优势特点并尝试提出建立新型内部渠道整合结构的设想。

  9. 市场约束:保险监管的新趋势——基于河北省保险市场的实证研究%A Research on Market Discipline in Insurance Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洪生; 宋建阳

    2012-01-01

    Market discipline is currently an important means of international financial and insurance supervision. Actively mobilizing the role of market discipline is an important task in China's insurance supervision. This paper conducted a comprehensive analysis on the role of market constraint in insurance regulation, and an indepth study on effective market constraint conditions and the operational mechanism for market constraint in insurance supervi sion. It made a tentative empirical analysis on the status quo of market constraint in Hebei insurance market. The empirical results showed that : the increase of risktaking by insurance companies did not cause significant market re action, and some reactions were in opposite to the normal situations, indicating that the current Hebei insurance mar ket constraint mechanism was relatively weak. On the basis of this conclusion, it put forward some suggestions on how to strengthen the role of market discipline and enhance the effectiveness of insurance supervision.%当前,市场约束是国际金融保险监管的重要手段,积极发挥市场约束的作用,是我国保险监管面临的重要课题。本文全面分析市场约束在有效保险监管中的重要作用,深入研究有效市场约束的条件和保险监管中市场约束的作用机制,并首次尝试对河北保险监管中的市场约束现状进行实证分析。实证结果表明:保险机构风险的增加并没有引起明显的市场反应,有的反应与正常的情况相反,表明当前河北保险行业的市场约束机制比较微弱。在这一结论的基础上,提出了发挥市场约束作用、提高保险监管有效性的政策建议。

  10. Switching rates in health insurance markets decrease with age: empirical evidence and policy implications from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2016-04-01

    All consumer groups with specific preferences must feel free to easily switch insurer in order to discipline insurers to be responsive to consumers' heterogeneous preferences. This paper provides insight into the switching behaviour of low-risks (i.e. young or healthy consumers) and high-risks (i.e. elderly or unhealthy consumers) in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We analysed: (1) administrative data with objective health status information (i.e. medically diagnosed diseases and pharmaceutical use) and information on health care expenses of nearly the entire Dutch population (n=15.3 million individuals) and (2) three-year sample data (n=1152 individuals). Our findings indicate that switching rates strongly decrease with age. For example, in 2009, consumers aged 25-44 switched 10 times more than consumers aged 75 or older. Another finding is that switching rates decrease as the predicted health care expenses increase. Although healthy consumers switch twice as much as unhealthy consumers, this difference becomes much smaller after adjusting for age. We conclude that our findings can be explained by higher perceived switching costs by elderly consumers than by young consumers. Consequently, insurers have low incentives to act as quality-conscious purchasers of care for the elderly consumers. Therefore, strategies should be developed to increase the choice of insurer of elderly consumers.

  11. HPLC analysis of potentially harmful substances released from dental filing aterials available on the EU market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incomplete cross-linking of composite dental materials leads to their susceptibility to degradation in the environment of non-organic and organic solvents, contributing to the release of chemical compounds which are potentially harmful to living organisms. Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation in in vitro conditions of releasing of potentially toxic substances from six dental composite materials available in EU countries. Materials and methods. The following compounds released from the samples stored in water were analyzed: bisphenol A (BPA, triethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA. Analysis of the substances was performed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, after the following incubation periods: 1 hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 30 days. Results. Among the analyzed substances, after 1 hour of incubation, the highest average concentration was found for TEGDMA – 2045 μg cm-3 (in Herculite XRV material, after 24 hours – for UDMA 4.402 μg cm-3 (in Gradia Direct Anterior material and after 7 and 30 days for TEGDMA: 8.112 and 6.458 μg•cm-3 respectively (in Charisma material. Conclusions. The examined composites used for reconstruction of hard tissues of teeth remain chemically unstable after polymerization, and release potentially harmful substances in conditions of the present study. The dynamics of the releasing of potentially harmful substances is correlated with the period of sample storage in water.

  12. 跳跃扩散市场的最优保险投资决策%Optimal investment decision for insurer in a jump-diffusion market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文旌; 赵成国; 袁建辉

    2011-01-01

    假定保险公司的盈余为Crámer-Lumdberg过程,保险公司的投资市场是由一个无风险债券和n个风险证券构成的资本市场.风险证券的价格服从带跳的扩散过程.在均值-方差准则下通过最优控制原理来研究保险公司的最优投资策略选择问题.得到了最优投资策略和有效边界的显式表达式.与在最大化最终财富期望效用准则下得到的最优投资策略不同,所得到的最优策略依赖保险索赔过程的所有因素.最后分析了最优投资策略随保险索赔过程各个因素变化的动态性质.%Assume that the surplus of an insurer follows the compound Poisson risk process and the insurer would invest its surplus in a financial market, which consists of one risk-free bond and n risky assets, whose prices follow an n-dimensional jump-diffusion process. The optimal investment strategy under the meanvariance principle for the insurer is studied by the stochastic control approach. The closed and explicit formulas for the optimal investment strategy and the efficient frontier are derived. Unlike optimal strategies derived under other criteria such as maximizing the expected exponential utility function of an insurer's terminal wealth, the optimal investment strategy derived in this paper depends on all model parameters for an insurer. Moreover, the effects of the model parameters on the optimal investment strategy and some dynamic properties of the efficient frontier are analyzed.

  13. Perceptions of dental students regarding dentistry, the job market and the public healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Durães, Sarah Jane Alves; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti

    2012-05-01

    The scope was to analyze the perceptions of dentistry students at the State University of Montes Claros, Brazil, regarding dentistry, the job market and the public healthcare system. For this, a triangulation method was employed, using a self-administered questionnaire and interviews. The quantitative data were submitted to univariate and multivariate analysis, using Poisson regression, where pdentistry course prepares students for this market as the curriculum integrates both teaching and service, reported being in favor of greater experience in the public healthcare system and said they would not take classes in Public Health if they were optional. Contact with the social context through teaching/service integration in the advanced semesters of the dentistry course appears to contribute to the development of new professional skills for working in the public sector. However, the students' perceptions revealed contradictions, considering the low value they attributed to the classes on Public Health and their perception of the public system as a residual job option.

  14. 我国机动车辆保险市场发展的需求拉动因素研究%Research on Demands-driven Factors for the Development of the Motor Insurance Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 张博江

    2012-01-01

    近些年来,我国机动车辆保险市场呈现出迅速扩张的势头,车险成为提升最快的险种之一。目前作为财产保险的第一大险种——机动车辆保险,在促进财产保险业发展的同时也成为整个保险业的重大影响因素之一。本文在对我国机动车辆保险市场发展现状进行阐述的基础上,分析各个因素对于机动车辆保险市场的影响。根据影响需求的因素分析并结合计量经济学回归模型,提出相关的政策与建议从而发掘机动车辆保险市场需求潜力,并根据模型得出的结论对未来几年我国机动车辆保险的保费收入做出相应的预测。%The motor vehicle insurance market in China has been expanding rapidly in recent years and has become one of the lines of business with the fastest growth rate. As the biggest insurance business of property insur- ance, motor vehicle insurance has greatly enhanced the development of the property insurance and is also one of the major drivers for the development of the whole insurance industry. This paper analyzed various factors affecting the motor vehicle insurance market following an elaboration on the current situation of motor vehicle insurance market in China. Based on the factors influencing motor vehicle insurance demands and in combination with the measurement economics model, the paper tried to come up with some advice and policy suggestions to further exploit the market potential and make a reasonable prediction for the premium income of motor vehicle insurance in China in the coming years according to the results of the analysis.

  15. Health Insurance: principles, models and the Nigerian National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In addition, they all have different modes of operation. ... Key words: Health insurance, Health insurance models, market failure, Nigerian Health Insurance Scheme, Community Based Health ...

  16. FEATURES TO ENSURE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF REINSURANCE OPERATIONS OF THE CEDENT AND THE REINSURER IN THE DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of reinsurance operations significantly affect the competitiveness of the cedent and the reinsurer. At the same time, ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations does not always lead to the economic efficiency of the cedent and the reinsurer. We give the definition of the concept of competitiveness of reinsurance operations. The features ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations of the cedent and the reinsurer in the domestic and international insurance market. The use of these features allows you to not only improve the quality of reinsurance protection, which has a beneficial effect on the financial stability of the cedent, but provides such necessary, confidential professional and personal relationship of the cedent and the reinsurer.

  17. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  18. Investigation of the Potential Market and Estimation of WTP for Insurance of Pistachio Tree Trunk (Case Study Rafsanjan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of garden productions in Iran is such that is accounted as a country that produces thirteen garden products in the world but despite excellent condition in Iran for producing garden products, natural disasters damage production of fruits in the country therefore farmers incur a loss. Pistachio tree has been in danger of destruction and dryness. Thus, in order to reduce loss incurred on trees, it is necessary to insure the tree. This study is aimed to investigate factors affecting willingness towards insurance of pistachio tree and to estimate willingness to pay premium for pistachio tree in Rafsanjan located in Kerman province. For this purpose, methods of contingent valuation and double bounded dichotomous have been used. Research data were obtained by field method and interview with 184 pistachio gardeners in 2012. Results suggest that willingness to pay premium of pistachio tree in central part, Anar and Kashkuieh has been estimated by 1953, 3255.8 and 1183.3 IRR per tree respectively. Considering results and high risk destruction of pistachio trees, it is suggested that premium of pistachio tree is offered to reduce risk and loss of pistachio gardeners. In order to determine premium in Rafsanjan, WTP calculated in this study can be used.

  19. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  20. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... date. (2) If you relinquish your insurable share on any insurable acreage of apples on or before the... insurable share on any insurable acreage of apples after the acreage reporting date for the crop year... inability to market the apples for any reason other than actual physical damage from an insurable...

  1. Sports Insurance Market in Japan Run the Foundation and Inspiration%日本体育保险制度对我国体育保险发展的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2011-01-01

    From Japan to build sports insurance market, management objectives, based on analysis of market strategy, etc. , pointed out: the development of sports insurance in Japan to leave particular if the background and special policy, it is impossible in such a short period of time into such a mature Market and such a huge scale. And pointed out: Chinese sports insurance market can not be achieved, from market entry, establishment and development to mature, it requires patience, time and wisdom. By the "Stones from other hills, "the key is to grasp the context of advanced thinking and action concept in socialist China, it should be better than analog or reference to soecific methods and means even more important.%从日本体育保险的市场构建、管理目标、综合制度、市场方略等方面,阐述了日本体育保险市场化运行的成功经验和先进理念。旨在借"他山之石"为构建我国体育保险体系提供参考。

  2. Financial Instruments of Insurance Market in China:Innovation and Design%中国保险市场金融工具创新与配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼; 李金辉

    2001-01-01

    In essence, innovation and design of financial instruments in Chinese insurance market is to syncretize diversified insurance instruments and financial instruments creatively to satisfy different demands in insurance, finance and financial affairs. To achieve this purpose, we must focus on four aspects:to deal with the relationship between denotative development and connotative development in insurance properly; to attach more importance to develop capital market so as to actualize diversified insurance investment; to tail after the bank-insurance tide of world insurance; to train a lot of all-round professionals in time.%保险市场金融工具创新与配置的实质是创造性地融合各种保险工具和其他金融工具来满足人们在保险和金融、财务等方面的各种需求。实现我国保险市场金融工具的有效创新与配置,必须从4个方面努力:处理好外延式发展与内涵式发展的关系;重视发展资本市场,实现保险投资的多元化;跟踪世界保险业银保业务融通的趋势,适时出击;加紧培养一批综合性的专业人才。

  3. Attitude and practice of dental surgeons towards pharmaceutical companies' marketing gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Shaila; Rafique, Adeela; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Saleem, Akif; Khan, Amanullah

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of pharmaceutical companies (PC) with healthcare services has been a reason for concern. In medicine, awareness of the ethical implications of these interactions have been emphasized upon, while this issue has not been highlighted in dentistry. This study undertook a cross-sectional rapid assessment procedure to gather views of dentists in various institutions towards unethical practices in health care and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the need for the formulation and implementation of guidelines for the interaction of dentists with the pharmaceutical and device industry in the best interest of patients. A group of 209 dentists of Lahore including faculty members, demonstrators, private practitioners and fresh graduates responded to a questionnaire to assess their attitudes and practices towards pharmaceutical companies' marketing gifts. The study was conducted during 2011 and provided interesting data that showed the pharmaceutical industry is approaching private practitioners more frequently than academicians and fresh graduates. Private practioners accepted the gifts but mostly recognized them as unethical (over 65%). Both groups considered sponsoring of on-campus lectures as acceptable (over 70%). Respondents are not fully aware of the ethical demands which are imperative for all health care industries, and there is a dire need of strict guidelines and code of ethics for the dentist's interaction with the pharmaceutical and device industry so that patient interest is protected.

  4. Attitude and practice of dental surgeons towards pharmaceutical companies’ marketing gifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Shaila; Rafique, Adeela; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Saleem, Akif; Khan, Amanullah

    2013-01-01

    Interaction of pharmaceutical companies (PC) with healthcare services has been a reason for concern. In medicine, awareness of the ethical implications of these interactions have been emphasized upon, while this issue has not been highlighted in dentistry. This study undertook a cross-sectional rapid assessment procedure to gather views of dentists in various institutions towards unethical practices in health care and pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study was to assess the need for the formulation and implementation of guidelines for the interaction of dentists with the pharmaceutical and device industry in the best interest of patients. A group of 209 dentists of Lahore including faculty members, demonstrators, private practitioners and fresh graduates responded to a questionnaire to assess their attitudes and practices towards pharmaceutical companies’ marketing gifts. The study was conducted during 2011 and provided interesting data that showed the pharmaceutical industry is approaching private practitioners more frequently than academicians and fresh graduates. Private practioners accepted the gifts but mostly recognized them as unethical (over 65%). Both groups considered sponsoring of on-campus lectures as acceptable (over 70%). Respondents are not fully aware of the ethical demands which are imperative for all health care industries, and there is a dire need of strict guidelines and code of ethics for the dentist’s interaction with the pharmaceutical and device industry so that patient interest is protected. PMID:23967370

  5. Dental practice satisfaction with preferred provider organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite their increasing share of the dental insurance market, little is known about dental practices' satisfaction with preferred provider organizations (PPOs. This analysis examined practice satisfaction with dental PPOs and the extent to which satisfaction was a function of communications from the plan, claims handling and compensation. Methods Data were collected through telephone surveys with dental practices affiliated with MetLife between January 2002 and December 2004. Each respondent was asked a series of questions related to their satisfaction with a systematically selected PPO with which they were affiliated. Six different PPO plans had sufficient observations to allow for comparative analysis (total n = 4582. Multiple imputation procedures were used to adjust for item non-response. Results While the average level of overall satisfaction with the target plan fell between "very satisfied" and "satisfied," regression models revealed substantial differences in overall satisfaction across the 6 PPOs (p Conclusion Results demonstrate the importance of compensation to dental practice satisfaction with PPOs. However, these results also highlight the critical role of service-related factors in differentiating plans and suggest that there are important non-monetary dimensions of PPO performance that can be used to recruit and retain practices.

  6. Non-life Insurance Ratemaking Under Market Constraints%市场约束条件下的非寿险费率厘定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟生旺; 邱怡轩; 肖宇谷

    2012-01-01

    In non-life insurance ratemaking, actuaries often face the challenging of controlling the premium of some special risk classes within a specified interval. Generalized linear models can not be atraightly applied in this circumstance. The paper proposes a method to adjust the generalized linear models by recursive algorithm to produce the premium rates that can meet the general linear constraints. Our application shows that the method is flexible and feasible and can solve the common problems of market constraints on non-life insurance ratemaking.%在非寿险费率厘定中,经常遇到的一个实际问题是某些风险类别的费率不能过高或不能过低.在这种约束条件下,传统的广义线性模型将不能直接用于费率厘定.本文给出了一种在一般线性约束条件下,如何应用迭代算法对常用的广义线性模型进行调整,从而得到满足特定约束条件的费率厘定结果.本文的实证研究结果表明,该方法具有灵活性和现实可行性,能够解决非寿险费率厘定中常见的市场约束问题.

