WorldWideScience

Sample records for dental functional status

  1. Chewing ability and dental functional status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Gerritsen, A.E.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to explore the relationship between chewing ability and dental functional status, perceived oral health-related quality of life, and a number of background variables in a Vietnamese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cluster stratified sample consisted of 2,

  2. Dental functional status in a southern vietnamese adult population-a combined quantitative and qualitative classification system analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Pham, L.H.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the dental functional status of a Southern Vietnamese adult population using a new quantitative- and qualitative-based classification system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,809 dentate subjects aged =/> 20 years from urban and rural

  3. Community socioeconomic status and children's dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillcrist, J A; Brumley, D E; Blackford, J U

    2001-02-01

    Although a substantial decline in dental caries has occurred among U.S. children, not everyone has benefited equally. The first-ever surgeon general's report on oral health in America indicates that the burden of oral diseases is found in poor Americans. This study investigates the relationship between community socioeconomic status, or SES, and dental health of children. An oral health survey of 17,256 children, representing 93 percent of children residing in 62 Tennessee communities, was conducted in public elementary schools during the 1996-1997 school year. Portable dental equipment was used for examinations, and data from each examination were entered directly into a laptop computer. The authors performed analyses of covariance to examine the relationship between community SES (low/medium/high) and dental health, controlling for community fluoridation. Community SES was significantly related to caries experience in the primary teeth, the proportion of untreated caries in the primary and permanent teeth, dental treatment needs, dental sealants and incisor trauma. Overall, dental health was significantly worse for low-SES communities than for medium- and high-SES communities. The authors conclude that all specific dental indexes used to measure children's dental health in this study, with the exceptions of caries experience in the permanent teeth and sealant presence, were inversely related to the communities' SES. The percentage of children with dental sealants was directly related to the community's SES. Further improvements in oral health will necessitate that community-based preventive programs and access to quality dental care be made available to children who are identified as being at highest risk of experiencing oral disease.

  4. Dental status and dental caries in 85-year-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Lene; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports findings on the dental status and the prevalence of dental caries among a group of 85-year-old Danes from the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, Denmark. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether caries experience was related to number of teeth and to indicators...... of functional ability and cognitive function. METHODS: A total of 191 individuals (78 men and 113 women) participated in a cross-sectional population study conducted in 2000. Using mobile dental equipment, a clinical oral examination and an interview were administered to all participants in their homes...... and cognitive impairment tended to have more active caries than 85-year-olds with no impairment. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of 85-year-old individuals had retained a natural dentition; however, active dental caries is a problem of concern among the most elderly....

  5. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P

    1989-01-01

    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.

  6. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414) selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered...

  7. Dental caries and periodontal status of mentally handicapped institutilized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jitender; Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-07-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population.

  8. Perceived oral health status and treatment needs of dental auxiliaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... demography, self-reported oral health status, knowledge of impact of oral health on daily life .... evidence- and community-based dental health education, .... in adolescents associated with family characteristics and par-.

  9. Functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott N; Meissner, Tobias; Su, Andrew I; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free) or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota's transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  10. Functional Expression of Dental Plaque Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Norman Peterson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains a significant public health problem and is considered pandemic worldwide. The prediction of dental caries based on profiling of microbial species involved in disease and equally important, the identification of species conferring dental health has proven more difficult than anticipated due to high interpersonal and geographical variability of dental plaque microbiota. We have used RNA-Seq to perform global gene expression analysis of dental plaque microbiota derived from 19 twin pairs that were either concordant (caries-active or caries-free or discordant for dental caries. The transcription profiling allowed us to define a functional core microbiota consisting of nearly 60 species. Similarities in gene expression patterns allowed a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of human genetics, environmental factors and caries phenotype on the microbiota’s transcriptome. Correlation analysis of transcription allowed the identification of numerous functional networks, suggesting that inter-personal environmental variables may co-select for groups of genera and species. Analysis of functional role categories allowed the identification of dominant functions expressed by dental plaque biofilm communities, that highlight the biochemical priorities of dental plaque microbes to metabolize diverse sugars and cope with the acid and oxidative stress resulting from sugar fermentation. The wealth of data generated by deep sequencing of expressed transcripts enables a greatly expanded perspective concerning the functional expression of dental plaque microbiota.

  11. Income inequality, social capital and self-rated health and dental status in older Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Watt, Richard G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2011-11-01

    The erosion of social capital in more unequal societies is one mechanism for the association between income inequality and health. However, there are relatively few multi-level studies on the relation between income inequality, social capital and health outcomes. Existing studies have not used different types of health outcomes, such as dental status, a life-course measure of dental disease reflecting physical function in older adults, and self-rated health, which reflects current health status. The objective of this study was to assess whether individual and community social capital attenuated the associations between income inequality and two disparate health outcomes, self-rated health and dental status in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in an ongoing Japanese prospective cohort study, the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in 2003. Responses in Aichi, Japan, obtained from 5715 subjects and 3451 were included in the final analysis. The Gini coefficient was used as a measure of income inequality. Trust and volunteering were used as cognitive and structural individual-level social capital measures. Rates of subjects reporting mistrust and non-volunteering in each local district were used as cognitive and structural community-level social capital variables respectively. The covariates were sex, age, marital status, education, individual- and community-level equivalent income and smoking status. Dichotomized responses of self-rated health and number of remaining teeth were used as outcomes in multi-level logistic regression models. Income inequality was significantly associated with poor dental status and marginally significantly associated with poor self-rated health. Community-level structural social capital attenuated the covariate-adjusted odds ratio of income inequality for self-rated health by 16% whereas the association between income inequality and dental status was not substantially changed by any social capital

  12. DOES INCREASING DENTAL EDUCATION IMPROVE THE ORAL HYGIENE STATUS OF DENTAL STUDENTS?

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    Purnima V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of increased knowledge acquired by the dental student in preventive aspects of dental education during his curriculum on his own health attitude, oral hygiene and gingival status. METHODS: A total of 240 students pursuing the undergraduate course (B.D.S at t he New Horizon Dental College and Research Institute, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh were recruited for the study and divided into 4 groups based on the year of study. All participants answered a self - administered questionnaire and then this reported oral health behavior was compared to the actual clinical situation using the clinical parameters of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index simplified. RESULTS: The dental attitude became more positive and improved with each advancing year of education. Th ere was a statistically significant decrease in the CPI score (P=0.04 and OHI - S score (P=0.01 with each advancing year of education but plaque score was insignificant (P=0.06. Females showed better dental care than their male counterparts. CONCLUSION: T he oral health attitude and behavior of the dental students improved with increasing level of dental education. Preventive courses providing apt information on proper techniques of plaque control must be included in the first and second year curriculum of the dental students.

  13. Dental attendance and self-assessment of dental status by Israeli military personnel according to gender, education, and smoking status, 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, Yehuda; Zusman, Shlomo P; Galor, Shay; Dinte, Arieh F

    2009-02-01

    The goal of the study was to analyze dental attendance and self-assessment of dental status among Israeli military personnel, according to gender, education, and smoking status. Data were analyzed from a computerized questionnaire on dental attendance and dental status, completed by military personnel who attended one medical clinic for the required periodic medical examination between 1998 and 2006. For 60% of the respondents, the last dental visit was within the previous 12 months. The last dental visit was for scheduled treatment for 49.8%, a dental examination for 21.5%, and emergency dental treatment for 12.2%. College graduates rated their dental self-care higher than non-college graduates, and nonsmokers rated their self-care higher than smokers. Of the participants, 50.9% considered their own dental status good or excellent and 7.2% considered their oral health status poor. No significant differences were found according to gender. The findings indicated high dental attendance but low self-perception of dental status in Israeli military personnel in comparison with the Israeli general population and low attendance in comparison with U.S. Army personnel. A compulsory periodic dental examination among Israeli military personnel, similar to the required periodic medical examination, is recommended.

  14. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

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    Bastos João Luiz Dornelles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  15. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  16. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Marcenes

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI. Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.

  17. Expanded function allied dental personnel and dental practice productivity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Chen, Lei; Lazar, Vickie F; Brown, L Jackson; Ray, Subhash C; Heffley, Dennis R; Berg, Rob; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of expanded function allied dental personnel on the productivity and efficiency of general dental practices. Detailed practice financial and clinical data were obtained from a convenience sample of 154 general dental practices in Colorado. In this state, expanded function dental assistants can provide a wide range of reversible dental services/procedures, and dental hygienists can give local anesthesia. The survey identified practices that currently use expanded function allied dental personnel and the specific services/procedures delegated. Practice productivity was measured using patient visits, gross billings, and net income. Practice efficiency was assessed using a multivariate linear program, Data Envelopment Analysis. Sixty-four percent of the practices were found to use expanded function allied dental personnel, and on average they delegated 31.4 percent of delegatable services/procedures. Practices that used expanded function allied dental personnel treated more patients and had higher gross billings and net incomes than those practices that did not; the more services they delegated, the higher was the practice's productivity and efficiency. The effective use of expanded function allied dental personnel has the potential to substantially expand the capacity of general dental practices to treat more patients and to generate higher incomes for dental practices.

  18. Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedia, H S; Mahmoud, Nemat-Alla

    2004-01-01

    The continuous increase of man's life span, and the growing confidence in using artificial materials inside the human body necessities introducing more effective prosthesis and implant materials. However, no artificial implant has biomechanical properties equivalent to the original tissue. Recently, titanium and bioceramic materials, such as hydroxyapatite are extensively used as fabrication materials for dental implant due to their high compatibility with hard tissue and living bone. Titanium has reasonable stiffness and strength while hydroxyapatite has low stiffness, low strength and high ability to reach full integration with living bone. In order to obtain good dental implantation of the biomaterial; full integration of the implant with living bone should be satisfied. Minimum stresses in the implant and the bone must be achieved to increase the life of the implant and prevent bone resorption. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant made from functionally graded material (FGM) to achieve the above advantages. The finite element method and optimization technique are used to reach the required implant design. The optimal materials of the FGM dental implant are found to be hydroxyapatite/titanium. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the bone for the hydroxyapatite/titanium FGM implant has been reduced by about 22% and 28% compared to currently used titanium and stainless steel dental implants, respectively.

  19. Oral and dental health status of elderly in south and west Jakarta, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janti Sudiono

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To know elderly oral and dental health status. Methods: The population (n = 202) was elderly from Government Health Center in South and West Jakarta. Oral and dental health examina-tion based on oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), decay, missing, filling teeth (DMFT) index, the pres-ence of periodontal and oral mucous lesions, mastication function that was considered by anamnesis, mobility and number lost of maxillary teeth, and occlusion contact. Results: Most respondents had caries lesions (84%), denture prosthesis needs (97%), periodontal lesions (79%), mastication dysfunction (51%), sublingual varicosities (52%), and a small number of oral mucous denture related lesions. Conclusion: Man-y cases needed promotion, curative, and rehabilitative treatments; therefore it was suggested to encourage oral and dental health care education as a part of general health care promotion to increase the quality of elderly health care service with the considerations of social and economy aspects.

  20. [Current status and further prospects of dental resin-based materials with antibacterial properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Lu, H B; Mao, J; Gong, S Q

    2016-09-01

    The mode of dental antibacterial resin-based materials can be divided into two types, namely, single and combined antibacterial mode. With regard to single antibacterial mode, only one kind of antibacterial agent is added into the resin, which can be released or act as contacting antibacterial agent. The single mode resin has limitation in sterilization methods and effect. As for combined antibacterial mode, it is a combination of different types of biocides and thus maximizes the sterilizing effect, including the releasing antibacterial agent incorporated with the contacting antibacterial agent or antibacterial agents combined with calcium compound possessing biological mineralization function. In this paper, current status and further prospects of dental resin-based materials with antibacterial properties are reviewed from the perspectives of single and combined antibacterial modes to provide guidance for dental antibacterial resin material research.

  1. Dental implants from functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Shirazi, Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mohammad; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib Bin; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2013-10-01

    Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care.

  2. Oral and Dental Health Status in Orphan Children of Lucknow

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    Arpita Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orphans lack parental support and receive little oral health care. Therefore there is a propensity to develop a variety of oral lesions. Sometimes these lesions are exclusive to oral cavity or may present as an initial manifestation of a more complex underlying problem. Objective: This study hereby aims to compare the oral and dental health status of children living in orphanages and children living with their families. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Lucknow city among children of age group 5-14 years living in orphanages and school children living with their parents of Lucknow city. A total of 80 orphan children and 80 school children of age group 5-14 years were taken for the study. To obtain the requisite number of school children, three schools of the similar socio economic strata as of orphanages were selected randomly from nearby area of orphanages. Results: About 21.8 percent school children were without any clinical finding whereas only 2.5 percent orphan children had no clinical finding. The hard tissue lesions were found in 83.7 percent while these were in 57.2 percent school children. The soft tissue lesions were found in 70.0 percent orphan children while these were in 31.2 percent school children. Conclusions: Majority of orphan children were suffering from oral and dental problem. Most common hard tissue finding was dental caries and soft tissue finding were Aphthous and Coated tongue in orphanages. Overall oral and dental health of orphan children were poorer than school children.

  3. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism

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    Mohamed Abdullah Jaber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI and Met Need Index (MNI for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61 or fair 37.8% (23/61 oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61 of the autistic children had gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  4. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  5. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to ex

  6. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to e

  7. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF EDENTULOUS INDIVIDUALS TREATED IN UFBA DENTAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Evangelista Souza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing life expectancy, the elderly population is growing around the world. However, even with the development of preventive dentistry in recent decades and the advent of dental implants, you can still find people who need rehabilitation wearers. Whereas the risk of malnutrition may be associated with the condition of edentulism, the objective is evaluate the nutritional profile of 50 edentulous that rehabilitated in the discipline of Complete Denture, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia. The individuals were assessed using cross-sectional study by questionnaire to assess nutritional status - MNA *. The average age of patients was 67.3 (+ 6.7 years, 86% women. Among respondents, 50% are edentulous for more than 20 years (p <0.05, caries (42% and periodontal disease (28% as main factors of Perfil nutricional de indivíduos desdentados tooth loss (p = 0.33. The results showed that the MNA 82% of patients had normal nutritional status, 16% were at risk of malnutrition and only 2% were malnourished, with statistically significant differences between groups. It was concluded that in edentulous subjects evaluated, malnutrition is not associated with loss of natural teeth.

  8. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

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    Deniz Kocoglu

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  9. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

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    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  10. The role of parental education and socioeconomic status in dental caries prevention among Lithuanian children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Bendoraitienė, Eglė Aida; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Andruškevičienė, Vilija; Zūbienė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disclose parental attitudes toward their children's dental care and preventive measures used as well as to evaluate their associations with parental education and socioeconomic status...

  11. Parental Smoking and Smoking Status of Japanese Dental Hygiene Students: A Pilot Survey at a Dental Hygiene School in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Naito; Koichi Miyaki; Mariko Naito; Masahiro Yoneda; Takao Hirofuji; Nao Suzuki; Takeo Nakayama

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of smoking and to explore factors associated with the smoking habits of female students at a dental hygiene school in Japan. Questionnaires regarding cigarette smoking were given to 168 female students. The response rate was 97.6%. The prevalence of smoking, including current and occasional smokers, was 20.3%. Among family members, only the smoking status of their mother significantly influenced the smoking status of the students. The odds ratio for...

  12. Dental prostheses mimic the natural enamel behavior under functional loading: A review article

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    Ahmed A. Madfa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramic dental restorations are designed to repair functionality as well as esthetics of the failed teeth. However, these materials exhibited several performance deficiencies such as fracture, poor esthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores, and difficulty in accomplishing a strong ceramic–resin-based cement bond. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of these ceramic materials is of great interest in a wide range of disciplines. Consequently, spatial gradients in surface composition and structure can improve the mechanical integrity of ceramic dental restorations. Thus, this article reviews the current status of the functionally graded dental prostheses inspired by the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ structures and the linear gradation in Young's modulus of the DEJ, as a new material design approach, to improve the performance compared to traditional dental prostheses. This is a remarkable example of nature's ability to engineer functionally graded dental prostheses. The current article opens a new avenue for recent researches aimed at the further development of new ceramic dental restorations for improving their clinical durability.

  13. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  14. Untreated dental caries: impact on quality of life of children of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, P A; Oliveira, M; Marques, L S; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children of low socioeconomic status. One hundred twelve impoverished 8- to 10-year-olds from a city in southeastern Brazil were selected. OHRQoL was measured using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10; total and subscale scores) and its global question on oral health. The clinical examination recorded the prevalence of untreated dental caries (corresponding to a non-zero D or d component in the DMFT or dmft indices). The children were categorized as without untreated dental caries=0 or with untreated dental caries ≥1. Malocclusions and dental trauma were determined using the Dental Aesthetic Index and Andreasen and Andreasen (1994) classification, respectively. Descriptive analysis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square test, and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models were employed. Eighty-four children (75%) had 1 or more carious teeth. The relative risk of having a negative perception of oral health was greater among the children with untreated dental caries (RR-1:41; 95% confidence interval=1.13-1.75), regardless of gender or malocclusion. Eight- to 10-year-olds with untreated dental caries have a greater relative risk of having a negative perception of oral health status than those without dental caries.

  15. Periodontal status and dental care in HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Marques Soares

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between CD4+ cell count and viral load with periodontal and dental status in HIV seropositive patient. Methods: Forty HIV seropositive patients were selected from the dental clinic of the Clementino Fraga Hospital in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The Community Periodontal Index, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index were determined. The values of CD4+ lymphocyte count and viral load were collected from the medical records. Descriptive analysis was made and Spearman’s correlation test was applied, with values of p<0.05 being significant. Results: HIV seropositive patients were aged 33 to 47 years (mean = 40 years, 26 were men and 14 women. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count was 507.82±306.4 cells/mm3, with 41% being a high, 38.5% a medium and 20.5% a low level. Sixty-five percent of the patients had undetectable viral load, 12.5% had a high, 5% a low and 5% a medium viral load. Most patients (87.5% presented with periodontal disease, calculus was the most frequent condition (40%. The mean Decayed, Missing or Filled Tooth Index was 19.7±6.8, with prevalence of the missing component. There was significant statistical correlation between the CD4+ count and the periodontal condition, p=0.046. There was no significant correlation between the CD4+ count and the Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index (p=0.469 and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (p=0.189 indexes, and between viral load and Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index (p=0.452, the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (p=0.158 and Community Periodontal Index (p=0.216. Conclusion: The periodontal condition was influenced to a greater by the CD4+ cell count than the viral load, while there was no correlation between the decayed condition and the CD4+ cell count or the viral load condition.

  16. Parents' Oral Health Literacy and its Impact on their Children's Dental Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Effat; Niknahad, Ayshe; Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2016-12-01

    Because parents play a key role in children's dental health, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parents' oral health literacy (OHL) and their children's dental health status in Babol, Iran. In this cross sectional study a total of 384 children aged 21 months to 84 months who attended the dental clinic of Babol University of Medical Sciences between September 2015 and February 2016 were examined. We measured dmft index only for primary dentition; during examination the accompanying parent completed the "Oral Health Literacy-Adults Questionnaire". Comparing mean analysis, such as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and an independent-samples t-test, served to compare children's dental caries, missing, and dental fillings' mean differences, between subgroups. In addition, the relationship between OHL, children's dental caries, and dental fillings was assessed using multiple linear regression models while controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. All data were analyzed by SPSS version 22. Children's mean age was 55.1 months (SD: 13.7), while 47% were girls. Mean children's dental caries, missing, filling, and mean dmft index were 6.5, 0.4, 1.2, and 8.2 respectively. Parents with inadequate OHL had children with more dental caries (p=0.005), however this relation had no significance while controlling for background factors. Increasing children's dental fillings was significantly related with families living in urban regions (p=0.01, 95% CI: 0.11 to 1.12), and parents with adequate OHL (p=0.02, 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.05). Inadequate parents' OHL was associated with children having high dental caries and less dental fillings. Therefore, providing interventions to improve parents' OHL would be valuable in children's dental health promotion programs, especially in countries with a developing oral health system.

  17. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used was a...

  18. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  19. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  20. The status of dental caries and related factors in a sample of Iranian adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H.; Hidarnia, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the status of dental caries in a sample of Iranian adolescents aged 14 to 18 years in Qazvin, and to identify caries-related factors affecting this group. Study design: Qazvin was divided into three zones according to socio-economic status. The sampling procedure used was a...

  1. Hepatitis-B Vaccination Status Among Dental Surgeons in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    vaccination rates among health workers include lack of opportunity, lack of motivation, lack of information, lack of awareness, non-availability, high .... was comparable to the 78% of Malaysian dental practitioners who believed that their risk of ...

  2. Is there a relation between dental anxiety, fear and general psychological status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Talo Yildirim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dental anxiety is a widespread problem in many populations. This problem can be a barrier to dental care and may lead to poor oral health. Dental anxiety may be related to psychological status. Aims The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of dental anxiety, dental fear, Beck Depression, and state-trait anxiety according to age, gender and education level in patients at the periodontology clinic in the Diyarbakır Mouth and Dental Health Center. Study Design A total of 231 patients (115 males, 116 females filled out dental fear scale (DFS, dental anxiety scale (DAS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, state-trait anxiety inventory-state (STAI-S, and state-trait anxiety inventory–trait (STAI-T questionnaires, and evaluations of DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T were conducted according to age, gender, and education level. Results The mean DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-T, and STAI –S were 45.64, 9.15, 13.16, 38.90, and 40.18, respectively. There was a significant association among DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. These surveys scores were significantly higher in females than males (p < 0.05. The results of this study indicated that gender age and education level have important effects on DFS, DAS, BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T (p < 0.05. Conclusion Dental anxiety and dental fear were found to be related to psychological status (BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T over time. There are some patients with unaddressed psychological distress.

  3. A study of association between dental health status and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Results: In the study the prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease were 90%, 98% and 90.33% respectively. The antenatal cases with poor oral hygiene were 2.5 times more likely to have dental caries. OR 0.0138, 95% CI (0.0033 to 0.0570 Z statistic 5.908, P<0.0001.The antenatal cases with poor oral hygiene were 20 times more likely to have gingivitis (OR 0.0045, 95% CI (0.0006-0.0365 Z statistic 5.077, P<0.0001. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 521-523

  4. Assessment of periodontal status among dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep R; John, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To determine the periodontal status and treatment needs among dental fluorosis subjects residing in Ennore, Chennai, using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). All the subjects with dental fluorosis above 15 years of age, permanent residents of Ennore, were included in the study. Subjects with known systemic diseases and subjects with other intrinsic dental stains were excluded from the study. Periodontal status was estimated using CPITN and Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's Dental Fluorosis Index. The total number of study subjects was 1075, of which 489 were males and 586 were females. Males were predominantly affected with periodontal disease than females. This was found to be statistically significant (P=0.000). The association between Degree of Fluorosis and Periodontal Status is statistically significant (P=0.000). There was statistically significant difference in mean number of sextants between the degree of fluorosis in each of the periodontal status (P=0.000). The finding that the lower prevalence of shallow pockets in the study area, where the fluoride level in the drinking water ranges from 1.83 to 2.01 ppm, indicates that the use of fluoride in water is beneficial to the periodontal tissues.

  5. An Evaluation of Dental Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Needs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Nov-Dec | Vol 4 | Issue 6 | ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, People's ... Background: Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. ... among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India.

  6. STUDY OF DENTAL STATUS, QUALITIES OF INDIVIDUAL ORAL HYGIENE AND LEVEL OF DENTAL TREATMENT IN STUDENTS FROM SARATOV AND SARATOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Glybochko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of dental status, quality of individual oral hygiene realization and level of dental treatment rendering for students of stomatological faculty from Saratov and for students having no relation to dentistry from Saratov region has been carried out.

  7. Dental status and dental treatment demands in preschoolers from urban and underprivileged urban areas in Mendoza city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Claudia N; Squassi, Aldo; Bordoni, Noemí

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the association between dental status and demand for dental care in preschoolers at urban and underprivileged urban schools in the city of Mendoza. Dental status was diagnosed in a purposive sample of preschoolers at urban schools (Group U: n = 148) and underprivileged urban schools (Group UnU: n = 155) in Greater Mendoza city, by determining the following indicators: (a) caries-free children (%), and (b) dmft/DMFT and its discriminated components, including active non-cavitated enamel caries. The characteristics of demand for care were determined using an ad hoc structured questionnaire. The following were determined: frequency distributions and confidence intervals for categorical variables, measures of central tendency and dispersion, tests for differences in means (Student's t test), association (chi squared) and correlation among variables (Pearson's r), at a significance level p<0.05. Comparison of dental status variables between groups showed significantly higher values in group UnU for: d+D tooth (ẋ = 5.4} 3.8; t = 2.887; p = 0.004); dmft+DMFT (ẋ = 5.7}4.1; t = 0.466; p = 0.020); d+D surface (ẋ = 7.62} 6.2; t = 0.956; p = 0.014); f+F surface (ẋ = 0.12}4.5; t = 2.71; p = 0.007) and percentage of caries-free children (x2= 25.377; p= 0.018). The following trends were found in this group: higher demand on the government subsystem, fewer visits to the dentist (x2 = 7.02, p = 0.008) and greater difficulty in getting appointments (x2 = 19.91, pẋ0.001). Frequency of visits was associated to the severity of dental status (x2 = 19.412; pẋ0.001), but no correlation was found between frequency of visits during the past year and dmft+DMFT (Pearson's r coefficient = 0.091; p = 0.0426) Group U showed preferential demand for the private or "obra social" (trade union managed health insurance) systems (x2 = 78.85 p = 0.00) and there was no statistically significant association between visits to the dentist and dmft

  8. Correlation between dental caries and nutritional status: preschool children in a Brazilian municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Xavier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental caries and nutritional status in children in preschool age are serious public health problems, with multifactorial etiology, with diet as a common risk factor. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between dental caries and nutritional status of preschool children attending public schools in a city in the State of Sao Paulo. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study population was comprised of 3-5 year-old preschool children (n = 229 attending public schools, in which dmft (decay, missing, filled, teeth was used for dental caries assessment and Body Mass Index (BMI was used for nutritional status in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Statistical analysis was performed in a descriptive way through absolute and relative frequencies and Spearman Correlation test and Kruskal Wallis (P<0.05. RESULT: A dmft of 1.65 (2.87 and a SiC index (Significant Caries Index of 4.88 (3.20 have been found, indicating polarization of dental caries. It was observed that 66.81% of children presented with nutritional status within the normal range and children with malnutrition had a mean dmft of 4.0 (3.66, which is two times higher than the other categories of nutritional status. No statistically significant correlation has been found by correlating dmft and components with Body Mass Index. CONCLUSION: This research did not identify a significant correlation between the occurrence of dental caries and nutritional status of preschool children, researches should be conducted to elucidate this relationship.

  9. Dental Student Academic Integrity in U.S. Dental Schools: Current Status and Recommendations for Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bruce S; Knight, G William; Graham, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cheating incidents in 2006-07 led U.S. dental schools to heighten their efforts to enhance the environment of academic integrity in their institutions. The aims of this study were to document the measures being used by U.S. dental schools to discourage student cheating, determine the current incidence of reported cheating, and make recommendations for enhancing a culture of integrity in dental education. In late 2014-early 2015, an online survey was distributed to academic deans of all 61 accredited U.S. dental schools that had four classes of dental students enrolled; 50 (82%) responded. Among measures used, 98% of respondents reported having policy statements regarding student academic integrity, 92% had an Honor Code, 96% provided student orientation to integrity policies, and most used proctoring of final exams (91%) and tests (93%). Regarding disciplinary processes, 27% reported their faculty members only rarely reported suspected cheating (though required in 76% of the schools), and 40% disseminated anonymous results of disciplinary hearings. A smaller number of schools (n=36) responded to the question about student cheating than to other questions; those results suggested that reported cheating had increased almost threefold since 1998. The authors recommend that schools add cheating case scenarios to professional ethics curricula; disseminate outcomes of cheating enforcement actions; have students sign a statement attesting to compliance with academic integrity policies at every testing activity; add curricular content on correct writing techniques to avoid plagiarism; require faculty to distribute retired test items; acquire examination-authoring software programs to enable faculty to generate new multiple-choice items and different versions of the same multiple-choice tests; avoid take-home exams when assessing independent student knowledge; and utilize student assessment methods directly relevant to clinical practice.

  10. The Relationship of Orthodontic Treatment Need with Periodontal Status, Dental Caries, and Sociodemographic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhi Nalcaci; Serhat Demirer; Firat Ozturk; Altan, Burcu A.; Oral Sokucu; Vildan Bostanci

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11–14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) s...

  11. Dental status and oral health-related quality of life. A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, C. M.; Lobbezoo, F.; Schuller, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is associated with tooth wear and tooth loss. This study investigated the association between OHRQoL and dental status (in terms of natural dentition, partial or complete dentures, or edentulism). Sixteen hundred and twenty-two persons who participated in

  12. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  13. The status of ethics teaching and learning in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Marilyn S; Bebeau, Muriel J; Zarkowski, Pamela

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and analyze information about the status of ethics teaching and learning in U.S. dental schools and to recommend a curriculum development and research agenda for professional ethics in dental education. A survey to collect this information was developed by the authors and administered by the American Society for Dental Ethics. The results suggest that dental schools have adopted many of the recommendations for curricular content and learning strategies proposed in the 1989 American Association of Dental Schools (now American Dental Education Association) Curriculum Guidelines on Ethics and Professionalism in Dentistry. The survey was sent to the individual who directs the ethics curriculum at the fifty-six U.S. dental schools that had a full complement of enrolled predoctoral classes as of January 2008. All fifty-six schools responded to the survey. The data suggest that, in general, little time is devoted to ethics instruction in the formal curriculum. The mean number of contact hours of ethics instruction is 26.5 hours, which represents about 0.5 percent of the mean clock hours of instruction for dental education programs reported in the most recent American Dental Association survey of dental education. While the amount of time devoted to ethics instruction appears not to have changed much over the past thirty years, what has changed are what qualifies as ethics instruction, the pedagogies used, and the development and availability of norm-referenced learning outcomes assessments, which are currently used by a number of schools. We found that dental schools address a substantial list of topics in their ethics instruction and that there is general agreement as to the appropriateness of the topics and the ethics competencies that need to be developed and assessed. This study also identified the respondents' perceptions of unmet needs in ethics education. Four general themes emerged: the need for ethics to be more fully

  14. Influence of socioeconomic and working status of the parents on the incidence of their children's dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Niraj; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    In the contemporary scenario of both parents employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, we attempted to correlate the socioeconomic and working status of the parents to the incidence of their children's dental caries. One thousand school children aged between 3 and 12 years were enrolled in the study. Socioeconomic and working status of their parents was obtained by a pretested questionnaire following which these children were examined for their dental caries status. The data collected were statistically analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculation of odds ratio. A significant correlation was observed between working status of the parents and dental caries status of their children. Though, the socioeconomic status and dental caries had a weak correlation, the odds ratio was high, indicating that the children of lower socioeconomic status or family with both parents employed were at a higher risk for dental caries. Efforts are needed to implement programs at the school level to enhance the oral and dental health among children, as parental responsibilities toward this maybe inadequate due to economic or time constraints.

  15. Poor Dental Status and Oral Hygiene Practices in Institutionalized Older People in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Ribeiro Gaião

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the dental status and oral hygiene practices in institutionalized older people and identify factors associated with poor dental status. A cross-sectional study was performed in a nursing home in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará State (northeast Brazil. The number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT was assessed in the residents of the nursing home (=167; mean age = 76.6 years. The mean DMFT value was 29.7; the mean number of missing teeth was 28.4. Ninety-three (58.1% were edentulous. Almost 90% practiced oral hygiene, but only about half used a toothbrush. Only 8% had visited a dentist in the preceding three months. Most of the variables regarding oral hygiene habits (such as the use of toothbrush, frequency of oral hygiene per day, regular tooth brushing after meals did not show any significant association with the DMFT. In multivariate regression analysis, age, general literacy level, and practice of oral hygiene were independently associated with the DMFT (2=0.13. Institutionalized older people in northeast Brazil have poor dental status, and oral hygiene practices are insufficient. Dental health education is needed focusing on the special needs of this neglected and socioeconomically deprived population to improve their quality of life.

  16. Evaluation of Child Self-perception Regarding Their Oro-dental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Mártha I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the state of oral health and the self-perception of children regarding their oro-dental status, their knowledge and attitude towards oral health. Methods: A sample of 130 children (11-14 years and one of their parents were asked to complete a Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 in Sfântu Gheorghe, Romania. From these, 69 children were examined and data was recorded about Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT, oral hygiene, dental malposition and malocclusion, Aesthetic Component of Index of Treatment Need (AC-IOTN. Consent of the parents was obtained. Statistical analyses were performed. Results: The optimal score of CPQ evaluation is 96 and the maximum score achieved was 93, the minimum was 43. 78.10 average score can be graded as medium. As the data points out, most of the children and their parents have a medium knowledge and self-perception. The clinical examination underline the main problems: dental caries (62%, occlusal coloration (23%, dental malposition (17%, rooftop deep bite (14%, dental rotation and crowding (12%, dental plaque and tartar (10%. As far as the AC-IOTN is concerned, 48 of 69 children have no need for treatment, 18 have a high need for treatment, and 3 have a moderate need for treatment. Conclusions: Overall, the children and their parents have a poor oral health knowledge, which is reflected in the medium level of the achieved CPQ scores, in the clinical examination and can be associated with high levels of dental caries and malocclusion

  17. Comparison of periodontal health status and oral health behavior between Japanese and Chinese dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Zhu, Ling; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Nakajima, Ichiro; Langham, Clive S; Lin, Wang; Otsuka, Kichibee; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2009-06-01

    A survey was carried out to compare periodontal health status and oral health behavior between Japanese and Chinese dental students. Subjects consisted of 118 students at Nihon University School of Dentistry and 92 students at the school of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University. Saliva occult blood test was performed to classify whether subjects may have periodontal disease. Further questionnaires were given to evaluate different lifestyles and oral hygiene habit. The positive rate of the saliva occult blood test in Japanese dental students was 13.6%, and that of Chinese dental students was 43.5%. Bleeding from gingiva as a subjective symptom was as follows: Japansese 7.6%, Chinese 37.0%. Japanese dental students brushed for 13.5 min each day. The rate for Chinese students was 4.6 min. Use of interdental devices was as follows: Japanese 33.1%, Chinese 7.6%. Differences of periodontal disease rates between Japanese and Chinese dental students are thought to be differences in oral hygiene, indicating the need for improvements in hygiene measures in Nanjing City. The establishment and strengthening of oral hygiene education, including the importance of tooth brushing for prevention of periodontal disease, has been proposed.

  18. The evaluation of MCI, MI, PMI and GT on both genders with different age and dental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, G; Sener, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and cortical bone thickness in the zone of the gonial angle (GT) in panoramic radiographies from a large sample of males and females and to determine how they relate to patients' age, gender and dental status. 910 panoramic radiographs were obtained and grouped into age, dental status and gender. The MCI, MI, PMI and GT were analysed. Remarkable differences were observed for MCI and GT regarding gender, age groups and dental status on both sides (p PMI in females, dental status had an effect on the MI and PMI in males (p PMI (p PMI and MI measurements. The effects of age and tooth loss in the GT and MCI measurements are similar, and these indices can be accepted as more reliable in studies including both genders.

  19. From public mental health to community oral health: the impact of dental anxiety and fear on dental status.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio eCrego; María eCarrillo; Jason Mathew Armfield; Martin eRomero

    2014-01-01

    Dental fear is a widely experienced problem. Through a 'vicious cycle dynamic', fear of dental treatment, lower use of dental services, and oral health diseases reinforce each other. Research on the antecedents of dental anxiety could help to break this cycle, providing useful knowledge to design effective community programs aimed at preventing dental fear and its oral health-related consequences. In this regard, frameworks that analyse the interplay between cognitive and psychosocial determi...

  20. From Public Mental Health to Community Oral Health: The Impact of Dental Anxiety and Fear on Dental Status

    OpenAIRE

    Crego, Antonio; Carrillo-Díaz, María; Armfield, Jason M.; Romero, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Dental fear is a widely experienced problem. Through a “vicious cycle dynamic,” fear of dental treatment, lower use of dental services, and oral health diseases reinforce each other. Research on the antecedents of dental anxiety could help to break this cycle, providing useful knowledge to design effective community programs aimed at preventing dental fear and its oral health-related consequences. In this regard, frameworks that analyze the interplay between cognitive and psychosocial determi...

  1. Oral health status, dental anxiety, and behavior-management problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders have been shown to affect children's oral health. This study was carried out to investigate the oral health status, dental anxiety (DA), and behavior-management problems (BMPs) during dental treatment in 6- to 9-yr-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study and control groups included 40 children with ODD/ADHD and 80 normal children, respectively. All participants received an amalgam restoration. During the procedure, the children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl Rating Scale and the Verbal Skill Scale. Parents rated their children's DA using the parental version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental subscale (CFSS-DS). Comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the gingival index and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth. The findings showed that DA and BMPs were significantly higher in children with ODD/ADHD than in the controls. Furthermore, the frequency of DA and BMPs was higher in children with both ODD/ADHD and a comorbid anxiety disorder than in those without comorbid anxiety disorder. Children with ODD/ADHD had significantly higher DMFT/dmft scores than those in the control group, whereas the difference in gingival index was not statistically significant. In conclusion, children with ODD/ADHD had higher levels of DA, BMP and poorer oral health status. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. Factors affecting dental fluorosis in low socioeconomic status children in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; Boges-Yañez, A S

    2017-06-01

    To assess the association between dental fluorosis and maternal education in schoolchildren of medium and low socioeconomic status in a low income region of Mexico. Cross-sectional study. Public schools in the south-central region of Oaxaca, Mexico where the mean fluoride water concentration was 1.01 mg/L (SD 0.21; range 0.71-1.40). Fluoridated salt (200mgF/kg) was available in the region. 794 schoolchildren. To identify the socioeconomic status of the participants, the Bronfman index was used. Dental fluorosis was assessed applying the Thysltrup-Fejerskov Index, (TF). The children's mean age was 10.4 (SD1.2) years. The prevalence of dental fluorosis (TF⟩0) was high 95.7% and 45.2% of the children showed dental fluorosis of TF≥4. The percentage of children showing TF≥4 was 48.8% where their mothers' education was ⟨6 years of schooling compared to 36.7% among other children (p⟨0.001). The multinomial logistic regression model using as base outcome category TF≤2 showed that severe forms of fluorosis (TF≥4) were associated with the consumption of boiled water, (OR= 1.65, p=0.039) of fluoridated salt (OR= 2.61 p=0.001), high brushing frequency (OR=3.12, p=0.001) and lower maternal education (OR=1.71, p=0.007). A high prevalence of dental fluorosis was observed in the study region. An unequal burden of fluorosis in aesthetically objectionable categories was found in children exposed to several sources of fluoride and whose mother had lower educational level. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  3. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  4. Bone remodeling induced by dental implants of functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daniel; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Functionally graded material (FGM) had been developed as a potential implant material to replace titanium for its improved capability of initial osseointegration. The idea behind FGM dental implant is that its properties can be tailored in accordance with the biomechanical needs at different regions adapting to its hosting bony tissues, therefore creating an improved overall integration and stability in the entire restoration. However, there have been very few reports available so far on predicting bone remodeling induced by FGM dental implants. This article aims to evaluate bone remodeling when replacing the titanium with a hydroxyapatite/collagen (HAP/Col) FGM model. A finite element model was constructed in the buccal-lingual section of a dental implant-bone structure generated from in vivo CT scan images. The remodeling simulation was performed over a 4 year healing period. Comparisons were made between the titanium implant and various FGM implants of this model. The FGM implants showed an improved bone remodeling outcome. The study is expected to provide a basis for future development of FGM implants.

  5. Dental Caries Status and Oral Hygiene Practices of Lock Factory Workers in Aligarh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mala; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Yadav, Pramod; Ingle, Ekta; Charania, Zohara

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the oral hygiene practices and dental caries status of lock factory workers in Aligarh city. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (2013) was used to collect data from each subject. A total of 850 subjects constituted the final sample size. Information was obtained regarding the oral hygiene practices and clinical examinations were conducted. Descriptive analysis was done and the data were analyzed using Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 46.5%. Almost half of the workers i.e., 456 (53.6%) used brush to clean their teeth. Majority of the subjects i.e., 784 (92.2%) cleaned their teeth once a day. It was found that 466 (54.8%) used toothpaste for maintaining oral hygiene. Almost half of the subjects consumed tobacco in form of gutkha, cigarette, and in multiple forms. The results of the study showed that dental caries and poor oral hygiene are major public health problems among the factory workers. Primary oral health-care programs like dental screening and oral health education at regular intervals should be made mandatory, which will help to prevent accumulation of health-care demands of the factory employees.

  6. A cross-sectional study to assess the effect of dental fluorosis on periodontal status

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    Amandeep Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries is well established, its effect on periodontal tissues is enigmatic. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between dental fluorosis and the periodontal status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 subjects suffering from fluorosis. Variables such as age, gender, and smoking, which could act as covariates for the periodontal disease were recorded. The oral examination included assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, community periodontal index and treatment need, and assessment of dental fluorosis by Jackson's fluorosis index. Results: Periodontitis was more common in females than in males. As the age advances, the rate of periodontal disease increases steadily. Periodontitis was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene and tobacco usage. As the degree of fluorosis increased, the severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased. Conclusion: There is a strong association between the degree of dental fluorosis and periodontal disease along with other factors such as age, gender, OHI-S, and tobacco usage.

  7. Dental Status of Elderly in Maraveh-Tapeh City, Golestan

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    Hashem Heshmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the old people is losing the natural teeth which can be considered as a very important event in their life because as a result the aged will be afflicted with a kind of functional disability which affects daily activities such as food choice, eating and speaking; it even creates many psychosocial problems for the old person [1]. Studies also indicated that the old people who have lost their teeth have a more unfavorable quality of life [2]. The importance of Oral Health is so that one of the elements of Primary Health Care (PHC is devoted to Oral Health [3].

  8. The dental and oral status of children with chronic renal failure

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    Nakhjavani Yahya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the oral and dental status of chronic renal failure (CRF patients undergoing hemodialysis at children′s Hospitals in Tehran. Fifty-three children with CRF aged 5-18 years recruited from the renal unit of children′s medical center, Tehran Hospitals for children, were studied. The decayed, missing, filled dmf, DMF, and MGI scores were recorded. The CRF children had low prevalence of dental caries, although none of the clinical diagnoses displayed the absence of gingival inflammation. Duration of dialysis and Anemia had a significant influence on the gingival condition. Especially anemia leads to severe gingivitis. The CRF children need careful monitoring and all such patient should be given oral hygiene education as topmost priority.

  9. Equity in children's dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-02-11

    One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children's dental caries (tooth decay) in Calgary, Canada, in 2009/10 when CWF was in place, and in 2013/14, after it had been discontinued. We analyzed data from population-based samples of schoolchildren (grade 2) in 2009/10 and 2013/14. Data on dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent teeth) were gathered via open mouth exams conducted in schools by registered dental hygienists. We examined the association between dental caries and 1) presence/absence of dental insurance and 2) small area index of material deprivation, using Poisson (zero-inflated) and logistic regression, for both time points separately. For small-area material deprivation at each time point, we also computed the concentration index of inequality for each outcome variable. Statistically significant inequities by dental insurance status and by small area material deprivation were more apparent in 2013/14 than in 2009/10. Results are consistent with increasing inequities in dental caries following cessation of CWF. However, further research is needed to 1) confirm the effects in a study that includes a comparison community, and 2) explore possible alternative reasons for the findings, including changes in treatment and preventive programming.

  10. Functional status after childbirth and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Nadine M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between functional status after childbirth and related concepts. The sample consisted of 177 women. The Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) 85-Part 2, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth (IFSAC) were used to measure variables. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6 weeks postpartum. Overall, this group had relatively low levels of anxiety and high levels of social support and functional status after childbirth. The STAI demonstrated coefficient alphas from .90 to .93, the PRQ 85-Part 2 .87 to .93, and the IFSAC .90. The relationship between state anxiety in the postpartum period and FSAC (r = -.204, p = .008) was significant. Additional significant findings between social support, anxiety, and subscales of the IFSAC were found. Nurses must understand these relationships to develop and implement effective interventions. This study is clinically relevant to nurses involved in caring for pregnant and postpartum clients.

  11. Dental health status and oral health behavior among university students from five ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache in the past 12 months, 39.4% reported to have one or more cavities, 20.3% did not brush their teeth twice or more times a day, and 30.9% had never been to a dentist (or did not know it). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, living in a lower middle income country, consumption of chocolate or candy, having made a dental care visit, and poor mental health was associated with tooth ache in the past 12 months. Being male, being 20 to 21 years old, coming from a wealthier family background, living in a lower middle income country, frequent consumption of soft drinks, not having consulted with a dentist in the past 12 months and weak beliefs in the benefits of tooth brushing were associated with inadequate tooth brushing frequency (chocolate or candy, frequent consumption of soft drinks and low physical activity was associated with inadequate or never dental care visit. Poor dental health status and oral health behaviors were found and various risk factors identified that can be utilized to guide interventions to improve oral health programs among university students.

  12. Assessment of dentally related functional competency for older adults with cognitive impairment--a survey for special-care dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer J J

    2013-01-01

    This survey was to study whether and how dental professional assess dental-related function in older adults with cognitive impairment (OACI). An invitation was sent to 525 special-care dental professionals, followed by a reminder in 2 weeks. Thirteen percent of the targeted participants completed the survey. Among them, 88% completed a hospital dentistry, geriatric dentistry, or other postgraduate training program. Nearly 70% of the respondents considered somewhat to very difficult to assess dentally related function; 45% did not ever or did not regularly assess dental-related function for OACI. Dental-related functional assessments were often based on a subjective, unstructured approach. Only 6% of the respondents routinely used standard instruments to assess the patients' function. These results indicate that an objective functional assessment based on a standardized instrument has not been routinely incorporated into dental care for OACI, raising concerns for quality of care in this vulnerable population.

  13. Social and dental status along the life course and oral health impacts in adolescents: a population-based birth cohort

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    Menezes Ana MB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful social conditions in early life might predispose individuals to dental status which in turn may impact on adolescents' quality of life. Aims To estimate the prevalence of oral health impacts among 12 yr-old Brazilian adolescents (n = 359 and its association with life course socioeconomic variables, dental status and dental services utilization in a population-based birth cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods Exploratory variables were collected at birth, at 6 and 12 yr of age. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (OIDP was collected in adolescence and it was analyzed as a ranked outcome (OIDP from 0 to 9. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was performed guided by a theoretical determination model. Results The response rate was of 94.4% (n = 339. The prevalence of OIDP = 1 was 30.1% (CI95%25.2;35.0 and OIDP ≥ 2 was 28.0% (CI95%23.2;32.8. The most common daily activity affected was eating (44.8%, follow by cleaning the mouth and smiling (15.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. In the final model mother schooling and mother employment status in early cohort participant's life were associated with OIDP in adolescence. As higher untreated dental caries at age 6 and 12 years, and the presence of dental pain, gingival bleeding and incisal crowing in adolescence as higher the OIDP score. On the other hand, dental fluorosis was associated with low OIDP score. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of adolescent's early life social environmental as mother schooling and mother employment status and the early and later dental status on the adolescent's quality of life regardless family income and use of dental services.

  14. Oral health status, treatment needs, and obstacles to dental care among noninstitutionalized children with severe mental disabilities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; van der Schoof, M.; Resida, G.; Broers, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the oral health status, treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of noninstitutionalized children in The Netherlands who have severe disabilities. The oral health status of 61 children (38% female; 4-12 years of age; M = 7.7, SD = 2.2), randomly selected

  15. Education Status of Oral Genetics at the Fourth Military Medical University and other Chinese Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Li; Wang, Chang Ning; Fan, Zhi Peng; Jiao, Yang; Duan, Xiao Hong

    To investigate the current state of genetics education at the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) and compare it with other dental schools of China. Detailed information about the history and current education status of Oral Genetics in the FMMU were collected and questionnaires were completed to acquire the feedback of twenty-seven students on the course. In the other thirty-five dental schools including the capitals of twenty-five provinces and four municipalities in China, information about the oral genetic course were collected by a telephone survey. The contents of survey included whether or not the Oral Genetic course is offered and some basic information about the curriculum (such as the content, hours, teachers' background and teaching methods). Among a total of thirty-six dental schools investigated, six of them (16.7%) offered the Oral Genetic course or related lectures/seminars. The length and contents of the curriculum vary among these schools. The FMMU offered the oral genetic curriculum both to undergraduates and graduated students. Their teachers had a broad range of backgrounds, such as dentistry, biology, genetics, and biochemistry. The students considered the Oral Genetics course to be helpful for their future professional careers. Genetic education in dentistry in China is still at a preliminary stage. More effort must be paid to spread the knowledge of Oral Genetics in China. In addition, domestic and international communications and networks for Oral Genetics should be set up in the near future.

  16. The status of mineral trioxide aggregate in endodontics education in dental schools in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanalp, Jale; Karapinar-Kazandag, Meriç; Ersev, Handan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current status of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an educational material in dental schools in Turkey. A survey was sent to senior members of the endodontic departments of seventeen dental schools; fourteen responded. All respondents reported that they used MTA in their clinical practice, with apexification, perforations, retrograde fillings, and root resorptions being the most frequently occurring treatment procedures. All reported that information was given to students regarding MTA mainly as part of the curriculum. The third and fourth years were the periods when MTA was introduced to students in most of the schools. Twelve schools reported that students had the opportunity to observe procedures in which MTA was used, but students had the chance to use the material in a very minor proportion of the schools, mainly under the supervision of clinical instructors. Ten schools agreed that MTA should be included in the regular endodontic curriculum. Financial constraints seemed to be the predominant reason for those who answered this question negatively, followed by difficult handling properties and low radiopacity of the material. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that ways should be sought to prevent financial difficulties from depriving dental students of the opportunity to receive information about contemporary methodologies such as MTA utilization.

  17. Dental and prosthodontic status of an over 40 year-old population in Shandong Province, China

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    Creugers Nico HJ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to (1 describe the dental status using DMFT for the whole dentition and the anterior, premolar and molar regions; (2 determine associations of demographic variables and socio-economic status (SES with DMFT and tooth replacement; (3 analyze to what extent the goal as proposed by the WHO -'the retention of not less than 20 teeth throughout life' is achieved. Methods DMFT and tooth replacement data of 1588 subjects over 40 years from urban and rural sites in Qingdao (Shandong Province, China were collected. Relative D, M, and F scores per dental region were calculated and compared by paired T-tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine relationships with age, gender, place of residence, and SES. Results Mean numbers of D and F were low (1.36 respectively 0.27 at all ages. Molars had highest chance for D and M. For the molar region every additional year of age gave significantly lower chance for D and higher chance for M (OR: 0.98 and 1.02 respectively; both p ≤ 0.01. Mean number of M was associated with age (approximately 1.5 in each jaw at 40 years and 6 at 80 years. Females had higher chance for D (OR: 1.34; p ≤ 0.05 and F (OR: 1.69; p ≤ 0.01, and lower chance for M (OR: 0.60; p ≤ 0.01. Urban and rural subjects had similar chance for D; urban subjects had approximately 5 times more chance for F (p ≤ 0.01. SES had no relationship with D and M, however SES low was associated with F (OR: 0.45; p ≤ 0.01. Replacements were significantly associated with age (all dental regions except anterior region, gender (all dental regions, place of residence (whole dentition and molar region, and SES (whole dentition and premolar and molar regions. Conclusions The majority of subjects presented a reduced dentition. Molars were most frequently affected by D and M. D, M, F and replaced teeth were associated with the background variables, however differently for different dental regions. Above the age

  18. FORENSIC INVESTIGATOR: HIS PROCEDURAL STATUS AND FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Meretukov G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article covers the problems of procedural status and functions of a forensic investigator taking into account the provisions of p. 40 (1) art.5 of the Criminal Code, comparing with the previous position of the criminal procurators. The author suggests the wording of a new article 38(1) of the Criminal Code as a “forensic investigator” and defines his procedural status. Thus, a forensic investigator at the pre-trial proceedings should have the following powers: according to the investigato...

  19. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144).

  20. Oral lesions and dental status among institutionalized orphans in Yemen: A matched case-control study

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    Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs and dental caries and to evaluate oral health practices among institutionalized orphan-children in Sana′a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 202 institutionalized male-orphan-children in the main orphanage in Sana′a city, were matched to 202 non-orphan schoolchildren. Clinical examination included assessment of OMLs based on standard international diagnostic criteria and evaluation of dental status using the Decayed/decayed, Missed/missed and Filled/filled (DMFT/dmft index according to World Health Organization recommendations. Demographic data and oral hygiene practices were obtained by interviewing each subject using special questionnaire form. Results: Majority of children were in the 12-15 year age group. Nine types of lesions were reported among orphans; the most common lesions were fissured tongue (24.3%, herpes labialis (7.9% and traumatic ulcers (2.5%. The occurrence of herpes labialis was found to be significantly higher in orphans than in controls (P < 0.01. The prevalence of dental caries was insignificantly lower among the orphans (84.7% compared with the non-orphans (89.61%; P = 0.136. The mean dmft score was significantly lower in orphans than in controls (2.28 vs. 3.82; P = 0.001. Conclusions: The institutionalized children in this orphanage had a high prevalence of OMLs but low prevalence of dental caries, though they revealed poor oral hygiene practices. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health and oral health practices of children living in orphanages.

  1. The relationship of orthodontic treatment need with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Demirer, Serhat; Ozturk, Firat; Altan, Burcu A; Sokucu, Oral; Bostanci, Vildan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11-14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.

  2. The Relationship of Orthodontic Treatment Need with Periodontal Status, Dental Caries, and Sociodemographic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi Nalcaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11–14 years. Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.

  3. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

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    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  4. The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type I on Periodontal and Dental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Mohammadi, Samira; Zohri, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type I is a chronic metabolic disease with an autoimmune origin. The initial manifestations mainly appear during childhood and its prevalence is on the rise in many countries. Some of the complications of diabetes mellitus are problems related to oro-dental structures and periodontal diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between diabetes mellitus type I and dental and periodontal status in Tehran, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 patients with diabetes mellitus type I who were under treatment in the Diabetic Patients' Center in Tehran and 50 healthy individuals who did not have diabetes, all recruited from schools. The subjects were divided into two age groups of 6-12 and 13-18 years. In test group, HbA1c (glycosylated haemoglobin) level of the patients was collected from the medical records of Association of Diabetic Patients. To make sure that the control subjects did not suffer from diabetes mellitus, their blood glucose was measured with the Glucocard 01 blood glucose monitoring kit (GT-1920, Japan). The periodontal and dental status were assessed using dmft/DMFT (Decayed, Missing, Filled Permanent Teeth), GI (Gingival Index), PPD (Periodontal Pocket Depth), PI (Plaque Index) and CI (Calculus Index). The data obtained from each group were compared statistically using the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis Test. There was increase in PPD, GI and DMFT values with aging, with no significant differences between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups. PI and DMFT not only increased with aging but also were higher in both age groups in patients with diabetes compared to healthy subjects (pdiabetic patients (pperiodontal indices (pdiabetes mellitus type I are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and tooth loss and such problems might be aggravated with aging.

  5. Distinct signatures of dental plaque metabolic byproducts dictated by periodontal inflammatory status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanaka, Akito; Kuboniwa, Masae; Hashino, Ei; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Amano, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Onset of chronic periodontitis is associated with an aberrant polymicrobial community, termed dysbiosis. Findings regarding its etiology obtained using high-throughput sequencing technique suggested that dysbiosis holds a conserved metabolic signature as an emergent property. The purpose of this study was to identify robust biomarkers for periodontal inflammation severity. Furthermore, we investigated disease-associated metabolic signatures of periodontal microbiota using a salivary metabolomics approach. Whole saliva samples were obtained from adult subjects before and after removal of supragingival plaque (debridement). Periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) was employed as an indicator of periodontal inflammatory status. Based on multivariate analyses using pre-debridement salivary metabolomics data, we found that metabolites associated with higher PISA included cadaverine and hydrocinnamate, while uric acid and ethanolamine were associated with lower PISA. Next, we focused on dental plaque metabolic byproducts by selecting salivary metabolites significantly decreased following debridement. Metabolite set enrichment analysis revealed that polyamine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, butyric acid metabolism, and lysine degradation were distinctive metabolic signatures of dental plaque in the high PISA group, which may be related to the metabolic signatures of disease-associated communities. Collectively, our findings identified potential biomarkers of periodontal inflammatory status and also provide insight into metabolic signatures of dysbiotic communities. PMID:28220901

  6. Ontogeny reveals function and evolution of the hadrosaurid dinosaur dental battery

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron R H LeBlanc; Robert R Reisz; Evans, David C; Bailleul, Alida M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hadrosaurid dinosaurs, dominant Late Cretaceous herbivores, possessed complex dental batteries with up to 300 teeth in each jaw ramus. Despite extensive interest in the adaptive significance of the dental battery, surprisingly little is known about how the battery evolved from the ancestral dinosaurian dentition, or how it functioned in the living organism. We undertook the first comprehensive, tissue-level study of dental ontogeny in hadrosaurids using several intact maxillary and...

  7. Dental status of new caledonian children: is there a need for a new oral health promotion programme?

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    Hélène Pichot

    Full Text Available Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population.This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health.A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and 1201 12-yr-olds was examined clinically by seven calibrated investigators and participants responded to a questionnaire. The main variables were objective criteria about dental status and subjective criteria about experience of dental care, dental fear, self-perception of oral health, cultural or ethnic identity and environmental and behavioural risk factors.Overall, most of the children had infectious oral diseases: more than 50% had gingivitis, and 60% of 6- and 9 yr-olds had at least one deciduous or permanent tooth with untreated caries. The mean 12-yr-old number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT was 2.09±2.82. The number of carious lesions was related to the unfavourable lifestyle, deprived social status and no preventive dental care. Kanak, Polynesians and Caledonians (respectively 27%, 18% and 45% of the study sample were more affected by caries than metropolitan French and Asian children. Children with many untreated carious lesions had negative perceptions of their oral health; they complained of chewing difficulty and had higher scores for dental anxiety.This study highlights the need for new strategies aimed at improving oral health and at reducing inequalities in New Caledonia. An oral health promotion program would need to be developed in connection with other health programmes using the common risk factor approach within the context of the local environment.

  8. Functional Status of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

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    Akash Nabil

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with physical well being were examined in adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD in two large hemodialysis units of the Royal Medical Services in Jordan. Utilizing the Karnofski scale we measured the functional status of 200 Patients who had been on maintenance hemodialysis for at least 12 months. A Marnofski scale of less than 70 incidents frank disability (Inability to perform routine living activities without assistance, in addition current vocational status was assessed as well as any existing comorbid conditions. The mean age of the study group was 45.2 years (range 16 to 70 and included 108 (54% males and 92 (46% females, there were 39 (19.5% diabetic patients and 27 (13.5% patients were receiving erythropoietin (EPO. The mean hematocrit of the entire group was 27.8%. As measured by Karnofski scale, 64 (32% of the patients were unable to perform routine living activity without assistance; dependence on wheelchair was reported by 9 (4.5% patients. The mean comorbidity index of patients who scored less than 70 on the Karnofski scale was 1.5 compared to 0.7 for those who scored at least 70 on the same scale (p< 0.001. Analysis of factors showed that age and diabetes mellitus affected functional status. Of the laboratory variables measured, only serum albumin concentration correlated significant with Karnofski scale. Fourteen (21.8% of the patients who scored below 70, had serum albumin concentration above 40g/L compared to 66 (48.5% of the patients who scored at least 70 on the Karnofski scale (p< 0.001. We conclude that a significant proportion of patients on maintenance hemodialysis is functionally disabled. The elderly, diabetics, patients with high co-morbidity index and those with low serum albumin are most likely to have poor functional status.

  9. A review of dental CAD/CAM: current status and future perspectives from 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Kunii, Jun; Kuriyama, Soichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we review the recent history of the development of dental CAD/CAM systems for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs), based on our 20 years of experience in this field. The current status of commercial dental CAD/CAM systems developed around the world is evaluated, with particular focus on the field of ceramic crowns and FPDs. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives applicable to dental CAD/CAM. The use of dental CAD/CAM systems is promising not only in the field of crowns and FPDs but also in other fields of dentistry, even if the contribution is presently limited. CAD/CAM technology will contribute to patients' health and QOL in the aging society.

  10. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  11. Dental anxiety and psychological functioning in children: its relationship with behaviour during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the relationship between the levels of dental anxiety, psychological functioning and earlier experience with dental injections are examined and the possible influence of these factors on children's behaviour before and during a local anaesthesia injection. Methods: A total of 128

  12. Cognitive Impairment, Oral Self-care Function and Dental Caries Severity in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer JJ; Chen, Hong; Naorungroj, Supawadee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether oral self-care function mediates the associations between cognitive impairment and caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. Background Cognitive impairment significantly affects activities of daily living and compromises oral health, systemic health and quality of life in older adults. However, the associations among cognitive impairment, oral self-care capacity and caries severity remain unclear. This increases difficulty in developing effective interventions for cognitively impaired patients. Materials and methods Medical, dental, cognitive and functional assessments were abstracted from the dental records of 600 community-dwelling elderly. 230 participants were selected using propensity score matching and categorised into normal, cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) and dementia groups based on their cognitive status and a diagnosis of dementia. Multivariable regressions were developed to examine the mediating effect of oral self-care function on the association between cognitive status and number of caries or retained roots. Results Cognitive impairment, oral self-care function and dental caries severity were intercorrelated. Multivariable analysis showed that without adjusting for oral self-care capacity, cognition was significantly associated with the number of caries or retained roots (p = 0.003). However, the association was not significant when oral self-care capacity was adjusted (p = 0.125). In contrast, individuals with impaired oral self-care capacity had a greater risk of having a caries or retained root (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.15, 2.44). Conclusion Oral care capacity mediates the association between cognition and dental caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23758583

  13. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries.

  14. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari; Agha Mohammad Suhail; Abdul Razzaq Malik; Mian Farrukh Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a...

  15. Effects of Dental Methacrylates on Oxygen Consumption and Redox Status of Human Pulp Cells

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    Giuseppina Nocca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have already demonstrated that the incomplete polymerization of resin-based dental materials causes the release of monomers which might affect cell metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate on (1 cellular energy metabolism, evaluating oxygen consumption rate, glucose consumption, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lactate production, and (2 cellular redox status, through the evaluation of glutathione concentration and of the activities of enzymes regulating glutathione metabolism. Methods. Human pulp cells were used and oxygen consumption was measured by means of a Clark electrode. Moreover, reactive oxygen species production was quantified. Enzymatic activity and glucose and lactate concentrations were determined through a specific kit. Results. Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate induced a decrease in oxygen consumption rate, an enhancement of glucose consumption, and lactate production, whilst glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity were not significantly modified. Moreover, the monomers induced an increase of reactive oxygen species production with a consequent increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. A depletion of both reduced and total glutathione was also observed. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that dental monomers might alter energy metabolism and glutathione redox balance in human pulp cells.

  16. Molecular Approaches to Functionalization of Dental Implant Surfaces

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    Angelina O. Zekiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines several approaches to improve properties of dental implants by modifying their bioactive surfaces (functionalization using the techniques of molecular transplantation. The first group of functional ligands is designed to enhance osseointegration of implants, it includes growth factors, promoting the formation and bone remodeling: bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF and their combinations with each other, and several other ones. The second group of bioactive molecules does not directly stimulate bone formation, but it promotes osteoblast seeding on the implant surface due to the adhesive properties, thus accelerating osseointegration. Finally, the third group of substances used to increase the antibacterial properties of coatings, thereby reducing the formation of bacterial film on the implant surface and the risk of inflammatory rejection of the implant. Key issues of using biofunctional coatings, despite their obvious promise today still are relatively high cost, difficulties of controlling properties and its storage between the fabrication and installation of implants in the bone of the recipient.

  17. Dental status and associated factors in a dentate adult population in bulgaria: a cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of "decayed," "missing," and "filled" teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected b

  18. Oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore

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    S T Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visually impaired children daily face challenges for bearing their everyday skills. Maintenance of proper oral hygiene is one among them. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health knowledge, practice, oral hygiene status, and dental caries prevalence among visually impaired children in Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A total of 85 children were asked verbally a questionnaire regarding the frequency of brushing, cleaning tools, use of dentifrice, knowledge about the role of sugar in producing dental decay, and frequency of visit to the dentist. All children were screened and DMF and def scores were recorded and oral hygiene status were assessed by Green and Vermillion index. Results: Green and Vermillion index. Kruskal Wallis Chi square test was performed and no statistically significant results were obtained with DMF and def scores as well as OHI scores across different ages in the range of 8 to 13 years. A highly statistically significant result was obtained with dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of visually impaired children. Conclusions: The present study shows not much worsening of oral health status in the study population. A little extra care by the parent or caretaker regarding oral hygiene can give drastic results in reduction of dental caries.

  19. Presence of Streptococcus mutans strains harbouring the cnm gene correlates with dental caries status and IgA nephropathy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Naka, Shuhei; Hatakeyama, Rina; Fukunaga, Akiko; Nomura, Ryota; Isozaki, Taisuke; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of human dental caries. Strains harbouring the cnm gene, which encodes Cnm, a collagen-binding protein, contribute to the development of several systemic diseases. In this study, we analysed S. mutans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) patients to determine potential relationships between cnm and caries status as well as IgAN conditions. Saliva specimens were collected from 109 IgAN patients and the cnm status of isolated S. mutans strains was determined using PCR. In addition, the dental caries status (decayed, missing or filled teeth [DMFT] index) in patients who agreed to dental consultation (n = 49) was evaluated. The DMFT index and urinary protein levels in the cnm-positive group were significantly higher than those in the cnm-negative group (p S. mutans strains from the oral cavity may be associated with urinary protein levels in IgAN patients, especially those with a high dental caries status. PMID:27811984

  20. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  1. Novel fluoro-carbon functional monomer for dental bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, K; Yoshida, Y; Hayakawa, S; Nagaoka, N; Kamenoue, S; Okihara, T; Ogawa, T; Nakamura, M; Osaka, A; Van Meerbeek, B

    2014-02-01

    Among several functional monomers, 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) bonded most effectively to hydroxyapatite (HAp). However, more hydrolysis-resistant functional monomers are needed to improve bond durability. Here, we investigated the adhesive potential of the novel fluoro-carbon functional monomer 6-methacryloxy-2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorohexyl dihydrogen phosphate (MF8P; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Tokyo, Japan) by studying its molecular interaction with powder HAp using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H MAS NMR) and with dentin using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and by characterizing its interface ultrastructure at dentin using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We further determined the dissolution rate of the MF8P_Ca salt, the hydrophobicity of MF8P, and the bond strength of an experimental MF8P-based adhesive to dentin. NMR confirmed chemical adsorption of MF8P onto HAp. XRD and TEM revealed MF8P_Ca salt formation and nano-layering at dentin. The MF8P_Ca salt was as stable as that of 10-MDP; MF8P was as hydrophobic as 10-MDP; a significantly higher bond strength was recorded for MF8P than for 10-MDP. In conclusion, MF8P chemically bonded to HAp. Despite its shorter size, MF8P possesses characteristics similar to those of 10-MDP, most likely to be associated with the strong chemical bond between fluorine and carbon. Since favorable bond strength to dentin was recorded, MF8P can be considered a good candidate functional monomer for bonding.

  2. Dental caries status of patients with schizophrenia in Seville, Spain: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Monsalve-Guil, L; Ortiz-Garcia, I; Jimenez-Guerra, A; Lopez-Lopez, J; Segura-Egea, J J

    2017-01-18

    The aim of this study was to assess the dental status (DMFT) in patients with schizophrenia compared with a control group. In this case-control study, 50 patients with schizophrenia attended in the Psychiatric Unit at the Virgen Macarena University Hospital of Seville were compared with 50 people (without systemic diseases and not taking psychotropic drugs) in a control group attended in the School of Dentistry of Seville. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed according to the World Health Organization WHO criteria. Patients with schizophrenia showed a decayed teeth (DT) score of 7.26 ± 5.69 compared with 6.50 ± 4.37 for patients the control group. These differences were significant and suggest that dental caries are most prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. People who smoked showed significantly higher DT scores in both groups. Among patients with schizophrenia, smokers scored 9.34 ± 5.42 compared with 4.38 ± 4.82 for non-smokers. Among the healthy controls, smokers scored 6.88 ± 4.85 compared with 6.12 ± 3.85 for non-smokers (p schizophrenia showed a missing teeth (MT) score of 9.10 ± 8.56 compared with 5.38 ± 5.14 in control patients. MT scores increased significantly with age and with smoking in both groups of patients (p schizophrenia showed a filled teeth (FT) score of 1.38 ± 2.70 compared with 2.34 ± 3.48 in control patients. FT differences in gender and smoking habits between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects were statistically significant (p schizophrenia have extensive untreated dental disease. Patients with schizophrenia constitute a high risk population for dental health. This group showed a greater prevalence of decayed and missing teeth and more extensive treatment needs.

  3. Dental prosthetic status and treatment needs of green marble mine laborers, Udaipur, India

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    Santhosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of prosthetic needs in a special population would aid in planning the oral health service programs. The aim of this study was to assess the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in a sample of green marble mine laborers of Udaipur, India. Methods: The study population comprised of 513 green marble mine laborers who were divided into four age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54. Prosthetic status and treatment needs along with dentition status were recorded using WHO oral health assessment form. The examination was done by two examiners who were calibrated for inter examiner variability with kappa statistic of 86%. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions. The significance level was set at α= 0.05. Results: Mean number of missing teeth due to any reason for the whole sample was 0.82. Approximately, 96.5% of the subjects were free from any kind of prosthesis and only the rest of sample (3.5% had single fixed prosthesis. The overall prosthetic treatment needs was 15.5%. Prosthetic needs increased as the age increased with the age group 45-54 showing the greatest. Prosthetic needs in the lower arch were found to be greater than that of the upper arch. Single unit prosthesis comprised a greater percentage of the whole prosthetic needs (41%. Conclusion: Most of the prosthetic needs of the study population were unmet. The prosthetic needs being four and half-fold greater than the status.

  4. Evaluating dental status and prosthetic need in relation to medical findings in Greek patients suffering from idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadou, Vassiliki; Katsarou, Zoi; Naka, Olga; Bostanzopoulou, Maria

    2002-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the common neurological conditions which predominantly affects the elderly but increasingly also younger people. Sufferers present persistent problems with oral health aggravated by extensive tooth loss leading to an impaired dentition. Greece and other countries experiencing the same demographic trends, face growing numbers of sufferers. This study surveyed the dental status and the need for dental treatment of a sample of Greek patients with Parkinson's disease. A structured questionnaire was used. 30% of the participants were younger sufferers. 80% of the elderly group were young elderly. 98% of the participants were denture wearers. Extensive oral problems were recorded in all participants.

  5. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function

    OpenAIRE

    Øilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne Dybdahl; Ulsund, Amanda Hembre; Gjerdet,Nils Roar

    2014-01-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based res...

  6. The Relationship between dental status, body mass index and nutrient intake

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    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is one of the basic requirements for growth and development. In all the age groups, good oral health is necessary for masticatory efficacy, sense of taste, deglutition, articulation and aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tooth loss and food intake in a group of middle aged population. Materials and Methods: A total number of 200 participants with age range of 40-60 years were chosen and divided into four groups. The study population was classified into one of four groups by number of permanent teeth present. Required data for the study were gathered by interviews, oral and dental examinations, anthropometric measurements and 24-hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed statistically by descriptive methods, Variance test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Statistical analysis proved that, by controlling important confounding factors, individuals with more teeth had higher mean body mass index, weight, height, energy and nutrient intake compared to those with fewer teeth. Conclusion: Food intake and nutritional status are associated with oral health status and number of teeth.   Key words: Body mass index; Food intake; Tooth loss

  7. King's theory of goal attainment: exploring functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Billy A

    2015-04-01

    Imogene King's Theory of Goal Attainment provides a schema for nurses interested in functional status. However, the lack of a uniform definition for functional status has hindered development of a concise understanding of this phenomenon. Functional status is particularly important to nurses who are concerned with the safety and wellbeing of clients. With healthcare's increased focus on client-family-centered care it is important to develop innovative approaches for evaluating functional status that incorporate the client-family perspective. King's focus on mutual decision-making is an underutilized resource that can provide great insight into the study and understanding of functional status.