  7. The Dualism of Asymmetric Information in Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric information objectively exists in the insurance market, especially in agricultural insurance, which has a great impact on the insurance contract and market operation. This paper designs two game models to analyse the dualism of asymmetric information in agricultural insurance and its reasons of forming. We find that, the particularity of agricultural production, the agricultural risk diversification and the benefits’ spillover of the agricultural insurance are the main causes of asymmetric information. Therefore, this paper puts forward that establishment of appropriate agricultural insurance mode, optimization of insurance policy design and increasing investment in science and technology, increasing farmers’ insurance consciousness and establishing supervision system

  8. 基本养老金市场化投资的理论依据与风险控制%The Theoretical Basis and Risk Control of the Basic Pension Insurance Investing in the Capital Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐运舒; 胡琪

    2014-01-01

    文章从养老金投资与资本市场互动的视角,以全国社会保障基金和资本市场发展数据为样本,通过格兰杰因果检验和协整检验,研究养老金投资与资本市场发展两者之间的互动关系,为我国基本养老金能否进行入市投资寻求证据支撑,实证表明全国社保基金的投资是我国资本市场发展的重要原因,结果支持我国基本养老金进行市场化投资。同时,运用资产组合原理,模拟成熟市场中的风险环境,通过测算得出,我国基本养老金入市投资承受与美国养老金投资相当的风险,其资产组合中股票配置的比例应控制在30%以内。%Based on the perspective of the interaction between investment of pension insurance and capital market,taking the relevant data of China’s social security funds and development of capital market as samples,the paper uses Granger causality test and co-integration test to study the interactive relationship between investment of pension insurance and capital market, and aims to seek evidence to support the basic pension insurance to invest in the capital market. The empirical results show that the investment of social security funds is a significant cause of the development of China’s capital market,so the results sup-port the basic pension insurance to enter the capital market. Meanwhile,this paper applies the principle of the portfolio to simu-late the risk environment of the developed market. The results indicate that the stock proportion should be controlled within 30%,which has almost the same risk level of the investment as that of US pension insurance.

  9. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  10. The impact of public intervention on self-insurance and insurance activities in risky forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Brunette, Marielle; Couture, Stéphane; Association of Environmental and Resource Economists

    2007-01-01

    As suggested by Birot and Gollier (2001), one explenation of the low interest in insuring against fire and wind is the expectation that public subsidies will compensate the losses. This article examines the robustness of this explanation in a general model with many states of the world. We developp a theoretical model of self-insurance or insurance choice that emphasizes the interaction between market insurance, self-insurance and public intervention in forest. The effects of changes in the p...

  11. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  12. Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health insurance helps protect you from high medical care costs. It is a contract between you and your ... Many people in the United States get a health insurance policy through their employers. In most cases, the ...

  13. 医疗保险竞争与行政监督--基于欧洲典型国家的比较分析%Market Competition and Administrative Supervision in Medical Insurance--Lessons from Typical European Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅鸿翔; 汤晓莉

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国医疗保险体系正处于变化时期,商业补充医保开始发展,政府购买公共服务及加强市场监管理念逐步建立。本文分析欧洲国家在促进医保市场竞争改革进程中具有典型性国家的行政监督情况,以促进我国行政监督更好地适应医保治理环境的变化。%In China, medical insurance system is currently in a period of transformation, and commercial supplementary medical insurance is in the period of developing. The concept of government purchasing, public services and strengthening market supervision are being established. This paper analyzed the situation of administrative supervision in promoting market competition during the process of the medical insurance reform in typical European countries, therefore to promote administrative supervision to adapt better to the reform of medical insurance management.

  14. 政府在我国农业保险市场中的作用探析%Analysis on the Role of Government in China Agricultural Insurance Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡水红; 周迎红

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the development process of our agricultural insurance market, introduces and analyzes its present status and problems, exposes the important role of government in developing agricultural insurance market and finally proposes some policies and suggestions for promoting its development.%回顾了我国农业保险的发展历程,介绍并分析了我国农业保险的现状及存在的问题,重点探析政府在发展农业保险市场甲的重要作用,最后提出促进我国农业保险发展的政策建议.

  15. ROLE OF INTERNET IN INSURANCE SERVICES REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of the Internet in the implementation of insurance products is investigated. It is founded the Internet in insurance performs presentable and realizable function. The benefits of using Internet technologies for business of insurance market are determined.

  16. [The inducement of demand in dental medicine in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwe, Frida; Renckens, An

    2006-01-01

    Many factors are important for the existence of supplier-induced demand (SID). Not just the individual practitioner is responsible; his or her behaviour might be influenced by the specific organisation of the market for health care/dental care. The article investigates the characteristics of the Belgian market for dental care and analyses the way in which they might influence the occurrence of SID and/or overconsumption. Attention goes to the payment system of dentists in Belgium, the health insurance system, dentist density and the regulation of the sector. Also mentioned are the recall system and other (governmental) initiatives that may influence patients' and practitioners' behaviour. Some factors--not yet systematically investigated--may be relevant as well: personal characteristics of the dentist (gender in particular) and the way companies direct practitioners' and patients' behaviour.

  17. Insurance for wind energy : working with insurers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beswick, S. [Marsh Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Power and Utilities Practice Group

    2005-07-01

    This presentation described Marsh Canada Ltd.'s role in the Canadian insurance marketplace, the cost of insurance, working with the domestic market and specialty services for the wind power industry. Marsh Canada works with 13 industry groups and recognizes the Canadian marketplace's strong interest in wind energy. Marsh Canada's product specialty input is in machinery breakdown, directors and officers, marine installations, risk consulting, professional liability, surety and construction. In addition to Marsh Canada, there are 8 other Canadian insurers of wind energy. An annual premium costs about $135,000 based on a total of 10 MW capacity and an insured value of $20 million. This premium also allows for business interruption. With expertise in power generation, transportation, and civil, electrical and mechanical engineering, Marsh Canada can offer the wind energy construction industry specialty services such as risk identification, analysis and control; insurance program design; contract review; claims tracking, management, administration and settlement; health and safety consultation; risk financing advice; and, credit enhancement solutions. The specialty services for wind energy property include cable damage; lightning strikes; gearboxes and lubrication; switch gear; substation transformers; earthquakes; icing; fire in transformers; malicious damage; environmental issues; and new technology. tabs., figs.

  18. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    Probabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. These observations cannot be

  19. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these

  20. Probabilistic Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.H. Thaler (Richard); A. Tversky (Amos)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these pref

  1. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  2. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  3. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  4. Handbook of international insurance between global dynamics and local contingencies

    CERN Document Server

    Venard, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    THE HANDBOOK OF INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE Gordon Stewart, President, Insurance Information Institute, New York, USA "The globalization of insurance markets means that understanding both international developments and local trends around the world is now fundamental for insurance executives coping with today’s complex and competitive environment. By providing such a comprehensive picture of the world’s insurance markets, this unique and necessary book becomes an essential tool for anyone seeking to operate wisely and successfully. Richard D. Phillips, Professor and Chairman, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA "Comprehensive surveys, written by international experts, provide in depth descriptions and discuss recent developments of the world’s major insurance markets. Each chapter contains essential insights for insurance executives and academic researchers interested in risk management and the globalization of insurance markets." Patrick Liedtke, Secretary Ge...

  5. Survey of the Reasons for Dental Extraction in Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | July 2012 | Vol 2 | Issue 2 |. 129. Address for ... dental surgeon.[1] From a historical perspective, dental ... the National Health. Insurance Scheme (NHIS), which encompasses government.

  6. Attitudes and decisions of the motor insurance buyers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor insurance constitutes the most popular type of insurance products purchased in Poland and consequently the largest part of non-life insurance sector. In this paper the selected results of the questionnaire survey concerning attitudes and choices of the motor insurance buyers on the Polish market are presented. First, the current situation on the Polish motor insurance market is discussed. Next, the scope of the motor insurance held by respondents, their forms and used distribution channels are analysed. The stress is put on the level of the customers` loyalty to the current insurer, as well as the factors influencing the choice of a specific insurance company and its offer. Finally, the results of the analysis concerning the statistical interdependencies between selected characteristics of the respondents are considered.The conducted research can be useful in practice for the insurance companies, interested in improving their motor insurance offer, as well as the insurance intermediaries serving individual customers

  7. 48 CFR 28.308 - Self-insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor's latest financial statements; (5) Any self-insurance feasibility studies or insurance market surveys reporting comparative alternatives; (6) Loss history, premiums history, and industry ratios; (7) A... projected average loss; and (10) A disclosure of all captive insurance company and re-insurance...

  8. Probabilistic insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wakker, P. P.; Thaler, R.H.; Tversky, A.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProbabilistic insurance is an insurance policy involving a small probability that the consumer will not be reimbursed. Survey data suggest that people dislike probabilistic insurance and demand more than a 20% reduction in the premium to compensate for a 1% default risk. While these preferences are intuitively appealing they are difficult to reconcile with expected utility theory. Under highly plausible assumptions about the utility function, willingness to pay for probabilistic i...

  9. 混合供给模式下巨灾保险市场的激励与约束研究%The Research on Incentives and Constraints of the Catastrophe Insurance Market under the Mixed Supply Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海霞; 王学冉

    2012-01-01

    巨灾保险具有准公共物品属性,既可以由政府提供,也可以由市场提供,单纯依靠政府和私人市场提供都存在较大弊端,政府和私人部门合作,采用混合供给模式可以形成互补优势,提高效率,这已成为国际巨灾保险市场发展的一大趋势。本文以混合供给模式下的巨灾保险市场为对象,分析巨灾保险市场中的委托代理关系,并对如何构建有效的激励与约束机制进行了初步探讨。%Catastrophe insurance has the properties of quasi-public goods. It can be provided by the government or by the market. However,there exists large drawbacks if relying solely on government or private market. The major develop- ment trend in the international catastrophe insurance market is to adopt the mixed supply model of government and pri- vate sector cooperation which can combine complementary strengths of each party and improve eMciency. This paper ana- lyzed the principal-agent relationship in the catastrophic insurance market under the mixed supply model, and also dis- cussed how to build an effective incentive and restriction mechanism.

  10. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  11. Did they come to the dance? Insurer participation in exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean M; Feldman, Roger; Simon, Kosali

    2014-01-01

    An important feature of the Affordable Care Act is the creation of insurance exchanges, which are organized marketplaces through which individuals could begin to shop for and purchase coverage beginning in 2014. This study analyzes the decisions of new insurers and incumbent insurers already operating in a major market within a state to participate in state and federally facilitated exchanges. Utilizing secondary data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners* and government websites, we describe each state's insurance market in 2012, summarizing the number of incumbent insurers by size and operations in the individual market segment. Next, we investigate the organizational, market, and policy-related factors associated with incumbent insurers' participation decisions. Finally, we discuss the entry patterns of new insurers and briefly assess their potential impact on the market. We use multivariate regression analysis to identify the organizational, market, and policy-related factors related to insurer participation in exchanges. Only 10% of incumbent insurers are participating in exchanges in 2014, although considerable variation exists across states. Participation is more prevalent among larger insurers, local and regional insurers, and those with prior experience in other market segments in the same state. The entry of newly formed organizations, such as cooperatives (co-ops), and of existing insurers into new states is modest. Robust participation of insurers is an important prerequisite to ensure competition in health insurance markets. Exchange administrators will need to better understand the strategic or operational reasons why insurers chose not to participate in the individual market exchanges in 2014. *The NAIC does not endorse any analysis or conclusions based upon the use of its data.

  12. Deposit Insurance Coverage, Credibility of Non-insurance, and Banking Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    level require analyses of institutional factors affecting the credibility of non-insurance. In particular, the implementation of effective distress resolution procedures for banks would allow governments to reduce explicit deposit insurance coverage and, thereby, to strengthen market discipline......The ambiguity in existing empirical work with respect to effects of deposit insurance schemes on banks' risk-taking can be resolved if it is recognized that absence of deposit insurance is rarely credible and that the credibility of non-insurance can be enhanced by explicit deposit insurance...... schemes. We show that under reasonable conditions for effects on risk-taking of creditor protection in banking, and for effects on credibility of non-insurance of explicit coverage of deposit insurance schemes, there exists a partial level of coverage that maximizes market discipline and minimizes moral...

  13. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been broadly termed dental fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is a condition that causes ... less than 2 milligrams per liter. What causes dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is caused by taking in ...

  14. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  15. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  16. Features of insurance evolution in the Internet expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Polchanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the features of the development of insurance in the Internet expansion. Increasing the number of mobile subscribers, Internet users and social networking, as well as owners of smartphones changes the decision-making process on insurance, marketing of insurance services, the mechanism of interaction between participants of insurance relations. As a result, insurance companies and intermediaries should adjust strategies and innovate to maintain their competitive advantage. The research examined the functioning of the foreign experience of P2P insurance (for example «Friendsurance», microinsurance using mobile payment instruments (for example «Kilimo Salama», cyber-risks insurance (for example «AIG», and the possibility of using digital currencies in insurance in particular Bitcoin. According to the results of investigation the question asked to clarify a number of basic insurance terms, including money payment, the order of payment of insurance premiums, the insurance event and risk, the insurance intermediary.

  17. NEW VECTORS OF THE MOTOR INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prikazyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of different forms of motor insurance are studied. As investigated, the motor insurance is one of the most popular types of insurance in many countries, and continues its further quality development. It is stated that the following new vectors of development has been recently observed in developed countries: Internet sales are getting significantly prevalent along with the traditional channels of insurance distribution; insurers’ websites provide a wide range of online features in motor insurance; innovations in motor insurance based on the use of telematics, particularly the usage-based insurance, are widely spread. Basic types of motor insurance, which represent the domestic market, are analyzed. It was found that the share of motor insurance in the insurance market of Ukraine is significant. As established, the proportion of net premiums of motor insurance is decreasing, because its development is significantly influenced by economic factors. Measures, applied by insurance companies in the domestic market of motor insurance to attract new customers and retain the existing ones, are defined. In particular, insurers are trying to develop the implementation of insurance services online, and use possibilities offered by mobile technologies. It was found that the domestic market of motor insurance is characterized by a high level of fraud, that is why some innovative measures in the domestic and international motor insurance agreements are taken to decrease it, such as the introduction of mandatory registration of insurance agents, who have the right to perform mediatory activity in compulsory civil liability insurance of owners of motor vehicles (CCLIOMV, and procedures for contracting the international insurance “Green Card” agreements with simultaneous entering the information on concluded agreement into a unified centralized database of Motor (transport insurance bureau of Ukraine using the “Green Card online

  18. Insurers Work to Sell China Peace of Mind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelMcComb

    2003-01-01

    Marketing insurance in China these days seems as easy shooting fish in a barrel. Partly because of regulations and partly because of the sheer volume of demand, the few licensed insurance providers are riding the rapids of this boom.

  19. THE ROLE OF BUSINESS INSURANCE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to show the role of business insurance in the Polish national economy. The fi rst part presents an overview of the insurance market. In the second part the importance of insurance in the national economy is discussed, based on calculated penetration rates, insurance density, activity monitoring, coverage ratio and solvency ratio. Finally the density and penetration rates in Poland were compared with those in other EU countries. The primary research method was descriptive method and the basic indicators of the importance of insurance in the national economy. The main source materials were data from the Central Statistical Offi ce, the Polish Financial Supervision Authority and the Polish Insurance Association. This study covers the period 2006–2014. The study confi rmed a good standing of the Polish insurance market and the fact that it systematically reduces the distance that separates the Polish insurance market from the largest European markets.

  20. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  1. Strategies for Development of Shaanxi’s Agricultural Insurance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces current situations of agricultural insurance market in Shaanxi Province. It is indicated that development of Shaanxi’s agricultural insurance industry is faced with following difficulties. First, risks of agricultural production are various, occurrence frequency is high and losses are great. Second, effective supply of commercial insurance companies for agriculture is seriously inadequate. Third, farmers’ demand for agricultural insurance is restricted by many factors. Fourth, government support for agricultural insurance is not generous. Then, it puts forward strategies for development of agricultural insurance in Shaanxi Province. These include: encourage commercial insurance companies to actively enter agricultural insurance market; establish perfect agricultural reinsurance system; strengthen propaganda of agricultural insurance and speed up agricultural industrialization; enhance policy support for agricultural insurance to promote its development.

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s economy showed initial signs of recovery, although a full revival is still far away. An array of currency-swap packages is helping the renminbi to "go global." Car sales rallied in March in quick response to the government’s stimulus measures. The insurance regulator widened the channels for domestic insurers to directly invest in stock and bond markets. The Export-Import Bank of China provided a credit line to withering shipbuilders.

  3. Federal Employees Health Benefits and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Programs' Coverage Exception for Children of Same-Sex Domestic Partners. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This action amends the rule to create a regulatory exception that allows children of same-sex domestic partners living overseas to maintain their Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) coverage until September 30, 2018. Due to a recent Supreme Court decision, as of January 1, 2016, coverage of children of same-sex domestic partners under the FEHB Program and FEDVIP will generally only be allowed if the couple is married, as discussed in Benefits Administration Letter (BAL) 15-207 dated October 5, 2015. OPM recognizes there are additional requirements placed on overseas federal employees that may not apply to other civilian employees with duty stations in the United States making it difficult to travel to the United States to marry same-sex partners.

  4. The EU Deposit Insurance Directive: Does One Size Fit All?

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The EU deposit insurance directive requires member states to maintain deposit insurance with a minimum insured amount of 20,000 euros. This paper reviews the rationale for international coordination of deposit insurance policies. For international externalities of deposit insurance policies to exist, there has to be international ownership of either bank deposits or bank shares. On both counts, EU banking markets are currently highly integrated. The minimum coverage of 20,000 euros imposes co...

  5. Performance evaluation of the fraud management system in health insurance

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Efficient insurance fraud management can have significant effect on insurance companies’ competitive market position. Potential savings accumulated in fraudulent activities can add up to 10% of all expenses insurance companies pay for damage claims, which globally add up to several 100 billion Euros. There are various available methods to detect insurance fraud. The simplest one, that is to manually review a small number of insurance claims, is highly inefficient and its success rate is large...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES IN THE DEVELOP EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nesterova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined. The shares of premiums of insurance intermediaries in the volume of insurance premiums and in the GDP of the insurance markets of European countries are defined. The number of employees who are involved in insurance intermediary in the European countries is investigated. The European experience of insurance agents and insurance brokers in non-life insurance and life insurance is considered. It's analyzed the activity of insurance brokers in the Ukraine. The main trends and problems of the development of insurance intermediaries in the insurance market of Ukraine are defined.

  7. 7 CFR 457.167 - Pecan revenue crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which two or more crops are planted in any form of alternating or mixed pattern. Market price—The market...: Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions AMS. The Agricultural Marketing Service of the... marketing—Sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as...

  8. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of the Role Relationship between Insurance and the Credit Market in China based on the Bootstrap Simulation%我国保险市场与信贷市场作用关系的动态分析基于bootstrap仿真的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺磊; 王雄

    2014-01-01

    分别从财产保险市场和人身保险市场与信贷市场的 Granger因果关系及累积作用两个方面研究了我国保险市场与信贷市场之间相互作用关系的动态变化。为克服传统 Granger 因果检验在小样本情形下所面临的精度问题,采用基于 bootstrap仿真的 Wald检验、似然比检验、Lagrange 数乘检验对1985~2011年财产保险市场和人身保险市场与信贷保险市场分别在全样本和滚动窗口所选子样本情形下进行 Granger 因果检验,并对两大保险市场与信贷市场之间相互累积作用进行 bootstrap 模拟估计,结论表明我国财产保险市场和人身保险市场与信贷市场存在相互作用关系且随着保险市场的发展发生了结构性变化,其中财产保险市场与信贷市场存在互补关系而人身保险市场与其存在竞争关系。%Test the Granger causality of between property insurance market and credit market and the Granger causality between life insurance market and credit market respectively to study the role relation-ship between insurance market and credit market deeply.In order to avoid the problem that the methods of testing the Granger causality often face inaccuracy in situation of small sample,Wald test Likelihood ratio test,and Lagrange number multiplied based on the bootstrap simulation will be used to test the relation-ship between property insurance market and credit market and relationship between life insurance market and credit market in situations of full sample and sub-sample by rolling window at period from 1985 to 2011,furthermore to estimate the cumulative effect between the insurance market and credit market by bootstrap simulation.The results show that there are relationship between two insurance markets,and the relationship varied with development of insurance market,where there are complementary effect and com-petitive effect between property insurance market and credit market and life insurance

  10. 农业环境责任保险的4PS与4CS营销分析%An Analysis of the Marketing Mix of 4Ps and 4Cs in Agricultural Environmental Liability Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 王育才

    2015-01-01

    我国农业环境污染风险升级且农业环境侵权救济手段缺失的现状,使受害人利益受损且矛盾激化,社会化性质的农业环境责任保险成为满足农业环境侵权救济内在诉求的制度选择。通过对农业环境责任保险制度的4PS与4CS理论分析,对其构建问题提出了相应观点和建议,以期助益于我国环境侵害社会化救济制度的完善。%The risk escalation of agricultural environmental pollution and the deficiency of agricultural environment tort remedy lead to the benefit lose of victims, thus intensifying the conflicts in China. Thereby, it is indispensable that the socialized liability insurance of agricultural environment should take the priority to meet the internal demands of agricultural environment tort remedy. Analyzing the marketing theories of 4Ps and 4Cs in the construction of agricultural environmental liability insurance system, the paper puts forward relevant proposals for the improvement of the socialized environmental liability insurance in China.

  11. Dental visits and access to dental care among Maryland schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Mark D; Wagner, Mark L; Goodman, Harold S; Manz, Michael C; Marrazzo, Ilise D

    2005-04-01

    Regular dental visits afford an opportunity for dentists to provide preventive services and to diagnose and treat disease. Not all children, however, have equal access to these services. The authors conducted this study to describe access to and utilization of oral health care services for Maryland schoolchildren in kindergarten and third grade. They obtained data from a questionnaire filled out by parents or guardians participating in the Survey of the Oral Health Status of Maryland School Children, 2000-2001 (N = 2,642). Outcome variables included having a dental visit in the last year, prophylaxis in the last year, usual source of medical care and usual source of dental care. Descriptor variables included region, grade, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free or reduced-fee meals, parents' or guardians' education and dental insurance status. Overall, general dental visit and dental prophylaxis visit rates were similar (74.1 and 71.3 percent, respectively). Schoolchildren, however, were more likely to have had a usual source of medical care than of dental care (96.0 and 82.9 percent, respectively). Third graders, those ineligible for free or reduced-fee meals and those with some dental insurance coverage were more likely to have received a prophylaxis in the last year and were more likely to have a usual source of dental care. Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black schoolchildren also were more likely to have had a usual source of dental care than were Hispanics. Schoolchildren most likely to have received regular preventive dental care were those who had parents or guardians with financial resources. Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provide safety nets, but these programs could be improved. Dentistry's challenge is to determine which characteristics are unique to those who visit the dentist regularly and use this information to help meet the needs of the underserved.

  12. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  13. Organizational adaptation to Complexity: A study of the South African Insurance Market as a Complex Adaptive System through Statistical Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Satyakama; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2011-01-01

    South Africa assumes a significant position in the insurance landscape of Africa. The present research based upon qualitative and quantitative analysis, shows that it shows the characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System. In addition, a statistical analysis of risk measures through Value at risk and Conditional tail expectation is carried out to show how an individual insurance company copes under external complexities. The authors believe that an explanation of the coping strategies, and the subsequent managerial implications would enrich our understanding of complexity in business.

  14. Proposal for a mutual insurance pool for transplant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A

    1998-10-01

    Over the past decade there have been numerous proposals to use market system incentives to attenuate the persistent shortage of transplantable human organs. While shortages have grown, opposition to market-based solutions has remained adamant. Much of the opposition has focused on monetary incentives. This article explores an alternative--a mutual insurance pool to increase the supply of organs. In the process, criticisms of earlier proposals (specifically the future delivery scheme) are addressed, the operation of an insurance pool is described, and problems associated with insurance markets are identified and addressed. The article concludes that an insurance pool could overcome public and political resistance to more explicit market-based solutions.

  15. HEALTH INSURANCE IN HEALTH REFORM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tlusta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article researched the teoretical and methodological approaches to the formation and development of the health insurance market conditions, also investigated the condition and features of the functioning of the health system in Ukraine and abroad, reasonable prospects of introducing mandatory and dissemination of voluntary health insurance, as well as ways of improving financial provide health insurance system in Ukraine.

  16. Satellite power system (SPS) initial insurance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The beginning of a process to educate the insurance industry about the Satellite Power System is reported. The report is divided into three sections. In the first section a general history describes how space risks are being insured today. This is followed by an attempt to identify the major risks inherent to the SPS. The final section presents a general projection of insurance market reactions to the Satellite Power System.

  17. The cost conundrum: financing the business of health care insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Health care spending in both the governmental and private sectors skyrocketed over the last century. This article examines the rapid growth of health care expenditures by analyzing the extent of this financial boom as well some of the reasons why health care financing has become so expensive. It also explores how the market concentration of insurance companies has led to growing insurer profits, fewer insurance providers, and less market competition. Based on economic data primarily from the Government Accountability Office, the Kaiser Family Foundation, and the American Medical Associa tion, it has become clear that this country needs more competitive rates for the business of health insurance. Because of the unique dynamics of health insurance payments and financing, America needs to promote affordability and innovation in the health insurance market and lower the market's high concentration levels. In the face of booming insurance profits, soaring premiums, many believe that in our consolidated health insurance market, the "business of insurance" should not be exempt from antitrust laws. All in all, it is in our nation's best interest that Congress restore the application of antitrust laws to health sector insurers by passing the Health Insurance Industry Antitrust Enforcement Act as an amendment to the McCarran-Ferguson Act's "business of insurance" provision.

  18. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  19. Private Health Insurance Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttorff, Christine; Nowak, Sarah; Syme, James; Eibner, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Private health insurance exchanges offer employer health insurance, combining online shopping, increased plan choice, benefit administration, and cost-containment strategies. This article examines how private exchanges function, how they may affect employers and employees, and the possible implications for the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Marketplaces. The authors found that private exchanges could encourage employees to select less-generous plans. This could expose employees to higher out-of-pocket costs, but premium contributions would drop substantially, so net spending would decrease. On the other hand, employee spending may increase if, in moving to private exchanges, employers decrease their health insurance contributions. Most employers can avoid the ACA's “Cadillac tax” by reducing the generosity of the plans they offer, regardless of whether they move to a private exchange. There is not yet enough evidence to determine whether the private exchanges will become prominent in the insurance market and how they will affect employers and their employees. PMID:28845340

  20. 保险O2O营销模式的实践与研究%The Practice and Research on the O2O Marketing Pattern of Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常兴华

    2014-01-01

    The O2O marketing pattern is different from the traditional online marketing;it is also different from the traditional e-commerce. As a new kind of marketing pattern,O2O has been increasingly accepted by businesses and consumers. In insurance marketing,O2O has its own advantages. It is beneficial to the satisfaction of consumers' individual demand,more business opportunities for insurance business man,and the improvement of comprehensive quality of professionals. But there are so many bottlenecks in the operation of that,such as the seamless joint between online and offline,after-sale service,innovation in operation pattern,pattern of payment and supervision on insurance. To better solve the problems with O2O marketing of insurance and promote the health development of O2O marketing of insurance,we should,first,perfect the individualized service mechanism to realize the seamless joint of online and offline;second,we should clarify the pattern of payment in O2O marketing;third,we should provide customers with sound environment of service experience and establish the feedback mechanism of customer satisfaction;fourth,the insurance enterprises should adopt different pattern of O2O marketing according to their own situation;fifth,we should establish the network evaluation system;and sixth,the related supervision departments should introduce related law and regulation to strengthen supervision on O2O marketing of insurance.%线上到线下(O2O)营销模式既有别于通常意义上的网络营销,也有别于传统意义上的电子商务。O2O作为一种新型营销模式,越来越受到商家的重视和消费者的认可。在保险营销中运用O2O营销模式具有一定优势,有利于满足消费者个性化需求,有利于保险经营者获得更多商机,有利于促使保险从业人员提高自身综合素质。但其在运行中也面临很多瓶颈问题,如线上线下无缝对接问题、购后服务问题、经营模式创新问题、

  1. Does autonomization of public hospitals and exposure to market pressure complement or debilitate social health insurance systems? Evidence from a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Granting public hospitals greater autonomy and creating organizational arrangements that mimic the private sector and encourage competition is often promoted as a way to increase efficiency and public accountability and to improve quality of care at these facilities. The existence of good-quality health infrastructure, in turn, encourages the population to join and support the social health insurance system and achieve universal coverage. This article provides a critical review of hospital autonomization, using Vietnam's experience to assess the influence of hospital autonomy on the sustainability of Vietnam's social health insurance. The evidence suggests that a reform process based on greater autonomy of resource mobilization and on the retention and use of own-source revenues can create perverse incentives among managers and health care providers, leading to the development of a two-tiered provision of clinical care, provider-induced supply of an inefficient service mix, a high degree of duplication, wasteful investment, and cost escalation. Rather than complementing social health insurance and helping the country to achieve universal coverage, granting public hospitals greater autonomy that mimics the private sector may indeed undermine the legitimacy and sustainability of social health insurance as health care costs escalate and higher quality of care remains elusive.

  2. Insuring catastrophes and the role of governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Boyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we model the cost of providing insurance coverage against natural and man-made hazards. We propose an insurance market model that explains (1 the use of reinsurance to help finance the cost of catastrophic events and (2 the implicit (or explicit presence of government entities acting as (reinsurers of last resort. Using an economic model, we show how insurance programmes should be designed to cover the losses due to a possible catastrophic natural hazard. Our results show that the optimal structure of a reinsurance programme minimizes the cost of offering insurance protection. We also show how government intervention can reduce the cost of insurance against natural catastrophes and increase policyholders' welfare. Our paper therefore offers public policy implications as to the role and presence of government as an insurer of last resort and the minimum insurance premium necessary to cover the cost of catastrophic events.

  3. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  4. Right insurance for renewables; Erneuerbare richtig versichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Helmuth

    2011-03-15

    In the overall stagnant German insurance market, the power generation from renewable energy sources is a promising field of growth. The contribution under consideration reports on specific aspects of risk insurance of geothermal plants, solar panels, wind turbines and biogas plants.