  8. FORENSIC INVESTIGATOR: HIS PROCEDURAL STATUS AND FUNCTIONS

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    Meretukov G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problems of procedural status and functions of a forensic investigator taking into account the provisions of p. 40 (1 art.5 of the Criminal Code, comparing with the previous position of the criminal procurators. The author suggests the wording of a new article 38(1 of the Criminal Code as a “forensic investigator” and defines his procedural status. Thus, a forensic investigator at the pre-trial proceedings should have the following powers: according to the investigator’s decision (the head of the investigation team or the head of the investigative body starting the production of a case he could be entitled to authorize the investigative and other procedures, as well as the participation in the investigation along with the investigator, in order to ensure the proper application of scientific and technical tools and procedural recordings during the investigation, addressing experts for help and cooperation with forensic institutions, and the use of the advanced features of forensic examinations; introduction of new science and technology excellence in the detection and investigation of crime; development of scientific-methodological and practical recommendations for the detection and investigation of crimes

  9. The role of parental education and socioeconomic status in dental caries prevention among Lithuanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Bendoraitienė, Eglė Aida; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Andruškevičienė, Vilija; Zūbienė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disclose parental attitudes toward their children's dental care and preventive measures used as well as to evaluate their associations with parental education and socioeconomic status. A total of 1248 parents of 7-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from 5 largest Lithuanian cities were enrolled in the study. The questionnaire comprised 34 items, which were grouped into 4 clusters. The parents with a high educational level scored better than those who had a low educational level (2.13 [SD, 0.39] vs. 2.2 [0.43], P=0.002). The parents who reported sufficient-family income scored their child's and their own health significantly better than those reporting insufficient-family income (2.02 [SD, 0.37] vs. 2.27 [SD, 0.41], Pparents cared about their child's health more than about their own (1.53 [SD, 0.51] vs. 2.15 [0.61], Pparents with a high educational level and those receiving sufficient income cared about education on oral hygiene and regular preventive dental check-ups more than those with a low educational level and insufficient income (36.7% and 40.8% vs. 30.2% and 28.7%, Pparents had a high educational level brushed their teeth 2 times a day more frequently than those of the parents with a low educational level (48.5% and 42.4%, respectively, Pparents with a high educational level and sufficient income. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Dental maturity in South France: A comparison between Demirjian's method and polynomial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, Nils; Demirjian, Arto

    2004-09-01

    The dental maturity of 1031 healthy southern French subjects aged between 2 and 18 years was studied with dental panoramic tomograms. Demirjian's method based on seven and eight teeth has been used to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. We give gender-specific tables of maturity scores and development graphs for each method. The goal of these methods is different because of the nature of the predictions. The percentiles give the dental maturity compared to a standard for a specific age, and polynomial functions give an age prediction with a confidence interval for age. The variations in dental maturity are specific to each population. Thus, the aim of this study is to give the dental maturity standards for southern French children and to compare both the efficiency and applicability of each method in several fields such as forensic sciences or dental health for the clinicians. The addition of the third molar increased the reliability and the capacity of prediction up to 18 years. The polynomial functions showed the best reliability (1.3% of misclassified) and the percentile methods the best accuracy (more or less 1.2 years, on average, between 2 and 18 years of age).

  11. Dental fluorosis, fluoride in urine, and nutritional status in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Aguilar-Díaz Fatima; Javier, de la Fuente-Hernández; Aline, Cintra-Viveiro Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess urine fluoride concentration, nutritional status, and dental fluorosis in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted including participants aged 11-20 years. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis was registered according to the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) criteria. Anthropometric measures were also recorded. Urine sample of the first morning spot was recollected to assess urine fluoride concentration by using the potentiometric method with an ion-selective electrode. Water samples were also recollected and analyzed. Bivariate tests were performed to compare urine fluoride concentration according to different variables such as sex, body mass index, and TFI. Nonparametric tests were used. A logistic regression model was performed (SPSS® 21.0). This study included 307 participants with a mean age of 15.6 ± 1.6; 62.5% of the participants showed normal weight. A total of 91.9% of the participants had dental fluorosis, and 61.6% had TFI > 4. Mean fluoride content in urine ranged between 0.5 and 6.65 mg/L, with a mean of 1.27 ± 1.2 mg/L. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration. The increment of urine fluoride was a related (OR = 1.40) to having severe dental fluorosis. Most of the studied population had moderate or severe dental fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentration was related to fluorosis severity and nutritional status. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration as well as severe dental fluorosis.

  12. Oral health status, treatment needs, and obstacles to dental care among noninstitutionalized children with severe mental disabilities in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Ad; van Houtem, Caroline; van der Schoof, Mariëlle; Resida, Gail; Broers, Dyonne

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the oral health status, treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of noninstitutionalized children in The Netherlands who have severe disabilities. The oral health status of 61 children (38% female; 4-12 years of age; M = 7.7, SD = 2.2), randomly selected from seven different daycare centers, was evaluated. Caretakers (n = 126) and dentists (n = 40) completed questionnaires concerning demographic information, oral hygiene, frequency of dental visits, and possible barriers to the daily oral care of the children. Of all the children, 57.4% had untreated caries (mean dmft/DMFT = 3.0; SD = 3.1). The proportion of caries-free children was 29.5%. In comparison to Dutch children, a significantly higher proportion of children with disabilities belonging to an ethnic minority did not receive any routine dental care (53.1% and 23.8%, respectively). Caretakers considered the noncooperation of their patients as the most troublesome aspect of their daily oral care (68%). Dentists considered communication problems as the most important barrier to treatment (75%). In conclusion, Dutch noninstitutionalized children with severe disabilities still receive a relatively low degree of quality dental care. This is particularly true for children from ethnic minority groups.

  13. Self – perceived and clinically diagnosed dental and periodontal health status among young adults and their implications for epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sgan-Cohen Harold D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical (normative and subjective (self-assessment evaluation of caries and periodontal diseases have been reported to demonstrate a significant disparity. The dental public health team is obligated to recognize and understand this gap. The objectives of the study were to investigate the practical values of using questionnaires (self–perceived assessment as compared to clinical examinations (normative assessment and to evaluate the implications of the results in understanding the public's perception of oral health. Methods The investigation was performed on 4920, 21 year-old Israeli adults upon release from compulsory military service between 1996 and 1998. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire inquiring how they would rate their personal dental and periodontal health levels. Clinical examinations, employing the DMFT and CPITN indices, were performed to determine normative oral health status. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall proportions using the clinical examinations as a gold standard. Results The sensitivity (disease perception for dental status was found to be 0.34, while the specificity (health perception was found to be 0.83. The positive predictive value for perceived dental status was found to be 0.68, whereas the negative predictive value was found to be 0.54. The sensitivity for perceived periodontal status was found to be 0.28, while the specificity was found to be 0.83. The positive predictive value for perceived periodontal status was found to be 0.05, whereas the negative predictive value was found to be 0.97. Regarding the overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self–assessment and professional assessment for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusions Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status both in the individual and public

  14. On-Site Surface Functionalization for Titanium Dental Implant with Nanotopography: Review and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Gyu Kim; Seog-Jin Seo; Jung-Hwan Lee; Hae-Won Kim

    2016-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been the first choice of material for dental implant due to bonding ability to natural bone and great biocompatibility. Various types of surface roughness modification in nanoscale have been made as promising strategy for accelerating osseointegration of Ti dental implant. To have synergetic effect with nanotopography oriented favors in cell attachment, on-site surface functionalization with reproducibility of nanotopography is introduced as next strategy to further enhance ...

  15. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Mozafar Khazaei; Fatemeh Abasi; Mohammad Rasool Khazaei; Farshad Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011) and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS). Methods: In this descriptive cr...

  16. Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal B...

  17. Can technical, functional and structural characteristics of dental units predict Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Luigi; Cannova, Lucia; Firenze, Alberto; Bivona, Maria S; Amodio, Emanuele; Romano, Nino

    2010-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common colonizers of water environments, particularly dental unit waterlines. The aim of this study was to assess whether the technical, functional and structural characteristics of dental units can influence the presence and the levels of opportunistic pathogens. Overall, 42 water samples were collected from dental units in a teaching hospital in Palermo, Italy, including 21 samples from the 21 taps supplied by the municipal water distribution system and 21 samples from oral rinsing cups at 21 dental units. L. pneumophila was present in 16 out of 21 water samples (76.2%) from dental units, and the median concentration was higher in samples from oral rinsing cups than in those from taps (P < 0.001). P. aeruginosa was equally distributed in water samples collected from oral rinsing cups and from taps. Some characteristics of dental units (age, number of chairs per room, number of patients per day and water temperature) were slightly associated with the presence of P. aeruginosa, but not with contamination by L. pneumophila. Our experience suggests that L. pneumophila is frequently detected in dental units, as reported in previous studies, whereas P. aeruginosa is not a frequent contaminant. As a consequence, microbiological control of water quality should be routinely performed, and should include the detection of opportunistic pathogens when bacterial contamination is expected.

  18. A comparative study on the dental health status of five precolumbian Peruvian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzay, R P; Allison, M J; Pezzia, A

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of dental health status of ancient Southern Peru, 101 skeletal remains were studied from five cultures: Paracas, Nazca, Tiahuanaco, Ica, and Inca. The Paracas and Ica cultures exhibited more missing antemortem teeth per mandible than the other cultures. Frequency of missing one or more third molars was less than expected and not as high as reported in peoples of Mongoloid heritage. The Paracas, Ica and Nazca, "coastal" cultures had a higher caries incidence than the "inland" cultures. Whether this relates to some difference in diet or water supply remains unresolved and warrants further investigation. Moderate attrition was noted in all the Precolumbian cultures but pulpal involvement was not observed. Osteitis, noted in all the cultures, was more pronounced in the Nazca, Paracas and Ica cultures. There appeared to be a direct relationship between caries involvement and the number of missing antemortem teeth to osteitis. Calculus was heavier in the Paracas and Ica cultures. In addition, the Paracas culture exhibited a dark brown stain on the teeth which may imply some difference between the cultures in either the food, water or social habits.

  19. Correlation between dental and nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Kikutani, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Tsuga, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Misaka; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between dental and nutritional status among community-dwelling elderly Japanese people. The subjects were 182 elderly individuals, aged 65-85 years, who voluntarily participated in a health seminar at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. These subjects were divided into two groups according to the occlusion. The subjects in the retained contact group were those who had retained molar occlusion with natural teeth. The lost contact group were those who retained molar occlusion with removable partial dentures. Anthropometric variables such as body mass index (BMI) were collected and dietary intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). No statistical difference in BMI or intake of macronutrients was found between these two occlusal groups. The lost contact group reported significantly lower consumption of vegetables and higher consumption of confectionaries (foods rich in sugar) than did the retained contact group (P < 0.05), and therefore had significantly lower intake of vitamin C and dietary fiber (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that natural tooth contact loss in the posterior region affect the intake of vitamins and dietary fiber. . © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  1. Impact of chronic condition status and severity on dental treatment under general anesthesia for Medicaid-enrolled children in Iowa state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Neff, John; Jones, Michael P.; Warren, John J.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Damiano, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the impact of chronic condition (CC) status and CC severity, respectively, on the odds of receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA) for Medicaid-enrolled children by age group. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children <15 years (n = 62 721) from 2005 to 2008. 3M Clinical Risk Grouping Software identified each child’s CC status (yes/no) and assigned children with a CC into a hierarchal CC severity group (episodic/life-long/complex). Multiple variable logistic regression models were used to identify the determinants of dental treatment under GA. Results Less than 1% of children received dental treatment under GA. While there was no significant difference in dental treatment under GA by CC status for children <6, those with a life-long CC were twice as likely to receive dental treatment under GA as demographically similar children with an episodic CC (P < 0.05). Children ages 6–14 with a CC were three times as likely as those without a CC to receive treatment under GA (P = 0.001). There was also a direct relationship between CC severity and dental treatment under GA use for older children. Those living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to receive treatment under GA as were children who previously received dental treatment under GA. Conclusions Chronic condition status and severity were more important determinants of dental treatment under GA for Medicaid-enrolled children ages 6–14 than for those <6. Understanding these relationships is a critical step in developing clinical strategies and interventions aimed at preventing dental disease for Medicaid-enrolled children whose reasons for needing dental treatment under GA are modifiable. PMID:20716079

  2. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in saliva,dental plaques, stool and gastric biopsy samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Momtaz; Negar Souod; Hossein Dabiri; Meysam Sarshar

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare genotype of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) isolated from saliva,dental plaques,gastric biopsy,and stool of each patient in order to evaluate the mode of transmission ofH.pylori infection.METHODS:This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 300 antral gastric biopsy,saliva,dental plaque and stool samples which were obtained from patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy referred to endoscopy centre of Hajar hospital of Shahrekord,Iran from March 2010 to February 2011.Initially,H.pylori strains were identified by rapid urease test (RUT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)were applied to determine the presence of H.pylori (ureC) and for genotyping of voculating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) and cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) genes in each specimen.Finally the data were analyzed by using statistical formulas such as Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to find any significant relationship between these genes and patient's diseases.P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.RESULTS:Of 300 gastric biopsy samples,77.66%were confirmed to be H.pylori positive by PCR assay while this bacterium were detected in 10.72% of saliva,71.67% of stool samples.We were not able to find it in dental plaque specimens.The prevalence of H.pylori was 90.47% among patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD),80% among patients with gastric cancer,and 74.13% among patients with none ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) by PCR assay.The evaluation of vacA and cagA genes showed 6 differences between gastric biopsy and saliva specimens and 11 differences between gastric and stool specimens.94.42% ofH.pylori positive specimens were cagA positive and all samples had amplified band both for vacA s and m regions.There was significant relationship between vacA s1a/m1a and PUD diseases (P =0.04),s2/m2 genotype and NUD diseases (P =0.05).No statically significant relationship was found between cagA status with clinical outcomes and vacA genotypes (P =0

  3. Biophysical characterization of functionalized titania nanoparticles and their application in dental adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jirun; Petersen, Elijah J; Watson, Stephanie S; Sims, Christopher M; Kassman, Alexander; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav; Skrtic, Drago; Ok, Meryem T; Jacobs, Debbie S; Reipa, Vytas; Ye, Qiang; Nelson, Bryant C

    2017-04-15

    It is demonstrated that carboxylic acid-functionalized titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs produce significantly higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after visible light irradiation (400-800nm, 1600mW/cm(2)) in comparison to nonfunctionalized TiO2 NPs. The level of ROS produced under these irradiation conditions was not capable of generating oxidatively induced DNA damage in a cell-free system for TiO2 concentrations of 0.5mg/L or 5mg/L. In addition, specific incorporation of the acrylic acid-functionalized TiO2 NPs into dental composites allowed us to utilize the generated ROS to enhance photopolymerization (curing and degree of vinyl conversion (DC)) of resin adhesives and create mechanically superior and biocompatible materials for dental applications. Incorporation of the TiO2 NPs into selected dental composites increased the mean DC values by ≈7%. The modified TiO2 materials and dental composite materials were extensively characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. Notably, dental adhesives incorporated with acrylic acid-functionalized TiO2 NPs produced stronger bonds to human teeth following visible light curing in comparison to traditional dental adhesives not containing NPs with an increase in the shear bond strength of ≈29%. In addition, no leaching of the incorporated NPs was detectable from the dental adhesives after 2500 thermal cycles using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, indicating that biocompatibility of the adhesives was not compromised after extensive aging. These findings suggest that NP-induced ROS may be useful to produce enhanced nanocomposite materials for selected applications in the medical device field. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have unique photocatalytic, antibacterial and UV-absorbing properties that make them beneficial additives in adhesives and composites. However, there is concern that

  4. Status of dental health in chemical warfare victims: The case of Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical warfare victims have relatively poor dental/oral health. Chemical injury might cause a dysfunction in saliva secretion, with decrease in saliva secretion increasing the risk for tooth decay and periodontal disorders. Further research is required to find out the exact underlying mechanisms and the factors associated with poor dental/oral health in chemical warfare victims.

  5. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Csikar

    Full Text Available Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009. The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report 'good oral health' (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05. Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02-2.55 compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57-2.52 and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42-2.20. The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates.

  6. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rufus John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  7. The status of the scholarship of teaching and learning in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Sharon K; McGregor, Michelle; Crain, Geralyn; Van Ness, Christopher J; Keselyak, Nancy T; Killip, John W

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current status of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) within academic dentistry. A twenty-two-item survey was distributed to faculty members of American Dental Education Association (ADEA) member schools asking about their awareness of SoTL practices, perceived barriers to SoTL application, and ways to enhance SoTL activity. Four hundred thirty surveys with equal distribution of assistant, associate, and full professors were received (this may be considered a response rate of 5.4 percent out of roughly 8,000 ADEA faculty members). Almost 70 percent of the respondents indicated that they highly valued SoTL; only 2.1 percent indicated they did not. The extent to which the respondents valued SoTL was positively correlated with their perception of SoTL's value among other faculty members in their program (r(322)=0.374, p<0.001), school (r(299)=0.204, p<0.001), and institution (r(233)=0.296, p<0.002). However, the respondents were generally unsure how SoTL was applied at their institutions. Respondents from private institutions reported making more SoTL presentations at conferences than did those from public institutions (t(303)=-2.761, p=0.006) and stronger promotion of SoTL in their institutional policies (t(330)= -3.004, p=0.003). Barriers to changing the perception and application of SoTL appeared to exist at both organizational and individual levels, and ADEA was perceived to be well positioned to assist with both.

  8. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  9. Oral health status of children with special health care needs receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia at the dental clinic of Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chen

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Unmet dental needs and caries experience indices remain high in CSHCN, regardless of the types and severity of disability. However, the younger the age at which CSHCN received their first dental treatment, the more effective the dental rehabilitation was. Parental education regarding early dental intervention and a preventive approach for enhanced oral care is mandatory.

  10. Use of lecture recordings in dental education: assessment of status quo and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; O'Donnell, Jean A; Johnson, Lynn A; Karimbux, Nadeem Y; Shuler, Charles F; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-11-01

    This research project was part of a planned initiative at the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine to incorporate lecture recordings as standard educational support technologies. The goal of an institutional survey was 1) to gather current data about how dental educators across the United States and Canada use lecture recordings; 2) determine dental educators' perceived value and outcomes of using lecture recordings; and 3) develop recommendations based on #1 and #2 for the dental education community. Of the sixty-six North American dental schools at the time of the study, forty-five schools responded to the survey, for a 68 percent response rate. Of the respondents, twenty-eight schools were found to currently conduct lecture recording; these comprised the study sample. This study focused on the dental schools' past experiences with lecture recording; thus, those not currently engaged in lecture recording were excluded from further analysis. The survey questions covered a wide range of topics, such as the scope of the lecture recording, logistics, instructional design considerations, outcomes related to student learning, evaluation and reception, barriers to lecture recording, and issues related to copyright and intellectual property. The literature review and results from the survey showed that no common guidelines for best practice were available regarding lecture recordings in dental education. The article concludes with some preliminary recommendations based on this study.

  11. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification – An Overview, Methodology and Present Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists’ attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations. PMID:26312096

  12. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification - An Overview, Methodology and Present Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Garg, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is primarily concerned with the use of teeth and oral structures for identification in a legal context. Various forensic odontology techniques help in the identification of the human remains in incidents such as terrorists' attacks, airplane, train and road accidents, fires, mass murders, and natural disasters such as tsunamis, earth quakes and floods, etc. (Disaster Victim Identification-DVI). Dental structures are the hardest and well protected structures in the body. These structures resist decomposition and high temperatures and are among the last ones to disintegrate after death. The principal basis of the dental identification lies in the fact that no two oral cavities are alike and the teeth are unique to an individual. The dental evidence of the deceased recovered from the scene of crime/occurrence is compared with the ante-mortem records for identification. Dental features such as tooth morphology, variations in shape and size, restorations, pathologies, missing tooth, wear patterns, crowding of the teeth, colour and position of the tooth, rotations and other peculiar dental anomalies give every individual a unique identity. In absence of ante-mortem dental records for comparison, the teeth can help in the determination of age, sex, race/ethnicity, habits, occupations, etc. which can give further clues regarding the identity of the individuals. This piece of writing gives an overview of dental evidence, its use in forensic identification and its limitations.

  13. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ketan Sukumar Vora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an association between dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of severity of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status in the patients assessed. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was carried out at rural parts of Raichur. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects with dental fluorosis were selected for the study with age range of 15-45 years. Assessment of dental fluorosis and periodontal status was done by Dean′s Community Fluorosis Index (DCFI and Ramfjord′s Periodontal Index (RPI, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance (ANOVA test, chi-square test, and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between severity of dental fluorosis and severity of periodontal diseases (Spearman′s correlation coefficient 0.88, significant. Discussion: Dental fluorosis may have significant effect on periodontal condition. But, further studies on the periodontal status of subjects from naturally high water fluoride regions from different parts of India are essential.

  14. Design optimization of a radial functionally graded dental implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichim, Paul I; Hu, Xiaozhi; Bazen, Jennifer J; Yi, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we use FEA to test the hypothesis that a low-modulus coating of a cylindrical zirconia dental implant would reduce the stresses in the peri-implant bone and we use design optimization and the rule of mixture to estimate the elastic modulus and the porosity of the coating that provides optimal stress shielding. We show that a low-modulus coating of a dental implant significantly reduces the maximum stresses in the peri-implant bone without affecting the average stresses thus creating a potentially favorable biomechanical environment. Our results suggest that a resilient coating is capable of reducing the maximum compressive and tensile stresses in the peri-implant bone by up to 50% and the average stresses in the peri-implant bone by up to 15%. We further show that a transitional gradient between the high-modulus core and the low-modulus coating is not necessary and for a considered zirconia/HA composite the optimal thickness of the coating is 100 µ with its optimal elastic at the lowest value considered of 45 GPa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship between quantitative measurement of Porphyromonas gingivalis on dental plaque with periodontal status of patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, Stephani; Soeroso, Yuniarti; Sunarto, Hari; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of coronary artery due to plaque build-up. [1] Chronic periodontitis increases risk of cardiovascular disease. P.gingivalis is linked to both diseases. Objective: to analyse quantitative difference of P.gingivalis on dental plaque and its relationship with periodontal status of CHD patient and control. Methods: Periodontal status of 66 CHD patient and 40 control was checked. Subgingival plaque was isolated and P.gingivalis was measured using real-time PCR. Result: P.gingivalis of CHD patient differs from control. P.gingivalis is linked to pocket depth of CHD patient. Conclusion: P.gingivalis count of CHD patient is higher than control. P.gingivalis count is not linked to any periodontal status, except for pocket depth of CHD patient.

  16. Dental maturity curves in Finnish children: Demirjian's method revisited and polynomial functions for age estimation.

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    Chaillet, Nils; Nyström, Marjatta; Kataja, Matti; Demirjian, Arto

    2004-11-01

    Dental maturity was studied from 2213 dental panoramic radiographs of healthy ethnic Finns from southern Finland, aged between 2 and 19 years. The aim was to provide new Finnish maturity tables and curves and to compare the efficiency of Demirjian's method when differently weighted scores and polynomial regressions are used. The inter-ethnic variations lead us to calculate specific Finnish weighted scores. Demirjian's method gives maturity score as a function of age and seems better adapted for clinicians because, in their case, the maturity score is unknown. Polynomial functions give age as a function of maturity score and are statically adapted for age estimation studies. Finnish dental maturity tables and development curves are given for Demirjian's method and for polynomial functions. Sexual dimorphism is established for the same weighted score for girls and boys, and girls present a greater maturity than boys for all of age groups. Polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.19% of misclassifies) and the percentile method, using Finnish weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 1.95 years on average, between 2 and 18 years of age). This suggests that polynomial functions are most useful in forensic sciences, while Demirjian's method is most useful for dental health clinicians.

  17. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  18. [Association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene among preschoolers enrolled in the IMSS preventive dental program in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Segovia-Villanueva, América; Estrella-Rodríguez, Ramón; Maupomé, Gerardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Pérez-Nuñez, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Determine the association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene in the primary dentition of preschool children. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 1,303 children attending 10 schools in Campeche, Mexico. Every child was clinically examined in a portable dental chair by one of four examiners. We used a questionnaire addressed to the mothers to collect data on socioeconomic and socio demographic variables--including attitudinal variables dealing with the perceived importance of oral health. Oral hygiene was assessed appraising the frequency of tooth brushing and the presence of dental plaque. Data analysis included non-parametric tests using STATA 8.2. Mean age was 4.36 +/- 0.79 years and 48.3% of children were girls. Of the study population, 17.8% (n = 232) were classified as having inadequate oral hygiene, 50.9% (n = 663) having moderate oral hygiene, and 31.3% (n = 408) having adequate oral hygiene. Children who were rated more frequently as having inadequate hygiene (p < 0.05) had mothers with a negative attitude toward oral health, were users only of public medical insurance (as opposed to users of private services), and had not used dental services in the year prior to the study. Finally, we observed a decrease in the adequacy of oral hygiene associated with a decrease in socioeconomic status. Our findings showed that oral hygiene was closely associated with socioeconomic status. This implies that if a reduction of oral health inequalities is to be achieved, the strategies and resources targeting these goals must take into account the existing differences between population groups with more or fewer social disadvantages.

  19. Dental caries and oral health practice among 12 year old school children from low socio-economic status background in Zimbabwe.

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    Mafuvadze, Brighton Tasara; Mahachi, Lovemore; Mafuvadze, Benford

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies show a higher prevalence of dental caries in children from low socio-economic status backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among 12 year old children in urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe and establish preliminary baseline data. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 year old children at primary schools in Harare and Bikita district. A Pre-tested questionnaire was administered to elicit information from the participants on tooth cleaning, dietary habits and dental experience. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT index following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Our results showed a high prevalence of dental caries in both urban (59.5%) and rural (40.8%) children. The mean DMFT in urban and rural areas was 1.29 and 0.66, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed a general lack of knowledge on oral health issues by the participants. There is high prevalence of dental caries among 12 years old school children in both urban and rural areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for early preventive strategies and treatment services. We recommend incorporation of oral health education in the elementary school curricula.

  20. Optimum gradient material for a functionally graded dental implant using metaheuristic algorithms.

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    Sadollah, Ali; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-10-01

    Despite dental implantation being a great success, one of the key issues facing it is a mismatch of mechanical properties between engineered and native biomaterials, which makes osseointegration and bone remodeling problematical. Functionally graded material (FGM) has been proposed as a potential upgrade to some conventional implant materials such as titanium for selection in prosthetic dentistry. The idea of an FGM dental implant is that the property would vary in a certain pattern to match the biomechanical characteristics required at different regions in the hosting bone. However, matching the properties does not necessarily guarantee the best osseointegration and bone remodeling. Little existing research has been reported on developing an optimal design of an FGM dental implant for promoting long-term success. Based upon remodeling results, metaheuristic algorithms such as the genetic algorithms (GAs) and simulated annealing (SA) have been adopted to develop a multi-objective optimal design for FGM implantation design. The results are compared with those in literature.

  1. Functional results of dental restoration with osseointegrated implants after mandible reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek, A; Miller, M J; Jacob, R F; Lively, J A; Schusterman, M A

    1998-03-01

    We reviewed the cases of 20 cancer patients (mean age 47.4 years) in whom osseointegrated implants were used for dental restoration after mandibular reconstruction between January of 1988 and December of 1994. Seventy-one implants were placed into bone flaps (n = 60) or native mandible (n = 11), an average of 3.55 per patient (range, 2 to 5). Successful integration occurred in 91.5 percent (65 of 71); there were five early failures and one late failure, with no significant difference between the number lost in microvascular flaps (5 of 60) and native mandible (1 of 11) (as determined by Fisher's exact test). Functional evaluation included assessments of diet, speech, and cosmesis. Based on our review, we concluded that (1) implants enhance dental restoration in selected patients, and (2) microvascular bone flaps, including the fibula and iliac crest, are well suited for dental implant restoration.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Status of Infection Control among Iranian Dentists and Dental Students: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Khanghahi, Behnam; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Naghavi Behzad, Mohammad; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Infection control is an important issue in dentistry, and the dentists are primarily responsible for observing the relevant procedures. Therefore, the present study evaluated knowledge, attitude, practice, and status of infection control among Iranian dentists through systematic review of published results. Materials and methods In this systematic review, the required data was collected searching for keywords including infection, infection control, behavior, performance, practice, attitude, knowledge, dent*, prevention, Iran* and their Persian equivalents in PubMed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, and Magiran databases with a time limit of 1985 to 2012. Out of 698 articles, 15 completely related articles were finally considered and the rest were excluded due to lake of relev-ance to the study goals. The required data were extracted and summarized in an Extraction Table and were analyzed ma-nually. Results Evaluating the results of studies indicated inappropriate knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control among Iranian dentists and dental students. Using personal protection devices and observing measures required for infection control were not in accordance with global standards. Conclusion The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control in Iranian dental settings were found to be inadequate. Therefore, dentists should be educated more on the subject and special programs should be in place to monitor the dental settings for observing infection control standards. PMID:23875081

  3. Regression-based estimates of observed functional status in centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Meghan B; Miller, L Stephen; Woodard, John L; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W

    2011-04-01

    There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy reports and observed performance of basic activities of daily living (BADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). We hypothesized that the discrepancy between self-report and observed daily functioning would be modified by cognitive status. We additionally sought to provide clinicians with estimates of centenarians' observed daily functioning based on their mental status in combination with subjective measures of activities of daily living (ADLs). Two hundred and forty-four centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study were included in this cross-sectional population-based study. Measures included the Direct Assessment of Functional Status, self-report and proxy report of functional status, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Associations between observed and proxy reports were stronger than between observed and self-report across BADL and IADL measures. A significant MMSE by type of report interaction was found, indicating that lower MMSE performance is associated with a greater discrepancy between subjective and objective ADL measures. Results demonstrate associations between 3 methods of assessing functional status and suggest proxy reports are generally more accurate than self-report measures. Cognitive status accounted for some of the discrepancy between observed and self-reports, and we provide clinicians with tables to estimate centenarians' performance on observed functional measures based on MMSE and subjective report of functional status.

  4. Developing professional status: an investigation into the working patterns, working relationships and vision for the future of UK clinical dental technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssen, W; Clark, R K F; Gallagher, J E; Radford, D R

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the working patterns and patient base of registered clinical dental technicians (CDTs); their relationships with dentists and other professionals in the dental team; their willingness to work within the NHS and their expectations for the future as a new professional group. Face-to-face qualitative interviews of registered CDTs, selected because of their geographic representation and mode of working, informed the development of a postal questionnaire survey of all early registrants with the General Dental Council (GDC). The majority of CDTs reported working part-time, often combining clinical practice with their role as a dental technician. They reported both positive and negative working relationships with dentists and dental technicians, demonstrating collaboration and/or competition depending on whether the scope of CDTs was respected and patient care was shared or lost. CDTs role in the NHS was limited because they did not have the status of becoming a recognised provider of dental care. There was a desire to expand their scope of practice in future. CDTs are embracing their new status as an occupational group within dentistry. Core features of becoming a professional group were exhibited including the importance of social and financial status and the need to negotiate their current and future roles in the healthcare system.

  5. Summary of: Developing professional status: an investigation into the working patterns, working relationships and vision for the future of UK clinical dental technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Humble, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the working patterns and patient base of registered clinical dental technicians (CDTs); their relationships with dentists and other professionals in the dental team; their willingness to work within the NHS and their expectations for the future as a new professional group.Methods Face-to-face qualitative interviews of registered CDTs, selected because of their geographic representation and mode of working, informed the development of a postal questionnaire survey of all early registrants with the General Dental Council (GDC). Results The majority of CDTs reported working part-time, often combining clinical practice with their role as a dental technician. They reported both positive and negative working relationships with dentists and dental technicians, demonstrating collaboration and/or competition depending on whether the scope of CDTs was respected and patient care was shared or lost. CDTs role in the NHS was limited because they did not have the status of becoming a recognised provider of dental care. There was a desire to expand their scope of practice in future. Conclusion CDTs are embracing their new status as an occupational group within dentistry. Core features of becoming a professional group were exhibited including the importance of social and financial status and the need to negotiate their current and future roles in the healthcare system [corrected].

  6. Dental Health Status in 3-5 Year Old Kindergarten Children in Tehran-Iran in 2003

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    M. Ghandahari-Motlagh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Assessing oral hygiene in children plays an important role in determining the health status of communities and evaluating national health promotion programs. In 1997 in Geneva, international organizations agreed on the global goal of achieving a minimum of 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children.Purpose: This study was aimed to assess the oral health status in Iranian children.Materials and Methods: Among kindergarten children residing in the capital of Iran,Tehran, 400 children between the ages of three and five years were randomly selected and participated in this study. Their deciduous teeth were examined and the health index of dmft was determined for each child. The collected data were analyzed using the oneway ANOVA (with Tukey–Kramer multiple comparisons test for Post Hoc test, t test,and chi square test.Results: In this age group, only 48.3% of the children had no tooth decay. This information shows how far we are from accomplishing the aforementioned goal. A significant increase in tooth decay in these children was correlated with neglecting oral and dental hygiene, and also failing to brush the teeth regularly and wash the mouth after consuming sweets (P<0.001. Unfortunately, visits to dentists for regular checkups are not frequent enough, and dental caries was seen more in children who did not have regular visits than those who did (P<0.001.Conclusion: More accurate planning seems necessary to achieve 90% caries free teeth in 5 year old children. More emphasis must be placed on prevention programs and educating public to observe dental hygiene by brushing the teeth regularly, washing the mouth after consuming sweets, and paying their dentists regular visits.

  7. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

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    Mozafar Khazaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011 and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all dental students admitted to school of dentistry in 2009-2011 years were included. The students’ academic background (scores, grade point average, score of comprehensive basic sciences examination (CBSE were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: Kermanshah dental students admitted to university in 2009-2011 were mostly female (59.2%, belonged to regions 2 and 3 (81.6% of university entrance exam, had sciences diploma (89.8% and their grade point average of diploma was nearly 18. There was a significant difference between the three groups of students admitted to university in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Arabic, English language and Theology lessones of entrane exam (P<0.05. The students’ failure rate was 1.5% in university coureses. They all (100% passed CBSE and were ranked second nationally in the year. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of age, diploma grade point average, grade point average of basic sciences and score of CBSE. Conclusion: Basic science courses of dentistry in Kermanshah enjoyed a rather constant status and students had a good academic level in these courses.

  8. The carriage of Candida species on the dorsal surface of the tongue: the correlation with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ohshima, Tomoko; Yasunari, Utako; Namikoshi, Satoko; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo; Maeda, Nobuko

    2006-09-01

    To screen the carriage status of Candida species, especially Candida albicans and its genotype in an epidemiological survey and to investigate its correlation with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status of healthy elderly subjects. Microbiological samples were collected from the dorsum of the tongue of 366 subjects, aged 75, and cultured on CHROMagar medium. The carriage status of Candida spp. and the distribution of C. albicans genotypes by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method were analysed and compared with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status of the subjects. A high carriage rate (68.6%) of Candida spp. and the predominant species of C. albicans (72.1%) were found in this study. The prevalence, density and multi-species of Candida spp. were significantly related to the presence of a dental prosthesis. In C. albicans, genotype A predominated (56.4%) and genotype D showed a higher prevalence (12.5%) than previous reports. When comparing Candida spp. carriage with the oral status, significant positive correlations were found with the presence of any dental prosthesis, missing teeth, the number of retained roots and the percentage of sites showing bleeding on probing (BOP), while significant negative correlations were found with the number of teeth present, sound and filled teeth. Candida carriage on the dorsum of the tongue in healthy elderly is significantly associated with the dental, periodontal and prosthetic status, especially the presence of a dental prosthesis. As the complexity of the prosthesis being worn increased, the relative risk of Candida carriage and the numbers and multi-species of Candida increased accordingly.

  9. The status of undergraduate implant education in dental schools outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckinger, R J; Weintraub, A M; Berthold, P; Weintraub, G S

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the incorporation of implant dentistry into academia has been documented in some detail for North American dental schools but has not been pursued on an international level. In June of 1993, we surveyed 51 dental schools outside of the United States affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine's Office of International Relations concerning their teaching involvement with implant dentistry. Results from the 44 (86 percent) responding schools suggest that implant dentistry is being incorporated into predoctoral curriculums. Industrialized countries were more inclined to provide implant education. Insufficient time and the thought that the predoctoral level was not the place for implant dentistry were cited as some of the reasons for not incorporating implant dentistry into the curriculum. Oral surgery, prosthodontics, and periodontics departments developed and administered the implant curriculum. Formats varied among schools with respect to allotted time, curricular placement, laboratory experience, and clinical participation. Didactic material most frequently presented included a historical overview, diagnosis and treatment planning, classification of dental implants, and surgical and prosthetic concepts. Clinical involvement varied from actual implant placement to observation of prosthodontic procedures. Results were categorized based on the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) classification of countries in six regions.

  10. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  11. Periodontal Status and Quality of Life: Impact of Fear of Pain and Dental Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crout, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is impacted by periodontal disease and orofacial pain. There is a limited research examining the impact of avoidance of care or physiological arousal related to the fear of pain response on periodontal-related OHRQoL. Methods. Data are from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia family-based study focusing on 1,339 adults. Measures included a modified Periodontal Screening and Recording Index across sextants of dentition, dental fear survey, Fear of Pain Questionnaire-9, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the effects of periodontal disease screening indicators on OHRQoL including the mediating role of dental fear while accounting for fear of pain. Results. A significant total effect was found for the mandibular anterior sextant, components of dental anxiety/fear, and indicators of OHRQoL (pain and discomfort, β = .165, p = .001; psychosocial impact, β = .199, p periodontal disease indicators and OHRQoL. Dental avoidance/anticipatory fear and physiological arousal mediate OHRQoL in individuals who have indicators of periodontal disease in sextants that may be visible and susceptible to higher pain and psychosocial impact. PMID:28377670

  12. Functional role of EMMPRIN in the formation and mineralisation of dental matrix in mouse molars.

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    Xie, Ming; Xing, Guofang; Hou, Liwen; Bao, Jing; Chen, Yuqing; Jiao, Ting; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2015-02-01

    Our previous research has shown that the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is expressed during and may function in the early development of tooth germs. In the present study, we observed the specific expression of EMMPRIN in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during the middle and late stages of tooth germ development using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, to extend our understanding of the function of EMMPRIN in odontogenesis, we used an anti-EMMPRIN function-blocking antibody to remove EMMPRIN activity in tooth germ culture in vitro. Both the formation and mineralisation of dental hard tissues were suppressed in the tooth germ culture after the abrogation of EMMPRIN. Meanwhile, significant reductions in VEGF, MMP-9, ALPL, ameloblastin, amelogenin and enamelin expression were observed in antibody-treated tooth germ explants compared to control and normal serum-treated explants. The current results illustrate that EMMPRIN may play a critical role in the processing and maturation of the dental matrix.

  13. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Suhail, Agha Mohammad; Malik, Abdul Razzaq; Imran, Mian Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2]) was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis), while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis). Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037) associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis.

  14. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

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    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI, by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2] was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. Results: One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis, while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis. Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037 associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. Conclusion: This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis.

  15. Dental maturity in Belgian children using Demirjian's method and polynomial functions: new standard curves for forensic and clinical use.

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    Chaillet, N; Willems, G; Demirjian, A

    2004-12-01

    Dental maturity was studied from dental panoramic radiographs of 2523 Belgian children (1255 girls and 1268 boys) aged 2 to 18 years. The aim was to compare the efficiency of two methods of age prediction: Demirjian's method, using differently weighted scores, and polynomial functions. The two methods present some differences: Demirjian is used to determine the maturity score as a function of age and polynomial functions are used to determine age as a function of the maturity score. We present, for each method, gender-specific dental maturity tables and curves for Belgian children. Girls always present advanced dental maturity compared with boys. The polynomial functions are highly reliable (0.21% of incorrect classifications) and the percentile method, using Belgian weighted scores, is very accurate (+/- 2.08 years on average, between 2 and 16 years of age).

  16. Effect of cancellous bone on the functionally graded dental implant concept.

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    Hedia, H S

    2005-01-01

    In a previous work by the author [H.S. Hedia and M. Nemat-Alla, Design optimization of functionally graded dental implant, submitted to be published in the J. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering], a functionally graded material dental implant was designed without cansellous bone in the model. In this investigation the effect of presence cancellous bone as a thin layer around the dental implant was investigated. It is well known that the main inorganic component of natural bone is hydroxyapatite (HAP) and that the main organic component is collagen (Col). Hydroxyapatite HAP implants are not bioabsorbable, and because induction of bone into and around the artificially made HAP is not always satisfactory, loosening or breakage of HAP implants may occur after implantation in the clinical application. The development of a new material which is bioabsorbable and which has osteoconductive activity is needed. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation is to design an implant, in the presence of cancellous bone as a thin layer around it, from functionally graded material. In this study, a novel biomaterial, collagen/hydroxyapatite (Col/HAP) as a functionally graded material (FGM), was developed using the finite element and optimization techniques which are available in the ANSYS package. These materials have a self-organized character similar to that of natural bone. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the cortical bone and cancellous bone for the Col/HAP functionally graded implant has been reduced by about 40% and 19% respectively compared to currently used titanium dental implants.

  17. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma functionalized dental implant for enhancement of bacterial resistance and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jeong, Won-Seok; Seo, Seog-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2017-03-01

    Even though roughened titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys have been clinically used as dental implant, they encourage bacterial adhesion, leading to failure of the initial stability. Here, the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) functionalized Ti and Ti alloy were investigated to promote cellular activities but inhibit the initial attachment of the adherent pioneer bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis, without topographical changes. After the produced radicals from NTAPPJ were characterized, bacterial adhesion to specimens was assessed by PrestoBlue assay and live-dead staining with or without the NTAPPJ functionalizing. After the surface was characterized using optical profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle analysis, the ions released from the specimens were investigated. In vitro initial cell attachment (4h or 24h) with adhesion images and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, 14 days) measurements were performed using rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The initial bacterial adhesion to the Ti and Ti alloy was significantly inhibited after NTAPPJ functionalizing (padhesion-resistance effect was induced by carbon cleaning, which was dependent on the working gas used on the Ti specimens (nitrogen>ammonia and air, padhesion with well-developed vinculin localization and consequent ALP activity at 14days to the NTAPPJ-functionalized specimens were superior to the non-treated specimens. For the promising success of dental implants, NTAPPJ functionalizing is suggested as a novel surface modification technique; this technique can help ensure the success of integration between the dental implants and bone tissues with less concern of inflammation. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

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    Vasiliki, Boka; Konstantinos, Arapostathis; Nikolaos, Kotsanos; Vassilis, Karagiannis; Cor, van Loveren; Jaap, Veerkamp

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  19. Crystal Structure Studies of Human Dental Apatite as a Function of Age

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    Th. Leventouri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the average crystal structure properties of human dental apatite as a function of age in the range of 5–87 years are reported. The crystallinity of the dental hydroxyapatite decreases with the age. The a-lattice constant that is associated with the carbonate content in carbonate apatite decreases with age in a systematic way, whereas the c-lattice constant does not change significantly. Thermogravimetric measurements demonstrate an increase of the carbonate content with the age. FTIR spectroscopy reveals both B and A-type carbonate substitutions with the B-type greater than the A-type substitution by a factor up to ~5. An increase of the carbonate content as a function of age can be deduced from the ratio of the 2CO3 to the 1PO4 IR modes.

  20. Functional dental realignment after treatment of gingival overgrowth lesions with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Bruno S.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Fiorotti, Renata C.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.

    2000-03-01

    Proliferative lesions of the oral cavity are very frequent and depend on various factors such as: traumatism, irritating conditions, medications, heredity and others. In this work we present the CO2 laser ablation as a very conservative method to treat these lesions. In the 5 cases discussed in this work, the gingival overgrowth lesions induced an important dental misalignment, which culminated in severe functional disorder. After previous biopsy to establish the diagnostic (Gingival Fibromatosis, 4 cases -- and Miofibroma, one adult female), the treatments were performed with a CO2 laser (Sharplan 40C) under local anesthesia with lidocaine 2% without vasoconstrictor. The patients were submitted to 3 to 6 sessions with tissue vaporization of 8 to 12 w continuous swift-focused mode, with an interval of 4 weeks between each session. The results were evaluated photographically before each laser application. The use of this technique assures a very satisfactory dental alignment associated to good functional rehabilitation.

  1. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  2. Oral and Dental Health Status in Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiencies

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    Ghasem Meighani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary antibody deficiencies (PAD are a group of immune system disorders, associated with decreased levels of secretory and protective immunoglobulins. Because of the important role of immunoglobulins in the protection  of oral cavity, patients with PADs  are more susceptible to dental caries or oral manifestations.This study was performed  to investigate the oral and dental manifestations of PADs patients. In this study, 33 patients with PADs (21 common variable immunodeficiency, 8 X- linked agammaglobulinemia and 4 hyper IgM syndrome and 66 controls were examined; the number of decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were investigated.Aphthous  was the most frequent manifestation in PADs patients (38.7%, which wassignificantly16.7% higher than  the  controls  (p=0.03. The  patients  with  PADs  showed significantly higher presentation of other oral and dental manifestations, including herpes sores, candidiasis tonsillitis, gingivitis, calculus, enamel hypoplasia and other ulcerations. The mean DMFT scores were 6.15±3.6 and 1.93±0.4 in PADs patients and controls, respectively (p<0.001. Although the patients with common variable immunodeficiency had higher means of DMFT in comparison with other groups of PADs, this difference was not statistically significant.This study showed significantly higher frequency of oral and dental manifestations in the patients with PADs  compared to controls. Therefore, regular examination of oral cavity could be suggested in this group of immunodeficient patients.

  3. Dental prostheses mimic the natural enamel behavior under functional loading: A review article

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    Madfa, Ahmed A.; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramic dental restorations are designed to repair functionality as well as esthetics of the failed teeth. However, these materials exhibited several performance deficiencies such as fracture, poor esthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores), and difficulty in accomplishing a strong ceramic?resin-based cement bond. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of these ceramic materials is of great interest in a wide range of discipl...

  4. Differences in functional outcomes for adult patients with prosthodontically-treated and -untreated shortened dental arches: a systematic review.

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    Saadika Khan

    Full Text Available This review examined differences in functional outcomes and patient satisfaction when shortened dental arches are left untreated compared to their restoration to complete arch lengths with different prosthodontic interventions.A protocol was developed according to the criteria for a systematic review. All relevant databases were searched to identify appropriate clinical trials regardless of language or publication status. Predetermined eligibility criteria were applied, trial quality assessed and data extracted for each study. Relevant outcomes assessed were: functioning ability, patient satisfaction and harmful effects on oral structures.Searches yielded 101 articles: 81 from electronic databases and 20 from reference lists of retrieved articles (PEARLing searches. Sixty-nine citations were assessed for eligibility after removing 32 duplicate records. After reading titles and abstracts, a total of 41 records were excluded and the full-texts of the remaining 28 records were read. Only 21 records were included for the SR because 7 records were excluded after reading the full-text reports. These 21 records report the outcomes of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs and one non-randomized clinical trial (CT which were pre-specified and used for this review. No on-going studies were found and no eligible studies were excluded for failure to report the reviewer's pre-specified outcomes. Outcomes were reported in the retrieved 21 articles. A narrative explanation of the pre-specified outcomes is reported for the 3 comparison groups (which were based on the different interventions used for the individual clinical trials. The shortened dental arch as a treatment option is encouraging in terms of functioning, patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. By using only high quality studies it was expected that the results would be more reliable when making conclusions and recommendations, but some of the included studies had to be downgraded due to

  5. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  6. Oral health and oral implant status in edentulous patients with implant-supported dental prostheses who are receiving long-term nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Rita; Becktor, Jonas P; Brown, Andrew; Laurizohn, Christer; Isaksson, Sten

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral health and oral implant status in a group of edentulous patients receiving long-term residential or nursing care (LTC), all of whom had implant-supported fixed or removable dental prostheses. A dental examination was performed on a total of 3310 patients receiving LTC and from this population 35 edentulous patients in whom dental implants had been placed formed the cohort for this study. All examinations were performed by a specialist in hospital dentistry and took place in the patients' own home environment. Oral health was assessed by means of a protocol which evaluated oral hygiene status, possible oral mucosal inflammation and oral mucosal friction levels. Any problems with the implant-supported prosthesis, implant mobility or other complications were also assessed. In addition, patients were asked about any oral symptoms and their usual oral hygiene procedures. About half of the subjects (17/35) were registered as having no/mild inflammation with 18 of 35 having moderate/severe inflammation. Twelve of the 35 patients had good/acceptable oral hygiene and 23 of 35 had poor/bad oral hygiene. Twenty-one of the 35 patients depended on help from the nursing personnel for their daily oral hygiene procedures. Obvious problems with food impaction were noted in 11 patients. A total of 229 implants had been placed in 43 jaws supporting 40 full arch-fixed prostheses and three implant-borne overdentures. There was no evidence of mobility or fractures of either the implants or the prostheses. Fifteen implants showed some exposed screw threads. Pus was exuding from one implant site and general peri-implant gingival hyperplasia was noted in two patients. Twenty-four patients were completely satisfied with the function and appearance of their implant-supported prostheses. Two patients were totally dissatisfied. This study indicates that oral implant therapy can be considered as a treatment of choice in elderly patients, even if

  7. Carbonic Anhydrase VI Gene Polymorphism rs2274327 Relationship Between Salivary Parameters and Dental-Oral Health Status in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Fatih; Kilic, Munevver; Gurbuz, Taskin; Tasdemir, Sener

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to research carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and its potential association with dental-oral health status (dental caries, Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI)) and salivary parameters (salivary buffering capacity, salivary flow rate (SFR)) in children. A total of 178 children were divided into two groups: non-carious (n = 70, 34 boys and 36 girls) and carious (n = 108, 47 boys and 61 girls). The clinical evaluations were performed according to the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index by a specialist. Clinical parameters including PI, GI, and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) were recorded. Salivary pH (SpH) was measured using pH paper. Blood samples and unstimulated whole saliva were collected, and SFR was calculated. The CA VI rs2274327 polymorphism was determined by a LightSNiP assay on the realtime PCR system. The frequencies of rs2274327 were not significant between groups (p > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between OHI-S and SpH in the carious and non-carious groups (p OHI-S, PI, GI, SFR, and SpH (p > 0.05). CA VI SNP (rs2274327) had no statistically significant association with OHI-S, PI, GI, SFR, and SpH in the children.

  8. A cross sectional study of nutritional status among a group of school children in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity

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    Harun Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine nutritional status among a school children of Barru Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, in relation with gingivitis and dental caries severity. Cross-sectional study. A total of 127 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from Barru Regency were included in this study as a sample of simple random sampling. Nutritional status of children (BMI index, degree of gingival inflammation (using chi-square test statistic, and missing teeth (DMF-T index were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about dental health, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. The data were processed using the program Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. A group of who severe underweight (102 children, had higher odds for mild gingivitis (GI 79.4% than others group of who has an ideal weight (16 children, had mild gingivitis (GI 62.5%. Children, who severe underweight, had higher odds for moderate caries (38.2% than others group of who has an ideal weight, had moderate caries (18.8%. Based on chi-square test, there are correlation of nutritional status and dental caries severity (p=0.000status with gingivitis and dental caries severity among a school children.

  9. Prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis, and oral hygiene status among 12-year-old schoolchildren having normal occlusion and malocclusion in Mathura city: A comparative epidemiological study

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    Geetika Arora

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It was observed from the present study that normal occlusion and malocclusion had no or weak significant effect on overall caries and periodontitis prevalence whereas oral hygiene status had a strong effect on overall periodontitis prevalence but not in relation to prevalence of dental caries in 12-year-old school children in Mathura city.

  10. Relationship between Learning Style and Academic Status of Babol Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Zahra; Gharekhani, Samane; Ghasempour, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Identifying and employing students’ learning styles could play an important role in selecting appropriate teaching methods in order to improve education. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the students’ final exam scores and the learning style preferences of dental students at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 88 dental students studying in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years using the visual–aural–reading/writing–kinesthetic (VARK) learning styles’ questionnaire. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS, version 21, using the chi-squared test and the t-test. Results Of the 88 participants who responded to the questionnaire, 87 preferred multimodal learning styles. There was no significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students who did and did not prefer the aural learning style (p = 0.86), the reading/writing learning style (p = 0.20), and the kinesthetic learning style (p = 0.32). In addition, there was no significant difference between the scores on the final clinical course among the students who had different preferences for learning style. However, there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores in students with and without visual learning style preference (p = 0.03), with the former having higher mean scores. There was no significant relationship between preferred learning styles and gender (p > 0.05). Conclusion The majority of dental students preferred multimodal learning styles, and there was a significant difference between the mean of the final exam scores for students with and without a preference for the visual learning style. In addition, there were no differences in the preferred learning styles between male and female students. PMID:27382442

  11. Fractographic features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based dental restorations fractured during clinical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilo, Marit; Hardang, Anne D; Ulsund, Amanda H; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Fractures during clinical function have been reported as the major concern associated with all-ceramic dental restorations. The aim of this study was to analyze the fracture features of glass-ceramic and zirconia-based restorations fractured during clinical use. Twenty-seven crowns and onlays were supplied by dentists and dental technicians with information about type of cement and time in function, if available. Fourteen lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations and 13 zirconia-based restorations were retrieved and analyzed. Fractographic features were examined using optical microscopy to determine crack initiation and crack propagation of the restorations. The material comprised fractured restorations from one canine, 10 incisors, four premolars, and 11 molars. One crown was not categorized because of difficulty in orientation of the fragments. The results revealed that all core and veneer fractures initiated in the cervical margin and usually from the approximal area close to the most coronally placed curvature of the margin. Three cases of occlusal chipping were found. The margin of dental all-ceramic single-tooth restorations was the area of fracture origin. The fracture features were similar for zirconia, glass-ceramic, and alumina single-tooth restorations. Design features seem to be of great importance for fracture initiation.

  12. Design of functionally graded dental implant in the presence of cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedia, H S

    2005-10-01

    In a previous work by the author [Hedia HS, Mahmoud NA. Biomed Mater Eng 2004;14(2):133--143], a functionally graded material (FGM) dental implant was designed without cancellous bone in the model. In this investigation, the effect of the presence of cancellous bone as a thin layer around the dental implant was investigated. It is well known that the main inorganic component of natural bone is hydroxyapatite (HAP) and that the main organic component is collagen (Col). HAP implants are not bioabsorbable, and because induction of bone into and around the artificially made HAP is not always satisfactory, loosening or breakage of HAP implants might occur after implantation in the clinical application. The development of a new material that is bioabsorbable and that has osteo-conductive activity is needed. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to design an implant, in the presence of cancellous bone as a thin layer around it, from FGM. In this study, a novel biomaterial, Col/HAP, as a FGM, was developed using the finite element and optimization techniques that are available in the ANSYS package. These materials have a self-organized character similar to that of natural bone. The investigations have shown that the maximum stress in the cortical bone and cancellous bone for the Col/HAP functionally graded implant has been reduced by about 40% and 19%, respectively, compared with currently used titanium dental implants.

  13. Optimal restoration of dental esthetics and function with advanced implant-supported prostheses: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulen, Peter van der; Linden, Wynand van der; Eeden, Ronnie van

    2012-07-01

    For more than 25 years, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been used in implant restorative dentistry. Today this technology offers a means of milling titanium frameworks that fit dental implants accurately. This report presents a restoratively driven protocol employing advanced implant restorative and surgical techniques. Treatment of a patient with advanced periodontitis with extensive loss of hard and soft tissues is presented. After extraction of the patient's remaining hopeless teeth, dental implants were placed, along with interim, fixed-margin abutments and abutment protection caps. Two days later, acrylic resin fixed-interim prostheses restored the patient's esthetics and partial masticatory function. After implant osseointegration, maxillary, and mandibular frameworks for definitive prostheses were milled from Ti alloy, using one specific CAD/CAM technology. The benefits of this technology are also discussed.

  14. Creep functions of dental ceramics measured in a beam-bending viscometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2004-03-01

    To characterize the high temperature viscoelastic properties of several dental ceramics by the determination of creep functions based on mid-span deflections measured in a beam-bending viscometer (BBV). Six groups of beam specimens (58 x 5.5 x 2.5 mm) were made from the following materials: (1) IPS Empress2 body--a glass veneer ceramic (E2V); (2) an experimental glass veneer (EXV); (3) Vita VMK 68 feldspathic body porcelain--a low-expansion body porcelain (VB); (4) Will-Ceram feldspathic body porcelain--a high-expansion body porcelain (WCB); (5) Vita feldspathic opaque porcelain--a medium-expansion opaque porcelain (VO); and (6) Will-Ceram feldspathic opaque porcelain--a high-expansion opaque porcelain (WCO). Midpoint deflections for each specimen were measured in a BBV under isothermal conditions at furnace temperatures ranging from 450 to 675 degrees C. Non-linear regression and linear regression analyses were used to determine creep functions and shear viscosities, respectively, for each material at each temperature. The shear viscosities of each group of dental ceramics exhibited bilinear Arrhenius behavior with the slope ratios (x) ranging from 0.19 for WCB to 0.71 for EXV. At the higher temperature ranges, activation energies ranged from 363 kJ/mol for VO to 386 kJ/mol for E2V. The viscoelastic properties of dental ceramics at high temperatures are important factors in understanding how residual stresses develop in all-ceramic and metal-ceramic dental restorations.

  15. Occurrence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition, oral health status and treatment needs among 12-15 year old school children of Jorpati VDC, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S

    2014-12-01

    Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.

  16. Modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S K; Hollender, L

    1994-03-01

    An impulse train method to control aliasing was used to measure the modulation transfer function of a digital dental x-ray system (RVG 32000 ZHR, Trophy Radiologie, Vincennes, France). The detector of this system is composed of an intensifying screen, a fiber optics taper, and a charged couple device chip. The modulation transfer function could not be measured by impulse method such as the line spread function or edge response function because of aliasing from undersampling of the digital system. The system modulation transfer function was difficult to recover at the spatial frequencies smaller than the Nyquist frequency. The modulation transfer function beyond the Nyquist frequencies was impossible to recover in this study.

  17. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Wöstmann

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions.An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists.The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index, energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA. Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation.Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012, ferritin (p = 0.003, folic acid (p = 0.019 and vitamin A (p = 0.004, no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice.The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status.

  18. The tools of disability outcomes research functional status measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M E; Marino, R J

    2000-12-01

    To review the major functional status measures currently used in rehabilitation research, including the domains and scope of functional status measures, as well as the psychometric properties of selected functional status measures and their use in adult rehabilitation populations. Measures of physical functioning widely used in rehabilitation research. Major generic measures included the following activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living: the FIM instrument, the Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale, the Level of Rehabilitation Scale, the Barthel index, and the Patient Evaluation and Conference System. Measures were evaluated based on published evidence of validity, reliability, and sensitivity. Measures were chosen on the basis of the amount and quality of published research on the functional measures widely used in rehabilitation medicine. Independent research of computer databases and reviews of functional measures were conducted to determine suitability for inclusion. The quality and validity of the measures were assessed using standard psychometric guidelines. Measures were evaluated based on published evidence of validity, reliability, sensitivity response and administrative burdens and instrument bias. Each criterion was graded on a 3-point scale reflecting the level of evidence. Researchers in the field of disabilities research need to consider carefully study objectives when measuring physical functioning in people with disabilities.

  19. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y. [Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Nutritional status and functional capacity of hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro-Merhi Vânia A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutritional status of the aging individual results from a complex interaction between personal and environmental factors. A disease influences and is influenced by the nutritional status and the functional capacity of the individual. We asses the relationship between nutritional status and indicators of functional capacity among recently hospitalized elderly in a general hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was done with 240 elderly (women, n = 127 and men, n = 113 hospitalized in a hospital that provides care for the public and private healthcare systems. The nutritional status was classified by the MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment into: malnourished, risk of malnutrition and without malnutrition (adequate. The functional autonomy indicators were obtained by the self-reported Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL and Activity of Daily Living (ADL questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to compare the proportions and the level of significance was 5%. Results Among the assessed elderly, 33.8% were classified as adequate regarding nutritional status; 37.1% were classified as being at risk of malnutrition and 29.1% were classified as malnourished. All the IADL and ADL variables assessed were significantly more deteriorated among the malnourished individuals. Among the ADL variables, eating partial (42.9% or complete (12.9% dependence was found in more than half of the malnourished elderly, in 13.4% of those at risk of malnutrition and in 2.5% of those without malnutrition. Conclusion There is an interrelationship between the nutritional status of the elderly and reduced functional capacity.

  1. Dental fluorosis and oral health status of 13–15-Year-Old school children of Chikkaballapur District: A cross-sectional study

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    Punith Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and the crippling nature of oral diseases lead to significant absenteeism in schools and economic loss in the working population. Dental fluorosis is endemic in 15 states of India and Chikkaballapur district is one among them. Aim: To assess dental fluorosis and oral health status and in Chikkaballapur district among 13–15 years school going children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2400 school going children of 13–15-year-old in Chikkaballapur district. The data regarding the dental fluorosis were collected using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. The clinical examination for the oral health status was determined using the WHO Oral Assessment Form 1997. Proportions were compared using Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance was used to test the differences. Results: It was seen that the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth was highest among the 13-year-old at 1.39. Bleeding on probing and calculus was highest among 15-year-old with 83.5% and 84.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Chikkaballapur district was found to be 41.1%. Conclusion: The oral health status of the individuals was poor, and the prevalence of fluorosis was high. There is a need to create awareness regarding oral health and fluorosis.

  2. Long-term functional health status of severely injured patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H. R.; Post, M. W.; Lindeman, E.; Van der Werken, Chr.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies of the consequences of major trauma have traditionally focused on mortality rates. The aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the long-term functional health status in a large, unselected group of severely injured patients and to compare this with normative data, and se

  3. Association between velopharyngeal function and dental-consonant misarticulations in children with cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Laitinen, J; Paaso, M; Ranta, R

    2001-06-01

    We studied the association between velopharyngeal function and misarticulation of the dental consonants /r/, /s/ and /l/ in children with cleft lip/palate. We assessed 278 6-year-old Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children (115 girls, 163 boys) with isolated cleft palate (n= 81), cleft lip/alveolus (n= 82) or unilateral (n= 84) or bilateral (n= 31) cleft lip and palate. Auditory analysis of speech and velopharyngeal function, the presence of fistulae, previous velopharyngoplasty and speech therapy, as well as surgical technique and timing of primary palatal surgery were obtained from the hospital records. The misarticulations of the sounds /r/, /s/ and /l/ were evaluated in spontaneous speech by two experienced speech pathologists from the cleft team. Velopharyngeal function was categorised, on the basis of the effect on speech, into competent, marginal incompetent and obvious incompetent. Nasal grimace and distortions due to palatal fistulae were registered. The results indicated that velopharyngeal function was not significantly associated with misarticulation of any of the sounds /r/, /s/ and /l/ or their combinations in any cleft groups. The technique and timing of primary palatal surgery, the presence of fistulae and previous pharyngoplasty were not associated with misarticulations. On the basis of these results we conclude that dental-consonant misarticulations occur independently of velopharyngeal function, primary palatal surgical technique and timing of palatoplasty.

  4. Thermal-mechanical study of functionally graded dental implants with the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Lee, H P; Lu, C

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the thermal-mechanical performance of hydroxyapatite/titanium (HA/Ti) functionally graded (FG) dental implants with the three-dimensional finite element method. The stresses induced by occlusal force for the present HA/Ti FG implant are calculated to compare with the corresponding stresses for the titanium dental implant. Thermal-mechanical effect of temperature variation due to daily oral activity is also studied. The HA/Ti FG dental implant performance is evaluated against the maximum von Mises stress, which is the general performance indicator, the first principal/tensile stress for mechanical failure of implant-bone-bond and the third principal/compressive stress for bone absorption. Simulation results indicate that under the influence of occlusal force only, the FG implants with different HA fraction along the implant length perform almost equally well, while the titanium implant sustains much higher von Mises stress. However, when thermal stress is also considered, the FG implant having HA fraction exponential index of m = 2 with temperature decrease of 20 degrees C yields the highest first principal and von Mises stresses among all the FG and titanium implants.

  5. Correlation of upper airway radiographic measurements with risk status for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in young dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisen, Mehmet Zahit; Misirlioglu, Melda; Yorubulut, Serap; Nalcaci, Rana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare radiographic measurements of the upper airway (UA) in young adult patients with different levels of risk status for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The study included 50 patients between 18 and 30 years of age who were referred for dental examination and evaluation of impacted third molars. Case record forms, including habit history, along with the Berlin Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, were completed by the patients and their relatives. According to the answers, 25 low-risk patients and 25 high-risk patients were selected. Cephalometric radiographs and cone beam computed radiography images were obtained for radiographic analysis when the patients were admitted into the study. There were significant differences in body mass index, neck circumference measurements, Epworth score, and smoking status between risk groups. There were significant differences for UA measurements on radiographic evaluation. Body mass index (BMI) was found to be correlated positively with neck circumference and Epworth scores and negatively with UA measurements for all patients. Velopharyngeal measurements showed the highest correlation with Epworth scores, BMI, and neck circumference. The radiographic findings correlated with the survey results. Our data suggest that radiographic measurements of UA may be used as a predictor of risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral self-care practices, dental attendance and self-perceived oral health status among internal medicine residents in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Omozehio Iwuala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is important for well-being and chronic disease prevention. Physician′s confidence and willingness to counsel patients on lifestyle practices is related to their personal behavior. Limited data exists regarding oral self-care practices among physicians in developing countries, as the majority seeks oral health advice and care from doctors rather than dentists. Aim: To determine the oral self-care practices, dental attendance, and self-perceived oral health status of internal medicine residents in Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among internal medicine resident doctors attending an update course using a self-administered structured questionnaire, which included oral care practices. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0, P male, P = 0.002. A higher proportion of junior compared to senior residents strongly agreed/agreed and strongly disagreed/disagreed that their oral health status was excellent (P = 0.026. Conclusion: The oral self-care practices of these doctors involved in managing patients with medical conditions linked to oral health is inadequate. There is a need for better education on oral self-care among physicians.

  7. Equity in children’s dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children’s dental caries (tooth decay) in Calg...

  8. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Rajath; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena;

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. METHODS: A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine...... need (r = -0.460). Participants with some prosthesis need had significantly lower MNA and GOHAI scores as compared to those with no prosthesis need. Though prosthesis need was high (79.7 %), demand was low (39.3 %). CONCLUSION: Prosthesis need affects nutritional status and OHrQoL in elderly...... clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. RESULTS: Significant associations...

  9. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among school going children: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar

    2013-07-01

    Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.

  10. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  11. The association between dental health and nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Takeshi; Chubachi, Shotaro; Matsuzaki, Tatsu; Nakajima, Takahiro; Satoh, Minako; Iwami, Eri; Yoshida, Kyouko; Katakura, Akira; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2016-04-06

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontitis are chronic inflammatory systemic diseases with common risk factors (smoking and aging). In COPD, poor periodontal health could result in inadequate nutrition, potentially causing loss of muscle volume. The purpose of this case-control study was to examine our hypothesis that COPD patients have poorer periodontal health and poorer nutritional status than non-COPD patients. Periodontal status was assessed using bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD), and plaque-control ratio (PCR). Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index, lean body mass, and serum albumin levels. The COPD group (n= 60) had fewer remaining teeth, greater BOP, greater PD, and lower serum albumin levels compared with smokers without COPD (n= 41) and nonsmokers (n= 35;p30% of remaining teeth with a PD ≥ 4 mm (RR, 4.82;p= 0.011). A significant negative correlation existed between the number of teeth with a PD ≥ 4 mm and serum albumin level (r(2)= 0.127;p= 0.013). We demonstrated that poor periodontal health was associated with hypoalbuminemia, suggesting poor nutritional status and inflammation in COPD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  13. ANALYTICAL STUDY OFDENTAL STATUS OFPATIENTSWITH CHRONIC GENERALIZED PERIODONTITIS DENTAL CLINIC OF KRASNOYARSK STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marugina Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To make distinct approaches in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of chronic generalized periodontitis the analysis of case rate of the disease during the period of 2010-2012 years was carried out in the dental clinic of Krasnoyarsk State Medical Academy. In order to divide patients into several groups according to severity of the disease the review of case history of 4390 patients aged 20 to 65 was made. 684 patients (15.6 % were diagnosed with mild degree of the disease, 2608 (59.4% with an average degree and 1908 patients (25% with severe degree of the disease. The low percentage of number of patients with mild degree of the disease is the result of late diagnosis of the disease. During the analysis of the structure of providing periodontal care at the stages of examination, periodontal and surgical help the lack of an objective assessment of the condition ofalveolar mucosa isnoted. Therefore, during the initial examination, we suggest to use Schiller-Pisarev method. As a crucial step in the identification of early forms of periodontal disease is a health education outreach.

  14. Catechol-Functionalized Synthetic Polymer as a Dental Adhesive to Contaminated Dentin Surface for a Composite Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bae; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2015-08-10

    This study reports a synthetic polymer functionalized with catechol groups as dental adhesives. We hypothesize that a catechol-functionalized polymer functions as a dental adhesive for wet dentin surfaces, potentially eliminating the complications associated with saliva contamination. We prepared a random copolymer containing catechol and methoxyethyl groups in the side chains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the polymer to dentin surface in the presence of water and salivary components were determined. It was found that the new polymer combined with an Fe(3+) additive improved bond strength of a commercial dental adhesive to artificial saliva contaminated dentin surface as compared to a control sample without the polymer. Histological analysis of the bonding structures showed no leakage pattern, probably due to the formation of Fe-catechol complexes, which reinforce the bonding structures. Cytotoxicity test showed that the polymers did not inhibit human gingival fibroblast cells proliferation. Results from this study suggest a potential to reduce failure of dental restorations due to saliva contamination using catechol-functionalized polymers as dental adhesives.

  15. Catechol-Functionalized Synthetic Polymer as a Dental Adhesive to Contaminated Dentin Surface for a Composite Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a synthetic polymer functionalized with catechol groups as dental adhesives. We hypothesize that a catechol-functionalized polymer functions as a dental adhesive for wet dentin surfaces, potentially eliminating the complications associated with saliva contamination. We prepared a random copolymer containing catechol and methoxyethyl groups in the side chains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the polymer to dentin surface in the presence of water and salivary components were determined. It was found that the new polymer combined with an Fe3+ additive improved bond strength of a commercial dental adhesive to artificial saliva contaminated dentin surface as compared to a control sample without the polymer. Histological analysis of the bonding structures showed no leakage pattern, probably due to the formation of Fe–catechol complexes, which reinforce the bonding structures. Cytotoxicity test showed that the polymers did not inhibit human gingival fibroblast cells proliferation. Results from this study suggest a potential to reduce failure of dental restorations due to saliva contamination using catechol-functionalized polymers as dental adhesives. PMID:26176305

  16. Do dental procedures affect lung function and arterial oxygen saturation in asthmatic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mahmoud Emara

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Asthmatic patients may be at a higher risk of developing oxygen desaturation after dental procedures regardless of their type with and without local anesthesia and a decrease in PEF after dental procedures with local anesthesia.