  5. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  6. Courts, Scheduled Damages, and Medical Malpractice Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the impact of the introduction of schedules of non-economic damages (i.e. tiered caps systems) on the behavior of insurers operating in the medical liability market for hospitals while controlling the performance of the judicial system, measured as court backlog. Using a difference......-in-differences strategy on Italian data, we find that the introduction of schedules increases the presence of insurers (i.e. medical liability market attractiveness) only in inefficient judicial districts. In the same way, court inefficiency is attractive to insurers for average values of schedules penetration...... of the market, with an increasing positive impact of inefficiency as the territorial coverage of schedules increases. Finally, no significant impact is registered on paid premiums. Our analysis sheds light on a complex set of elements affecting the decisions of insurers in malpractice markets. The analysis...

  7. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance and reinsurance industry is famous for its traditionalism, that is uninventiveness and neglecting of marketing as business concept and function and by doing so, neglecting opportunities for optimal combination of different distribution channels. However, having in mind Drucker's thesis that only marketing and innovations produce results and that everything else are costs, that applies to all businesses including insurance and reinsurance companies, it is clear that they need to change their way of managing business. Keeping current and attracting new customers, by using optimal combination of marketing mix elements and within its scope by creating optimal mix of distribution channels, as business requirement and objective of insurance and reinsurance companies with strong marketing orientation that leads them to fulfillment of primary objective of their existence - making profit, is becoming specially emphasized with opening of domestic insurance and reinsurance market to foreign competitors with long history of gaining high level of customers' loyalty. Besides that, issues of successful distribution channels' management of insurance and reinsurance services are not treated holistically in domestic literature. Distribution channels of insurance and reinsurance services, as this study shows, are of critical importance for business success of insurance and reinsurance companies.

  8. STATE REGULATION OF INVESTMENT INSURANCE COMPANIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Zaletov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the essence of investment insurance company. The role and importance of investment of insurance companies on formation of investment resources in the economy. The essence of the definition of "investment potential of insurance companies" and its relationship with the definition of "financial strength of insurance companies' insurance and potential insurance companies." By analyzing the structure and dynamics of aggregate investment portfolio of insurance organizations of Ukraine in 2008-2015 years defined contribution insurance sector in the formation of investment resources. The problems and prospects of the investment potential of the insurance market of Ukraine. Directions of improvement of state regulation of investment of insurance companies in Ukraine.

  9. Risk Selection under Public Health Insurance with Opt-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthöfer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies risk selection between public and private health insurance when some, but not all, individuals can opt out of otherwise mandatory public insurance. Using a theoretical model, I show that public insurance is adversely selected when insurers and insureds are symmetrically informed about health-related risks, and that there can be adverse or advantageous selection when insureds are privately informed. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, I find that (i) public insurance is, on balance, adversely selected under the German public health insurance with opt out scheme, (ii) individuals advantageously select public insurance based on risk aversion and residential location, and (iii) there is suggestive evidence of asymmetric information in the market for private health insurance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  11. Marketing Positioning and Requirements for Commercial Insurance Business under the Situation of Healthcare Reform%医改形势下商业保险经营定位和发展要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志伟; 尹相录

    2014-01-01

    There are deficiencies in institutional framework, forms of protection, level of protection within the Medical Security System of China. A series of encouraging and supporting policy and advices have been published to encourage and support the development of multi-level, diversifi ed health insurance. Under this background, commercial health insurance should become the major supplier of the basic health care management, catastrophic illness and other supplementary medical insurance; major supplier of health insurances other than the basic healthcare while focusing on providing the comprehensive health services. Commercial health insurance has made outstanding achievements in business size, client, and service model; however, it still need clarify its role, intensify multilateral cooperation, explore complementary advantages, expand products, increase capacity, improve related policies, and regulate market.%我国医疗保障体系在制度框架、保障形式、保障程度等方面还存在一些不足。国家已经出台了一系列鼓励和支持发展多层次、多样化健康保险的政策意见。在这一背景下,商业健康保险应成为基本医保委托管理、大病保险及其他补充医疗保险重要供应商、基本医保以外的其他健康保险主要供应商,同时注重提供综合性健康服务。商业健康保险在业务规模、服务人群、服务模式等方面已经取得了突出成绩,但还应当进一步明确其角色定位,强化多方合作、优势互补,丰富产品、提高能力、完善政策、规范市场。

  12. Insurer vs. Insurance Fraud: Characteristics and Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry D. Todd; Sandra T. Welch; Orion J. Welch; Holmes, Sarah A

    1999-01-01

    Despite concern over insurance fraud by customers, the federal Insurance Fraud Prevention Act primarily targets internal fraud, or insurer fraud, in which criminal acts such as embezzlement could trigger an insurer’s insolvency, rather than fraud perpetrated by policyholders such as filing false or inflated claims—insurance fraud. This study investigates whether insurers’ weapons against insurance fraud are also used effectively to combat insurer fraud.

  13. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  14. Chinese Space Insurance Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2005-01-01

    Jiang Tai Insurance Broker Co., Ltd and China Pacific Insurance (group) Co., Ltd jointly held a conference on Space and Space Insurance on January 13 and 14, 2005. About 50 representatives from 30 domestic insurance companies attended the event.

  15. Optimal bank portfolio choice under fixed-rate deposit insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Anlong Li

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the investment decisions of a bank whose deposits are fully insured under fixed-rate insurance, showing how banks dynamically adjust their investment portfolios in response to market information and how this flexibility affects both investment decisions and the fair cost of deposit insurance.

  16. Essays on valuation and risk management for insurers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing attention of the insurance industry for market consistent valuation of insurance liabilities and the quantification of insurance risks. Important drivers of this development are the new regulatory requirements resulting from the introduction of IFRS 4 Phase

  17. Life Insurance In Russia: Features Of Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Leonidovna Prokopjeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life insurance is the economic tool allowing to accumulate large monetary funds at the level of the country, regions and certain insurers, and also providing growth of a standard of living of citizens and social stability in society. Subject matter of the research is the economic aspects of development of life insurance in regions of Russia. The purpose of the work — to carry out the comparative analysis of functioning of the markets for life insurance in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, to reveal regularities and distinctive features of development of the markets and to define further prospects of branch. Methods of research: analysis, comparison, induction, analogy, mathematical modeling were used. The main results of research: life insurance — a demanded financial product in Moscow, but in regions of Russia demand for it is extremely limited; economic indicators of the market have low values and vary on territorial subjects of the Russian Federation; statistics of a variation confirm heterogeneity of functioning of the life insurance marketin comparison with the insurance market in general; life insurance volumes in regions of Russia significantly depend on activity of real sector of economy, thus have practically no close interrelation with the income of the population. Collaboration of authorities of all levels and insurance community is necessary for effective development of the life insurance marketin regions. The special attention has to be paid to price policy of insurers, increase of transparency of the movement of their financial streams and guarantees of recoverability of means of insurers.

  18. Essays on valuation and risk management for insurers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing attention of the insurance industry for market consistent valuation of insurance liabilities and the quantification of insurance risks. Important drivers of this development are the new regulatory requirements resulting from the introduction of IFRS 4 Phase

  19. (AJST) THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER ON THE INSURANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incurred by owners of buildings and property , in fire domestic and industrial insurance classes, during the ... Derivatives market has grown out of the Energy market. The need for .... the coefficients of x - the independent variables and c is.

  20. Insurers Domestic Stock Holdings at US$13 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Insurers had invested nearly RMB106 billion (US$13billion) in mainland stock markets by late October, encouraged by officials eager to prop up sagging markets, the Xinhua News Agency said on Dec. 3.

  1. Cost differentials of dental outpatient care across clinical dentistry branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Rančić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental care presents affordability issues in Central & Eastern European transitional economies due to lack of insurance coverage in most countries of the region and almost complete out-of-pocket payments by citizens.Objective: Real world estimates on cost differentials across clinical dentistry branches, ICD-10 diagnostic groups and groups of dental services.Methods: Prospective case-series cost analysis was conducted from the patient perspective. A six months time horizon was adopted. Sample size was 752 complete episodes of treatment in 250 patients, selected in 2012/2013 throughout several specialist state- and private-owned dental clinics in Serbia. All direct costs of dental care were taken into account and expressed in Euros (€.Results: Mean total costs of dental care were € 46 ± 156 per single dentist visit while total costs incurred by this population sample were € 34,424. Highest unit utilization of services belongs to conservative dentistry (31.9%, oral surgery (19.5% and radiology (17.4%, while the resource with the highest monetary value belongs to implantology € 828 ± 392, orthodontics € 706 ± 667 and prosthetics € 555 ± 244. The most frequently treated diagnosis was tooth decay (33.8% unit services provided, pulpitis (11.2% and impacted teeth (8.5%, while most expensive to treat were anomalies of tooth position (€ 648 ± 667, abnormalities of size and form of teeth (€ 508 ± 705 and loss of teeth due to accident, extraction or local periodontal disease (€ 336 ± 339.Conclusion: Although the range of dental costs currently falls behind EU average, Serbia’s emerging economy is likely to expand in the long run while market demand for dental services will grow. Due to threatened financial sustainability of current health insurance patterns in Western Balkans, getting acquainted with true size and structure of dental care costs could essentially support informed decision making in future

  2. 我国寿险市场需求实证分析%The Empirical Analysis About The Demand Of The Life Insurance Market In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林娟

    2011-01-01

    近年,随着中国经济的发展,寿险市场也有了巨大的发展空间。本文通过建立计量经济模型研究各因素对寿险需求的影响程度,从而了解我国寿险市场的发展潜力。进而提出有关增强我国寿险公司的竞争力及拓宽我国寿险市场需求的可行性建议。%In recent years, with the development of economic, there' s huge space for the development of the life insurance industry. The effecting extent of various factors through the establishment of an econometric model was researched, which is prepared for understanding the potential of development about life insurance in China. Then the author put forward some practical recommendations about promoting the development of the life insurance industry in our country.

  3. 32 CFR 199.22 - TRICARE Retiree Dental Program (TRDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (B) Resin-based composite restorations. (C) Other restorative services. (iv) Endodontic services. (A... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false TRICARE Retiree Dental Program (TRDP). 199.22... TRICARE Retiree Dental Program (TRDP). (a) Purpose. The TRDP is a premium based indemnity dental insurance...

  4. 科技保险市场信息不对称的经济法矫正※%On Rectification of Information Asymmetry of Science and Technology Insurance Market by Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠

    2016-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the risk of science and technology, information asymmetry in science and technology insurance market is more complex than any other market. So it demands government, market and the society to work together to rectify the asymmetry. From the perspective of Economic law, the roles that government, market and the society play should be clarified following the principles of modest intervention, moderate intervention and justice intervention. On this basis, some specific systems are to be improved concerning such aspects: market access, industry intermediary organization development, government finance and tax incentives and public information service so as to rectify the information asymmetry.%由于科技风险的不确定性,科技保险市场中的信息不对称比其它市场更为复杂。信息不对称的复杂性决定需要政府、市场和社会在其中共同发挥矫正作用。经济法的完善思路是按照谦抑干预、适度干预和公正干预原则厘清政府与市场、社会的关系,并据此从市场准入、行业中介组织培育、政府财税激励和公共信息服务等方面完善具体制度,以达到矫正信息不对称的目的。

  5. Life Insurance Actuarial Model with Returnable Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanhuaiLang

    2004-01-01

    Insurance is the important aspect of finance. It has been fully developed in the western developed countries. With the fast development of market economy in our country,it is necessary to introduce the alien modern theories and techniques, and at the same time,adapt them to our concrete situation. The model of general life insurance product is to be established in this paper, including deferred life annuities, increasing whole life insurance and returnable premiums. Then through the regulation of various parameters, we can obtain various insurance products.

  6. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  7. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  8. Crop insurance: Risks and models of insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of crop protection is very important because of a variety of risks that could cause difficult consequences. One type of risk protection is insurance. The author in the paper states various models of insurance in some EU countries and the systems of subsidizing of insurance premiums by state. The author also gives a picture of crop insurance in the U.S., noting that in this country pays great attention to this matter. As for crop insurance in Serbia, it is not at a high level. The main problem with crop insurance is not only the risks but also the way of protection through insurance. The basic question that arises not only in the EU is the question is who will insure and protect crops. There are three possibilities: insurance companies under state control, insurance companies that are public-private partnerships or private insurance companies on a purely commercial basis.

  9. Interests of Insurance Business and Agricultural Producers: Metamorphoses of Agricultural Insurance with State Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Efimov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the basic aspects of the system of agricultural insurance with state support in the Russian Federation at the present stage. The relevance of the study is related to the presence of enduring problem that lies in the fact that, despite some efforts by the State of legislative, organizational and economic measures, insurance of agricultural risks in Russia does not give the desired effect. The authors provide clear arguments about the necessity of state support for agriculture, particularly insurance, analyze the volume of subsidized funds from the federal budget for the payment of premiums to insurance companies. The article contains the analysis of the amount of insurance premiums for agricultural insurance in the world and the proportion of premiums collected by Russian agro-stakeholders. The nonoptimality of structure types of agricultural insurance with state support is indicated. The authors describe the main problems and disadvantages of the existing system of agricultural insurance with state support (lack of awareness, a small number of insurance products, high rates of insurance rates, etc., as well as some of the contradictions of the current legislation (the “double subsidies”. As a good example, a model of agricultural insurance in the United States is shown. The reasoned conclusions are made about the imperfection of the current legislation in the area of agricultural insurance, which largely meets the interests of the insurer, not of the insured. It was noted that agricultural insurance with state support in the Russian Federation is insignificant in scale of agricultural areas and in the country as a whole. The authors also make contradictory conclusions on the development of agricultural insurance market in Russia, mainly related to the fact that the system of agricultural insurance in the Russian Federation is only in its infancy.

  10. Financial services with a special review of insurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudović Jasmina D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out certain characteristics of insurance market as a specific segment of financial services market. One of the characteristics of this market is the cost of insurance as differentia specific. The model presented in this paper shows how the insurer who is informed about the takeover risk can influence the cost of insurance. The development of insurance market indicates the development of national economies and the living standards. The data about the premium per capita national income per capita, the size of GDP and the number of citizens in different regions contain very interesting information. Processes of transition and macroeconomic reforms have led to a faster development of insurance in ex-socialist countries.

  11. O mercado de planos de saúde no Brasil: uma criação do estado? The creation of health insurance market in Brazil: did the state play a key role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Octávio Ocké-Reis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A hipótese central do trabalho afirma que o mercado de planos de saúde se expandiu no Brasil contando com o apoio do padrão de financiamento público mediante a aplicação de um conjunto variado de incentivos governamentais. Os procedimentos metodológicos adotados para investigar esta hipótese se apoiaram no estudo de parte da produção teórica que ilumina a área da economia política da saúde e na descrição de determinadas ações do Estado no campo das políticas de saúde, que acabaram patrocinando o crescimento dos planos e seguros privados de saúde nos últimos quarenta anos.The article's central hypothesis is that the health insurance market has expanded in Brazil thanks to the pattern of government financing, which has involved a varied set of government incentives. The methodological procedures adopted to investigate this hypothesis are based on the study of theory concerning the political economics of health services and the description of specific measures implemented by the State in the field of health policy, which have ended up supporting the growth of private health plans and insurance over the past forty years.

  12. Environmental pollution liability insurance in China: compulsory or voluntary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.L.; He, G.Z.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    China started the trial application of Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance in 2008, as part of a wider development of using market actors and market mechanisms in mitigating environmental pollution. Around the world and in China two main patterns of local pollution insurance practices can be

  13. Environmental pollution liability insurance in China: compulsory or voluntary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.L.; He, G.Z.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    China started the trial application of Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance in 2008, as part of a wider development of using market actors and market mechanisms in mitigating environmental pollution. Around the world and in China two main patterns of local pollution insurance practices can be

  14. A Proposal to Construct “Behavioral Insurance Theory”

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Traditional insurance economics derives some definite conclusions using the neoclassical economics method. However, those conclusions are too abstract to explain phenomena in the real insurance market. In other words, a number of anomalies remain that are not explained by traditional insurance economics. In this paper, in order to solve this problem, we propose the development of a ``behavioral insurance theory," which is influenced by the establishment of ``behavioral finance," which in turn...