  17. Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Marta; Hohlfeld, Lisa; Thanh, Loan Tao; Biehl, Ralf; Lühmann, Nicole; Mohn, Dirk; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of infiltrating a commercial adhesive with nanosized bioactive glass (BG-Bi) particles or methacryl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on material properties and bioactivity. An acetone-based dental adhesive (Solobond Plus adhesive, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was infiltrated with nanosized bioactive glass particles (0.1 or 1wt%), or with monofunctional or multifunctional POSS particles (10 or 20wt%). Unfilled adhesive served as control. Dispersion and hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering. Set specimens were immersed for 28days in artificial saliva at 37°C, and surfaces were mapped for the formation of calcium phospate (Ca/P) precipitates (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Viscosity (rheometry) and the structural characteristic of the networks were studied, such as degree of conversion (FTIR spectroscopy), sol fraction and water sorption. POSS particles showed a good dispersion of the particles for both types of particles being smaller than 3nm, while the bioactive glass particles had a strong tendency to agglomerate. All nanoparticles induced the formation of Ca/P precipitates. The viscosity of the adhesive was not or only slightly increased by POSS particle addition but strongly increased by the bioactive glass particles. The degree of conversion, water sorption and sol fraction showed a maintained or improved network structure and properties when filled with BG-Bi and multifunctional POSS, however, less polymerization was found when loading a monofunctional POSS. Multifunctional POSS may be incorporated into dental adhesives to provide a bioactive potential without changing material properties adversely. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Empirical Research on the Developmental Status of Farmer Cooperatives’ Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, members in farmer cooperatives are selected as investigation subjects. By using fuzzy synthetic evaluation methods, functions of farmer cooperatives, which include six functions as follows: providing technology and information, marketing, processing and transportation, standardized services, and credit services and rights protection, are analyzed. The quantitative analysis is conducted on the developmental status of the functions of farmer cooperatives. The evaluation results are taken as evidence to anticipate the problems in the development of farmer cooperatives and then countermeasures are put forward, including intensifying the construction of actual functions of farmer cooperatives; contracting diversified credit and loan services; improving comprehensive strength of farmer cooperatives and taking the path of combining professional and comprehensive developmental paths. This study improves our knowledge on the development of farmer cooperatives and provides new insights to solve the problems that arise following the development.

  19. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  20. Dental pulp stem cells: function, isolation and applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J

    2015-11-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a promising source of cells for numerous and varied regenerative medicine applications. Their natural function in the production of odontoblasts to create reparative dentin support applications in dentistry in the regeneration of tooth structures. However, they are also being investigated for the repair of tissues outside of the tooth. The ease of isolation of DPSCs from discarded or removed teeth offers a promising source of autologous cells, and their similarities with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) suggest applications in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. DPSCs are derived from the neural crest and, therefore, have a different developmental origin to BMSCs. These differences from BMSCs in origin and phenotype are being exploited in neurological and other applications. This review briefly highlights the source and functions of DPSCs and then focuses on in vivo applications across the breadth of regenerative medicine.

  1. [Nutritional status, pulmonary functions, and exercise performance in COPD cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, Figen; Tuğ, Tuncer; Turgut, Teyfik; Ogetürk, Murat; Kirkil, Gamze; Kaçar, Canan; Muz, M Hamdi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of nutritional status in attack and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases, and investigating the relation between nutrition parameters and pulmonary functions, exercise performance and general healthy status. Anthropometric measures of 10 cases with attack (group 1), 14 stabilized COPD cases (group 2) and 10 control cases (group 3) were evaluated by measuring serum albumin, transferrin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and fat-free mass (FFM) levels. Six minutes walking test (mwt) and SGRQ questionnaire were performed. Body mass index (BMI) of group 1 and 2 were significantly lower than group 3 (p= 0.023, p= 0.008, respectively). Albumin levels were significantly lower in group 1 than group 2 (pnutritional defect was seen and a significant relation was observed between nutrition parameters and effort capacity.

  2. The prevalence and distribution of dental caries in four early medieval non-adult populations of different socioeconomic status from Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, Petr; Poláček, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to map the dental health status in non-adult individuals and to verify whether and how the existence of caries in the non-adult age group is associated with the different socio-economic status of early medieval populations. We studied the dental remains from the acropolis of the Mikulčice settlement agglomeration, where members of the higher social classes were buried, and from the Mikulčice hinterland. Overall, we evaluated 2544 teeth/3714 alveoli of deciduous dentition and 1938 teeth/2128 alveoli of permanent dentition. We determined the number of individuals with dental caries (i.e., caries frequency index, F-CE) and the proportion of teeth/alveoli with caries/ante-mortem tooth loss (i.e., caries intensity index, I-CE). We found no statistical significant difference in the F-CE values between the Mikulčice hinterland and the acropolis. In addition, we found no statistically significant difference in the proportion of teeth with carious lesions (I-CE) either in the case of deciduous dentition or in the case of permanent dentition between the hinterland and the acropolis. In the case of permanent dentition, the statistically significant highest proportion of carious lesions (I-CE) was found in Mikulčice I (p ≤ 0.05). We confirmed an increase in the rate of caries with age. The level of caries at all of the studied medieval locations was very low. We presume that lifestyle and the associated dietary habits and hygienic practices of the individuals or population groups had a greater influence on dental caries than did the socio-economic status of these individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring functional status in children with genetic impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msall, M E; Tremont, M R

    1999-06-25

    One of the consequences of genetic impairments in early childhood is their long-term effect on children's developmental skills in communication, learning, and adaptive behaviors. Functional assessment provides families and clinicians with a common language for describing a child's strengths and limitations in self-care (feeding, dressing, grooming, bathing, continence), mobility, and communication/social cognition. The National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research described a model of disablement that includes five dimensions: pathophysiology, impairment, functional limitations, disability, and societal limitations. Using this framework, along with the Functional Independence Measure for children, the WeeFIM(R), we describe functional strengths and challenges in children with Down syndrome, spina bifida, congenital limb anomalies, congenital heart disease, urea cycle disorders, severe multiple developmental disabilities, and DiGeorge malformation sequence. We also briefly describe several pediatric functional/adaptive assessment instruments used by developmental professionals (Battelle Developmental Inventory, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Amount of Assistance Questionnaire). By tracking functional status, health professionals can prioritize secondary and tertiary prevention strategies that optimize self-care, mobility, communication, and learning. When functional limitations interfere with the acquisition of these essential skills, family and community support programs can be maximized.

  4. Dental neglect among children in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child′s basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t, pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT, PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student′s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001. A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003, deft (P = 0 < 0.001, pufa (P = 0.011, and debris index (P = 0.002 scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Conclusion: Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  5. Effect of the Army Oral Health Maintenance Program on the Dental Health Status of Army Personnel (AOHMP Evaluation) Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    16 3. Percent Distribution of Dental Clasification at Time of Examination and Pour Months after ExZmination by Officer Rank...decay, %lising and filled (P/DW) and the decayed to decayed, miseing, &d filled (D/WW) dental caries Indices will be used as criteria for oral health

  6. Current status and perspectives of the development of dental research in biological anthropology of Argentina: introduction and conclusions of the symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Leandro H; Bernal, Valeria

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes and discusses the research in the field of dental anthropology in Argentina. It has been presented at the symposium entitled "The development of dental research in Argentine Biological Anthropology: current status and perspectives", coordinated by the authors at the IX National Meeting of Biological Anthropology of Argentina, Puerto Madryn, 20th-23rd October 2009. The aim of the symposium was to present new results and future prospects of this discipline in the country and to create a forum for discussion of current research within this field. Six contributions that focused on the study of teeth from different perspectives and analysed bioarchaeological samples from different areas of Argentina (Central Highlands, Pampa and Patagonia) were presented. After the presentations, a discussion about the state of the art of dental research in the country was generated, in which the need for the generation of methodological consensus on the criteria for the evaluation of the variables considered was stated, so that research conducted in different areas can be compared. In short, the contributions of this symposium provide insights into the diversity of dental anthropology in contemporary Argentina and the potential of these types of studies to gain important information about biological and cultural aspects of the native populations in the country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Dental implant status of patients receiving long-term nursing care in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toru; Wada, Masahiro; Suganami, Toru; Miwa, Shunta; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Yoshiobu

    2015-01-01

    The increase in implant patients is expected to give rise to a new problem: the changing general health status of those who have had implants placed. The aim of this present study was to find out the needs of and proper measures for elderly implant patients in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire was sent by mail to 1,591 long-term care health facilities, daycare services for people with dementia, and private nursing homes for the elderly in the Osaka area, which is in the middle area of Japan, in order to extract patients with cerebrovascular disease or dementia who were possibly at risk of inadequate oral self-care, as well as patients with implants. Approximately half of all facilities responded that they cannot recognize implants, and many facilities did not know anything about oral care for implant patients. Residents with implants were reported at 19% of all facilities. Also, the facilities pointed out problems with implants relating to the difference in oral care between implants and natural teeth. There are people with implants in some 20% of caregiving facilities, and there is a low level of understanding regarding implants and their care among nurses and care providers who are providing daily oral care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dental Health Status and Hygiene in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafatjou, Rezvan; Razavi, Zahra; Tayebi, Soudeh; Khalili, Maryam; Farhadian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    There is disagreement on the effect of diabetes on oral hygiene. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health and hygiene status of type 1 diabetic patient. In this case control study, periodontal health and hygiene of 80 children and adolescents (5-18 yr of age) with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred to Pediatric Endocrine Clinic of Besat Hospital Hamadan Iran 2013 - 2014 and 80 non diabetic control subjects were clinically assessed. The required data such as sex, age, duration of the diabetes, type and number of insulin injections per day were obtained from self-administered questionnaire and the patient's medical records. Participants in both groups were examined for Decay-missing- filled teeth (DMFT); dmft (for primary teeth), oral hygiene using O'Leary plaque index (PI) and gingivitis index (GI). Pdiabetic group (P=0.001). Interestingly, a higher dmft index was observed in the control group (P=0.008). In diabetic groups, GI and DMFT index increased significantly with duration of diabetes. Apart from higher scores of GI index, frequency of oral and periodontal disease was not different in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Findings of present study are insufficient to support a significant effect of diabetes on increasing the risk of oral and periodontal diseases. However, diabetic children and adolescents should receive oral hygiene instruction.

  9. Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

    Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....

  10. 温州市口腔医疗废物管理现状调查%SURVEY ON MANAGEMENT STATUS OF MEDICAL WASTE IN DENTAL INSTITUTIONS IN WENZHOU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松; 潘乙怀; 赵一荣; 何钢风

    2012-01-01

    Objective To know the management status of medical waste in dental institutions in Wenzhou, to identify the problems and to provide a way to deal with the situation. Methods Field investigation and questionnaires were used to investigate and analysis the medical waste collection, storage and disposal in 181 dental institutions. Results The qualified rate of waste collection and storage in stomatology hospitals was 100% , while it was very low among dental departments in general hospitals, dental clinics and dental out - patient departments. Some practitioners knew little about the management of medical waste. The daily waste disposal procedure used as a substitute for medical waste disposal procedure was popular among dental clinics and dental out - patient departments. Conclusion The measurement to improve the management of medical waste should be focus on strengthen management, training of dental practitioners, and construction of medical waste collection network.%目的 了解温州地区口腔医疗机构医疗废物的管理状况,找出存在的问题,提出对策.方法 通过现场查看和问卷调查方式,对温州地区181家口腔医疗机构医疗废物收集、存储和处理情况进行调查与分析.结果 口腔专科医院对医疗废物收集储存方法合格率为100%,医院口腔科、口腔门诊、口腔诊所合格率比较低.部分从业人员医疗废物相关知识匮乏,医疗废物按普通生活垃圾处置现象突出.结论 加强培训、强化管理和医疗废物收集的网络建设是温州地区口腔医疗废物管理的着力点.

  11. Oxidant-antioxidant status and pulmonary function in welding workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Fatma; Unlü, Mehmet; Köken, Tülay; Tetik, Levent; Akgün, Sema; Demirel, Reha; Serteser, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    Welding is a process during which fumes, gases, electromagnetic radiation and noise are emitted as by-products. Metal oxide particles are particularly hazardous components of welding fumes. Welding has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms and our objective in the present study was to study the effects of welding on pulmonary function and serum oxidant-antioxidant status. Fifty-one welding workers and 31 control subjects were recruited. Face to face interviews were conducted using the respiratory illness questionnaire adapted from the American Thoracic Society with the addition of demographic characteristics, work history and working conditions. Additionally physical examinations and spirometric measurements were performed at workplaces. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, protein sulfhydryls (SH) and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant status in 34 welding workers and in 20 control subjects. No statistically significant differences were observed in age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and annual working durations between welding workers and controls. Coughing, sputting and wheezing were significantly higher in welding workers (pwelding work showed a significant risk for chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 1.30-17.54). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) and four parameters of forced expiratory flow (FEF: FEF(25), FEF(50), FEF(75), FEF(25-75)) levels measured in the welding workers were significantly lower than those in the control group (pwelding workers than those in controls (pwelding workers chronically exposed to welding fumes and gases. Preventive measures should be taken to improve the health status of these workers.

  12. Functions of KLK4 and MMP-20 in dental enamel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuhe; Papagerakis, Petros; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Hu, Jan C-C.; Bartlett, John D.; Simmer, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Two proteases are secreted into the enamel matrix of developing teeth. The early protease is enamelysin (MMP-20). The late protease is kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Mutations in MMP20 and KLK4 both cause autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition featuring soft, porous enamel containing residual protein. MMP-20 is secreted along with enamel proteins by secretory stage ameloblasts. Enamel protein cleavage products accumulate in the space between the crystal ribbons, helping to support them. MMP-20 steadily cleaves accumulated enamel proteins, so their concentration decreases with depth. Kallikrein 4 is secreted by transition and maturation stage ameloblasts. KLK4 aggressively degrades the retained organic matrix following the termination of enamel protein secretion. The principle functions of MMP-20 and KLK4 in dental enamel formation are to facilitate the orderly replacement of organic matrix with mineral, generating an enamel layer that is harder, less porous, and unstained by retained enamel proteins. PMID:18627287

  13. Dental and Periodontal Status of 5 and 12 year old Children in Jakarta and it’s Satellite Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Adiatman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia which is surrounded by its satellite cities Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, which can be shortened by Jabodetabek. Objective: The study aims to describe oral health among 5 and 12 years-old children in Jabodetabek. Methods: This cross-sectional oral-health survey was conducted from 2014 with ethics approval. Sample of 5-year-old and 12-year-old Indonesian children living in Jabodetabek were selected using cluster sampling method. One trained examiner performed the clinical examination. Caries experience was measured using DMFT index, severity of decayed teeth was assessed using PUFA index, gingival status and oral hygiene were measured by Loe and Sillness modified index. Results: A total of 390 5-year-old and 458 12-year-old children with balanced proportion between girls and boys participated the survey. The prevalence of caries experience among the 5-year-old children and 12-year-old children were 90% and 84% respectively. The mean DMFT and DT scores among the 5-year-old children and 12-year-old children were 7.5±5.5 and 6.8±4.8; 3.2±2.2 and 2.9±2.1 respectively. Pulp involvement were apparent in 45% and 23% of caries in 5 and 12-year-old children respectively. Most children, 45% 5-year-old children and 92% 12-year-old children had substantial amount of plaque. Moreover, 68% 12-year-old children had gingivitis. Conclusion: Dental caries were prevalent among 5 and 12-year-old Indonesian children in Jakarta its satellite cities. The oral health condition of most of the children were poor.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v23i1.982

  14. Function and repair of dental enamel - Potential role of epithelial transport processes of ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Gábor; Kerémi, Beáta; Bori, Erzsébet; Földes, Anna

    2015-07-01

    The hardest mammalian tissue, dental enamel is produced by ameloblasts, which are electrolyte-transporting epithelial cells. Although the end product is very different, they show many similarities to transporting epithelia of the pancreas, salivary glands and kidney. Enamel is produced in a multi-step epithelial secretory process that features biomineralization which is an interplay of secreted ameloblast specific proteins and the time-specific transport of minerals, protons and bicarbonate. First, "secretory" ameloblasts form the entire thickness of the enamel layer, but with low mineral content. Then they differentiate into "maturation" ameloblasts, which remove organic matrix from the enamel and in turn further build up hydroxyapatite crystals. The protons generated by hydroxyapatite formation need to be buffered, otherwise enamel will not attain full mineralization. Buffering requires a tight pH regulation and secretion of bicarbonate by ameloblasts. The whole process has been the focus of many immunohistochemical and gene knock-out studies, but, perhaps surprisingly, no functional data existed for mineral ion transport by ameloblasts. However, recent studies including ours provided a better insight for molecular mechanism of mineral formation. The secretory regulation is not completely known as yet, but its significance is crucial. Impairing regulation retards or prevents completion of enamel mineralization and results in the development of hypomineralized enamel that easily erodes after dental eruption. Factors that impair this function are fluoride and disruption of pH regulators. Revealing these factors may eventually lead to the treatment of enamel hypomineralization related to genetic or environmentally induced malformation. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface Treatments and Functional Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement and Bacterial Adhesion Reduction in Dental Implantology

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Mandracci; Federico Mussano; Paola Rivolo; Stefano Carossa

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of dental implants is a key process in the production of these medical devices, and especially titanium implants used in the dental practice are commonly subjected to surface modification processes before their clinical use. A wide range of treatments, such as sand blasting, acid etching, plasma etching, plasma spray deposition, sputtering deposition and cathodic arc deposition, have been studied over the years in order to improve the performance of dental implants. Impro...

  16. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Molina-Frechero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs. Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%, TF 4–5 (45.6% and TF 6–7 (4.4% for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%, TF 4–5 (67.1% and TF 67 (20.6% for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05. The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6, smile (OR = 1.2 and appearance (OR = 3.36. Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  17. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  18. Bone replacement following dental trauma prior to implant surgery--status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mats; Mordenfeld, Arne; Strandkvist, Tomas

    2009-02-01

    Dento-alveolar trauma often leads to a need for reconstruction of the alveolar crest before an implant can be placed. Although autogenous bone grafts is considered the 'gold standard', this may be associated with patient morbidity and graft resorption. Consequently, the use of bone substitutes has increased. Today, a substantial number of biomaterials are available on the market, but only a few are well documented. The user should be aware that these biomaterials have different properties: resorbable or non-resorbable, time of resorption and resorption mechanism. The purpose of this review is to describe the function of various bone substitutes and indications for their use in reconstructive implant surgery and to give an overview of the current situation.

  19. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been broadly termed dental fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is a condition that causes ... less than 2 milligrams per liter. What causes dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is caused by taking in ...

  20. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  1. Correlation of Salivary pH, Incidence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Status in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethalakshmi, C; Reddy, R C Jagat; Asifa, Nisha; Prabhu, S

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many parts of the body. A number of oral diseases have been associated with diabetes mellitus with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary pH and incidence of dental caries and periodontal status in diabetes mellitus compared to that of the normal subjects. The study population consisted of 40 patients divided into 2 groups with group I comprising of 20 known diabetes mellitus patients and group II comprising of 20 non diabetic subjects as control group. The pH of the saliva was determined using a digital pH meter. Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed by DMFT and PDI indices respectively. There was a decrease in the mean salivary pH of 6.51 in the study group, compared to the normal mean salivary pH of 7.88 in the control group. The mean DMFT index was higher in the study group (8.10) when compared to that of control group (1.15). The mean PDI score was also higher in the study group (4.0) as compared to that of the control group (0.45). The results of the present study concluded that there was a significant relationship between the diabetes mellitus and increased incidence of dental caries and periodontitis and there was also a significant reduction in the salivary pH in diabetes mellitus patients, compared to that of non diabetic subjects.

  2. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics.

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Briseño

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents.A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD] and parents' years completed at school were used as proxies of SES.Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents' schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 and Forced vital capacity (FVC increased 8.5 (0.4% and 10.6 mL (0.4%, respectively (p <0.05 when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone.Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age.

  4. Dental functional traits of mammals resolve productivity in terrestrial ecosystems past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Puolamäki, Kai; Eronen, Jussi T; Ataabadi, Majid M; Hernesniemi, Elina; Fortelius, Mikael

    2012-07-22

    We have recently shown that rainfall, one of the main climatic determinants of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP), can be robustly estimated from mean molar tooth crown height (hypsodonty) of mammalian herbivores. Here, we show that another functional trait of herbivore molar surfaces, longitudinal loph count, can be similarly used to extract reasonable estimates of rainfall but also of temperature, the other main climatic determinant of terrestrial NPP. Together, molar height and the number of longitudinal lophs explain 73 per cent of the global variation in terrestrial NPP today and resolve the main terrestrial biomes in bivariate space. We explain the functional interpretation of the relationships between dental function and climate variables in terms of long- and short-term demands. We also show how the spatially and temporally dense fossil record of terrestrial mammals can be used to investigate the relationship between biodiversity and productivity under changing climates in geological time. The placement of the fossil chronofaunas in biome space suggests that they most probably represent multiple palaeobiomes, at least some of which do not correspond directly to any biomes of today's world.

  5. Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features.

  6. Vitamin C Status and Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travica, Nikolaj; Ried, Karin; Sali, Avni; Scholey, Andrew; Hudson, Irene; Pipingas, Andrew

    2017-08-30

    Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5), prospective (n = 24), cross-sectional (n = 17) and case-control (n = 4) studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer's and dementia). Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE). In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults.

  7. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  8. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  9. An evaluation of dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs (trans genders) residing in bhopal city, madhya pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongal, S; Torwane, Na; Chandrashekhar, Br; Saxena, V; Chavan, Kr

    2014-11-01

    Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. The accessibility to medical and dental facilities for the eunuchs is nearly nonexistent. Due to these reasons, they might be at a high risk of developing severe dental problems like tooth loss. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. On the basis of convenient nonprobability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality was examined to evaluate the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the population. All the obtained data were entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Data comparison was done by applying Chi-square test. A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. Among all participants, 2.8% (18/639) were having prosthesis. The overall prosthetic status among males was 3.2% (7/218) followed by 2.9% (6/207) eunuchs and 2.3% (5/214) females. However, need for multi-unit and combination of one and more unit prosthesis for upper and lower jaws was higher in males compared to females and eunuchs, but the difference was not statistically significant. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed.

  10. N-Acetyl cysteine restores viability and function of rat odontoblast-like cells impaired by polymethylmethacrylate dental resin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kojima, Norinaga; Att, Wael; Hori, Norio; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    There is concern that dental-resin materials directly loaded on a prepared tooth adversely affect dental pulp tissue by releasing the resin chemicals through dentinal tubes. This study determined whether self-curing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin extract adversely affected the viability and function of odontoblast-like cells and whether the cytotoxicity of this resin, if any, could be eliminated by N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant amino acid derivative. Odontoblast-like cells isolated from rat maxillary incisor dental pulp tissue were exposed to a PMMA resin extract with or without N-acetyl cysteine for 1 h and then cultured in osteoblastic media. The percentage of viable cells 24 h after seeding was 20% in cells exposed to the resin extract without N-acetyl cysteine, whereas 45% of cells were viable after exposure to the N-acetyl cysteine-supplemented extract. The cells that had been exposed to the extract showed a strong tendency for apoptosis associated with the increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased intracellular glutathione level, which was improved by the addition of N-acetyl cysteine. N-Acetyl cysteine supplementation almost completely restored the significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization by the resin extract. These results conclusively demonstrated that exposure of odontoblast-like cells to the resin extract impaired the cell viability and function and, more intriguingly, N-acetyl cysteine supplementation to the extract significantly prevented these toxic effects.

  11. Dental Health Status of 12-Year-Old Students from Public Schools and Tooth Loss of Adults from the City of Popayan (Cauca, Colombia), 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Determine the dental health status of a population of 12-years-old students from public schools and the tooth loss percentage of adults in the city of Popayan (Cauca, Colombia). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 967 12-years-old schoolchildren corresponding to 20% of the population, according to the National Bureau of Statistics, projection for 2008, and 1,406 adults (p=0.05). The decayed, missing and filled teeth Index (DMFT) was established by following the Wor...

  12. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Ortega, Eugenio; Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba Arenas, Sara; Jiménez Guerra, Álvaro; L. Monsalve Guil; López López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorde...

  13. Predicting cognitive function from clinical measures of physical function and health status in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niousha Bolandzadeh

    Full Text Available Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia-including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline-is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies.We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1-L2 regularized regression model (elastic net to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1 based on baseline cognitive function, 2 based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3 a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation.Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33 and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98. Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year.We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a clinical setting.

  14. Social status, glucocorticoids, immune function, and health: can animal studies help us understand human socioeconomic-status-related health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Chaudhry, Hashim S

    2012-08-01

    For humans in developed nations, socioeconomic status (SES)--relative income, education and occupational position in a society--is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality rates, with increasing SES predicting longer life span (e.g. Marmot et al., 1991). Mechanisms underlying this relationship have been examined, but the relative role of each mechanism still remains unknown. By understanding the relative role of specific mechanisms that underlie dramatic health disparities between high and low social status individuals we can begin to identify effective, targeted methods to alleviate health disparities. In the current paper, we take advantage of a growing number of animal studies that have quantified biological health-related correlates (glucocorticoid production and immune function) of social status and compare these studies to the current literature on human SES and health to determine if and how animal studies can further our understanding of SES-associated human health disparities. Specifically, we compared social-status related glucocorticoid production and immune function in humans and animals. From the review, we show that our present understanding of the relationships between social status and glucocorticoid production/immune function is still growing, but that there are already identifiable parallels (and non-parallels) between humans and animals. We propose timely areas of future study focused on (1) specific aspects of social status that may influence stress-related physiology, (2) mechanisms underlying long-term influences of social status on physiology and health, and (3) intervention studies to alleviate potentially negative physiological correlates of social status.

  15. Intergroup differentiation: stereotyping as a function of status hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, N; Rae, C

    2001-06-01

    The authors explored how negative intergroup comparisons affect intergroup differentiation. More specifically, they tested the prediction that the in-group's negative intergroup comparisons with a high-status group would result in more negative stereotyping of a lower status out-group. The authors elicited stereotypes of a lower status university in 2 conditions. In the 1st, the participants judged only the middle-ranking university in-group and a lower status university. In the 2nd, those judgments followed comparison with a higher status university. In the 2nd condition, there was an increased differentiation between the in-group and the lower status out-group because of the more negative stereotyping of the lower status out-group. This evidence of intergroup differentiation was found only on the dimension judged most important and along which the in-group was negatively compared with the higher status group.

  16. Melatonin: A Review of Its Potential Functions and Effects on Dental Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Permuy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a hormone synthesised and secreted by the pineal gland and other organs. Its secretion, controlled by an endogenous circadian cycle, has been proven to exert immunological, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that can be beneficial in the treatment of certain dental diseases. This article is aimed at carrying out a review of the literature published about the use of melatonin in the dental field and summarising its potential effects. In this review article, an extensive search in different databases of scientific journals was performed with the objective of summarising all of the information published on melatonin use in dental diseases, focussing on periodontal diseases and dental implantology. Melatonin released in a natural way into the saliva, or added as an external treatment, may have important implications for dental disorders, such as periodontal disease, as well as in the osseointegration of dental implants, due to its anti-inflammatory and osseoconductive effects. Melatonin has demonstrated to have beneficial effects on dental pathologies, although further research is needed to understand the exact mechanisms of this molecule.

  17. 牙科恐惧心理的现况调查研究%Investigation and Study on the Status of Dental Fear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of dental fear and the influencing factors.To search for the method and countermeasures about how to reduce patient's psychological fear.Methods 242 patients were investigated randomly by dental anxiety scale and self-made scale of general conditions.Results The prevalence of dental fear was 64.9% and the average DAS score was 9.68±3.87.Significant differences were found among different sex and different education level (P<0.01).The most popular reason for dental fear were being afraid of pain (72%) , being worried about unskilled doctor (44.6%) and personal experience of dental treatment (36.4%).Conclusions The prevalence of fear in this survey was high.It is relative to many kinds of factors.Dentists should gain a better understanding of this status, pay more attention to this, try to avoid or reduce the fear, and take effective measures to make clinical treatment smoothly.%目的 探讨影响牙科恐惧心理的相关因素,寻找减轻患者恐惧心理的方法及对策.方法采用Coach's牙科焦虑量表(Dental Anxiety Scale,DAS)及自制一般状况问卷调查表,随机选择医院口腔门诊患者242名进行调查分析.结果 牙病患者存在恐惧心理157人,占总数64.9%,DAS平均得分(9.68±3.87)分.不同性别及不同文化程度人群心理恐惧差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).心理恐惧的主要原因为害怕疼痛(72%)、担心医生技术不好(44.6%),自身不愉快看牙经历(36.4%).结论牙科恐惧症的发生率较高,它与多种因素相关,口腔医生应对其有足够的认识和了解,尽量降低患者的恐惧状态,使牙科治疗顺利进行.

  18. Measuring developmental and functional status in children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, K J; Msall, M E; Lyon, N; Duffy, L C; Granger, C V; Braun, S

    1999-03-01

    This study compared performance on the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test (BDIST), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) in children with developmental disabilities. The three instruments were administered to 205 children with identified disabilities. All 205 children were tested using the WeeFIM instrument. The BDIST was administered to 101 children and the VABS to the remaining 104 children. Administration was counterbalanced and randomized across all three instruments. A proportional sampling plan was used to select the 205 children, who ranged in age from 11 to 87 months. A variety of medical diagnoses and levels of severity of motor, cognitive, and communication impairments were systematically included in the sample. Correlations (r) among subscales for all three instruments ranged from 0.42 to 0.92. Correlations for total scores ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. Analyses of potential moderator variables found no significant relation between age and severity of disability (r=0.05) or between socioeconomic status (SES) and severity of disability (r=0.21). Correlations with age were strongest for those subscale scores involving gross and fine motor skills. Correlations with SES and subscale scores ranged from 0.03 to 0.18. The three instruments provide important information regarding childhood performance in motor, self-care, communicative, cognitive, and social skills. The WeeFIM instrument requires less administration time and provides information directly relevant to evaluating functional outcomes for children with disabilities and their families.

  19. The functional status of the professional football players during functional testing procedure

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    Pavlichenko P.P.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was the analysis of the functional status of professional football players during the special functional testing procedure (shuttle test. We used different testing methods such as an ergometry, gas analyzing, pulsemetry, and biochemical blood lactate level measuring for checking up physical conditioning. The technique “PHAZAGRAF” was used for assessment of the functional status of players by measuring the ІТ -index of symmetry of T-wave in standard ECG and for testing of vegetative system tonus. We used mathematic methods for data processing. The test of physical readiness showed 11 players with high level capacity to aerobic work with the result of more than 885 seconds. Low result was fixed when the player`s run-time was less than 820 seconds. The findings showed that functional status failures are attendant with ІТ -increasing and lowering of total aerobic readiness. This is revealed in lowering of the maximum oxygen consumption that showed lowering of total aerobic capacity. There was also found that increasing of the standard deviation of ІТ -index could accompany lowering of the running time in the shuttle test. Therewith, vegetative tonus failures in the form of prevailing of sympathetic system activity are not obligatory followed with failures of special or total capacity to work.

  20. Self-assessed and clinically diagnosed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of a dental school in Bangalore, India

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    Nagarajan Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the extent of agreement between clinical and self-assessed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 216 patients aged between 20 and 44 years who attended the outpatient department of the M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore. The study population was subjected to a self-administered questionnaire (questions regarding bleeding gums, deposits on teeth, receding gums, swelling of gums, loose teeth, which was followed by periodontal examination. The clinical examination included an assessment of the periodontal condition, using the criteria of Loe and Silness Gingival Index, the Community Periodontal Index, and Mobility, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed that the perceived periodontal health status was low and the discrepancy between the subjectively and objectively assessed needs was very distinct. The awareness of the periodontal problems has been reported to increase with increasing severity of the disease due to the destructive changes that set in.

  1. Evaluation of Dental Status and Its Association with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children in Zahedan City, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Amirabadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Several factors can affect the oral health-related quality of life in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental status and its relationship with the oral health-related quality of life in preschool children in Zahedan City, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 200 preschool children (5 - 6 years old were randomly selected from different areas of Zahedan city. Dental health status of children was investigated using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT questionnaire. Oral-health-related quality of life of the children and their parents was measured using the Farsi version of the early childhood oral health impact scale (F- ECOHIS index. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, statistical t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient at the significant level of 0.05. Results The mean scores of F- ECOHIS and DMFT for all studied children were 10.94 ± 7.67 and 5.05 ± 4.48, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the DMFT and F- ECOHIS indices in children (r = 0.26, P = 0.563 and their parents (r = 0.16, P = 0.217. Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, there is no significant relationship between the DMFT index and the index of oral health-related quality of life. Further studies are recommended.

  2. Surface Treatments and Functional Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement and Bacterial Adhesion Reduction in Dental Implantology

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    Pietro Mandracci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of dental implants is a key process in the production of these medical devices, and especially titanium implants used in the dental practice are commonly subjected to surface modification processes before their clinical use. A wide range of treatments, such as sand blasting, acid etching, plasma etching, plasma spray deposition, sputtering deposition and cathodic arc deposition, have been studied over the years in order to improve the performance of dental implants. Improving or accelerating the osseointegration process is usually the main goal of these surface processes, but the improvement of biocompatibility and the prevention of bacterial adhesion are also of considerable importance. In this review, we report on the research of the recent years in the field of surface treatments and coatings deposition for the improvement of dental implants performance, with a main focus on the osseointegration acceleration, the reduction of bacterial adhesion and the improvement of biocompatibility.

  3. Surface Treatments and Functional Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement and Bacterial Adhesion Reduction in Dental Implantology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandracci, Pietro; Mussano, Federico; Rivolo, Paola; Carossa, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    ... to improve the performance of dental implants. Improving or accelerating the osseointegration process is usually the main goal of these surface processes, but the improvement of biocompatibility and the prevention of bacterial adhesion are also...

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Pekka K. Vallittu; Lippo V. J. Lassila; Jingwei He; Eva Söderling

    2013-01-01

    In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity...

  5. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  6. A comparison of oral hygiene status and dental caries experience among institutionalized visually impaired and hearing impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years in central India

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    Venugopal K Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience among institutionalized visually impaired and hearing impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years in Bhopal city of Madhya Pradesh located in Central India. Materials and Methods: A total of 95 hearing impaired and 48 visually impaired children of age between 7 and 17 years were recruited from special care institutions (one institution of hearing impaired and two institutions of visually impaired in Bhopal city. Information related to different study variables was obtained from both groups. Oral hygiene index simplified (OHI[S], decayed,extracted, filled teeth (deft and DECAYED, MISSING, FILLED TETTH (DMFT indices were used to record the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience. Results: Mean OHI(S score for hearing impaired was 1.15 ± 0.72 while it was 1.51 ± 0.93 for visually impaired children (P < 0.05. Mean DMFT score was 1.4 ± 1.95 and 0.94 ± 1.45 among hearing impaired and visually impaired respectively. The hearing impaired had a mean deft score of 0.47 ± 1.01 and in visually impaired it was 0.19 ± 0.79 and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral hygiene status of hearing impaired children was better than visually impaired and the difference was statistically significant. There was no significant difference between both groups with respect to DMFT. The hearing impaired children had significantly higher deft than visually impaired.

  7. Setting Reaction of Dental Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restoratives as a Function of Curing Depth and Postirradiation Time

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    Young Kyung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the setting reaction of dental resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI restoratives as a function of curing depth and postirradiation time. Two light-cure and one tri-cure RMGI materials were selected and used according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were prepared by filling the mixed materials into custom-made molds and then light-irradiating using a dental curing light. The degree of conversion and the extent of acid-base reaction of the materials at different depths (0, 1, 2, and 4 mm and postirradiation times (10 min, 1 day, and 7 days were determined using SR-FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with the Kramers-Kronig (K-K transformation. The setting reaction was also investigated using microhardness measurements. The results showed that the depth of cure increased over time by the continuous acid-base reaction rather than photopolymerization or chemical polymerization. Microhardness tests seemed less suitable for studying the setting reaction as a function of postirradiation time, probably due to softening from the humidity. Analysis using specular reflectance in conjunction with the K-K algorithm was an easy and effective method for monitoring the setting reaction of dental RMGI materials.

  8. 口腔健康状况与牙科焦虑症影响因素的研究∗%Analysis of oral health status and affecting factors of dental anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖阳阳; 轩东英; 谢宝仪; 刘溦

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究牙科焦虑水平与口腔健康行为及健康状况的相关性,并调查其影响因素,为了解牙科焦虑症的发生、发展及预防提供临床依据。方法采用Corah’ s牙科焦虑量表( dental anxiety scale,DAS)和牙科畏惧量表( dental fear scale,DFS)对口腔门诊1203例成人患者进行问卷调查,并记录基本资料、牙科就诊状况以及口腔健康状况。结果1203例患者中,高度牙科焦虑症患者(DAS≥13)占23.4%。性别、年龄、文化程度、规律就诊状况、口腔健康行为和健康状况均影响牙科焦虑水平。定期洁牙的患者牙科焦虑水平较低。经常刷牙出血和牙齿酸软的患者牙科焦虑水平显著较高。牙钻和注射麻药是牙科治疗中最易诱发牙科焦虑的因素。结论我国牙科焦虑症的患病率较高,口腔健康状况和保健意识可能会影响患者的牙科焦虑水平。%Objective To investigate the correlation between adult dental anxiety and oral health status, and access the related factors contribute to dental anxiety. Methods A total of 1 203 dental patients completed a questionnaire that contained Corah” s dental anxiety scales ( DAS ) and dental fear survey ( DFS ) . The general characteristics were de-scribed, such as socio-demographic, dental attendances and oral health status. Results The prevalence of high dental anxiety ( DAS≥13) was 23. 4%. The regression analysis indicated that gender, age, education, dental attendances and oral health status were correlated with dental anxiety. The level of dental anxiety of patients with regular scaling was sig-nificant decreased. Patients with ‘always bleeding on brushing” and ‘always dentine hypersensitivity” had significantly higher level of dental anxiety. ‘Drilling with the handpiece” and ‘injecting the anesthetic” were the most important fac-tors to contribute to dental anxiety. Conclusion There was high prevalence of dental anxiety in Chinese adult

  9. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria.

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    Kikelomo Adebanke Kolawole

    Full Text Available Non-nutritive sucking (NNS is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child's socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression.The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2 years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80, mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30 while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73. Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58-2.81 but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34-1.01 insignificantly.Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking.

  10. Dental caries status in 6–14-year-old schoolchildren of rural Channagiri, Davangere: A cross-sectional survey

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    Syeda Nikhat Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a major public health issue and schools remain an important setting for an efficient and effective way to reach over billion children worldwide and through them, families, and community members. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 6–14-year-old-school going children of rural areas of Channagiri taluk. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among government schools at Thyavanige, Nallur, Pandomatti, Tavarakere, Daginakatte, and Ajjihalli in Channagiri taluk of Davangere district. The study population comprised school children from 6 to 14 years. A total of 1140 children of both genders were surveyed for dental caries prevalence. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, and one-way ANOVA test. Results: The prevalence of caries in the present study was higher in boys (45.08% than girls (28.42% (P > 0.5. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT was 0.47 ± 0.95 for boys and 0.44 ± 0.91 for girls and the mean dmft for boys was 0.50 ± 1.04 and 0.66 ± 1.12 for girls. Conclusions: Caries prevalence was higher in boys and also a large amount of untreated carious lesions among the children. These results suggest that emphasis should be given to scientific monitoring, effective implementation and evaluation of school based oral health promotion and preventive programs to increase the dental awareness and oral hygiene practices, in the rural areas of Channagiri taluk of Davangere district.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of dental resin with antibacterial and radio-opaque functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingwei; Söderling, Eva; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    2013-03-07

    In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX) of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p 0.05). However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05) and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05), thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka K. Vallittu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA/methyl methacrylate (MMA dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC, flexural strength (FS and modulus (FM, water sorption (WS and solubility (WSL, antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity (ROX of the obtained dental resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/MMA resin system without DDMAI was used as a control. The results showed that DDMAI could endow BIS-GMA/MMA resin system with good antibacterial (p 0.05. However, incorporating DDMAI into Bis-GMA/MMA resin could reduce mechanical properties (p < 0.05 and increase WS and WSL (p < 0.05, thus further work is needed in order to optimize the resin formulation.

  13. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people A relação entre estado dentário, seleção alimentar, ingestão de nutrientes, estado nutricional e índice de massa corporal em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Marcenes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI. Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI.Este artigo objetivou revisar os achados do levantamento epidemiológico conduzido no Reino Unido, cuja finalidade foi avaliar a relação entre saúde bucal, ingestão de nutrientes e estado nutricional. Uma amostra representativa dos idosos institucionalizados e não-institucionalizados foi examinada em relação à saúde bucal. Além disso, amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas e entrevistou-se os idosos, ocasião em que se completou um diário alimentar de quatro dias. Na amostra de idosos não-institucionalizados, o consumo de polissacarídeos não-amido (fibras, proteína, cálcio, ferro nao-hemoglobina, niacina e vitamina C foi significantemente menor em edêntulos do que em não-edêntulos. Idosos com a presença de 21 dentes ou mais consumiram mais nutrientes, principalmente

  14. Pain, functional status, social function and conditions of habitation in elderly unilaterally lower limb amputees

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    Đurović Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Few authors are involved in home rehabilitation of amputees or their reintegration into the community. It has been remarked that there is a discontinuity between the phases of the amputee rehabilitation in Serbia. The aim of the study was to establish pain characteristics and functional status of amputees two months after the amputation and to determine their social function and the conditions of their habitation. Methods. This prospective observation study involved 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations. The patients were tested at the hospital on discharge and at their homes two months after the amputation. Pain intensity and functional status were measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS and by Functional Independence Measure (FIM. The patients’ social function was assessed using the Social Dysfunction Rating Scale (SDRS and conditions of their habitation by the self-created Scale of Conditions of Habitation (SCH. In statistic analysis we used the Student t test, χ2 test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results. The majority of patients (63% underwent below knee amputation caused by diabetes (89%. A significant number of patients (84%, χ2 = 17.78; p < 0.01 was not visited by a physiotherapist nor an occupational therapist during two months at home. In this period, the majority of the amputees (68% had phantom pain or residual limb pain (21%. Two months after amputation the pain intensity was significantly lower (VAS = 4.07±2.19; 2.34±1.41; p < 0.001, and the functional status significantly better than on discharge (FIM = 75.13±16.52; 87.87±16.48; p < 0.001. The amputees had the average level of social dysfunction (SDRS = 62.00±11.68 and conditions of habitation (SCH = 7.81±1.97. Conclusion. A total 38 elderly amputees with unilateral lower limb amputations achieved significant functional improvement and reduction of pain, in spite of their social dysfunction, the absence of socio-medical support

  15. Negative symptoms mediate the influence of theory of mind on functional status in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Kumar, J Keshav; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between social cognition, neurocognition, negative symptoms and functional status in a homogeneous schizophrenia patient group remitted from positive symptoms. Sixty patients underwent assessments of social and neurocognition dimensions recommended by expert panels. A blind rater assessed their functional status. Second order theory of mind (ToM) and negative symptoms had significant correlations with functional status. A bootstrapping analysis used to test for specific mediation models revealed that the effect of second order ToM on functioning was mediated by negative symptoms. Future studies should examine if targeted remediation of ToM improves negative symptoms and thus functioning.

  16. Functional status measurement in COPD : a review of available methods and their feasibility in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Asijee, Guus M.; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Molen, Thys

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Guidelines advocate that improvement in functional status should be a major goal in COPD treatment. Many tools are available to assess aspects of functional status. This review aims to categorise systematically the available tools based on their construct (i.e. what the tool intends to measure

  17. Oral health-related quality of life in patients receiving home-care nursing: associations with aspects of dental status and xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, Tiril; Fjaera, Brit; Eide, Hilde

    2010-12-01

    To explore the differences in oral status, dental attendance and dry mouth problems between patients with long-term disease with high and low scores on Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP 14) and how patients cope with oral problems such as xerostomia and a reduced ability to brush their teeth. There has been a lack of studies of oral health and oral health-related quality of life in the frail elderly within the community services. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with 137 patients receiving home-care nursing. Structured interviews were conducted by student nurses using OHIP-14, items from the Xerostomia Inventory and questions concerning dental visit habits, brushing of teeth and data from medical records. Eighty-three per cent of patients had natural teeth and 60% had only natural teeth. 'Natural teeth only' indicated a low score on OHIP-14. Problems with brushing and items concerning xerostomia indicated a high score on OHIP-14. Contrasts in the assessments concerning brushing of teeth and xerostomia indicated low priority from the patients themselves and the nursing staff. Community health services should focus upon oral health. Both patients and nurses should assess the need for regular brushing of teeth carried out by home-care nurses. Assessment and treatment of dry mouth problems should have higher priority. © 2009 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Comment on "dental prosthetic status and prosthetic need of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in mangalore: a pilot study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ashutosh; Arora, Varun; Loomba, Kapil; Birmani Gaunkar, Ridhima; Dixit, Seema K; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Misra, Alok; Gupta, Narendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Public Health Dentistry is a speciality which is targeted towards the larger benefit of community and society. Dental health surveys in specific population groups should be planned adequately and the data should be analyzed in such a way so that it may help in making strategies for the intervention to improve the existing status. This could be only done with the help of proper planning, analysis and interpretation of a sample survey. The present study highlights the research design, statistical and inferential errors in a published work of public health dentistry in order to bring about the common mistakes and errors made. The renewed suggested approach helps in interpreting the results in a better way and makes them objective-oriented.

  19. A comparison of the dental status and treatment needs of older adults with and without chronic mental illness in Sevilla, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Córdoba-Arenas, Sara; Jiménez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; López-López, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the dental status and treatment needs of institutionalized older adults with chronic mental illness compared to a non-psychiatric control sample. Study Design: The sample size was 100, in which 50 were psychogeriatric patients (study group; SG) classified according to DSM-IV, with a mean age of 69.6 ± 6.7 years, and 50 non-psychiatric patients (control group; CG), with a mean age of 68.3 ± 6.9 years. Clinical oral health examinations were conducted and caries were recorded clinically using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFT). Results were analyzed statistically using the Student’s t-test or analysis of variance. Results: Caries prevalence was 58% and 62% in SG and CG, respectively. DMFT index was 28.3 ± 6.6 in SG and 21.4 ± 6.07 in CG (p Gerodontology, oral health, older adult, psychiatric patients, schizophrenia. PMID:23229258

  20. Loss of Function of Evc2 in Dental Mesenchyme Leads to Hypomorphic Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Takeda, H; Tsuji, T; Kamiya, N; Kunieda, T; Mochida, Y; Mishina, Y

    2017-04-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal-recessive skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short stature and postaxial polydactyly. A series of dental abnormalities, including hypomorphic enamel formation, has been reported in patients with EvC. Despite previous studies that attempted to uncover the mechanism leading to abnormal tooth development, little is known regarding how hypomorphic enamel is formed in patients with EvC. In the current study, using Evc2/ Limbin mutant mice we recently generated, we analyzed enamel formation in the mouse incisor. Consistent with symptoms in human patients, we observed that Evc2 mutant mice had smaller incisors with enamel hypoplasia. Histologic observations coupled with ameloblast marker analyses suggested that Evc2 mutant preameloblasts were capable of differentiating to secretory ameloblasts; this process, however, was apparently delayed, due to delayed odontoblast differentiation, mediated by a limited number of dental mesenchymal stem cells in Evc2 mutant mice. This concept was further supported by the observation that dental mesenchymal-specific deletion of Evc2 phenocopied the tooth abnormalities in Evc2 mutants. Overall, our findings suggest that mutations in Evc2 affect dental mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis, which further leads to hypomorphic enamel formation.

  1. Nutritional status and its relationship with different dimensions of functional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues FONSECA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and limitations in activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to December 2011 in Santa Catarina. Seventeen chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients [age (years = 67±8; forced expiratory volume in one second (% of the predicted value = 38.6±16.1; body mass index (kg/m2 = 24.7±5.4] underwent the assessments: pulmonary function (spirometry; functional status (London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale, physical activities in daily life, and Glittre ADL-Test; nutritional status (anthropometry and dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Results: The total score of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale correlated with fat-free mass (r=-0.50; p=0.04 and lean mass (r=-0.50; p=0.04. The lying time in physical activities in daily life correlated with bone mineral content (r=-0.50; p=0.04. Nutricional status was not correlated with time spent on Glittre ADL-test. Conclusion: Variables that reflect muscle mass depletion are related to variables of self-reported limitation in activities of daily living. Bone mineral content is correlated with time patients spend lying, reflecting the impact of inactive postures on the nutritional status of these patients.

  2. ORO‐DENTAL STATUS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 7‐12 YEARS, IN THE RURAL AREAS OF DOLJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena BĂTĂIOSU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization has a long tradition on the methodology and monitorization of oral health epidemiological investigations, even in the field of dental caries. According to the targets to be attained in 2020, at the age of 6 years, 80% of children should be cavity‐free and, at the age of 12, DMFT should be no more than 1.5. Based on WHO targets for 2020, an epidemio‐ logical study was performed on school children affected by dental caries, aged between 7‐12 years, from the rural areas of the Dolj County. Methodology: The study protocol included conventional and meticulous visual clinical examination of students, according to WHO methodology, in the Pedodontic Clinics of Craiova ‐ Faculty of Medical Dentistry. Also calculated was the DMFT index, by analy‐ sis of the DT, MT, FT components, as well as the dmft index, by analysis of the dt, mt, ft components. Results: The mean indices of carious experience in temporary den‐ tition decrease with age, due to the progressive disappear‐ ance of milk teeth. The DMFT index values are given, in particular, by components that indicate the number of teeth affected by caries and not of the blocked ones. Con‐ clusions: The results obtained emphasize the need for den‐ tal health education programs at national and community level, the kindergartens and schools having a great poten‐ tial to influence dental health care habits in children. Also emphasized was the need for regional prevention pro‐ grams, as part of an overall national program, which has to consider the socio‐economic and cultural factors.

  3. RELATIONSHIP OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION, EDUCATIONAL STATUS AND QUALITY OF LIFE WITH THE FUNCTIONAL BALANCE IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushikesh K. Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a complex construct which is affected by cognition. It is necessary to know the cognitive correlates of functional balance to design necessary interventions for the individuals with balance problems. Objectives: To determine the relationship of executive function, educational status and quality of life with the functional balance in older adults. Methodology: 120 healthy elderly subjects were taken for the study based on the inclusion criteria. Following the initial screening, the executive function, educational status and quality of life of the subjects were measured. Executive function performance test was used for measuring executive function. The quality of life was measured using SF36 questionnaire. The functional balance was measured using the berg balance scale and timed up and go test. The relationship among the outcome measure was found out using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results of the present study showed that EFPT and BBS are negatively correlated to each other with r-value -0.271. The educational status score showed a low positive correlation with functional balance with r-value 0.358. The quality of life did not show any significant correlation with functional balance. Interpretation & Conclusion: Executive function and functional balance showed a low correlation. This means that higher the executive function, better will be the functional balance of the individual. Moreover, educational status also affects the functional balance of the individual.

  4. Formation of functionalized nanoclusters by solvent evaporation and their effect on the physicochemical properties of dental composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Henry A; Giraldo, Luis F; Casanova, Herley

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of silica nanoclusters (SiNC), obtained by a solvent evaporation method and functionalized by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and MPS+octyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) (50/50wt/wt), on the rheological, mechanical and sorption properties of urethane dimethylacrylate (UDMA)/triethylenglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) (80/20wt/wt) resins blend. Silica nanoparticles (SiNP) were silanized with MPS or MPS+OTMS (50/50wt/wt) and incorporated in an UDMA-isopropanol mix to produce functionalized silica nanoclusters after evaporating the isopropanol. The effect of functionalized SiNC on resins rheological properties was determined by large and small deformation tests. Mechanical, thermal, sorption and solubility properties were evaluated for composite materials. The UDMA/TEGDMA (80/20wt/wt) resins blend with added SiNC (ca. 350nm) and functionalized with MPS showed a Newtonian flow behavior associated to their spheroidal shape, whereas the resins blend with nanoclusters silanized with MPS+OTMS (50/50wt/wt) (ca. 400nm) showed a shear-thinning behavior due to nanoclusters irregular shape. Composite materials prepared with bare silica nanoclusters showed lower compressive strength than functionalized silica nanoclusters. MPS functionalized nanoclusters showed better mechanical properties but higher water sorption than functionalized nanoclusters with both silane coupling agents, MPS and OTMS. The solvent evaporation method applied to functionalized nanoparticles showed to be an alternative way to the sinterization method for producing nanoclusters, which improved some dental composite mechanical properties and reduced water sorption. The shape of functionalized silica nanoclusters showed to have influence on the rheological properties of SiNC resin suspensions and the mechanical and sorption properties of light cured composites. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Restored viability and function of dental pulp cells on poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin supplemented with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, N; Yamada, M; Paranjpe, A; Tsukimura, N; Kubo, K; Jewett, A; Ogawa, T

    2008-12-01

    This study examines cytotoxicity of poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental temporary filling resin to dental pulp cells, and the potential amelioration of the toxicity with an anti-oxidant amino-acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Dental pulp cells extracted from rat maxillary incisors were cultured on the resin material with or without NAC incorporation, or on the polystyrene. The cultures were supplied with osteoblastic media, containing dexamethasone. Forty five percent of cells on the PMMA dental resin were necrotic at 24h after seeding. However, this percentage was reduced to 27% by incorporating NAC in the resin, which was the level equivalent to that in the culture on polystyrene. The culture on the untreated resin was found to be negative for alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity at days 5 and 10 or von Kossa mineralized nodule formation at day 20. In contrast, some areas of the cultures on NAC-incorporated resin substrates were ALP and von Kossa positive. Collagen I and dentin sialoprotein genes were barely expressed in day 7 culture on the untreated resin. However, those genes were expressed in the culture on the resin with NAC. These results suggest that the decreased cell viability and the nearly completely suppressed odontoblast-like cell phenotype of dental pulp cells cultured on PMMA dental resin can be salvaged to a biologically significant degree by the incorporation of NAC in the resin.

  6. Status and Functions of Regional Power Grid Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ In line with power institutional reform and formation of the state power grid, status and roles of regional power grid corporations experienced several variations and are now being incessantly marginalized and weakened. The reform of turning regional grid corporations into regional headquarters of State Grid Corporation may be a better choice beneficial to group operation, intensive development and precise management. This article can be regarded as the author's personal opinion.

  7. The Palliative Function of Hostile Sexism among High and Low-Status Chilean Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Vargas-Salfate

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB, which was conducted in 2012. We found that the palliative function of gender stereotypes is present among this sample, being qualified by a socioeconomic status by hostile gender stereotype interaction. In other words, the effect on the psychological well-being was observed in low-status, but not in high-status students. These results extend the previous knowledge about the palliative function of the ideology, suggesting why the low-status members of a society actively engage in system justification.

  8. Dental Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Domb, Ivor

    1982-01-01

    Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...

  9. Loss of Olfactory Function and Nutritional Status in Vital Older Adults and Geriatric Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, N.; Roon, de M.; Campen, van J.P.C.M.; Kremer, S.; Boesveldt, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status w

  10. Dental Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  11. Optimizing the design of bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Due to elastic modulus mismatch between the different layers in all-ceramic dental restorations, high tensile stress concentrates at the interface between the ceramic core and cement. In natural tooth structure, stress concentration is reduced by the functionally graded structure of dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) which interconnects enamel and dentin. Inspired by DEJ, the aim of this study was to explore the optimum design of a bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations to achieve excellent stress reduction and distribution. Three-dimensional finite element model of a multi-layer structure was developed, which comprised bilayered ceramic, bio-inspired FGM layer, cement, and dentin. Finite element method and first-order optimization technique were used to realize the optimal bio-inspired FGM layer design. The bio-inspired FGM layer significantly reduced stress concentration at the interface between the crown and cement, and stresses were evenly distributed in FGM layer. With the optimal design, an elastic modulus distribution similar to that in DEJ occurred in the FGM layer.

  12. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic need of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in mangalore: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Rekha P; Hegde, Vijaya

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. To promote oral health among the elderly, we need to know their prosthetic status and prosthetic need. Hence, a survey of prosthetic status and need of elderly inmates of old age homes in Mangalore was done. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken, and 133 subjects aged 60 years and above were examined (54.9% males and 45.1% females). Results. Eighty-eight percent of those examined were fully edentulous, and only 12% had complete dentures; none of the study subjects had partial dentures. Prosthetic status was significantly associated with gender (P = .024), while prosthetic need and gender were not significantly associated (P = .395). Conclusions. A high unmet need for prosthetic care existed among the institutionalized elderly surveyed.

  13. 口腔抗菌树脂材料抗菌模式的研究现状与进展%Current status and further prospects of dental resin-based materials with antibacterial properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫; 陆海波; 毛靖; 龚士强

    2016-01-01

    The mode of dental antibacterial resin-based materials can be divided into two types,namely,single and combined antibacterial mode.With regard to single antibacterial mode,only one kind of antibacterial agent is added into the resin,which can be released or act as contacting antibacterial agent.The single mode resin has limitation in sterilization methods and effect.As for combined antibacterial mode,it is a combination of different types of biocides and thus maximizes the sterilizing effect,including the releasing antibacterial agent incorporated with the contacting antibacterial agent or antibacterial agents combined with calcium compound possessing biological mineralization function.In this paper,current status and further prospects of dental resin-based materials with antibacterial properties are reviewed from the perspectives of single and combined antibacterial modes to provide guidance for dental antibacterial resin material research.%口腔抗菌树脂材料的抗菌模式可分为两种,即单抗菌和联合抗菌模式.单抗菌模式是在树脂材料中添加一种抗菌剂,即释放性抗菌剂或接触性抗菌剂,单抗菌模式在抗菌途径和抗菌效果上较局限.联合抗菌模式则结合不同抗菌剂的优点,发挥强大的抗菌作用,例如释放性抗菌剂联合接触性抗菌剂,或抗菌剂联合具有生物矿化功能的钙化合物等.现从单抗菌和联合抗菌模式两个方面就口腔抗菌树脂材料的研究现状和进展进行综述,以期为口腔树脂材料的抗菌改性研究提供参考.

  14. Validation of the Sport Fitness Index for Quantification of Injury Effects on Functional Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C S Baker; M Gross; S Shelton; M A Colston; G B Wilkerson

    2017-01-01

    ... for representation of change in functional status among high school and college athletes. Results show that substantial associations between PPE SFI score and prior injury for all 3 cohorts, with comparable cut-points (84-86/100...

  15. Relationship between body balance, lung function, nutritional status and functional capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. S. Penafortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a hereditary condition in which lung disease affects all patients. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the multisystemic components of CF cause significant physical limitations. However, the impact of lung function on balance control in CF has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess body balance in adults with CF and to test its possible associations with lung function, nutritional status, and functional capacity. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 14 adults with CF underwent pulmonary function testing (spirometry, body plethysmography, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD, Berg balance scale (BBS, nutritional analysis (body mass index and bioelectrical impedance, and stabilometry. Body balance was quantified using stabilometry; all participants performed the following two trials: opened base, eyes open (OBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. RESULTS: In stabilometry, the median for the lateral range and anterior-posterior range in the CBEC trial was 0.10 (0.08-0.11 and 0.13 (0.11-0.22, respectively (p<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP correlated inversely with the lateral standard deviation (ρ=–0.61; p<0.05 as the DLco correlated positively with the anterior-posterior range (ρ=0.54; p<0.05. There were significant relationships between body composition indexes and almost all stabilometric variables measured. There were no relationships of the BBS and 6MWD with the stabilometric variables. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CF, imbalance occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction and is especially associated with body composition.

  16. Dental operatory design and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M

    1993-08-01

    Improving and expanding the dental services of a practice can involve purchasing new equipment and even modifying or expanding the physical plant. Operatory design is important to the efficiency with which dental procedures can be performed. Equipment purchases to outfit the dental operatory should be made based on the specific needs and functions of a practice.

  17. Functional Status, Anxiety, Cardiac Self-Efficacy, and Health Beliefs of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Allahverdipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beliefs and emotions could effect on functional status, quality of life, and mortality amongst patients who are suffering coronary heart disease (CHD. Current study examined the role of anxiety: trait/ state, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and functional status among patient with history of CHD. Method: In this correlational study, 105 hospitalized and outpatients patients suffering CHD in Tehran Heart Center Hospital participated by using convenience sampling method in 2012. Cardiac self-efficacy, Seattle Angina, and research- designed health beliefs questionnaires were used to gather data. Results: The functional status in CHD patients showed significant relationships with gender, job, and type of medical insurance of the participants (All ps<0.05. In addition , perceived vulnerability to face again cardiac attack in the future, perceived severity of next cardiac attack, anxiety, state anxiety and trait anxiety (All ps<0.05 had significant and negative relationships with functional status. Conversely, the cardiac self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship (P<0.001 with functional status. Conclusion: Psychological factors have important role in functional status and quality of life of patients who suffering CHD. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize on supportive and complementary programs to promote Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs.

  18. Functional status and its associated factors in Nigerian adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mortality among children and adolescents.1 Bipolar disorder course is known to be .... scale (1 to 100) designed to be used by clinicians to rate functioning in children ..... enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD). Biol. Psychiatry ...

  19. Discussion on Status and Functions of China’s Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity and quality of global forest resources are declining continually. Contrarily, the both in China are increasing, which is deeply related to the sustainable forest management and eco-system management in China. With the trend that world community knows more about the important role of forest, more and more functions of forest are recognized. The impact and functions of China's forestry deserve more concern. Based on some experiences in the field of forestry research, the authors ...

  20. Status of occupational hazards and their prevention among dental professionals in Chandigarh, India: A comprehensive questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Frequency tables were prepared and coefficient of correlation was computed to check correlation between different variables. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The most common occupational hazard reported was injury from "sharps" (77%, out of which needle prick injury was the most frequent. Of the other occupational problems job related stress (43.3%, musculoskeletal problems (39.8%, and allergies (23.8% from things used in dental clinics were most common. A reasonably high percentage of dentists were immunized against hepatitis-B virus (88.4% and were following proper infection control measures and hospital waste disposal methods. Very few dentists were following the correct method of disposal of excess amalgam (11% and measurement of radiation exposure (27.5% within their clinic. Most of them (90.2% were satisfied with their current working hours and job. Conclusion: Prevalence of occupational hazards among the studied group was high and certain preventive measures were not being followed properly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dentists regarding these hazards and their prevention.

  1. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results.

  2. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  3. Surface Topographical Changes of a Failing Acid-Etched Long-Term in Function Retrieved Dental Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; González-García, Raúl; Fernández-Calderón, María Coronada; Hierro-Oliva, Margarita; González-Martín, María Luisa; Del Amo, Fernando Suarez-Lopez; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay; Monje, Florencio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the main topographical and chemical changes of a failing 18-year in function retrieved acid-etching implant in the micro- and nanoscales. A partially edentulous 45 year old rehabilitated with a dental implant at 18 years of age exhibited mobility. After careful examination, a 3.25 × 13-mm press-fit dental implant was retrieved. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried out to study topographical changes of the retrieved implant compared with an unused implant with similar topographical characteristics. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to study the surface composition of the retrieved failing implant. Clear changes related to the dual dioxide layer are present as visible in ≥×500 magnification. In addition, it was found that, for the retrieved implant, the surface composition consisted mainly of Ti2p, O1s, C1s, and Al2p. Also, a meaningful decrease of N and C was noticed, whereas the peaks of Ti2p, Al2p, and O1s increased when analyzing deeper (up to ×2000s) in the sample. It was shown that the superficial surface of a retrieved press-fit dual acid-etched implant 18 years after placement is impaired. However, the causes and consequences for these changes cannot be determined.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Status of Infection Control among Iranian Dentists and Dental Students: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi Khanghahi, Behnam; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Naghavi Behzad, Mohammad; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Infection control is an important issue in dentistry, and the dentists are primarily responsible for observing the relevant procedures. Therefore, the present study evaluated knowledge, attitude, practice, and status of infection control among Iranian dentists through systematic review of published results. Materials and methods In this systematic review, the required data was collected searching for keywords including infection, infection control, behavior, performance, p...

  5. Dental Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  6. Dental Implant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Oshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities.

  7. Predicting Functional Status Following Amputation After Lower Extremity Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Bjoern D.; Goodney, Philip P.; Cambria, Robert A.; Bertges, Daniel J.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Indes, Jeffrey E.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Methods Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a “good functional outcome,” defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Results Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly

  8. sup 99m Tc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references.

  9. In situ testing of CO2 laser on dental pulp function: Effects on microcirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Liu, M.; Doerscher-Kim, J.K.; Kim, S. (Department of Endodontics, Hadassah-Hebrew University School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of CO2 laser irradiation on pulpal microcirculation was studied in cat canines. The enamel surfaces of 4 teeth were exposed with energy densities of 304-1440J/cm2, using either a handpiece or a microslad, with a focal spot of 0.21mm and 0.33mm respectively. Pulpal blood flow (PBF) before and following lasing was recorded through the intact tooth surface by a laser Doppler flowmeter. CO2 laser irradiation caused an increase in PBF, which was immediate and transient. The PBF increase was higher in a large pulp than in a small pulp, and it was inversely related to the focal spot size. These findings confirm that the dental pulp is thermally affected by CO2 lasing of the tooth surface, however, without extensive pulp coagulation. It is concluded that the effects of laser irradiation on the pulpal microcirculation may be studied in situ by means of the presented methodology.

  10. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  11. Socioeconomic status, food security, and dental caries in US children: mediation analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Masterson, Erin E; Carle, Adam C; Mancl, Lloyd A; Coldwell, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children's oral health outcomes. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES-caries relationship. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES-caries relationship. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic.

  12. Variations in skeletal and dental patterns in patients with structural and functional alterations of the temporomandibular joint: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringert, H G; Worms, F W

    1986-04-01

    Cephalometric and clinical examination data from a group of 62 subjects with documented structural and functional changes in the temporomandibular joint were compared with that of a group of 102 subjects from a normative sample. The purpose of the study was twofold: to provide a description of a sample of subjects with documented TMJ alterations and to make cephalometric comparisons between this sample and a sample of control subjects from the general population. Results indicated an increased proportion of subjects with "high plane" characteristics and a decreased proportion of subjects with "low plane" characteristics in the experimental sample, but little or no differences in dental and occlusal parameters were found. There were no differences in the proportions or characteristics of subjects in any Angle classification group. There was a tendency, based solely on descriptive statistics, for the group of experimental subjects with negative trauma histories to exhibit an increased proportion of "division 2" incisal relationships.

  13. [Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L

    2014-09-01

    Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.

  14. On the disciplinary and functional status of economic lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Dictionaries of Economics in the broad sense of the word have existed in the European context for more than 300 years. The article shows how these dictionaries have been extremely flexible in their adaptation to the complex and ever changing needs of their users. The great differences in terms...... of name, size, content, style, and structure may, at least partially, be explained by this fact. In this respect, the article systematizes the functions registered in economic dictionaries during the past 300 years, and presents some suggestions for the immediate future of online dictionaries....

  15. Physiological assessment of military professional adaptation and organism functional status of higher military schools resident students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrashov V.V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of organism functional status of resident students of military medical higher schools in different situations and modes of professional education (during their study day, round-the clock shifts in a clinic, duties, and an examination period in the process of military professional adaptation have been analyzed. The technique of functional body status optimization which takes into account both psycho-physiological specificity of military professional training as well as the regularities of psycho-physiologic reserve-capacity changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. It constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components such as adaptation improvements, correction and recreation of functional body status

  16. FUNCTIONAL STATUS AFTER INTENSIVE CARE: A CHALLENGE FOR REHABILITATION PROFESSIONALS TO IMPROVE OUTCOME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Schaaf; A. Beelen; D.A. Dongelmans; M.B. Vroom; F. Nollet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine restrictions in daily functioning from a rehabilitation perspective in patients one year after discharge front the intensive care unit, and to identify prognostic factors for functional status. Design: Cross-sectional design. Patients: Consecutive patients who were admitted to

  17. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  18. How Socioeconomic Status, Executive Functioning and Verbal Interactions Contribute to Early Academic Achievement in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Liu, Hongyun; McBride, Catherine; Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Lo, Jason C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the relative importance of executive functioning, parent-child verbal interactions, phonological awareness and visual skills on reading and mathematics for Chinese children from low-versus middle-socio economic status (SES) backgrounds. A total of 199 kindergarten children were assessed on executive functioning,…

  19. [Pulmonary function testing in Japan: present status and new developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Naoko

    2012-09-01

    In 2004, the Japanese Respiratory Society issued an initial set of recommendations on the standardized measurement of the most frequently used tests for pulmonary function, i.e., tests to assess slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. This statement has not been updated, and the prediction equations for pulmonary function testing are not fully established. Thus, the guidelines will need to be periodically updated in accordance with new developments in this rapidly evolving field. Nitric oxide (NO) is now recognized as a biological mediator in animals and humans. The human lung produces NO and exhales it in breath. The fractional nitric oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled breath (FE(NO)) can be quantitatively measured by a simple, safe, and noninvasive procedure as a complementary tool for assessing airway inflammation in airway diseases such as asthma. While the measurement of exhaled NO is standardized for clinical use, FE(NO) measurement is not approved or covered under the public health insurance system in Japan.

  20. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of education and income on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessing lung function and hospital admission. The study population consisted of 14,223 subjects, aged 20-90 yrs, randomly sampled from the population of Copenhagen in 1976...... and duration of smoking and inhalation, the difference was 220+/-31 mL and 363+/-39 mL in females and males, respectively. Results for FVC were of the same magnitude. Using a socioeconomic index which combined information on education and household income the association with lung function did not differ...... index in females were 0.74 (0.55-1.02) and 0.27 (0.10-0.73), respectively. Corresponding relative risks in males were 0.47 (0.36-0.63) and 0.35 (0.17-0.70). The results indicate that socioeconomic factors operating from early in life affect the adult risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  1. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores.

  2. Functional status in rate- versus rhythm-control strategies for atrial fibrillation: results of the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) Functional Status Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mina K; Shemanski, Lynn; Sherman, David G; Greene, H Leon; Hogan, David B; Kellen, Joyce C; Kim, Soo G; Martin, Lisa Warsinger; Rosenberg, Yves; Wyse, D George

    2005-11-15

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) functional status substudy aimed to test the hypothesis that functional status is similar in rate-control and rhythm-control strategies. Randomized studies, including the AFFIRM study, have failed to demonstrate survival benefits between rate-control and rhythm-control strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, AF may cause functional capacity or cognitive impairment that might justify maintenance of sinus rhythm. Investigators of the AFFIRM study enrolled 4,060 patients with AF who required long-term therapy and who were 65 years of age or older or who had another risk factor for stroke or death. New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA-FC) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Angina Classification were assessed at initial and each follow-up visit. From 22 randomly chosen functional status substudy sites, 245 participants underwent 6-min walk tests and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at initial, two-month, and yearly visits. Patients were assigned randomly to rate-controlling drugs, allowing AF to persist, or rhythm-controlling antiarrhythmic drugs, to maintain sinus rhythm. The NYHA-FC worsened with time in both rate-control and rhythm-control groups, with no differences between groups. Presence of AF was associated with worse NYHA-FC (p Society Angina Classification or MMSE scores. Six-minute walk distance improved over time in both study arms. On average, walk distance was 94 feet greater in the rhythm-control group (adjusted p = 0.049). Modest improvement in 6-min walk distance was noted in the rhythm-control arm. Presence of AF was associated with worse NYHA-FC. No difference in cognitive function was detected.

  3. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of jabalpur city, madhya pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogade, Suryakant C; Vinay, S; Naidu, Sonal

    2013-12-01

    Oral disorders are cumulative throughout life and hence unfavourable outcomes are likely to be greatest among the elderly. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among institutionalized geriatric population in old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, to assess their prosthetic status and prosthetic needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all the four old-age homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh state, India. All residents aged 60 years and above formed the study population. The recording of prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was carried out according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). A total of 224 individuals were included in the study of which 123 were females and 101 were males. Seventy five percent of the females and 55 % of the males had no prostheses in their upper arch and 61 % of the females and 76 % of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. More number of males presented with 'Bridges' in their upper arch when compared to females (P value = 0.006). Highest prosthetic need in males was multi-unit prosthesis (42 % in upper arch and 41 % in lower arch) whereas, females' required full prosthesis (39 % in both the upper arch and lower arches). Ageing presents some formidable challenges, particularly with the institutionalised. This study clearly demonstrates a high insufficiency of prosthetic care among the institutionalized elderly population. Any preparation towards the provision of oral health care should not be limited to treatment alone but, more importantly focus on empowering this elderly community with information and education programmes.