  15. Approaches of the insurance companies to the settlement of claims

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the approaches of the insurance companies on the Czech insurance market to the settlement of claims. It deals with activities of the settlement of claims from report of a claim to the payment of an indemnity. In the analysis of the approaches of insurance companies to the settlement of claims this paper focuses on the five topics: direct settlement, elektronic file application, approach to the solutions of the insurance fraud, product advantage in connection with the claim...

  16. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division HR

    2000-01-01

    Change of name for AUSTRIA As of October 1, the AUSTRIA Assurances S.A. company will change its name to: UNIQA Assurances S.A. It inherits the same name as its parent Austrian company, which adopted it towards the end of 1999. This change has no effect on the contract which binds it to CERN for the administration of our Health Insurance Scheme. New insurance cards will be sent to you by UNIQA and the printed forms and envelopes will gradually be updated with the new name. Postal and phone addresses remain unaffected by the change. You should address your postal mail to: UNIQA Assurances rue des Eaux Vives 94 case postale 6402 1211 Genève 6 You may telephone your usual contact persons at the same numbers as before and send e-mails to the UNIQA office at CERN at: UNIQA.Assurances@cern.ch

  17. HEALTH INSURANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN-AUSTRIA Agreement, which implemented CERN's health insurance scheme, expired on 31 December 1999.In accordance with CERN's rules, a call for tenders for the management of the health insurance scheme was issued and the contract was once again awarded to AUSTRIA. In June 1999, the Finance Committee thus authorised the Management to conclude a new contract with AUSTRIA, which came into force on 1st January 2000.Continuity is thus assured on favourable conditions and the transition from one contract to the other will entail no substantial changes in the system for those insured at CERN except for a few minor and purely formal amendmentsWHAT REMAINS UNCHANGEDThe list of benefits, i.e. the 'cover' provided by the system, is not changed;Neither is the reimbursement procedure.AUSTRIA's office at CERN and its opening hours as well as its city headquarters remain the same. The envelopes containing requests for reimbursement have had to be sent (since the end of 1998) to :Rue des Eaux-Vives 94Case postale 64021...

  18. [Insurance for civil responsibility in professional medicine: insurance systems and coverage for posterity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Ph

    2004-01-01

    The author presents the systems of medical liability insurance available on the Belgian market; they are at the moment based on loss occurrence, claims made or fact occurrence. The systems based on loss occurrence and on claims made impose the provision of an additional premium. Problems connected with changing the insurance company are touched upon, including sometimes a necessity to provide a precedence premium.

  19. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  20. Portfolio Insurance Strategies OBPI versus CPPI Based on Chinese Securities Market%中国证券市场上执行OBPI与CPPI策略比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈湘鹏; 刘海龙; 钟永光

    2006-01-01

    基于期权的投资组合保险(Option-Based Portfolio Insurance,OBPI)策略和恒定比例投资组合保险(Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance,CPPI)策略是两种广泛应用的投资组合保险策略.介绍了OBPI与CPPI策略的理论基础,针对我国证券市场,提出了实证研究的基本假设、操作方法以及绩效评价准则.实证结果表明,OBPI与CPPI策略都能达到预先设定的保本目标;在股市持续上涨时,OBPI策略的表现强于CPPI策略,其他市场状况则不如CPPI策略;在整体绩效上,两者之间的关系受投资期限和CPPI策略乘数取值的影响.

  1. Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.

  2. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  3. 45 CFR 148.122 - Guaranteed renewability of individual health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance coverage. 148.122 Section 148.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET... health insurance coverage. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all health insurance coverage in...

  4. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 62 - Federal Emergency Management Agency, Federal Insurance Administration, Financial Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program SALE OF INSURANCE AND ADJUSTMENT... maximum number of structures at risk and because the insurance industry has marketing access through its..., the Program is designed to increase industry participation, and accordingly, reduce or eliminate...

  5. Differences between insurance organizations: do consumers perceive differences in important areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hendriks, M.; Brouwer, W.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Competition on the insurance market assumes that insurance organizations differ in what they offer, that the consumers of insurance products perceive differences, and that information about differences is available in a transparent way. With the introduction of the insurance reform in Th

  6. Differences between insurance organizations: do consumers perceive differences in important areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hendriks, M.; Brouwer, W.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Competition on the insurance market assumes that insurance organizations differ in what they offer, that the consumers of insurance products perceive differences, and that information about differences is available in a transparent way. With the introduction of the insurance reform in

  7. Community Rating in Health Insurance : Trade-Off Between Coverage and Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.; Boone, Jan; Zwart, G.T.J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the role of community rating in the optimal design of a risk adjustment scheme in competitive health insurance markets when insurers have better information on their customers’ risk profiles than the sponsor of health insurance. The sponsor offers insurers a menu of risk adjustment

  8. Dental Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Domb, Ivor

    1982-01-01

    Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...

  9. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  10. Dental Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  11. INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE ACTIVITY AS BASIS FOR INCREASING ITS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pikus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and place of innovation as a factor of insurance business effectiveness growth are discussed. Peculiar attributes of innovations development resulting from insurance industry being a part of financial system is revealed. Unique features of innovations’ development in insurance business across different countries are discovered and analyzed. Fundamental trends of insurance products development are characterized: social networking, cloud computing, internet, business processes automation, market share growth of direct sales. Implementation of modern information technologies in insurance business is substantiated. Automation, internet-insurance and on-line insurance are justified to be essential for management of insurance business.

  12. The Reallocation of Compensation in Response to Health Insurance Premium Increases

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Dana P.; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how compensation packages change when health insurance premiums rise. We use data on employee choices within a single large firm with a flexible benefits plan; an increasingly common arrangement among medium and large firms. In these companies, employees explicitly choose how to allocate compensation between cash and various benefits such as retirement, medical insurance, life insurance, and dental benefits. We find that a $1 increase in the price of health insurance leads...

  13. 77 FR 12517 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... regulate disenrollment on this basis, beyond authorizing involuntary disenrollment for non-payment...) Space maintenance. (iii) Restorative services. (A) Amalgam restorations. (B) Resin-based composite... of postsurgical complications. (E) Crowns. (F) Bridges. (G) Dentures. (3) Selection of...

  14. Practical marketing for dentistry. 2. The core concepts of marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R

    1996-06-08

    This series identifies the ideas and concepts behind modern marketing thinking, and suggests areas for consideration when creating a marketing 'culture' within general dental practices, dental supplies businesses, service suppliers, laboratories-or indeed any organisation which wants to succeed in today's challenging conditions.

  15. [Occupational health services as the insurance product and insurance economic instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in restructuring the Polish health insurance system is the implementation of private voluntary insurance and creation within it a new insurance product known as occupational health services (OHS). In this article some opportunities and dilemmas likely to be faced by providers and employers/employees, when contracting with insurance institutions, are considered as a contribution to the discussion on private insurance in Poland. The basic question is how private insurance institutions could influence the promotion of different preventive activities at the company level by motivating both OHS providers and employers. The descriptive qualitative method has been applied in the analysis of legal acts, scientific publications selected according to keywords (Pubmed), documents and expert evaluations and research project results. Taking into account the experiences of European countries, described in publications, international experts' opinions and results of research projects the solution proposed in Poland could be possible under the following several prerequisites: inclusion of a full scope of occupational health services into the insurance product, constant supervision of occupational medicine professionals, monitoring of the health care quality and the relations between private insurers and OHS provider and implementation of the economic incentives scheme to ensure an adequate position of OHS providers on the market. The proposed reconstruction of the health insurance system, comprising undoubtedly positive elements, may entail some threats in the area of health, organization and economy. Private voluntary health insurance implementation requires precisely defined solutions concerning the scope of insurance product, motivation scheme and information system.

  16. Supplementary insurance as a switching cost for basic health insurance: Empirical results from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse-Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; van de Ven, Wynand P M M; Mosca, Ilaria

    2017-08-10

    Nearly everyone with a supplementary insurance (SI) in the Netherlands takes out the voluntary SI and the mandatory basic insurance (BI) from the same health insurer. Previous studies show that many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost for BI. Because consumers' current insurer provides them with a guaranteed renewability, SI is a switching cost if insurers apply selective underwriting to new applicants. Several changes in the Dutch health insurance market increased insurers' incentives to counteract adverse selection for SI. Tools to do so are not only selective underwriting, but also risk rating and product differentiation. If all insurers use the latter tools without selective underwriting, SI is not a switching cost for BI. We investigated to what extent insurers used these tools in the periods 2006-2009 and 2014-2015. Only a few insurers applied selective underwriting: in 2015, 86% of insurers used open enrolment for all their SI products, and the other 14% did use open enrolment for their most common SI products. As measured by our indicators, the proportion of insurers applying risk rating or product differentiation did not increase in the periods considered. Due to the fear of reputation loss insurers may have used 'less visible' tools to counteract adverse selection that are indirect forms of risk rating and product differentiation and do not result in switching costs. So, although many high-risks perceive SI as a switching cost, most insurers apply open enrolment for SI. By providing information to high-risks about their switching opportunities, the government could increase consumer choice and thereby insurers' incentives to invest in high-quality care for high-risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethics into Finance: The Level of Ethics in Islamic Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Lukman Ayinde Olorogun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, ethics have become an essential marketing tool. Both conventional and Islamic financial institutions have claimed to have operates on ethical ground. In the wave of overlapping between these institutions, Islamic insurance has adopted “ethics†as its major marketing strategy or slogan in order to penetrate into the Muslims and non-Muslims insurance markets. Methodology: Using Islamic principles to present ethics in its business relegates Islamic law to ethics only. Thus,...

  18. Study on the Dynamical Model of a Triopoly Game in Insurance Market%保险市场中三寡头垄断的动态博弈模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 马军海

    2013-01-01

    We consider the dynamical model of a triopoly price game in insurance market.In this model,one makes adaptive decision,the other two make decision with bounded rationality,then the differential equation model of triopoly price game is obtained.The system has only one Nash equilibrium.The stability and the existence of Hopf bifurcation of the system are studied.Numerical simulation results have further confirmed the accuracy of the theory and shown the dynamical behavior of the system.The insurance companies make decision in the price game with delay,they must choose appropriate value of the delayed parameter and decrease the speed of price adjustment.The system will become stable as soon as possible.%考虑三寡头垄断的保险市场动态价格博弈模型.在模型中,一个寡头采取自适应决策,其余两个寡头采取有限理性决策,由此建立三寡头价格博弈微分方程模型.系统有唯一的Nash均衡点.并对该系统的稳定性和Hopf分岔的存在性进行研究.数值模拟结果证实了理论的准确性,并且展示了系统的动态行为.保险公司在考虑延迟的价格博弈的过程中,必须控制好延迟参数的值,并适当地降低自身价格调整速度,以使系统尽快稳定到平衡状态.

  19. ECONOMIC AND MANAGERIAL APPROACH OF HEALTH INSURANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Dragomir

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizesthe necessity and the opportunity of creating in Romania a medical service market based on the competingsystem. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their very beginning. The development of thedomain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of anormative act that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment ofthe legislation related to the optional insurances for health care might lead to some activity norms for thecompanies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislation is made in order tocreate normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. Thischange, as part of the social protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medicalinsurance system. The extension of the segment of the optional insurances into the medical insurance segmentincreases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong to thebudgetary funds.

  20. Forestry Standardization & Forestry Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Forestry insurance of our country has developed slowly,of which the main difficulty lies in predicting and determining forestry risk,confirming the sum insured,raising the premiums, indemnity for property loss,coordinating forestry insurance and forestry protection,and lack of insurance legal system etc.With the implementation of forestry's standardized project,and overcoming effectively the technological obstacle existing in forestry's insurance,the development speed of forestry's insurance will be accelerated too.

  1. The Market Power in the Old-age Insurance System:Development of Chinese Enterprise Annuity%养老保险中的市场力量:中国企业年金的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩克庆

    2016-01-01

    市场化改革以来,中国建立了统账结合的基本养老保险制度。作为基本养老保险重要补充的企业年金也有了很大发展。但目前企业年金仍然存在以下主要问题:国企、外企、民企加入的差异性较大;员工激励功能发挥有限;税收优惠政策不到位;投资运营环境不够健全;运作主体和流程复杂繁琐。鉴于此,中国企业年金的未来发展,需要处理好企业年金与基本养老保险和职业年金之间的关系,做实基本养老保险个人账户,简化企业年金的运作主体和流程,降低企业年金的准入门槛,加强对企业年金的学术研究。%Since the implementation of the market-oriented reform,China has set up a basic pension in-surance system which is combined with social pooling account and individual account.As an important supplementary pillar of basic old-age insurance,enterprise annuity has developed rapidly.Based on qualitative research,this paper analyses the major problems of enterprise annuity at this stage.First, the participating rates differ significantly among state-owned enterprises,foreign enterprises,and pri-vate enterprises.Second,enterprise annuity plays a limited role in motivating talents.Third,the tax preference policy is still vague.Fourth,the investment environment of enterprise annuity fund is not perfect.Fifth,the operation mechanism of enterprise annuity is rather complex.To address these prob-lems,the following is proposed:in the future,the Chinese enterprise annuity should deal with the re-lationship between basic old-age insurance and enterprise annuity;policy recommendations should be made to consolidate the individual account fund and simplify the operation mechanism of enterprise an-nuity;barriers to joining enterprise annuity plan should be reduced, and academic research of enterprise annuity be strengthened.

  2. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  3. A Dental School Sponsored, Pre-Paid Dental Plan for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Paula K,

    1992-01-01

    Boston University (Massachusetts) developed and marketed a dental care plan to three colleges and universities in the Boston area. After 5 academic years of operation, the dental program has 16 institutional affiliates, increased its patient pool by almost 1,500, generated substantial revenue, and exposed dental students to an alternative dental…

  4. Communications Centre Model in Insurance Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Bara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a communications centre model in an insurance company that essentially has two objectives. The first objective is focused on providing quality support with the sales process thereby creating a strategic advantage over the competition while the second objective is focused on improving the link between internal organizational units whose behaviour can often render decision-making at all levels difficult. The function of sales is fundamental for an insurance company. Whether an insurance company will fulfil its basic function, which is transfer of risk from the insured party to the insurer who agrees tonreimburse incidental damages to the damaged party and distribute them among all members of the risk group on the principles of reciprocity and solidarity, depends on successful sales and billing (Andrijašević & Petranović, 1999. For an insurance company to operate successfully in a demanding market, it is necessary to meet the needs of potential clients who then must be at the centre of all the activities of the insurer. A satisfied policy holder, who is respected by the insurer as a partner, is a guarantee that the sales of insurance services will be successful and that the insured party will come back to the same insurance company. In the era of globalization and all-pervading new technologies and modes of communication, policy holders need to be able to communicate with insurance company employees. Quality communication is a good foundation for a sales conversation. A fast flow of all types of information within an organisation using a single communication module makes decision-making at all levels quicker and easier.

  5. Market Watch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The service sector faces headwinds due to lagging demand.Chinese companies’ IPOs are shrinking as the stock markets remain bearish and regulatory rules have raised the listing threshold.The country rolls up its sleeves to develop environmentally friendly wind power.Domestic energy firms quicken the pace of their outbound mergers and acquisitions.E-commerce giant Alibaba reports disappointing profits.Foreign insurance firms find it difficult to expand their China presence.

  6. Health-insurance products and plan options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkstetter, W D

    1990-10-01

    Trends in health insurance are discussed, with emphasis on insurers' efforts to offer an array of cost-effective plans tailored to the needs of employers and subscribers. Health-insurance companies, responding to employers' demands to curtail the rising costs of premiums, now offer a variety of insurance products. While indemnity plans, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and preferred-provider organizations (PPOs) remain as the three basic types of plans, insurers are combining these elements in different ways, creating dual- and triple-option plans that consist of indemnity insurance and an HMO, a PPO and an HMO, or other variations. Insurers offering multiple options may effect internal cost savings through shared personnel and administrative expenses. Four factors influence the development and marketing of insurance products: cost and volume of healthcare services, adverse selection, competition, and the profit incentive. Many of the insurance products have been developed in response to requests for maximum freedom of choice of provider; as an example, the fastest-growing HMO product in 1989 was the point-of-service HMO, which allows the subscriber to seek care from a provider who is not part of the HMO network. PPOs and exclusive-provider organizations (EPOs) are growing; these are often organized by hospitals or physician networks. Among the new trends in product-line development are "riders" for specialty services such as vision care and prescription drugs. As competition intensifies, marketing efforts are focusing on previously overlooked groups such as the small employer and certain ethnic communities. Cost and freedom of choice will remain important criteria in the selection of insurance products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Social Insurance in Romania - Concern for Governors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Panaitescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the comparative research of the public and private insurance systems is important as itprovides financial benefits to the individuals who have lost their income due to their old age, along with theirdecreased labour ability caused by disabilities, disease, motherhood, work related accidents orunemployment, and the resulting benefits are conditioned by the due contributions; Prior Work: this workcontinues previous research conducted for the PhD thesis called “Improving Management in the Public andPrivate Insurance Systems in the Market Economy”; Approach: the main methods that have been used insurveys and observation of the population’s behaviour; Results: in order to reduce the financial restraints thatthe public insurance system has to cope with, the concrete implementation of a social insurance system basedon the needs and value scales of the Romanian state is necessary; Implications: academics and researchersinterested in the Romanian social insurance system management and its long run effects on the population;Value: the insurance systems determins the quality of life for most of the population and strongly influencethe economy, especially the labour market and the capital market. This is why social security is a commonchallenge for all European countries.

  8. TOPICAL ISSUES OF REGULATION AND CONTROL IN THE SPHERE OF INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina F. Kuzovleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with urgent problems of regulation in connection with the transfer of responsibility for supervision of the insurance industry to the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. It is proposed to tighten supervision sectors of the insurance market, engaged in long term insurance and obligatory types of insurance, as well as the structure of insurance reserves, transfered in trust management.

  9. Insurances in the petroleum industry; Seguros na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Juliana S.F. [IRB-Brasil Resseguros, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work shows an overview, focused mainly Brazil, of the insurance branch that deals with the upstream activities. The oil industry represents a substantial exposition for insurance international market because of the catastrophic nature of its risks, that entails a capacity dependency. The most of Insurance split into several insurers and reinsurer and are distributed into several markets and several regions of the world. The oil and gas branch of insurance covers: physical damage to equipment (platforms, vessels, drill ship etc), build, operation and liability in consequence of claims. The contract of insurance is complex because it is specific and demands much negotiation of rates and conditions. Moreover it is needed to find reliable insurers which want to accept the risk. There are alternatives to insurance market created by oil companies such as Captive and Mutual companies. The insurance international market built a complex and customized structure in order to be able to offer coverage to upstream risks and to participate in the amounts related to oil and gas production. (author)

  10. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  11. 推广期“非试点”区域科技保险市场发展平台构建%To build the Platform of "No Pilot" Area Science and Technology Insurance Market for Development in Promotion Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖天明

    2012-01-01

    With the analysis for the necessity of the platform construction of "no pilot" area science and technology insurance market sustainable development . Then pointed out the key element to hinder the sustainable development of "no pilot" area science and technology insurance market is the insurance enterprises shortage and analyze the causes inductively. Basing on above, he "no Pilot" area science and technology insurance market platform of sustainable development .which consists of the concept platform, platform for propaganda, laws and policy platform, talent platform, insurance variety platform and social service platform is constructed basing on the successful experience of "pilot" area.%首先分析了推广期“非试点”区域构建科技保险市场可持续发展平台的必要性,指出阻碍“非试点”区域科技保险市场可持续发展的关键要素是参保企业数量不足并归纳分析其中的原因,在此基础上,借鉴“试点”区域的成功经验,为“非试点”区域系统构建由观念平台、宣传平台、法制政策平台、人才平台、险种平台和社会配套服务平台构成的科技保险市场可持续发展平台.

  12. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel.

  13. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Oct 21, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email ... of the ACA on women’s coverage. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.5 million ...

  14. Economic and Managerial Approach of Health Insurances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela BOBOC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis in the domain of the social insurances for health care. It emphasizes the necessity and the opportunity ofcreating in Romania a medical service market based on the competing system. In Romania, the social insurances for health care are at their verybeginning. The development of the domain of the private insurances for health care is prevented even by its legislation, due to the lack of a normativeact that may regulate the management of the private insurances for health care. The establishment of the legislation related to the optional insurancesfor health care might lead to some activity norms for the companies which carry out optional insurances for health care. The change of the legislationis made in order to create normative and financial opportunities for the development of the optional medical insurances. This change, as part of thesocial protection of people, will positively influence the development of the medical insurance system. The extension of the segment of the optionalinsurances into the medical insurance segment increases the health protection budget with the value of the financial sources which do not belong tothe budgetary funds.

  15. The implementation of the international experience of regulation of contruction risk insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Melko

    2017-03-01

    In general, governmental regulation of insurance activity in construction area is implemented in such forms as: the formation of the legal framework, the implementation of insurance supervision and control, the registration and licensing of the insurance. The regulation of the insurance sector is diverse in its nature. Processes of the regulation of the insurance business have to consider a number of diverse interests of both insurers and insurance holders. The effectiveness of the regulation depends on the fullness of consideration of long-term market factors.

  16. STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage, formation of the reserve fund and achieve the insurer has a specific benefit, get the first tariff or first gross.

  17. Management of risks at the insurance companies and solvency II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If we assume that the key determination of each insurance company is in increasing the competitiveness of the offer of insurance services, growth in the market share and making a profit, the question is how and by what methods these pretty often opposite goals are possible to achieve in the most efficient way. In addition to the traditional approach of increasing the insurance portfolio, and consequently the total insurance funds, the basic condition for enhancing the positioning of insurance companies in the insurance market is a quality risk managing, with which every insurance company faces in its business. The growing internationalization and the concentration of the insurance business, the emergence of new risks, as well as the need for an integral comprehension of all risks with which insurers face in their business, have led to the definition of a new project for regulation of the solvency of insurance and reinsurance companies at EU level - Solvency II. Just because of this, the subject of this study is a field of risk management in insurance companies, with emphasis on the role and importance of the new regime for regulation. The subject is insufficiently present in scientific research circles and it is imperative of the present time, in order to readily go to meet changes and wait for the mandatory implementation in the time ahead of us. It will be pointed to the basic shortcomings of the previous model, better known as Solvency I, and introduced a new system of measuring solvency, based on risk. The unique rules will also be determined for measuring solvency of insurance companies which encourage insurers to implement risk management activities and develop their own models for risk quantification. The essence of the new model, better known as Solvency II, is a comprehensive analysis of all risks that the insurer meets, and not just those who are assumed to be insured.

  18. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  19. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  20. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips ... offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants ...

  1. Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Dental Assistants PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Dental Assistants Do About this section Assistants prepare and ...

  2. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  3. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  4. Why Do Insurance-Linked Exchange-Traded Derivatives Fail?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Bouriaux; Michael J. Tomas III

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reasons why exchange-traded insurance-linked derivatives like catastrophe insurance futures and options have failed to attract interest from financial market participants. There are various risk components embedded in exchange-traded catastrophe insurance derivatives—namely, basis risk, liquidity risk, and development risk—which may limit their appeal to the hedging and investing communities. Our analysis suggests that the choice of an industry loss index as a trigger ...

  5. Bankruptcy, medical insurance, and a law with unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Congress passed the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) in 1986, guaranteeing a standard of medical care to anyone who entered an emergency room. This guarantee made default a more reliable substitute for medical insurance. I construct a tractable structural model of the medical insurance market and find that repealing EMTALA would increase the fraction of the population with insurance while decreasing its price.

  6. THE FEASIBILITY OF FARM REVENUE INSURANCE IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Huirne, Ruud B.M.; Hardaker, J. Brian

    1999-01-01

    Arrow (1965) stated that making markets for trading risk more complete can be socially beneficial. Within this perspective, we discuss the feasibility of farm revenue insurance for Australian agriculture. The feasibility is first discussed from an insurer's point of view. Well-known problems of moral hazard, adverse selection and systemic risk are central. Then, the feasibility is studied from a farmer’s point of view. A simulation model illustrates that gross revenue insurance can be both ch...

  7. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  8. Macro Economy Blooms the Life Insurance Companies in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartheeswari S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In India, Insurance has been synonymous with LIC. Life Insurance Corporation (LIC was created as an entity in 1956 through LIC Act. The presence of new players in the market has no doubt resulted in enhanced product innovation, distribution models, better services and value added benefits. The significant components of expansion in the life sector have been the enormous growth in unit linked insurance plans and allied services. Though LIC of India require time to adopt themselves to the competitive environment and the associated contemporary structural changes, the post-deregulation period has seen greater diversification in the product offerings with added emphasis on marketing and distribution strategies. Now, insurance is driving the infrastructure sector by increasing investments each year. Further, insurance has boosted the employment scenario in India by providing direct as well as indirect employment opportunities[1]. The insurance market depends on a variety of economic and non-economic factors, and the future performance is difficult to predict. It has been observed that there is a significant relationship between the demand for life insurance and various macroeconomic variables. High growth of GDP induces an economic effect through higher per-capita and disposable income and savings, which in turn create a favourable market demand for life insurance. On the other hand, life insurance also gives support to the capital market and savings of Indian life insurance business. Data pertaining to Indian life insurance and macroeconomic variables broadly indicate a close relationship and interdependence between economic variables and life insurance demand.

  9. 保险市场投保方道德风险的控制的监督机制%Supervision mechanism for the control of moral hazard in insurance market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞丹

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's insurance industry, fraud insurance events increased, restricting the healthy development of the insurance industry. By using the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, the game relationship between the insurer and the insured is analyzed, and the supervision mechanism for control of the moral hazard of the insured is established.%随着我国保险事业的快速发展,伴随而来的是骗保事件的增加,制约着保险事业的健康发展。运用混合战略纳什均衡对保险人与投保人之间的博弈关系的分析进行研究,建立了对投保方道德风险的控制的监督机制。

  10. PRIVATE OR PUBLIC PENSION INSURANCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomil Manov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The most recent trends in population dynamics and increased longevity risk have provoked a rigorous debate whether the private or the public pension insurance system should be predominant. The public pension insurance is dominated by the state that guarantees its stability, but is often compared to a pyramid or a Ponzi scheme. The private pension insurance provides personal retirement accounts and proper ownership of the accumulated funds, but its sustainability during prolonged market crises and inadequate risk sharing are often questioned. In order to address the issue, this study analyzes and compares a large set of arguments and popular opinions in favour and against both pension models. As a result of the study, a conclusion is drawn stating that both types of pension insurance, despite of their positive and negative features have their essential role nowadays. This study is part of a growing set of articles on the feasibility of using a proper combination of the two pension models and will contribute to future research on the topic and might benefit policymakers in taking an appropriate decision.

  11. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  12. Management of visual communications in insurance companies (on the example of using icons in logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trynchuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of insurance business development in Ukraine and Russia in the late XIX – early XXI centuries, generation and identification of special aspects of formation and use of sacred art elements in corporate identity of insurance companies. The purpose of this article is to discuss the concept of management of visual communications in insurance companies, an important component of which is the formation and development of brands in the insurance market, which include elements of sacred art. Corporate identity gives insurers a new methodology for managing marketing communications. The author proves the corporate identity of insurance companies and its place in the system of marketing communications. Due attention is paid to corporate identity of National Joint-Stock Insurance Company “Oranta” (Ukraine, Insurance LLC “Oranta” (Russia and Insurance Company “Rossiya” (Russia. There are given examples of the use of Orans (Oranta and the Burning Bush icons inscriptions in corporate identity of insurance companies. The author describes icons in corporate identity of insurance companies and definitely their role in the communication process. Conflict situations over the use of the Orans brand in Ukraine are analyzed. The need to be careful enough in using sacred symbols in the corporate style of insurance companies is emphasized. Evolution of the logo insurance companies is presented. Examples of integrating corporate identity into the strategy and tactics of insurance companies are shown.

  13. Pricing of General Insurance and the Impact of Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Martin

    To set the insurance premium correctly is of outmost importance on a competitive insurance market. Hence the overall objective of this thesis is to improve the pricing, first by using individual claims information, and second by using information about the individuals choice of coverage. Regarding...

  14. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe. W

  15. World Insurance : the evolution of a global risk network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo-Guerrero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    As Frank C. Spooner noted in 1983 (Risk at Sea: Amsterdam Insurance and Maritime Europe, 1766-1780, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), it was insurance and not war or diplomacy what made possible the opening of the markets in the Far East in the first decade of the seventeenth century. Travelli

  16. THE FINANCIAL RESTORATION OF INSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINITA TULEASCA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The entire legal regulation of the insurance market is focused on the protection of the insurance policies holders, on keeping their trust in the insurance system and on the maintenance of the financial market steadiness. Noticing and solving the problems prior to the occurrence of insurers’ insolvency situation represents a fundamental aspect for the means of achieving such objective.By this survey we will analyse the financial restoration procedure of the insurance companies, Romanian legal entities, through the perspective of the whole aggregate of legal issues involved by this extremely complex and sensitive process required by the special nature of the insurance companies and by the impact of the activities carried out by these companies for the economic and social life of a state.Thus, there have been pointed out the particularities and the special nature of the insurance companies’ financial restoration as compared to the reorganization of the regular trade companies, the insurers’ means of avoiding the business failure, of avoiding the bankruptcy.

  17. Stimulating the demand for dental care: An application of Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; de Haan, W.; ter Horst, G.

    1985-01-01

    Applied I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein's (1980) attitude-behavior model to the problem of stimulating the demand for dental care with 329 members (aged 21-50 yrs) of health insurance companies who had not received regular dental treatment and/or certificate of dental fitness for at least 2 1/2 yrs. Applyi

  18. Inflation and Firms′Price Distribution:A Study on the Auto Insurance Market%通货膨胀与厂商间价格分布--以车险市场为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向楠

    2016-01-01

    品选择需要考虑互动性,加强货币政策的透明度和市场预期管理,发展信息类市场基础设施以降低消费者和厂商的信息搜寻成本。%Price dispersion and firms′relative price variability which measure the price distribution among firms from the static and dynamic perspective respectively, are two important micro phenomenons.As a basic macro phenomenon, inflation influences the macro economy and the decision of micro units greatly.This paper studies inflation whether and how to influence the two types of price distribution among firms. Based on the literature explaining the existence of long-term price dispersion, firm menu cost theory, consumer search theo-ry and firm signal extraction theory, this paper puts forward four research hypotheses.We collected the data on the auto insurance market, consumer price index and relevant variables of more than 200 prefecture-level cities during 2004 -2014 from several open and reliable data sources, considering some important advantages of the data from Chinese auto insurance market.Through the regression analysis based on the firm-city-year′s three-dimensional data and descriptive statistical analysis, we obtain the quantitative conclusions. The main results are as follows.①Price dispersion significantly exists in the auto insurance market and auto insurers′rela-tive price fluctuates greatly which can explain the long-term price dispersion.②No obvious evidence shows the effects of expec-ted inflation on price dispersion or firm′s relative price variability, so the prediction of menu costs theory is not supported.③Unexpected inflation ( absolute value) has a positive and significant effect on price dispersion which supports the predictions of consumer search theory.④Unexpected inflation ( absolute value) has a positive and significant effect on firms′relative price variability which supports the predictions of firms signal extraction theory. This paper uses the

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:U.S.financial turmoil has sailed across the Pacific,landed on the Chinese mainland and relentlessly stabbed at the hearts of investors.One of the qualified domestic institu- tional investor(QDII)products the nation was once proud of lost half its value and was forced off the list.China Pacific Insurance became the first to fall below its IPO price amid the mainland mar- ket downturn,probably signaling the era of the bear market.The mainland stock market kept nosediving,ignoring the large profit growth of listed companies,which in turn slashed investors’ confi- dence.The prospects of the financial market remained bleak.