  4. Functional status of liverin conditions of radiation and chemical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic influences of low-intensity X-rays in doses of 0.15 and 0.25 Gr and mix of heavy metals salts in a dose of 2 EPC (extreme permissible concentrations for each metal, as a single factor or as a combination of factors, on the state of pro-/antioxidative system in a rat liver have been studied. Analysis of the data concerning combined influences allows to conclude that effects under these doses have some differences: a splash of processes of lipid peroxidation are observed in both causes, but under the lower dose an additivity takes place, and under the dose of 0.25 Gr a synergism of the agent effects in relation to the development of peroxidative reactions is registered. The results testify that technogenic contamination of water with heavy metals worsens the action of radiation factor, specifically, eliminates a hormetic splash of antioxidative activity at 0.15 Gr. Biochemical indexes of the liver activity, as a central organ of a general metabolism, and a structure of morbidity have been studied in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident from industrial Prydnieprovie region. Disturbances of liver functions have been shown, especially in persons obtained the exposure dose about 0.25 Gr. A comparison of these results and data of tests with laboratory animals reveals their mutual accordance and supports a relevancy of extrapolation of data of model experiments on a person health state, which undergone a similar influence.

  5. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  6. Developing Students’ Reflections about the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical...... position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations...... in situations in which they can experience and be challenged to reflect upon and criticize, the use of modeling and the significance of the context for the function and status of modeling and models in scientific practices. We present Nicolas Rashevsky’s model of cell division from the 1930s together...

  7. Method of Fusion Diagnosis for Dam Service Status Based on Joint Distribution Function of Multiple Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods of diagnosing dam service status are always suitable for single measuring point. These methods also reflect the local status of dams without merging multisource data effectively, which is not suitable for diagnosing overall service. This study proposes a new method involving multiple points to diagnose dam service status based on joint distribution function. The function, including monitoring data of multiple points, can be established with t-copula function. Therefore, the possibility, which is an important fusing value in different measuring combinations, can be calculated, and the corresponding diagnosing criterion is established with typical small probability theory. Engineering case study indicates that the fusion diagnosis method can be conducted in real time and the abnormal point can be detected, thereby providing a new early warning method for engineering safety.

  8. Impact of Functional Capacity on Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Elderly in Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghankar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lack of independence and unwanted dependence on others for activities of daily living (ADL and decreased functional capacity affect nutritional status of the elderly. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the impact of functional capacity on malnutrition status in hospitalized elderly patients in the Qazvin city of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on patients 60 years or older hospitalized in two teaching hospitals of Qazvin, Iran, from May to October 2011. The nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA questionnaire. Functional capacity of the elderly was assessed using self-report questionnaires of ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 322 participant, 171 (53.1% were male. The mean age was 70.36 ± 7.8 years. Based on MNA, 96 patients (29.8% had normal nutritional status, 138 (42.9% were at risk of malnutrition and 43 (13.4% had malnutrition. Dependency on ADL and IADL was significantly associated with malnutrition and risk of malnutrition. In the logistic regression analysis, IADL was associated with malnutrition (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.33; P < 0.001. Conclusions Risk of malnutrition as well as reduced functional ability was high among the hospitalized elderly of Qazvin. Nutritional status assessment of older adults is necessary, particularly when they are admitted to hospitals.

  9. Bone T-scores and functional status: a cross-sectional study on German elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoma Berkemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We explore the association between bone T-scores, used in osteoporosis diagnosis, and functional status since we hypothesized that bone health can impact elderly functional status and indirectly independence. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study (2005-2006 on community dwelling elderly (> = 75 years from Herne, Germany we measured bone T-scores with Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, and functional status indexed by five geriatric tests: activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, test of dementia, geriatric depression score and the timed-up-and-go test, and two pooled indexes: raw and standardized. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the relationship between T-scores and functional status. RESULTS: From 3243 addresses, only 632 (19% completed a clinical visit, of which only 440 (male:female, 243:197 could be included in analysis. T-scores (-0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1-0.9 predicted activities of daily living (95.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, instrumental activities of daily living (7.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, and timed-up-and-go test (10.7 CI, 10.0-11.3 (P < = 0.05. Pooled data showed that a unit improvement in T-score improved standardized pooled functional status (15 CI, 14.7-15.3 by 0.41 and the raw (99.4 CI, 97.8-101.0 by 2.27 units. These results were limited due to pooling of different scoring directions, selection bias, and a need to follow-up with evidence testing. CONCLUSIONS: T-scores associated with lower functional status in community-dwelling elderly. Regular screening of osteoporosis as a preventive strategy might help maintain life quality with aging.

  10. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK. Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese. However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients.

  11. Systemic Inflammation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Association with Muscle Function and Nutritional Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Guzmán, Oriana del Rocío; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Escobar Cedillo, Rosa Elena

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation described in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be related to loss of muscle function or to obesity. It is unknown if circulating proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α) levels are associated with muscle function. The purpose was to evaluate whether an association exists between systemic inflammation with muscle function and nutritional status in DMD patients. In 66 DMD patients without corticosteroid treatment, the following were evaluated in serum: cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle function was evaluated using Vignos Scale. Patients with better muscle function had the highest concentration of CK, IL-1, and TNF-α compared with less muscle function. No differences in IL-6 and adiponectin concentration were identified among groups with different levels of muscle function. Also, no differences were observed in the concentration of cytokines among groups with different nutritional status levels (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese). However, CRP and leptin were increased in the obese group compared with normal and underweight subjects. Systemic inflammation is increased in patients with better muscle function and decreases in DMD patients with poorer muscle function; nevertheless, systemic inflammation is similar among different levels of nutritional status in DMD patients. PMID:26380303

  12. The prevalence, causes, and relativity of dental anxiety in adult patients to irregular dental visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Balgis O; Alagl, Adel S; Al-Ansari, Asim A

    2014-06-01

    To assess the frequency and causes of dental anxiety and their relation to irregular dental visits among adult dental patients. The Dental Anxiety Question (DAQ) included within a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1025 patients attending the Interns' Dental Clinics in the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2012 to February 2013. A cross-sectional study design was used. The questionnaire consisted of 22 closed-ended questions divided into 4 sections; 1) demographics, 2) regularity of dental visits, and related causes, 3) DAQ, cancellation of dental appointments, history of previous trauma, dental anxiety provoking factors within dental environment and procedures, and 4) patients' status in dental clinics, preferences of dentists, and perceptions regarding dental anxiety. The prevalence of dental anxiety among the study sample was 27%. Anesthetic injection was the main factor of dental fear (88.2%), while dental surgical procedures (35.7%) and extractions (23%) were the most terrifying dental procedures. Lack of time (79.5%), cost (71.5%), far-situated dental services (62.2%), and fear (57.1%) were causes listed for irregular dental visits; while 31.3% had no specific reason. Irregular dental visits were not related to dental anxiety. Dental anxiety continues to be an obstacle despite the vast improvement in dentistry; and this raises an alert regarding personal and communication factors in the patient-dentist relationship. Factors such as equal distribution of dental services, time, and cost should also be addressed.

  13. Functional status assessment of adolescents with different forms of influence for performed offences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikova А.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the functional status of adolescents, depending on the measure of impact of the offense. The data received indicated lower functional status of convicted adolescents, especially those with para-suicide behavior. Adolescents who were used humane methods of punishment for committed offenses demonstrated changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems only in the form of significant increase of stress index, while other parameters remained normal. The role of physical exercise in the correction of violations was under the study

  14. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  15. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  16. Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  17. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips ... offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants ...

  18. Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Dental Assistants PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Dental Assistants Do About this section Assistants prepare and ...

  19. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  20. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  1. Pneumoconiosis and respiratory problems in dental laboratory technicians: Analysis of 893 dental technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ergün

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the rate of pneumoconiosis in dental technicians (DTP and to evaluate the risk factors. Material and Methods: Data of 893 dental technicians, who were admitted to our hospital in the period January 2007–May 2012, from 170 dental laboratories were retrospectively examined. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, smoking status, work duration, working fields, exposure to sandblasting, physical examination findings, chest radiographs, pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography results were evaluated. Results: Dental technicians’ pneumoconiosis rate was 10.1% among 893 cases. The disease was more common among males and in those exposed to sandblasting who had 77-fold higher risk of DTP. The highest profusion subcategory was 3/+ (according to the International Labour Organization (ILO 2011 standards and the large opacity rate was 13.3%. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, it was the largest DTP case series (N = 893/90 in the literature in English. Health screenings should be performed regularly for the early diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, which is an important occupational disease for dental technicians.

  2. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  3. Evaluation of occlusal status of teenage patients visiting a dental school in Andhra Pradesh: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the occlusal status of teenage patients and to determine the possible association of gender with the type of malocclusion. Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of 410 patients. Patients who did not fulfil the inclusion criteria for the study were excluded, thus the final sample accounted for 318. The selected subjects were interviewed by trained examiners and underwent thorough clinical evaluation pertaining to orthodontic diagnosis. Statistical analysis: The Pearson′s Chi-square test was done to assess the statistical significance between males and females while taking p-values of less than 0.001 as statistically significant. Results: Among the 318 samples, 166 (52.2% of them were females and 152 (47.8% were males. Angle′s class I molar relation was common (69.2% followed by normal molar relation (10.1%, class III and its subdivision and class II and its subdivision were found common among males and females respectively. In regard to canine relationship, majority of them were class I followed by class II and III- Normal overjet and overbite was observed in 53.5% of the cases and there was higher incidence of increased overjet and overbite in females and reverse overjet in males Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion noted in the present study was 89-9% and it was more common in females. Class I canine relationship 96.9% was the most common one followed by class I molar relation (69.2%. Angle class II division 2; canine class III relationship and scissors bite were the least common (0.6% occlusal alterations.

  4. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  5. Depression and Functional Status Among African American Stroke Survivors in Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gabrielle M; Collins-McNeil, Janice; Yang, Qing; Nguyen, Vu Q C; Hirsch, Mark A; Rhoads, Charles F; Guerrier, Tami; Thomas, J George; Pugh, Terrence M; Hamm, Deanna; Pereira, Carol; Prvu Bettger, Janet

    2017-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of poststroke depression (PSD) among African American stroke survivors and the association of depression with functional status at inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) discharge. Secondary data analysis was conducted of a patient cohort who received care at 3 IRFs in the United States from 2009 to 2011. Functional status was measured by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of PSD and FIM motor and cognitive scores. Of 458 African American stroke survivors, 48.5% were female, 84% had an ischemic stroke, and the mean age was 60.8 ± 13.6 years. Only 15.4% (n = 71) had documentation of PSD. Bivariate analyses to identify factors associated with depression identified a higher percentage of patients with depression than without who were retired due to disability (17.1% versus 11.6%) or employed (31.4% versus 19.6%) prestroke (P = .041). Dysphagia, cognitive deficits, and a lower admission motor FIM score were also significantly more common among those with depression. There was no significant relationship between depression and functional status after adjusting for patient characteristics. In this study, 15% of the African Americans who received rehabilitation after a stroke had documentation of PSD but this was not associated with functional status at discharge. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  7. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n=50 boys and n=50 girls who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P=0.004, whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life, Functional Status, and Cardiac Event-Free Survival in Patients With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Lennie, Terry A; Frazier, Susan K; Moser, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), functional status, and cardiac event-free survival are outcomes used to assess the effectiveness of interventions in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the nature of the relationships among HRQOL, functional status, and cardiac event-free survival remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the relationships among HRQOL, functional status, and cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF. This was a prospective, observational study of 313 patients with HF that was a secondary analysis from a registry. At baseline, patient demographic and clinical data were collected. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire and functional status was measured using the Duke Activity Status Index. Cardiac event-free survival data were obtained by patient interview, hospital database, and death certificate review. Multiple linear and Cox regressions were used to explore the relationships among HRQOL, functional status, and cardiac event-free survival while adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Participants (n = 313) were men (69%), white (79%), and aged 62 ± 11 years. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 35% ± 14%. The mean HRQOL score of 32.3 ± 20.6 indicated poor HRQOL. The mean Duke Activity Status Index score of 16.2 ± 12.9 indicated poor functional status. Cardiac event-free survival was significantly worse in patients who had worse HRQOL or poorer functional status. Patients who had better functional status had better HRQOL (P quality of life was not a significant predictor of cardiac event-free survival after entering functional status in the model (P = .54), demonstrating that it was a mediator of the relationship between HRQOL and outcome. Functional status was a mediator between HRQOL and cardiac event-free survival. These data suggest that intervention studies to improve functional status are needed.

  9. Usefulness of Forensic Dental Symbols© and Dental Encoder© database in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chicón, Jesús; Valenzuela, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    A new universal graphic dental system, Forensic Dental Symbols(©), has been created to provide precision in the construction of dental records, improve standardization, and increase efficiency in dental identification procedures. Two hundred and thirty-four different graphic symbols representing the most frequent clinical status for each tooth were designed. Symbols can be then converted to a typographic font and then are ready to use in any computer. For the appropriate use, manipulation, and storage of dental information generated by the Forensic Dental Symbols(©), Dental Encoder(©) database has been created. The database contains all the information required by INTERPOL Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)-dental-forms. To explore the possibilities that Dental Encoder(©) offers, an antemortem dental database from a Spanish population of 3920 military personnel had been constructed. Data generated by Dental Encoder(©) were classified into sex and age groups. The program can perform an automatic search of the database for cases that match a selected clinical status presented in a single tooth or a combination of situations for several teeth. Moreover, Dental Encoder(©) allows information to be printed on INTERPOL DVI-dental-forms, or the inclusion of any completed form into any document, technical report, or identification of dental report.

  10. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse L. Manrique Millones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  11. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  12. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  13. Designing post-graduate Master's degree programs: the advanced training program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy as one example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzmann, Anja; Ruge, Sebastian; Ostendorf, Kristin; Kordaß, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The decision to consolidate European higher education was reached by the Bologna Conference. Based on the Anglo-American system, a two-cycle degree program (Bachelor and Master) has been introduced. Subjects culminating in a state examination, such as Medicine and Dentistry, were excluded from this reform. Since the state examination is already comparable in its caliber to a Master’s degree in Medicine or Dentistry, only advanced Master’s degree programs with post-graduate specializations come into consideration for these subjects. In the field of dentistry numerous post-graduate study programs are increasingly coming into existence. Many different models and approaches are being pursued. Method: Since the 2004-2005 winter semester, the University of Greifswald has offered the Master’s degree program in Dental Functional Analysis and Therapy. Two and a half years in duration, this program is structured to allow program participation while working and targets licensed dentists who wish to attain certified skills for the future in state-of-the-art functional analysis and therapy. Aim: The design of this post-graduate program and the initial results of the evaluation by alumni are presented here. Conclusion: Our experiences show that the conceptual idea of an advanced Master’s program has proved successful. The program covers a specialty which leads to increased confidence in handling challenging patient cases. The sharing of experiences among colleagues was evaluated as being especially important. PMID:24872853

  14. Dental visits and access to dental care among Maryland schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Mark D; Wagner, Mark L; Goodman, Harold S; Manz, Michael C; Marrazzo, Ilise D

    2005-04-01

    Regular dental visits afford an opportunity for dentists to provide preventive services and to diagnose and treat disease. Not all children, however, have equal access to these services. The authors conducted this study to describe access to and utilization of oral health care services for Maryland schoolchildren in kindergarten and third grade. They obtained data from a questionnaire filled out by parents or guardians participating in the Survey of the Oral Health Status of Maryland School Children, 2000-2001 (N = 2,642). Outcome variables included having a dental visit in the last year, prophylaxis in the last year, usual source of medical care and usual source of dental care. Descriptor variables included region, grade, race/ethnicity, eligibility for free or reduced-fee meals, parents' or guardians' education and dental insurance status. Overall, general dental visit and dental prophylaxis visit rates were similar (74.1 and 71.3 percent, respectively). Schoolchildren, however, were more likely to have had a usual source of medical care than of dental care (96.0 and 82.9 percent, respectively). Third graders, those ineligible for free or reduced-fee meals and those with some dental insurance coverage were more likely to have received a prophylaxis in the last year and were more likely to have a usual source of dental care. Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black schoolchildren also were more likely to have had a usual source of dental care than were Hispanics. Schoolchildren most likely to have received regular preventive dental care were those who had parents or guardians with financial resources. Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provide safety nets, but these programs could be improved. Dentistry's challenge is to determine which characteristics are unique to those who visit the dentist regularly and use this information to help meet the needs of the underserved.

  15. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  16. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  17. Use of a geriatric home visit experience to teach medical students the functional status assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ericka E; Thomas, Matthew R

    2009-02-01

    Functional status measures strongly predict hospital outcomes and mortality, yet teaching of these measures is often missing from medical schools' curricula. To address this deficiency, we developed a Geriatric Home-based Assessment (GHA) module for third-year medical students. The module was composed of a workshop and two to three home visits. To determine whether the GHA module would improve students' knowledge and proficiency in the functional status assessment. Students completed a validated questionnaire and evaluated a standardized patient in an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Scores from students completing the GHA were compared to the scores of students without this experience. Thirty-one students participated in the GHA module, and 19 students were in the control group. The mean score on the written assessment was 87% among GHA students vs. 46% in the control group (p students' knowledge and proficiency in the functional status assessment. "Hands on" experiences like the GHA allow students to develop a solid foundation for assessing functional status and mobility.

  18. The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population's…

  19. Using multivariate diagnostics to assess the functional status of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindiuk Pavel Andreevich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The considered assessment of energy supply from children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 16 children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy secondary school age. The use of testimony bagatofaktonoї rapid diagnosis in this population. It is established that the rate of functional status of children with cerebral palsy grow under the influence of physical rehabilitation.

  20. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  1. Association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thajna, Kotrangada P; Hegde, Bhavya G; Gale, Catharine R; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2017-05-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured at 30±2 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy 320 (68%) women had 'vitamin D deficiency' (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration range) was unrelated to offspring cognitive function at both ages, either unadjusted or after adjustment for the child's current age, sex, maternal age, parity, season at the time of blood sampling, gestational age, the child's birth and current size, socio-economic status, parents' education, maternal intelligence and home environment. In this population, despite a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, there was no evidence of an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring cognitive function.

  2. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  3. Dental indications for the instrumental functional analysis in additional consideration of health-economic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides clinical and radiological examination instrumental functional analyses are performed as diagnostic procedures for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Instrumental functional analyses cause substantial costs and shows a considerable variability between individual dentist practices. Objectives: On the basis of published scientific evidence the validity of the instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunctions compared to clinical diagnostic procedures; the difference of the various forms of the instrumental functional analysis; the existence of a dependency on additional other factors and the need for further research are determined in this report. In addition, the cost effectiveness of the instrumental functional analysis is analysed in a health-policy context, and social, legal and ethical aspects are considered. Methods: A literature search is performed in over 27 databases and by hand. Relevant companies and institutions are contacted concerning unpublished studies. The inclusion criteria for publications are (i diagnostic studies with the indication “craniomandibular malfunction”, (ii a comparison between clinical and instrumental functional analysis, (iii publications since 1990, (iv publications in English or German. The identified literature is evaluated by two scientists regarding the relevance of content and methodical quality.Results: The systematic database search resulted in 962 hits. 187 medical and economic complete publications are evaluated. Since the evaluated studies are not relevant enough to answer the medical or health economic questions no study is included. Discussion: The inconsistent terminology concerning craniomandibular dysfunctions and instrumental functional analyses results in a broad literature search in databases and an extensive search by hand. Since no relevant results concerning the validity of the instrumental functional analysis in comparison to the clinical

  4. Dental indications for the instrumental functional analysis in additional consideration of health-economic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnemann, Peter; Stöber, Yvonne; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background Besides clinical and radiological examination instrumental functional analyses are performed as diagnostic procedures for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Instrumental functional analyses cause substantial costs and shows a considerable variability between individual dentist practices. Objectives On the basis of published scientific evidence the validity of the instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunctions compared to clinical diagnostic procedures; the difference of the various forms of the instrumental functional analysis; the existence of a dependency on additional other factors and the need for further research are determined in this report. In addition, the cost effectiveness of the instrumental functional analysis is analysed in a health-policy context, and social, legal and ethical aspects are considered. Methods A literature search is performed in over 27 databases and by hand. Relevant companies and institutions are contacted concerning unpublished studies. The inclusion criteria for publications are (i) diagnostic studies with the indication “craniomandibular malfunction”, (ii) a comparison between clinical and instrumental functional analysis, (iii) publications since 1990, (iv) publications in English or German. The identified literature is evaluated by two scientists regarding the relevance of content and methodical quality. Results The systematic database search resulted in 962 hits. 187 medical and economic complete publications are evaluated. Since the evaluated studies are not relevant enough to answer the medical or health economic questions no study is included. Discussion The inconsistent terminology concerning craniomandibular dysfunctions and instrumental functional analyses results in a broad literature search in databases and an extensive search by hand. Since no relevant results concerning the validity of the instrumental functional analysis in comparison to the clinical functional analysis

  5. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  6. Surveys on dental caries status in 122 high performance fighter pilots%122名高性能战斗机飞行员患龋状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 吕晶; 臧晓霞; 李冬霞; 柯杰; 王建昌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of dental caries prevalence in high performance fighter pilots,so as to propose suggestions to fighter pilot's oral health care.Methods The status of dental caries and endodontic problems of 103 male and 19 female high performance fighter pilots were investigated by oral examination and panoramic radiographs,including number of dental caries,degree of dental caries,status of periapical diseases and the treatment they had been received.The severity of dental caries was decided by if the dental caries reached dental pulp.The curative effect of root canal therapy (RCT) for the caries reached dental pulp cases was analyzed.Results The dental caries prevalence rate in 122 high performance fighter pilots was 41.0%.It showed significant difference between male and female pilots (x2 =9.950,P<0.01) in where the prevalence showed 35.0% and 73.7% respectively.The rate of periapical lesion was 9.0% while in male and female pilots was 7.8% and 15.8% respectively and showed no significant difference between genders.There were 155 caries teeth found,including 63 teeth's caries reached the dental pulp and 17 dental caries teeth suffered from periapical lesion.Not all but 94.2% dental caries teeth were treated by filling restoration and only 54.0% dental pulp reached caries teeth were treated by RCT.Conclusions It is disquieting on the status of oral health in high performance fighter pilots.It is suggested to improve the current medical selection criteria of pilot's oral examination,especially for the chronic dental diseases with the potential hazard of acute inflammation,as well as to enhance the treatment and oral healthcare level for the pilots.%目的 调查高性能战斗机飞行员患龋状况,为飞行员口腔健康保健提出建议. 方法 通过口腔和全口曲面断层片检查对122名高性能战斗机飞行员(男性103名,女性19名)的患龋牙数、龋损程度、根尖周病变情况和接受治疗情况

  7. Effects of marital status and shift work on family function among registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Pei-Chen; Chen, Yao-Mei; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Pan, Chih-Hong; Pan, Shung-Mei; Lee, Chung-Yin; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the interactive effect of marital status and shift work on family function. A population-based sample of 1,438 nurses between the ages of 20-45 yr was recruited from Taiwan during the period from July 2005 to April 2006 using a mailed questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire contained information about demographic data, work status, shift work schedule, and the Family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) Scale, to evaluate family function. Compared to day shift nurses, non-night and rotation shift nurses had 1.53- and 1.38-fold (95% CI=1.09-2.14 and 1.01-1.88) risk to have poor family function after adjusting for other covariates. Married nurses, by contrast, had a 0.44-fold (95% CI=0.29-0.66) risk to have poor family function compared to single nurses. In addition, married nurses who worked non-night or rotation shifts had a significantly higher percent of poor family function than those married nurses working day shifts; however, similar results were not replicated in single nurses. We concluded that shift work and marital status could influence family function.

  8. Epilepsy in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J J; McArdle, N S; Wilson, M H; Stassen, L F A

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterised by seizure activity. It has an approximate incidence of 1%. General dental practitioners will encounter these patients in practice. This article discusses the types of epilepsy, the medical management and considerations in dental management of epileptic patients. General recommendations are made, based on current evidence, with respect to prescribing of medications. The management of an epileptic seizure is discussed. Status epilepticus is a rare but serious complication of epileptic seizures. An easy-to-follow algorithm is provided to assist the practitioner in managing seizures.

  9. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  10. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  11. Psychiatric morbidity, pain perception, and functional status of chronic pain patients in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rajmohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychological factors, such as that exist when we experience pain, can profoundly alter the strength of pain perception. Aim: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and its association with perception of pain and functional status in chronic patients in palliative care. Materials and Methods: The sample was selected via simple randomisation and post consent were assessed using (1 a semi- structured questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic information and medical data (2 Brief Pain Inventory (3 ICD-10 Symptom Checklist (4 ICD-10-Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR (5 Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS (6 Covi Anxiety Rating Scale (7 Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Data was analysed using independent sample t test and chi square test. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was 67% with depression and adjustment disorders being the major diagnosis. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity pain variables (P = 0.000. Psychiatric morbidity significantly impaired activity, mood, working, walk, sleep, relationship, and enjoyment. There was no association between aetiology of pain, type of cancer, treatment for primary condition and treatment for pain and psychiatric morbidity. The functional status of cancer patients was also poorer in patients with psychiatric morbidity (P = 0.008. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric illness in chronic pain patients of any aetiology. Psychiatric morbidity is associated with increased pain perception, impairment in activity and poor functional status.

  12. Improving oral health in Pakistan using dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M A; Darby, M L; Bauman, D B

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the healthcare system, available dental care, and oral health status of people in Pakistan. Considering the enormous unmet oral health needs, the insufficient supply of dental professionals and the current unstructured dental hygiene curriculum in Pakistan, a mission, vision, and goals for professional dental hygiene in Pakistan is recommended. The authors offer recommendations for competency-based dental hygiene education and practice, professional credentialing, a practice act, and a dental hygiene scope of practice to promote the health, welfare, and quality of life of the Pakistani people. Specifically, the authors recommend increasing the number of quality dental hygiene programs, establishing the dental hygienist as a primary care provider of oral health services, enhancing current dental hygiene curriculum, and establishing a dental hygiene council with responsibility for educational requirements and regulation of dental hygienists in Pakistan.

  13. The Evolution of the Dental Assisting Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Connie; Breen, Carolyn; McMahon, Kim; Gagliardi, Lorraine; Miyasaki, Cara; Landsberg, Katherine; Reed, Constance

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the dental assistant's role in the dental delivery system; assess the educational structure of the dental assisting profession; and project factors likely to impact the future role of the dental assistant. The article summarizes the current status and trends of the dental assisting profession including general responsibilities, credentialing, and regulation. An overview of the workforce and parameters of employment is provided with a description of the broad scope of practice, education, and licensure options, which vary by state. Existing academic models and enrollment trends in accredited dental programs are included, as are the strengths and weaknesses of the current educational system. Multiple factors may impact the future of this profession. To address the anticipated increase in the demand for and responsibilities of dental assistants, curricular revisions will be needed to prepare for implementation of interprofessional care models in which dental assistants will play a vital role. Well-educated dental assistants will be needed to support viable models of dental care and wellness in the U.S. Enhanced career opportunities and varied employment environments may increase job satisfaction and practice longevity. As protection of the public is of the utmost importance in the dental profession, this evolving dental clinician must be formally educated in all aspects of clinical practice and be permitted to perform delegated patient care, as legally allowed by their states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  14. Maxillary sinus function after sinus lifts for the insertion of dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmenga, NM; Raghoebar, GM; Boering, G; VanWeissenbruch, R

    Purpose: The influence of bone augmentation of the floor of the maxillary sinus for the insertion of denial implants on sinus function has not been well investigated, In this study, the influence of the sinus lift on the development of maxillary sinus pathology was evaluated using generally accepted

  15. Dental Implants: Dual Stabilization Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    More recent epidemiological data seem to show an increasing trend of tooth loss due to periodontal reasons rather than caries; the presence of initial attachment loss, bone height and the habit of smoking significantly increase the risk of tooth mortality. A dental implant is a titanium screw which is placed into bone to replace missing teeth. The implant mimics the root of a tooth in function. Dental Implants have changed the face of dentistry over the last three decades. Success of dental i...

  16. Emerging Microfluidic Tools for Functional Cellular Immunophenotyping: A New Potential Paradigm for Immune Status Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang eChen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of patient immune status challenging in the clinical setting. Recent advances in microfluidics have demonstrated promising applications of microfluidics for immune monitoring with minimum sample requirement and rapid functional immunophenotyping capability. This review will highlight recent developments of microfluidic platforms that can perform rapid and accurate cellular functional assays on patient immune cells. We will also discuss the future potential of integrated microfluidics to perform rapid, accurate, and sensitive cellular functional assays at a single-cell resolution on different types or subpopulations of immune cells, to provide an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of immune cell functionalities. We envision that such microfluidic immunophenotyping tools will allow comprehensive and systems-level immunomonitoring, unlocking the potential to transform experimental clinical immunology into an information-rich science.

  17. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.

  18. Functional Status and Quality of Life in Survivors of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation After the Norwood Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland-Little, Joshua M; Uzark, Karen; Yu, Sunkyung; Lowery, Ray; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C

    2017-06-01

    Infants who require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after a Norwood operation are at increased risk for early and late death compared with patients who do not require ECMO post-Norwood. Little is known about the effect that ECMO post-Norwood has on functional status and quality of life among long-term survivors. We prospectively evaluated functional status and health-related quality of life in 12 surviving patients (cases) and 19 corresponding patients (controls) from a previous retrospective case-control assessment of long-term survival in patients requiring ECMO post-Norwood. Functional status was assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II, and health-related quality of life was assessed with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) core and cardiac modules. There were no differences in demographics, extracardiac or genetic anomalies, or age at follow-up assessment between ECMO cases and non-ECMO controls. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-II scores were comparable between groups, with both groups demonstrating function in the normal range in all four domains tested. The only difference in PedsQL scores between cases and controls was perceived physical appearance, which was lower among ECMO survivors by both patient and proxy report. PedsQL scores of both groups were comparable to published scores for patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease but generally lower than scores for the healthy population. The requirement for ECMO support after a Norwood operation does not appear to significantly affect functional status or quality of life among the subset of patients who achieve long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Functional status, self-rated health and level of physical activity of patients with osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena

    2017-04-01

    To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke

    2014-10-01

    To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pnutritional status through physical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pnutritional status on activities of daily living was observed (b=0.058, P=0.258). The present study identified the complex pathway from nutritional status to the activities of daily living through physical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. 澳门两幼儿园2~6岁幼儿患龋状况与龋病活跃性%Dental caries status and dental caries activity for 2- 6 years old children in two kindergartens in Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宏伟; 曹新明; 李伟明; 石四箴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dental caries status and its relationship with caries activity for kindergarten children in Macau. Methods Totally 2564 person-times received dental caries examination and caries activity test (CAT) in the children aged from 2 to 6 years old for 3 consecutive years in 2 kindergartens (named Shengbaolu and Yongyuan) in Macau. Dental caries prevalence, decayed and filled teeth (dft) and caries severity index (CSI) were calculated. Dental caries status and its relationship with CAT were analyzed. Results The 3 years overall dental caries prevalence, dft and CSI were 53. 3% , 2. 79 ± 3. 94 and 8. 91 ± 14. 46, respectively. There was no significant difference in terms of dental caries prevalence (X =2. 560), dft (F = 0.548) and CSI (F = 0.058) between boys and girls (P>0.05). There were significant differences in dental caries prevalence (X2 = 15347), dft (F = 29.41) and CSI (F = 27. 13) between the children aged from 2 to 6 years (P<0.001). Dental caries aggravated when the children grew up. There were significant differences in dental caries prevalence (X2 = 181.276, 157.734, 300.68), dft (F = 87. 778, 96.782, 193.49) and CSI (F = 82.770, 86.900, 175. 82) for children with different SCAT degrees in Yongyuan, Shengbaolu, and both two kindergartens (P<0. 001). The dental caries status was more severe in the children with high SCAT degree. SCAT was positively correlated with dental caries prevalence (r = 0.356, 0.364, 0.186), dft (r = 0.387, 0.442, 0.276) and CSI (r = 0.395, 0.445, 0.248) in Yongyuan, Shengbaolu and both two kindergartens (P<0.01). Conclusion The dental caries of kindergarten children is still serious in Macau. Dental caries become worse in the older children. SCAT is an effective measure for cross-sectional evaluation of dental caries activity. (Shanghai Med J, 2012, 35: 613-616)%目的 了解澳门幼儿园幼儿的患龋状况、龋病活跃性表现及两者间的关系.方法 连续3年对

  2. A systematic review of functional outcome and quality of life following reconstruction of maxillofacial defects using vascularized free fibula flaps and dental rehabilitation reveals poor data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbenga, Johan G; Schepers, Rutger H; Werker, Paul M N; Witjes, Max J H; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction and oral rehabilitation of segmental maxillofacial defects resulting from ablative surgery is commonly achieved by osteocutaneous vascularized free fibula (VFFF) transplantation combined with implant-supported dental prostheses. We systematically reviewed the literature regarding impact of oral rehabilitation with or without dental implants on functional outcome and quality of life (Qol) following reconstruction of such segmental maxillofacial defects with VFFF. This systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was conducted using the databases of Cochrane, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Relevant search terms for maxilla or mandible, reconstruction with VFFF, and oral rehabilitation were used. Two reviewers independently assessed the publications using eligibility and research quality criteria (MINORS). In total, 554 unique publications were found. After scrutinization, 2 prospective studies and 8 retrospective case-series without comparison were left for ultimate analysis. Quality ranged from 44% to 88% of the maximum score. Overall survival rate of the VFFF was 99% and the survival rate of dental implants was 95%. Speech intelligibility and overall aesthetic outcome were 'good' to 'excellent'. No statistically significant changes in QoL were found. Methods to measure functional outcome varied strongly, making pooling impossible. Oral rehabilitation with implant-supported dental prostheses after reconstruction of segmental maxillofacial defects with VFFF results in good to excellent speech intelligibility and aesthetics. Results are probably positively biased by the retrospective nature of the studies. In future prospective research, functional outcome measures should be addressed using standardized questionnaires and validated objective tests with adequate follow-up. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Barodontology: current status. Dental aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, J M; Aguado, A; Romero, M A; Jimenez, A; Mombiedro, R; Ortiz, S

    1990-11-01

    We present a comprehensive review of barodontalgia, with reference to the several pathogenetic hypotheses, and insisting on the consideration of barodontalgia in the differential diagnosis of toothache. The odontologists approach to this increasing clinical problem is also discussed.

  4. Sertoli cell only syndrome: Status of sertoli cell maturation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study: Mature and functional Sertoli cells are essential for the survival of germ cells in testes. In Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS, there is no germ cells. Then, question arises whether absence of germ cells in SCOS secondary to Sertoli cells immaturity or mal function. Sertoli cells maturational and functional status is unclear in SCOS. This study investigated status of maturation and function of Sertoli cells in patients with SCOS. Materials and Methods: The present study was comprised of 37 cases of SCOS and 50 normal control males. Detailed clinical examination and investigation were carried out as per pre-determined proforma. Semen analysis, hormonal analysis (FSH, LH, testosterone, etc., and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of testes (bilateral were performed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with XY probes was carried out in addition to conventional chromosome analysis to find out chromosomal abnormalities, in particular sex chromosome aneuploidy, including mosaicism. Yq microdeletion status was also investigated. The anti-mullerian hormone (AMH, inhibin B, and seminal lactate were estimated by ELISA methods. Results: The study did not find any case of high AMH. About 78% cases had low inhibin B, and 60% had low AMH. FSH was high in about 78% cases. Low level of lactate was found in 49% cases. There was one case of high level of inhibin B. There were 6 (16.2% cases of chromosomal abnormality (2 mosaic Klinefelter and 4 Klinefelter syndrome and 4 (10.8% cases of Yq microdeletion. Conclusion: We conclude that Sertoli cell immaturity does not play any role in SCOS (no case of high AMH. It seems, in majority cases, Sertoli cells are functionally- and/or numerically-deficient (low inhibin B, AMH and lactate. However, in about 22% cases, Sertoli cell function and/or number remains normal (normal inhibin B, AMH. Inhibin B and FSH seems best predictor/marker of Sertoli cell function.

  5. Personality is associated with perceived health and functional status in older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D

    2003-03-01

    Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.