  20. 7 CFR 457.132 - Cranberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (5) Volcanic eruption; (6) Failure of irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that...—Removal of the cranberries from the bog. Market price—The cash price per barrel of cranberries offered by...

  1. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (e) Wildlife; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply... planted to the insured crop. Local market price—The price per pound for raw sugar offered by buyers in the...

  2. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eruption; or (h) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs during... price. The price per pound for raw sugar offered by buyers in the area in which you normally market the...

  3. Econometric analysis of the impact of agricultural insurance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the impact of agricultural insurance of farming systems in the middle belt, Nigeria. ... increased risks associated with the adoption of commercial farming practices. ... and released a greater proportion of their output to the market for sale.

  4. Small firms' demand for health insurance: the decision to offer insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the decisions by small business establishments (offer health insurance. We estimate a theoretically derived model of establishments' demand for insurance using nationally representative data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey and other sources. Findings show that offer decisions reflect worker demand, labor market conditions, and establishments' costs of providing coverage. Premiums have a moderate effect on offer decisions (elasticity = -.54), though very small establishments and those employing low-wage workers are more responsive. This suggests that premium subsidies to employers would be an inefficient means of increasing insurance coverage. Greater availability of public insurance and safety net care has a small negative effect on offer decisions.

  5. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  6. Library service to dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashin, E R

    1983-01-01

    Dental school libraries offer resources of value to dental practitioners, but do not always consider practitioners to be primary clientele. A survey was conducted among the sixty U.S. dental school libraries to examine policies and attitudes toward service to practitioners. Although library use by dentists is estimated to be low, most libraries are willing to serve them as long as it does not reduce the libraries' ability to assist students and faculty. Of the respondents, 57% replied that they do not use promotional methods to inform dentists of available services. Greater involvement in marketing activities may benefit both libraries and dentists. PMID:6652300

  7. Theory and Model of Agricultural Insurance Subsidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Kailiang; Long Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    The issue of agricultural insurance subsidy is discussed in this paper aiming to make it provided more rationally and scientifically.It is started with the connection between agricultural insurance and financial subsidy.It is really necessary and crucial to implement the financial insurance due to the bad operational performance,especially in the developing countries.But the subsidy should be provided more rationally because financial subsidy has lots of negative effects.A model in competitive insurance markets developed by Ahsan et al(1982)and a farmers'decision model arc developed to solve the optimal subsidized rate.Finally,the equation is got to calculate it.But a quantitative subsidized rate is not made here because the calculation should be under some restricted conditions,which are always absent in the developing countries.So the government should provide some subsidy for the ex ante research and preparation to get the scientific probability and premium rate.

  8. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market.

  9. Supplemental health insurance: did Croatia miss an opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, John C

    2002-08-01

    Croatia continues to face a health-funding crisis. A recent supplemental health insurance law increases revenues through first increasing co-payments, then raising the payroll tax to cover those co-payments. This public finance "slight-of-hand" will not solve the system's structural issues and may worsen system performance both in terms of efficiency and equity. Should Croatia have considered private supplemental insurance as an alternative? There is a new single private supplemental health insurance market now evolving over the EU countries and into Eastern Europe. Croatians could take advantage of lowered costs due to larger risk pooling and the lower administrative overhead of mature insurance organizations. Private supplemental insurance, when designed well, can address several objectives, including a) increased revenues into the health sector; b) removal of the public burden of coverage of selected services for certain population groups; and c) encourage new management and organizational innovations into the sector. Private and multiple company insurance markets are thought to be superior in terms of consumer responsiveness; choice of benefits; adoption of new, more expensive technology; and use of private sector providers. Private sector insurers may also encourage "spillover" effects encouraging reforms with public sector insurance performance. There is already an emerging private insurance market in Croatia, but can it be expanded and properly regulated? The private insurance companies might capture as much as 30-70% of the market for certain services, such as high cost procedures, preferred providers, and hotel amenities. But the Government will need to strengthen the regulatory framework for private insurance and assure that there is adequate regulatory capacity.

  10. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 198

  11. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  12. Dworkin's prudent insurance ideal: two revisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtulmuş, Ahmet Faik; Kurtulmus, Ahmet Faik

    2012-01-01

    This article offers two revisions to Dworkin’s ‘prudent insurance ideal’, which aims to account for justice in the distribution of healthcare so that (a) it can deal with market failures in healthcare and (b) when applied to unjust societies it addresses health problems caused by injustice in a fair manner.

  13. Community dental clinics: providers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bruce B; MacEntee, Michael I; Harrison, Rosamund; Hole, Rachelle; Mitton, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Not-for-profit community dental clinics attempt to address the inequities of oral health care for disadvantaged communities, but there is little information about how they operate. The objective of this article is to explain from the perspective of senior staff how five community dental clinics in British Columbia, Canada, provide services. The mixed-methods case study included the five not-for-profit dental clinics with full-time staff who provided a wide range of dental services. We conducted open-ended interviews to saturation with eight senior administrative staff selected purposefully because of their comprehensive knowledge of the development and operation of the clinics and supplemented their information with a year's aggregated data on patients, treatments, and operating costs. The interview participants described the benefits of integrating dentistry with other health and social services usually within community health centres, although they doubted the sustainability of the clinics without reliable financial support from public funds. Aggregated data showed that 75% of the patients had either publically funded or no coverage for dental services, while the others had employer-sponsored dental insurance. Financial subsidies from regional health authorities allowed two of the clinics to treat only patients who are economically vulnerable and provide all services at reduced costs. Clinics without government subsidies used the fees paid by some patients to subsidize treatment for others who could not afford treatment. Not-for-profit dental clinics provide dental services beyond pain relief for underserved communities. Dental services are integrated with other health and community services and located in accessible locations. However, all of the participants expressed concerns about the sustainability of the clinics without reliable public revenues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  15. Performance of the life insurance industry under pressure: efficiency, competition and consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X

    2012-01-01

    A well-performing life insurance industry benefits consumers, producers and insurance firm stockholders alike. Unfavourable market conditions stress the need for life insurers to perform well in order to remain solvent. Using a unique supervisory data set, this paper investigates competition and

  16. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities; Workers' Compensation Funds § 50.35 Entities that...

  17. ANALYSIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA - THE PAST FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PĂTRAȘCU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of insurance systems in Romania in the past five years. Unlike other European countries, it can be seen that Romania does not have a well-established insurance tradition. Insurance companies are constantly adapting to the realities of the financial situation and the market structure in Romania.

  18. 12 CFR 362.18 - Financial subsidiaries of insured state nonmember banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial subsidiary unless the bank notifies the customer that the entity underwriting, making a market... insured state nonmember bank or any of its insured depository institution affiliates or the financial... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial subsidiaries of insured...

  19. A perverse 'net' effect? Health insurance and ex-ante moral hazard in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debebe, Z.Y.; Kempen, L.A.C.M. van; Hoop, T.J. de

    2012-01-01

    Incentive problems in insurance markets are well-established in economic theory. One of these incentive problems is related to reduced prevention efforts following insurance coverage (ex-ante moral hazard). This prediction is yet to be tested empirically with regard to health insurance, as the healt

  20. РOLICY OF INSURANCE PROTECTION AND STRATEGY OF ITS REFORM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaletov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the essence of the role and tasks of the insurance policy in modern conditions. Insurance is defined as a system of policy measures authorities and business entities to use the tools of insurance and financial resources of insurers in order to effectively manage risks and ensure the implementation of the goals and objectives of socio-economic development of the country (region and business entities. Allocated to the insurance policy of the state, the corporate sector, households and insurance (reinsurance companies. The economic, social and informational categories of state regulation in the insurance industry, underlined the need to reform the insurance market taking into account the influence of external and internal threats. Define the objectives and principles of the strategy of reforming the system of state regulation of the insurance market of Ukraine. Proposed priorities for the development of the insurance market on the basis of deregulation and simplification of the regulatory environment, improvement of activity control and efficiency of state supervision, protecting the interests of insurance consumers and restore confidence in the insurance market.

  1. Performance of the life insurance industry under pressure: efficiency, competition and consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-performing life insurance industry benefits consumers, producers and insurance firm stockholders alike. Unfavourable market conditions stress the need for life insurers to perform well in order to remain solvent. Using a unique supervisory data set, this paper investigates competition and eff

  2. Environmental Pollution Liability Insurance in China: In Need of Strong Government Backing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; He, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution liability insurance was officially introduced in China only in 2006, as part of new market-based approaches for managing environmental risks. By 2012, trial applications of pollution insurance had been launched in 14 provinces and cities. More than ten insurance companies

  3. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  4. EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorb

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the evolution of the concept of insurance from the earliest forms to contemporary ones is shown. The development of insurance in Ukraine is demonstrated. A review of transformation of the insurance concept is presented in tabular form.

  5. How Has the Affordable Care Act Affected Health Insurers' Financial Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Starting in 2014, the Affordable Care Act transformed the market for individual health insurance by changing how insurance is sold and by subsidizing coverage for millions of new purchasers. Insurers, who had no previous experience under these market conditions, competed actively but faced uncertainty in how to price their products. This issue brief uses newly available data to understand how health insurers fared financially during the ACA's first year of full reforms. Overall, health insurers' financial performance began to show some strain in 2014, but the ACA's reinsurance program substantially buffered the negative effects for most insurers. Although a quarter of insurers did substantially worse than others, experience under the new market rules could improve the accuracy of pricing decisions in subsequent years.

  6. Insuring Solar Photovoltaics: Challenges and Possible Solutions; (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2010-02-01

    Insuring solar photovoltaic (PV) systems poses certain challenges. Insurance premiums, which can represent a significant part of overall costs for PV developers, can affect market competition. The market for certain types of insurance products is limited. Historical loss data is lacking, and test data for the long-term viability of PV products under real-life conditions is limited. Insurers' knowledge about PV systems and the PV industry is uneven even as the industry introduces innovative contractual structures and business models. Interviews conducted for this report with PV project developers, insurance brokers, and underwriters suggest government actions aimed at better testing, data collection, and communication could facilitate the development of a market for PV insurance products. This report identifies actions by governments, national laboratories, and other stakeholders that could accelerate the development of insurance products in support PV systems. Such actions include: increasing understanding of the solar PV industry among insurance professionals; expanding the availability of PV historical loss data; evaluating the expansion of renewable energy business classification; developing module and component testing capabilities and services offered by federal labs; and, advancing industry standards for PV system installers.

  7. Patterns of dental services and factors that influence dental services among 64-65 year-old regular users of dental care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Rosing, Kasper; Merete Lempert, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of dental services provided to 64-65-year-old Danes who are regular users of dental care over a 5-year period, to analyse whether this pattern is associated with socio-demographic and/or socioeconomic factors, and if different uses of dental services are related......-sectional study of all aged 64-65 (n = 37 234) who received a dental examination in 2009 was conducted. Clinical data comprised dental services received under the National Health Insurance reimbursement scheme, dental status and DMFT. Geographical, socio-demographic and socioeconomic data derived from public...... and social area-based factors and to some degree gender, income, and education must be taken into consideration as all these factors seem to influence the future demand for dental services....

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese stock markets plunged along with their global counterparts-the benchmark index lost 26.82 percent in the first half of this year, the worst performance among nations worldwide. China’s manu- facturing sector slowed and was clouded by a sense of pessimism as the June purchasing managers’ index dropped by 1.8 percentage points compared with May. Electronic manufacturer Foxconn plans to build a new large-scale plant in Henan Province to cut costs. Ping An Insurance tries to merge two banks to establish a stronger banking presence. Shanghai topped other cities as the most important financial center in China and a growing world financial hub.

  9. 24 CFR 886.121 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marketing. 886.121 Section 886.121... Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.121 Marketing. (a) Marketing of units and selection... Housing Marketing Plan, if required, and with all regulations relating to fair housing advertising...

  10. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  11. Social Marketing Analysis of Attitude Toward Compulsory Earthquake Insurance in Turkey(Türkiye’de Zorunlu Deprem Sigortasına Yönelik Tutumun Sosyal Pazarlama Kapsamında Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnil AYDIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the reasons behind the low-level purchases of compulsory earthquake insurance policies in Turkey. Based on online surveys with 667 people the findings of the study point out that there is a major communications gap to be filled in by the authorities and the insurance companies. The findings of the study also show that in addition to the demographic variables the personality characteristics of people also influence the attitude towards and the purchasing of compulsory earthquake insurance policies

  12. Problems and prospects of motor insuarance market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Kravchuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the impact of current problems in the economy on the state of the insurance market the functioning problems occur on structuring motor insurance market and its balance. The study aims to identify trends in motor insurance. The research of structuring and identifying the main trends in the motor insurance market allows to determine the vectors of perspective changes. The analysis of the motor insurance market functioning in Ukraine for the period of 2012–2014 has revealed the problems within the changes in the structure of this segment of the insurance market towards the insurance of civil liability of ground transport vehicles with a significant decline in the voluntary insurance with a primary flow of premiums from individuals. This analysis has allowed to formulate the necessary steps to further enhance of the motor insurance market taking into account the negative impact of lowering demand for this type of insured services, lowering solvency, slowdown the terms of insurance payments and the imperfection of relations settlement between insurers and policyholders.

  13. Practical marketing for dentistry. 1. What is marketing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R

    1996-05-25

    Do you really understand what 'marketing' means? Are you suspicious about the motives of those practising marketing? Is it ethical to promote dental and health services? Are we trying to make out that we offer more than we actually do? Is this a scheme dreamed up as a front for inferior services? The aim of this series is to demonstrate that marketing theory and concepts do have an ever increasing importance in today's dental practices. The series will explore different aspects of marketing thought and relate them to the practice environment, by use of practical examples and a case study.

  14. Performance of the Life Insurance Industry Under Pressure : Efficiency, Competition, and Consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Jacob A.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates efficiency and competition in the Dutch life insurance market by estimating unused scale economies and measuring efficiency-market share dynamics during 1995-2010. Large unused scale economies exist for small- and medium-sized life insurers, indicating that further consolid

  15. A Proposal to Construct “Behavioral Insurance Theory” (Revised Edition)

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Traditional insurance economics derives some definite conclusions using the neoclassical economics method. However, those conclusions are too abstract to explain phenomena in the real insurance market. In other words, a number of anomalies remain that are not explained by traditional insurance economics. In this paper, in order to solve this problem, we propose the development of a ``behavioral insurance theory," which is influenced by the establishment of ``behavioral finance," which in turn...

  16. Republic of Serbia; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note on Insurance Sector

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Note analyzes the insurance sector in Serbia. The Serbian insurance sector remains small and underdeveloped. Over the last three years, the market experienced little growth in real terms mainly owing to weak economic growth, fierce price competition among the growing number of players, and premium payment difficulties in the industrial sector, which forced many corporate policyholders to cancel their insurance. The paper highlights that the Serbian insurance sector is well capi...

  17. The role and significance of management in insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Stanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditions in which insurance organizations operate now in the Republic of Croatia are significantly altered compared to a few years ago. Changes in the economic system, which are still pending, alter the terms of the business of insurance organizations in Croatia and they require continuous monitoring of the environment, quick action, innovation and improvement of insurance services to meet the needs of users. Management has a key role in the implementation of organizational adjustments of insurance organizations in market conditions. In this article, the author discusses about management in insurance field with special emphasis on asymmetric informations and the role of information systems in modern management of these organizations. The work is complemented by the practical aspects of the insurance business.

  18. Insurance Contract Analysis for Company Decision Support in Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernovita, H. P.; Manongga, D.; Iriani, A.

    2017-01-01

    One of company activities to retain their business is marketing the products which include in acquisition management to get new customers. Insurance contract analysis using ID3 to produce decision tree and rules to be decision support for the insurance company. The decision tree shows 13 rules that lead to contract termination claim. This could be a guide for the insurance company in acquisition management to prevent contract binding with these contract condition because it has a big chance for the customer to terminate their insurance contract before its expired date. As the result, there are several strong points that could be the determinant of contract termination such as: 1) customer age whether too young or too old, 2) long insurance period (above 10 years), 3) big insurance amount, 4) big amount of premium charges, and 5) payment method.

  19. THE PERSISTENCE OF INSURERS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pervan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the academic researches have analyzed the persistence of profit for the manufacturing and (non-financial services sector. These studies were mainly conducted in advance market economies. In order to shed some light on the issue of persistence in corporate rates of return, this research aims to examine the persistence of profitability of financial entities i.e. non-life insurance companies operating in an emerging market economy, Croatia. In order to determine persistence of insurers’ profitability, a Markov Chains stochastic process is applied on the profitability classes that were formulated based on the changes of insurers’ ROA (return on assets indicator during the period from 2002 to 2011. The empirical results showed that profit persistence was more likely to occur within moderate profit classes/states.

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Many of China’s shoe manufacturers are closing up shop because of the appreciation of the yuan and slumping global demand. International financial uncertainties prompted China’s pre- mier to call for stabilizing the U.S. dollar. Mainland stock markets showed no signs of recovery from this round of global financial mar- ket recession. Share prices of heavily weighted stocks such as China Merchants Bank and Ping An Insurance of China lost 20-30 percent of their value after they announced major overseas acquisitions. Some mainland investors have turned to futures trading in light of the bearish stock markets. Many Chinese hotels are finding they have excessive supplies of rooms they cannot fill. Hougu coffee wants to become the number-one domestic coffee brand.

  1. A Hybrid Method to Predict Success of Dental Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhaneh Sadat Moayeri; Mehdi Khalili; Mahsa Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The market demand for dental implants is growing at a significant pace. Results obtained from real cases shows that some dental implants do not lead to success. Hence, the main problem is whether machine learning techniques can be successful in prediction of success of dental implants. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This paper presents a combined predictive model to evaluate the success of dental implants. The classifiers used in this model are W-J48, SVM, Neural Network...

  2. The Affordable Care Act and Health Insurance Exchanges: Advocacy Efforts for Children's Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynich, C Ashley; Casamassimo, Paul S; Seale, N Sue; Litch, C Scott; Reggiardo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate legislative differences in defining the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) pediatric dental benefit and the role of pediatric advocates across states with different health insurance Exchanges. Data were collected through public record investigation and confidential health policy expert interviews conducted at the state and federal level. Oral health policy change by the pediatric dental profession requires advocating for the mandatory purchase of coverage through the Exchange, tax subsidy contribution toward pediatric dental benefits, and consistent regulatory insurance standards for financial solvency, network adequacy and provider reimbursement. The pediatric dental profession is uniquely positioned to lead change in oral health policy amidst health care reform through strengthening state-level formalized networks with organized dentistry and commercial insurance carriers.

  3. On life insurance marketing misleading——angle based on mandate agency%浅析寿险销售误导——基于委托代理视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平兵; 董济玲

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,with the rapid development of the insurance industry,more attention is paid on the integrity of the industry,especially the sales misleading of life insurance,which restricts further development of the insurance industry.This paper analysises the reasons of life insurance sales misleading from the relationship between the insurer and agent,and proposes measures to promote the better development of the insurance industry.%近年来,伴随保险业的迅速发展,行业诚信问题也日益成为人们关注的焦点,特别是寿险销售误导问题,更是制约着保险业的进一步发展。本文从保险人与代理人之间的委托代理关系角度分析了寿险销售误导问题产生的原因,并提出了相应的解决措施,以促进保险业更好发展。

  4. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    attempt to present the necessity and importance of implementing expert systems in agricultural insurance as a solution of development of the Romanian agricultural sector since insurance play an important role in the stimulation of investments in agriculture and in the stabilization of agricultural producers incomes. The results of the study, at a conceptual level, confirms the necessity of aplying expert systems in agricultural insurance because of the benefits which would be created (informing agricultural producers about the existence and importance of agricultural insurance, the development of the insurance market which would lead to the development of agriculture, creation of new insurance products adapted to the needs of the farmers.

  5. Genetic information and insurance: some ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, O

    1997-08-29

    Life is risky, and insurance provides one of the best developed ways of controlling risks. By pooling, and so transferring risks, those who turn out to suffer antecedently uncertain harms can be assured in advance that they will be helped if those harms arise; they can then plan their lives and activities with confidence that they are less at the mercy of ill fortune. Both publicly organized and commercial insurance can organize the pooling of risk in ways that are beneficial for all concerned. They provide standard ways of securing fundamental ethical values such as solidarity and mutuality. Although policy holders do not know or contract with one another, each benefits from the contribution of others to a shared scheme for pooling and so controlling risk. Although there is a limit to the degree to which commercially-based insurance, where premiums depend on risk level, can go beyond mutuality towards solidarity, in practice it too often achieves a measure of solidarity by taking a broad brush approach to pooling risk. However, the ordinary practices of insurance, and in particular of commercial insurance, also raise ethical questions. These may be put in simple terms by contrasting the way in which an insurance market discriminates between different people, on the basis of characteristics that (supposedly) determine their risk level, and our frequent abhorrence of discrimination, in particular on the basis on religious, racial and gender characteristics. Are the discriminations on which insurance practice relies upon as standard acceptable or not? The increasing availability of genetic information, which testing (of individuals) and screening (of populations) may provide, could lend urgency to these questions. Genetic information may provide a way of obtaining more accurate assessment of individual risks to health and life. This information could be used to discriminate more finely between the risk levels of different individuals, and then to alter the

  6. Dental Hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  7. Growth prospects for the Brazilian reinsurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Honorato Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, resolution 168 of the National Council of Private Insurance (CNSP allowed international reinsurers to request authorization to operate in Brazil from the Superintendence of Private Insurance (SUSEP. This led to changes in the insurance and reinsurance markets. There is a lack of in-depth studies to evaluate the growth of the reinsurance market since its effective opening, taking into account macroeconomic factors and market reserve. This study aims to evaluate the size of the reinsurance market by examining: the main sectors of business that yield reinsurance, market concentration, share of GDP, and expectations for future growth. The main objective of this paper is to provide companies in the reinsurance segment with assistance in identifying the potential market, understanding its complexity: their main competitors, and possible operational niches. In addition, it provides new and existing reinsurers with an overview of difficulties in the market and the strategic positioning that the company must adopt in order to act more effectively within the industry. To achieve these goals, it analyzes the reinsurance market in detail, proposes methods or steps to take to define strategic positioning in the market, and offers a graphic "Performance vs. Importance Matrix." There is potential demand available to the insurance market which remains unmet. Despite the initial difficulties for companies operating in the sector, the market has demonstrated its potential for continued growth since its effective opening, which will ultimately attract reinsurers, making the market highly competitive.Key words: Reinsurance. Insurance. Growth Perspective.

  8. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY OF MOTOR VEHICLES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Ukraine and abroad. There were major problems allocation and market law. Highlighting the main trends and vectors of insurance of civil liability of vehicles. Consider the possible prospects of development and the comparative characteristics of insurance of civil liability of owners of vehicles in Ukraine and abroad. The influence of state supervision in terms of law and supervision of insurance companies in the form of civil legal insurance. Described problems insurance of civil liability of today. Compulsory insurance of civil liability of owners of vehicles, which aims to protect the property interests of citizens and legal persons in case of adverse effects is important for society. In the study of the mandatory insurance of civil liability of attention paid to the compulsory insurance of civil liability of owners of vehicles.

  9. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing. Sale of the insured crop directly to consumers without the intervention of an intermediary such as a wholesaler, retailer, packer, processor, shipper or buyer. Examples of direct marketing include... percentage you elect. Prune. A cultural practice performed to increase blueberry production as follows:...

  10. 7 CFR 457.101 - Small grains crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the irrigation water supply. 9. Replanting Payments (a) A replanting payment is allowed as follows... offered by buyers in the area in which you normally market the insured crop. The local market price will... elections you choose for each type must have the same percentage relationship to the maximum price offered...

  11. 76 FR 20727 - National Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... diversified, open- end management investment company.\\3\\ Currently, VIPFV has 31 investment portfolios, one of... substitution of shares of the Money Market Portfolio (the ``Replacement Portfolio'') of the Variable Insurance Products Fund V (``VIPFV'') for shares of the Money Market Fund (the ``Substituted Portfolio'') of the...

  12. 1 The Mauritian Insurance Industry in the next Decade: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... better cater for the needs of the future generation. Keywords: ... decade, the European insurance markets, with the partial exception of the United ... As the credit and equity markets recover combined with ... nations to rein in spending, with austerity measures in place across several ..... 3.1.1 Gender.

  13. 5 CFR 894.102 - If I have a pre-existing dental or vision condition, may I join FEDVIP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I have a pre-existing dental or vision... MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 894.102 If I have a pre-existing dental or...

  14. The Potential and Uptake of Remote Sensing in Insurance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Leeuw

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Global insurance markets are vast and diverse, and may offer many opportunities for remote sensing. To date, however, few operational applications of remote sensing for insurance exist. Papers claiming potential application of remote sensing typically stress the technical possibilities, without considering its contribution to customer value for the insured or to the profitability of the insurance industry. Based on a systematic search of available literature, this review investigates the potential and actual support of remote sensing to the insurance industry. The review reveals that research on remote sensing in classical claim-based insurance described in the literature revolve around crop damage and flood and fire risk assessment. Surprisingly, the use of remote sensing in claim-based insurance appears to be instigated by government rather than the insurance industry. In contrast, insurance companies are offering various index insurance products that are based on remote sensing. For example, remotely sensed index insurance for rangelands and livestock are operational, while various applications in crop index insurance are being considered or under development. The paper discusses these differences and concludes that there is particular scope for application of remote sensing by the insurance industry in index insurance because (1 indices can be constructed that correlate well with what is insured; (2 these indices can be delivered at low cost; and (3 it opens up new markets that are not served by claim-based insurance. The paper finally suggests that limited adoption of remote sensing in insurance results from a lack of mutual understanding and calls for greater cooperation between the insurance industry and the remote sensing community.

  15. [Immigration of dentists and its effects on the dental profession in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Péter

    2005-10-01

    There were a very remarkable ethnic and demographic shift in the social composition of dental health care providers in Hungary after the collapse of the old regime in 1989. Hungary is surrounded by states with large ethnic Hungarian minorities blocked in their free migration up to the late 1980's. Although the non-educated members of the Hungarian diaspora did not leave these areas in mass numbers, a great number of highly educated people (among them preeminently health care professionals) moved to the mother state mainly for economic reasons. Dentistry comparing to other medical professions has a special financial advantage because of the considerable share of private financing in the Hungarian dental business. Unfortunately, no statistical analysis was made on the impact of this professional migration in the last 15 years. The present article based on a cross-sectional survey conducted at the end of 2004 demonstrates the proportion of immigrants (mean 7.81 %) among the total number of dental health care providers (5670 to a 10.2 million population) There are 2764 area bounded solo practices contracted to the National Health Insurance (NHI), the other 2907 professionals are engaged in the free market business, and/or they are public employees of the universities with dental faculty as well. As expected, the share of immigrants is higher in NHI-practices, but it varies in a wide range (1.9 - 23.6%) amidst the different counties (19 units plus the capital). Nevertheless, the immigrants may also participate in the free market segment of the dentistry. The variations can be explained by geographic, internal migrational and local economic reasons.

  16. Captive insurance: is it the right choice for your insurance exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Potential benefits of a captive insurance company include: Broader coverage Improved cash flow and stability. Direct access to reinsurance markets. Tax advantages. Better handling and control of risk management and claims. Potential drawbacks and challenges include: Startup capitalization. Underwriting losses. Administration and commitment.

  17. 75 FR 1548 - Insurer Reporting Requirements; List of Insurers Required To File Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... management and consulting services pertaining to operating a fleet of motor vehicles and does not provide... CONTACT: Carlita Ballard, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NHTSA, 1200... required to report for particular states because each insurer had a 10 percent or greater market share...

  18. Uninsured vs. insured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z. J.; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2003-01-01

    This study identified the underlying demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with insurance status among nonelderly Americans (age 19-64), as well as compared health care utilization between insured and uninsured. Data from the Community Tracking Study 1996-1997 Household Survey were...... analyzed. Approximately 74 percent of uninsured Americans are nonelderly Americans. Among the nonelderly Americans, about 17 percent are uninsured. Our findings show that insurance status varies significantly by region, age, race, gender, marital status, income, education, employment status, and health...... status. Also, the insured nonelderly Americans were found to have better access to health care than the uninsured nonelderly....

  19. Public Insurance and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Néron, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Public insurance is commonly assimilated with redistributive tools mobilized by the welfare state in the pursuit of an egalitarian ideal. This view contains some truth, since the result of insurance, at a given moment, is the redistribution of resources from the lucky to unlucky. However, Joseph...... Heath (among other political theorists) considers that the principle of efficiency provides a better normative explanation and justification of public insurance than the egalitarian account. According to this view, the fact that the state is involved in the provision of specific insurance (primarily...

  20. On the regulator-insurer interaction in a structural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Carole; Chen, An

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we provide a new insight to the previous work of Briys and de Varenne [E. Briys, F. de Varenne, Life insurance in a contingent claim framework: Pricing and regulatory implications, Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance Theory 19 (1) (1994) 53-72], Grosen and Jørgensen [A. Grosen, P.L. Jørgensen, Life insurance liabilities at market value: An analysis of insolvency risk, bonus policy, and regulatory intervention rules in a barrier option framework, Journal of Risk and Insurance 69 (1) (2002) 63-91] and Chen and Suchanecki [A. Chen, M. Suchanecki, Default risk, bankruptcy procedures and the market value of life insurance liabilities, Insurance: Mathematics and Economics 40 (2007) 231-255]. We show that the particular risk management strategy followed by the insurance company can significantly change the risk exposure of the company, and that it should thus be taken into account by regulators. We first study how the regulator establishes regulation intervention levels in order to control for instance the default probability of the insurance company. This part of the analysis is based on a constant volatility. Given that the insurance company is informed of regulatory rules, we study how results can be significantly different when the insurance company follows a risk management strategy with non-constant volatilities. We thus highlight some limits of the prior literature and believe that the risk management strategy of the company should be taken into account in the estimation of the risk exposure as well as in that of the market value of liabilities.