  6. Experience of studying of formation the morpho-functional status of the population of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Nikolaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a review results more than 20-years studying age, sexual, constitutional and ethnic laws of morpho-functional variability of the population of Eastern Siberia are presented. Distinctions between groups of the population on overall dimensions, body composition, proportionality of a constitution are shown. The phenomena secular trend, a phenomenon long living people are studied and influence of ecological factors on the physical status of a growing organism is shown

  7. Associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K; Frits, Michelle L; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Shadick, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 patients with RA who were followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured annually by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP3) and the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ). Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. The median followup time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in our study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than nonsmokers with seropositive RA (p = 0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1-10.0 g/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1-10.0 g/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (p = 0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE-positive RA than HLA-SE-negative RA. We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed.

  8. Mating a la Spence: Deriving the Market Demand Function for Status Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Conspicuous consumption of luxuries plays a central role in the work of Thorstein B. Veblen. More recently, interpersonal effects have emerged as an important factor in consumption theory. However, the inadequate modelling of individuals' interaction often leads to questionable results with regard to the market demand function for status goods. Following Spence, who recommended the application of his Job Market Signaling to conspicuous consumption, in Mating a la Spence potential partners are...

  9. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meckling Kelly A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5 years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin, B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP, erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin and homocysteine (Hcy. The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin or high metabolite (homocysteine levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 13.3 μmol/L in 31/75 (41.3%. There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44, mild (n = 14, or normal (n = 9 cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid. Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p Conclusion Given the prevalence data on vitamin status in this sample population, the possible benefits of vitamin supplementation should be considered in clinical intervention studies using these populations of elderly.

  10. Functional status and its predictor among elderly population in a hilly state of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional status can be conceptualized as an individual′s ability to manage activities related to personal self-care and self-maintenance. Functional status assessment is fundamental aspect of geriatric examination. This assessment helps clinicians and policymakers to design and implement interventions that help elderly to live safely and independently. Aims and Objectives: The primary aim was to assess the prevalence of limitation in activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL among elderly population. The secondary aim was to identify the factors that predict IADL limitation among them. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 community dwelling elderly persons residing in Shimla hills of North India were interviewed using valid and reliable functional assessment scales namely Katz ADL and Lawton and Brody IADL. Statistical procedures for the analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of ADL and IADL activity limitation was 5.5% (22/400 and 21.8% (87/400, respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that advancing age (70 years and above, poor self-rated health and ailments namely musculoskeletal problems and cataract significantly predict functional limitation. Conclusions and Recommendation: Elderly having musculoskeletal problems should be provided with rehabilitative support in the community settings. Cataract surgeries patients should be identified and operated upon so as to improve visual functioning and thus their functional ability. Further, cities, towns, and rural areas should be made age-friendly.

  11. [Status of iodine nutrition of children until 1 year: consequences on the thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, G; Damie, R; Soudan, B; Weill, J; Gottrand, F; Turck, D

    2008-08-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a major public health problem mainly in least-developed countries but also in many industrialized countries. The present study aimed at: (1) evaluating the status of iodine nutrition of children until 1 year in the North region of France; (2) studying risk factors for iodine deficiency; (3) evaluating relationship between iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. This prospective study was conducted between 1st january and 31st May 2005 in the children's hospital of Lille (North of France) and all hospitalized children until the age of 1 year were enrolled. Urinary iodine assessment was obtained for 95 (83%) of the 114 infants hospitalized during the study period and TSH value was also determined in 57 (60%) of these 114 infants. Median urinary iodine concentration was 328 microg/L (range: 12-1580). Twenty-four (25%) of 95 infants had a high urinary iodine excretion (urinary iodine greater than 400 microg/L). Nineteen (20%) of the 95 infants were iodine deficient (urinary iodine less than 100 microg/L): severe iodine deficiency (less than 20 microg/L; n=5; 5%), moderate iodine deficiency (20-49 microg/L; n=6; 6%), mild iodine deficiency (50-99 microg/L; n=8; 8%). No relationship was found between iodine status and the following data: age, sex, familial thyroid disease history, term and type of delivery, nutritional status, type of feeding at inclusion, chronic disease, familial socioeconomic status. TSH value was high (greater than 5 microU/mL) in 7 (12%) of the 57 infants. Only 1 of these 7 infants was iodine deficient. Only 1 of the 19 infants with iodine deficiency had a high TSH value. Iodine status is not optimal in our population of hospitalized children until the age of 1 year. There is no clear relationship between iodine status and thyroid function.

  12. The effect of functional status of the ovaries on the embryological results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

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    Grzegorz Mrugacz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is an integral part of infertility treatment. Despite many years of use, some aspects of controlled ovarian stimulation have not yet been clarified, especially the role of the functional status of the ovaries before hormonal stimulation. Aim of the research: To assess the effect of the functional status of the ovaries on the embryological results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Material and methods: The retrospective study included female patients treated for infertility. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the ultrasonographic appearance of the ovaries before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Patients with small antral follicles 0.05. The numbers of A, C, D quality embryos were comparable between the groups (p > 0.05. There were more B quality embryos in group I than II (p > 0.05. The embryo growth rate was significantly faster in group I than II. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the functional status of the ovaries before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plays a pivotal role in treatment outcome.

  13. A structural equation model to investigate the impact of missing occlusal units on objective masticatory function in patients with shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, K; Yoshida, E; Igarashi, Y

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of missing occlusal units (MOUs) on objective masticatory function with respect to food comminuting and mixing ability. Sixty partially dentate patients (mean age, 64·1 years) with shortened dental arches participated in the study. Food comminuting ability was assessed using a masticatory performance test with peanuts as a test food. Food mixing ability was assessed using a mixing ability test with a two-coloured wax cube. Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a pressure-sensitive film as a mediator for food comminuting and mixing ability. A structural equation model was constructed based on a hypothesis that MOUs would be associated with reduced MBF and impairment of food comminuting and mixing ability. Structural equation modelling analysis found significant direct effects of MOU on median particle size and mixing ability index (MAI) (P dental arches.

  14. Do early-life conditions predict functional health status in adulthood? The case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree.

  15. The health production function of oral health services systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, R.S.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Attitudes, dental status, socioeconomic factors, oral health care, production of oral health, health status, quality of life......Attitudes, dental status, socioeconomic factors, oral health care, production of oral health, health status, quality of life...

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Are Associated with Cardiac Status and Clinical Outcome in Children with Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeper, Lynn A; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Colan, Steven D; Hsu, Daphne; Orav, Endel J; Lemler, Matthew S; Clunie, Sarah; Messere, Jane; Fountain, Darlene; Miller, Tracie L; Wilkinson, James D; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2016-03-01

    To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of children with cardiomyopathy and to determine whether they are correlated with sociodemographics, cardiac status, and clinical outcomes. Parents of children in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry completed the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ; age ≥ 5 years) and Functional Status II (Revised) (age ≤ 18 years) instruments. Linear and Cox regressions were used to examine hypothesized associations with HRQOL. The 355 children evaluated at ≥ 5 years (median 8.6 years) had lower functioning (CHQ Physical and Psychosocial Summary Scores 41.7 ± 14.4 and 47.8 ± 10.7) than that of healthy historical controls. The most extreme CHQ domain score, Parental Impact-Emotional, was one SD below normal. Younger age at diagnosis and smaller left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z score were associated independently with better physical functioning in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Greater income/education correlated with better psychosocial functioning in children with hypertrophic and mixed/other types of cardiomyopathy. In the age ≥ 5 year cohort, lower scores on both instruments predicted earlier death/transplant and listing for transplant in children with dilated and mixed/other types of cardiomyopathy (P Status II (Revised) total score was 87.1 ± 16.4, and a lower score was associated with earlier death/transplant for all cardiomyopathies. HRQOL and functional status in children with cardiomyopathy is on average impaired relative to healthy children. These impairments are associated with older age at diagnosis, lower socioeconomic status, left ventricular size, and increased risk for death and transplant. Identification of families at risk for functional impairment allows for provision of specialized services early in the course of disease. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00005391. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface modification by cold-plasma technique for dental implants—Bio-functionalization with binding pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yoshinari

    2011-08-01

    At the bone tissue/implant interface, a thin calcium phosphate coating and rapid heating with infrared radiation were effective in controlling the dissolution without cracking the coating. These thin calcium phosphate coatings may directly promote osteogenisis, but also enable immobilization and subsequent drug delivery system (DDS of bisphosphonates. Simvastatin is also an effective candidate that is reported to increase the expression of BMP-2. The thin-film of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO was plasma-polymerized onto titanium, and then HMDSO surface was activated by O2-plasma treatment. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D technique demonstrated that simvastatin was immobilized on the plasma-treated surfaces due to introduction of O2-functional groups. At the soft tissue/implant interface, multi-grooved surface topographies and utilizing the adhesive proteins such as fibronectin or laminin-5 may help in providing a biological seal around the implant. At the oral fluid/implant interface, an alumina coating, F+-implantation and immobilization of anti-microbial peptides were responsible for inhibiting the biofilm accumulation.

  18. Functional Roles of NOD1 in Odontoblasts on Dental Pulp Innate Immunity

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    Yuki Hosokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries-related pathogens are first recognized by odontoblasts and induce inflammatory events that develop to pulpitis. Generally, initial sensing of microbial pathogens is mediated by pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD; however, little is known about NODs in odontoblasts. In this study, the levels of NODs expressed in rat odontoblastic cell line, KN-3, were assessed by flow cytometry and the levels of chemokines in NOD-specific ligand-stimulated KN-3 cells were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA. The signal transduction pathway activated with NOD-specific ligand was assessed by blocking assay with specific inhibitors and reporter assay. In KN-3 cells, the expression level of NOD1 was stronger than that of NOD2 and the production of chemokines, such as CINC-1, CINC-2, CCL20, and MCP-1, was upregulated by stimulation with NOD1-specific ligand, but not with NOD2-specific ligand. CINC-2 and CCL20 production by stimulation with NOD1-specific ligand was reduced by p38 MAPK and AP-1 signaling inhibitors. Furthermore, the reporter assay demonstrated AP-1 activation in NOD1-specific ligand-stimulated KN-3 cells. These findings indicated that NOD1 expressed in odontoblasts functions to upregulate the chemokines expression via p38-AP-1 signaling pathway and suggested that NOD1 may play important roles in the initiation and progression of pulpitis.

  19. Surface degradation of dental ceramics as a function of environmental pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Upshaw, J F; Dieng, F Y; Clark, A E; Neal, D; Anusavice, K J

    2013-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that glass-ceramic veneers and overglazes degrade by ion exchange in an acidic environment, and that they degrade by breakdown of the silica network in a basic environment. Disk specimens of glass-ceramic veneer and glaze were fabricated and immersed in pH 2, 7, or 10 buffer solutions, for 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days. Each specimen was placed in a shaker bath containing de-ionized distilled water at 80°C. Concentrations of Al(3+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), Li(2+), and Si(4+) were analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Statistical analyses were performed by factorial ANOVA. Significant differences occurred among leached ion concentrations as a function of material type, solution pH, and exposure time. A substantial release of Si occurred at pH 10 over time, leading to a breakdown of the glass phase. At pH 2, dissolution was controlled by an ionic exchange mechanism. We conclude that ceramic veneers and glazes may be susceptible to considerable degradation in low- and high-pH buffer solutions.

  20. Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Lamar, Andrew; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-08-01

    Adequate dietary iodine is required for normal thyroid function. The iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians and vegans have not been previously studied. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate (inhibitors of thyroid iodine uptake) exposures may adversely affect thyroid function. The objective of the study was to assess the iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians (consume plant based products, eggs, milk; abstain from meat, poultry, fish, shellfish) and vegans (avoid all animal products) and whether these may be affected by environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures. This was a cross-sectional assessment of urinary iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate concentrations and serum thyroid function in Boston-area vegetarians and vegans. One hundred forty-one subjects (78 vegetarians, 63 vegans) were recruited; one vegan was excluded. Median urinary iodine concentration of vegans (78.5 μg/liter; range 6.8-964.7 μg/liter) was lower than vegetarians (147.0 μg/liter; range 9.3-778.6 μg/liter) (P vegans (630 μg/liter; range 108-3085 μg/liter) was higher than vegetarians (341 μg/liter; range 31-1963 μg/liter) (P vegans may be at risk for low iodine intake, and vegan women of child-bearing age should supplement with 150 μg iodine daily. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures are not associated with thyroid dysfunction in these groups.

  1. Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwman, M W; van Dusseldorp, M; van de Vijver, F J; Thomas, C M; Schneede, J; Ueland, P M; Refsum, H; van Staveren, W A

    2000-09-01

    Lack of cobalamin may lead to neurologic disorders, which have been reported in strict vegetarians. The objective of this study was to investigate whether cognitive functioning is affected in adolescents (aged 10-16 y) with marginal cobalamin status as a result of being fed a macrobiotic diet up to an average age of 6 y. Data on dietary intake, psychological test performance, and biochemical variables of cobalamin status were collected from 48 adolescents who consumed macrobiotic (vegan type) diets up to the age of 6 y, subsequently followed by lactovegetarian or omnivorous diets, and from 24 subjects (aged 10-18 y) who were fed omnivorous diets from birth onward. Thirty-one subjects from the previously macrobiotic group were cobalamin deficient according to their plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations. Seventeen previously macrobiotic subjects and all control subjects had normal cobalamin status. The control subjects performed better on most psychological tests than did macrobiotic subjects with low or normal cobalamin status. A significant relation between test score and cobalamin deficiency (P: = 0.01) was observed for a test measuring fluid intelligence (correlation coefficient: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.08). This effect became more pronounced (P: = 0.003) within the subgroup of macrobiotic subjects (correlation coefficient: -0.38; 95% CI: -0.62, - 0.14). Our data suggest that cobalamin deficiency, in the absence of hematologic signs, may lead to impaired cognitive performance in adolescents.

  2. Difficulties in social functioning of adolescents with different family and intellectual status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind limited effects of interventions focused on the child and its limitations the attention of researches is more and more directed to immediate and wider ambience factors in the prevention of negative forms of behaviour of children. The aim of the research was to determine the level of connectedness of family and intellectual status of adolescents and different aspects of their social functioning. The sample of 416 adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was divided into two groups. The group without parental care included 210 respondents (130 with typical development - TD and 80 with mild intellectual disability - MID, and the group with parental care (130 TD and 76 MID. We used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with subscales: behavioral problems, emotional problems and problems with peers. Family problems were divided in socioeconomic problems, partners' problem, mental health of parents, abuse, and neglect. The results confirmed that the young without parental care showed more problems in behavior than their peers with parental care, and that family status affects behavior more than intellectual status. Family is the protective factor for the development of emotional problems of the young TD students, while it is risky for MID students. Problems with peers are not significantly connected with family or intellectual status. Some implications of the results are stressed.

  3. Does parallel item content on WOMAC's Pain and Function Subscales limit its ability to detect change in functional status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Deborah M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC is considered the leading outcome measure for patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremity, recent work has challenged its factorial validity and the physical function subscale's ability to detect valid change when pain and function display different profiles of change. This study examined the etiology of the WOMAC's physical function subscale's limited ability to detect change in the presence of discordant changes for pain and function. We hypothesized that the duplication of some items on the WOMAC's pain and function subscales contributed to this shortcoming. Methods Two eight-item physical function scales were abstracted from the WOMAC's 17-item physical function subscale: one contained activities and themes that were duplicated on the pain subscale (SIMILAR-8; the other version avoided overlapping activities (DISSIMILAR-8. Factorial validity of the shortened measures was assessed on 310 patients awaiting hip or knee arthroplasty. The shortened measures' abilities to detect change were examined on a sample of 104 patients following primary hip or knee arthroplasty. The WOMAC and three performance measures that included activity specific pain assessments – 40 m walk test, stair test, and timed-up-and-go test – were administered preoperatively, within 16 days of hip or knee arthroplasty, and at an interval of greater than 20 days following the first post-surgical assessment. Standardized response means were used to quantify change. Results The SIMILAR-8 did not demonstrate factorial validity; however, the factorial structure of the DISSIMILAR-8 was supported. The time to complete the performance measures more than doubled between the preoperative and first postoperative assessments supporting the theory that lower extremity functional status diminished over this interval. The DISSIMILAR-8 detected this deterioration in functional

  4. Dental Hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  5. Dental Assisting Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in dental assisting, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to prepare the student to assist the dentist at the chairside in the dental operatory, to perform reception and clerical functions, and to carry out selected dental laboratory work. The course covers an introduction to the…

  6. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Danielewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Methods: epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years. Body mass index (BMI served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI 27 kg/m2. The sum score (0-5 obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time and standing balance (four static measurements assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51; overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35; overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03. The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Conclusion: nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  7. Functional limitations and nativity status among older Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, and white Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Booza, Jason; Nguyen, Norma D

    2015-04-01

    To examine the association between nativity status (foreign and US-born) by race/ethnicity (Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, white) on having a functional limitation. We used American Community Survey data (2001-2007; n = 1,964,777; 65+ years) and estimated odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). In the crude model, foreign-born Blacks and Arabs were more likely, while Asians and Hispanics were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to white. In the fully adjusted model, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians were less likely, while Arabs were more likely to report having a functional limitation. In the crude model, US-born Blacks and Hispanics were more likely, while Asians and Arabs were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to whites. Policies and programs tailored to foreign-born Arab Americans may help prevent or delay the onset of disability, especially when initiated shortly after their arrival to the US.

  8. Measurement of the functional status of patients with different types of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Yi-Jing; Lin, Rong-Fong; Chen, Shun-Sheng; Lu, Yen-Mou

    2009-06-01

    Muscular dystrophy (MD) comprises a group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness that induces functional deterioration. Clinical management requires the use of a well-designed scale to measure patients' functional status. This study aimed to investigate the quality of the functional scales used to assess patients with different types of MD. The Brooke scale and the Vignos scale were used to grade arm and leg function, respectively. The Barthel Index was used to evaluate the function of daily living activity. We performed tests to assess the acceptability of these scales. The characteristics of the different types of MD are discussed. This was a multicenter study and included patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (classified as severely progressive MD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). BMD, LGMD, and FSHD were classified as slowly progressive MD. The results demonstrated that the Brooke scale was acceptable for grading arm function in DMD, but was unable to discriminate between differing levels of severity in slowly progressive MD. The floor effect was large for all types of slowly progressive MD (range, 20.0-61.9), and was especially high for BMD. The floor effect was also large for BMD (23.8%) and FSHD (50.0%) using the Vignos scale. Grades 6-8 of the Vignos scale were inapplicable because they included items involving the use of long leg braces for walking or standing, and some patients did not use long leg braces. In the Barthel Index, a ceiling effect was prominent for slowly progressive MD (58.9%), while a floor effect existed for DMD (17.9%). Among the slowly progressive MDs, FSHD patients had the best level of functioning; they had better leg function and their daily living activities were less affected than patients with other forms of slowly progressive MD. The results of this study demonstrate the acceptability of the different

  9. Measurement of the Functional Status of Patients with Different Types of Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jing Lue

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophy (MD comprises a group of diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness that induces functional deterioration. Clinical management requires the use of a well-designed scale to measure patients' functional status. This study aimed to investigate the quality of the functional scales used to assess patients with different types of MD. The Brooke scale and the Vignos scale were used to grade arm and leg function, respectively. The Barthel Index was used to evaluate the function of daily living activity. We performed tests to assess the acceptability of these scales. The characteristics of the different types of MD are discussed. This was a multicenter study and included patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD (classified as severely progressive MD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. BMD, LGMD, and FSHD were classified as slowly progressive MD. The results demonstrated that the Brooke scale was acceptable for grading arm function in DMD, but was unable to discriminate between differing levels of severity in slowly progressive MD. The floor effect was large for all types of slowly progressive MD (range, 20.0–61.9, and was especially high for BMD. The floor effect was also large for BMD (23.8% and FSHD (50.0% using the Vignos scale. Grades 6–8 of the Vignos scale were inapplicable because they included items involving the use of long leg braces for walking or standing, and some patients did not use long leg braces. In the Barthel Index, a ceiling effect was prominent for slowly progressive MD (58.9%, while a floor effect existed for DMD (17.9%. Among the slowly progressive MDs, FSHD patients had the best level of functioning; they had better leg function and their daily living activities were less affected than patients with other forms of slowly progressive MD. The results of this study demonstrate the acceptability of the

  10. Study of the relationship of dyspnea with depression and functional status in patients with interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A. Abu Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Dyspnea is common in ILD and is strongly correlated with functional status and psychiatric disorders. Dyspnea score, functional status and psychiatric disorders are more affected in ILD with PHTN than in ILD without PHTN. Accordingly, routine screening for mental disorders is recommended for patients with ILD, and should be accompanied by accurate assessment of patient’s symptoms, particularly in patients with high levels of functional impairment.

  11. Image Post-Processing in Dental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by ...

  12. 上海市长宁区医疗机构口腔牙模卫生状况调查%Investigation on dental model sanitation status in medical institutions in Changning District of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪峰; 丁诚; 高玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the sanitation status of dental model in medical institutions in Changning District of Shanghai, and to provide evidence for strengthening the disinfection management. Methods 40 medical institutions in Changning District of Shanghai were investigated by field sampling and detection. Results 92.5% of the investigated medical institutions disinfected dental models.In 168 dental model samples, the qualification rate of sanitary quality was 88.1%, while exceeded number of bacteria was the major reason for the unqualified.Among all dental model disinfection methods including ultraviolet irradiation, disinfectant soaking, disinfectant spraying and ozone, ultraviolet irradiation was the most widely used and disinfectant soaking was with the best effect.The storage sites of disinfected dental models including filling room, pollution area of sterilization room and other locations.Dental models stored in the filling room were with the highest qualification rate. Conclusion The current dental model sanitation status in medical institutions in Changning District of Shanghai is relatively unsatisfactory;supervision and inspection administration need to be strengthened by health and family planning administrative departments.%目的:了解上海市长宁区医疗机构口腔牙模的卫生现况,为加强消毒管理提供依据。方法通过现场抽样和检测方法,对上海市长宁区40家医疗机构口腔牙模卫生状况进行调查与检测。结果所调查的医疗机构中,对牙模进行消毒的占92.5%。抽样检测168件牙模,卫生质量合格率为88.1%,不合格的原因均为细菌总数超标。口腔牙模消毒方法包括紫外线照射法、消毒液浸泡、消毒液喷雾及臭氧;其中紫外线照射法使用最广泛,消毒液浸泡的消毒效果最佳。口腔牙模消毒后的存放地点包括灌模室、消毒室污染区及其他位置,其中存放在灌模室的牙模检

  13. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  14. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with brain atrophy and worse functional status in chronic ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio C Aoi

    Full Text Available Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA is impaired following stroke. However, the relationship between dCA, brain atrophy, and functional outcomes following stroke remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine whether impairment of dCA is associated with atrophy in specific regions or globally, thereby affecting daily functions in stroke patients.We performed a retrospective analysis of 33 subjects with chronic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, and 109 age-matched non-stroke subjects. dCA was assessed via the phase relationship between arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity. Brain tissue volumes were quantified from MRI. Functional status was assessed by gait speed, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, modified Rankin Scale, and NIH Stroke Score.Compared to the non-stroke group, stroke subjects showed degraded dCA bilaterally, and showed gray matter atrophy in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes ipsilateral to infarct. In stroke subjects, better dCA was associated with less temporal lobe gray matter atrophy on the infracted side ([Formula: see text] = 0.029, faster gait speed ([Formula: see text] = 0.018 and lower IADL score ([Formula: see text]0.002. Our results indicate that better dynamic cerebral perfusion regulation is associated with less atrophy and better long-term functional status in older adults with chronic ischemic infarctions.

  15. Personal anxiety - the determinant of the anthropometric and functional status of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko Valerij Aleksandrovich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of dependence of the physical status of the students on their level of personal (genetic anxiety. The experiment involved 105 students aged 19-21 years. It is shown that between anxiety and performance of the genetic status of the students there anthropometric and functional ambiguous dependence. These relationships are determined by the peculiarities of somatotype, the oxygen-transport system and the mechanisms of energy. It is established that anxious students are characterized low level of physical development, insufficient capacity of the cardiorespiratory system. This corresponds to the same level of physical performance, aerobic capacity and resistance to hypoxia. These patterns remain when evaluating the power and capacity of the glycolytic mechanism of energy and non-anxious in anxious students.

  16. The use of dental services for children: implications of the 2010 dental reform in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Machnes, Yaffa; Gal, Assaf

    2015-02-01

    Routine dental examinations for children are important for early diagnosis and treatment of dental problems. The level of dental morbidity among Israeli children is higher than the global average. A July 2010 reform of Israel's National Health Insurance Law gradually offers free dental services for children up to age 12. The study examines the use of dental services for children and the factors affecting mothers' decision to take their children for routine checkups. In addition, the study examines the impact of the reform on dental checkups for children in various populations groups. A national representative sample comprising 618 mothers of children aged 5-18 was surveyed by telephone. The survey integrated the principles of the health beliefs model and socio-demographic characteristics. The results show that mothers' decision to take their children for dental checkups is affected by their socio-demographic status and by their health beliefs with respect to dental health. After the reform, the frequency of children's dental checkups significantly increased among vulnerable populations. Therefore, the reform has helped reduce gaps in Israeli society regarding children's dental health. Raising families' awareness of the reform and of the importance of dental health care together with expanding national distribution of approved dental clinics can increase the frequency of dental checkups among children in Israel.

  17. SURVEY ON THE STATUS OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION KNOWLEDGE AMONG OUTPATIENTS OF DENTAL INSTITUTIONS%口腔门诊患者感染认知现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文敏; 戴杰; 章灵芝; 施更生; 罗旭明; 林海升

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解口腔门诊患者对感染的认知现状,以便加强感染防护知识宣传教育.方法 采用问卷调查方式,对台州市10所口腔医疗机构的门诊患者进行了调查.结果 口腔门诊患者对自己就诊过程可能受到医院感染的知识严重缺乏,平均得分都在4分左右.有88%的口腔门诊患者都有学习了解医院感染知识的教育需求,另有约25%的患者自认为曾经接受过相关知识宣传和教育.结论 口腔门诊患者群体缺乏必要的感染防护知识,不了解自身所接受的操作是否符合防护要求,需要加强感染防护知识的宣传教育.%Objective To investigate nosocomial infection knowledge among outpatients of dental institutions, in order to strengthen infection control education. Methods Questionnaires investigation were used to survey outpatients of 10 dental institutions. Results Outpatients of dental institutions are seriously lack of the nosocomial infection knowledge that may be subject in clinic operation. The average scores were about 4. 88% outpatients of dental institutions wanted to get nosocomial infection knowledge, but only 25% outpatients have learned. Conclusion Outpatients of dental institutions lacks the necessary nosocomial infection knowledge, do not know the protection whether qualified or not. We need strengthen propaganda and education of knowledge of infection control knowledge.

  18. Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-08-12

    The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .

  19. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  20. Health and functional status among older people with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Francien

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. Methods The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1 HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART for at least 1 year; 2 HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3 older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4 older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5 older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. Conclusion The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and

  1. Independent Effects of Bilingualism and Socioeconomic Status on Language Ability and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children’s development irrespective of the child’s level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  2. Effect of duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on subsequent cognitive function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Nidhi, G; Pandhi, P

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) on subsequent cognitive function in rats. SE was induced by pilocarpine (320 mg/kg i.p.) and was terminated by injection of 1 mg/kg diazepam at 30, 60 and 90 min in 3 groups of 10 rats each. Cognitive function was tested by a passive avoidance task and was assessed at the baseline and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 (post SE). It was found that cognitive function was disrupted on days 7, 14 and 21 post SE in rats who had SE for 60 and 90 min, whereas it was not affected in rats that had 30 min of SE. Hence, the duration of SE may affect future cognitive performance and mandates emergency treatment.

  3. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measures of health-related quality of life and functional status in survivors of oral cavity cancer who have had defects reconstructed with radial forearm free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G I; Yeo, D; Clark, J; Choy, E T; Gao, K; Oates, J; O'Brien, C J

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate (by postal questionnaire) quality of life and function in patients who have had resections of oral cancer and reconstruction by radial forearm flaps. Between October 1987 and December 2002, 258 patients had reconstructions by radial forearm flaps after resection of tumours in the oral cavity. Of these, 139 surviving patients were identified from the database and were sent questionnaires comprising five sections: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and -Head and Neck (FACT-HN); University of Washington Quality of Life Scale (UWQoL); Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer (PSS-HN); and the final section addressed dental rehabilitation and morbidity at the donor site. Sixty-three questionnaires (45%) were returned. In 17 (27%), parts of the questionnaire were incomplete. The median UWQoL score was 623/900, FACT-G was 92/108, FACT-HN was 31/48, and PSS-HN showed that eating in public, understandability of speech and normality of diet were 75/100, 75/100 and 50/100, respectively. The effect of stage and site on quality of life and function did not reach statistical significance. The effect of radiotherapy on speech (p=0.036) and diet (p=0.007) was significant. Patients who worried about their cancer returning had a lower UWQoL score (p=0.016). Ninety percent regarded their arm as disfigured, but 81% felt comfortable wearing short-sleeved shirts. Sensation and function of the hand were reported as normal in 87 and 92%, respectively. We conclude that patients who have had oral cancer have a persistent reduction in quality of life and function long after completion of treatment. The effects can be assessed by postal questionnaire, but the low rate of return (45%) and difficulties with completion reduce the quality of the data. Quality of life and function are essential components of improvements in outcome.

  5. Change of residence and functional status within three months and one year following hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    To study the recovery of patients in terms of 18 activities of daily living and change of residence within the year following a hip fracture. This prospective cohort study was carried out in a trauma service of an acute hospital in southern Spain including 159 patients with a hip fracture, 65 years or older and allowed weight-bearing after surgery. Patients or their relatives were interviewed about their residential status and functional level at pre-fracture, three months and one year after surgery, using the Functional Independence Measure. Losses of function for the main activities affected were, at the first month, third month and one year relative to the pre-fracture status, 50%, 25% and 12%, respectively, for locomotion, 40%, 25% and 20%, respectively, for mobility and 27%, 17% and 15%, respectively, for self care (p loss of independence in the first year after a hip fracture is substantial for specific activities. Recovery mainly takes place during the first three months after surgery. Change of residence mostly involved those patients who lived alone in their own home at pre-fracture. Implications for Rehabilitation One year after fracture, patients did not recover their previous function, and the activities most affected at the one-year follow-up were: dressing lower body, bathing/showering, transfer bathtub/shower and walking up/down stairs. After a hip fracture, most recovery of the function happens within the first three months, though some functional activities continue recovering over the first year. Rehabilitation programs cannot be based only on mobility activities, the recovery of other daily living activities should also be included.

  6. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  7. Satisfaction with hospital rehabilitation: is it related to life satisfaction, functional status, age or education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchignoni, Franco; Ottonello, Marcella; Benevolo, Emilio; Tesio, Luigi

    2002-05-01

    Satisfaction with care, functional and cognitive status, life satisfaction, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables were correlated in 55 in-patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip or knee surgery. The study aimed at investigating whether, as an index of care quality, patient satisfaction can be considered as a distinct domain or instead is subsidiary to other patient characteristics. Patient satisfaction with rehabilitation care was measured through a questionnaire, SAT-16. The SAT-16 scores were moderately correlated with a short form of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-11: rs = 0.41, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with either the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the STAI form X (the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), age or educational level. According to the "discrepancy model", the fair degree of correlation between SAT-16 and LSI-11 could be explained by connecting both expressions of satisfaction with personal background expectations and their perceived degree of fulfilment. The results confirm, also for rehabilitation care, that patient satisfaction should be considered as a valuable specific outcome, independent of most of the patient characteristics investigated (functional and cognitive status, anxiety, age, and education).

  8. Impact of enteral nutrition on postoperative immune function and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D

    2015-06-10

    We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is more conducive to the recovery of patients.

  9. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Thejus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  10. Utilization of Dental Services in Public Health Center: Dental Attendance, Awareness and Felt Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewa, Preksha; Garla, Bharath K; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Solanki, Jitendra

    2015-10-01

    In rural India, dental diseases occur due to many factors, which includes inadequate or improper use of fluoride and a lack of knowledge regarding oral health and oral hygiene, which prevent proper screening and dental care of oral diseases. The objective of the study was to evaluate the dental attendance, awareness and utilization of dental services in public health center. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 251 study subjects who were visiting dental outpatient department (OPD) of public health centre (PHC), Guda Bishnoi, and Jodhpur using a pretested proforma from month of July 2014 to October 2014. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding socioeconomic status and demographic factors affecting the utilization of dental services. Pearson's Chi-square test and step-wise logistic regression were applied for the analysis. Statistically significant results were found in relation to age, educational status, socioeconomic status and gender with dental attendance, dental awareness and felt needs. p-value dental services, thereby increasing the oral health status of the population.

  11. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF STATUS AND FUNCTIONS OF ART EDUCATION IN MODERN EDUCATION AND SOLUTIONAL PROPOPALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ertuğ YAVUZ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is stressed that modern art education should be approached by determining planned, programmed, logical, and completely scientific methods. The functions and the status of art education is also examined in details in this essay. It is emphasized that education has a significant influence on individual behavioral variations and on society with its all components for forming national agreement, mutual support, sympathy, cooperation and unity. Art education’s responsibility of creating modern, dynamic, complete, rationalistic and new ideas in addition to its contemporary existence as an education of pleasure and impression is also stressed.

  12. Rural-urban differences in psychiatric status and functioning among clients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottl, S L; Greenley, J R

    1997-08-01

    Studies of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) typically focus on individuals in larger urban areas. Less is known about clients in rural and smaller urban areas. Here we compare the psychiatric status, home and community activities of daily living, and social and vocational functioning of 1600 adult clients with SMI from 18 small-city and rural Wisconsin counties. Rural clients are less likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or organic brain syndrome; have higher levels of general pathology, including more belligerent, bizarre, nervous, and depressive behaviors; and engage in fewer vocational activities than urban clients.

  13. Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stoecker, BJ; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, TS; Gibson, RS; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, NF; Hambidge, KM

    2009-01-01

    The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) μmol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 μmol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven’s sc...

  14. Health Maintenance in Very Old Age : Medical Conditions, Functional Outcome and Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Huan-Ji

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to provide better understanding of the underlying factors related to health maintenance in very old people, with a focus on medical conditions, functional outcome and nutritional status. Data were gathered from the ELSA 85 project (Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment). The ELSA 85 project was started in 2007 with a population-based survey of 85-year-old individuals (n = 650) residing in Linköping municipality, Sweden. During the study period from 2007 ...

  15. Being old in our society : health, functional status, and effects of research

    OpenAIRE

    von Strauss, Eva

    2000-01-01

    This thesis concerns health and functional status in old age, as well as older adults' attitudes towards research participation. Five studies were performed using data from the Kungsholmen Project, a population-based study on ageing and dementia ongoing in Stockholm since 1987. Occurrence of dementia. Both prevalence and incidence of dementia were investigated. In the 75-79 age group the incidence rates for dementia were 19.6 for women and 12.4 for men per 1,000 person-year...

  16. Vitamin D Status and Muscle Function Among Adolescent and Young Swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Larsen, Rikke; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Impaired muscle function has been coupled to vitamin D insufficiency in young women and in elderly men and women. Those living at Northern latitudes are at risk of vitamin D insufficiency due to low sun exposure which may be more pronounced among elite swimmers because of their indoor training...... schedules. We aimed to examine vitamin D status among young elite swimmers and evaluate the association between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Twenty-nine swimmers, 12 female and 17 male (16-24 years) residing at latitude 55-56°N were studied in March and April. Blood samples were analysed for serum...... 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and hand-grip strength was measured as marker of muscle strength. Subjects' vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and sun exposure and training status by questionnaires. Mean (±SD) s-25(OH)D was 52.6 ± 18.3nmol/L among all swimmers...

  17. Predictors of Functional Improvement and Future Work Status After the Disability Benefit Claim : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L. R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; Brouwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In most industrialized countries, disability benefit rates have increased substantially in the past decade. Few beneficiaries return into employment once disability benefit is awarded. The present study aims to investigate which factors predict functional improvement and future work status

  18. Nitroso-redox status and vascular function in marginal and severe ascorbate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Saura, Maria-Francisca; Saijo, Fumito; Bryan, Nathan S; Bauer, Selena; Rodriguez, Juan; Feelisch, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Marginal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency is a prevalent yet underappreciated risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Along with glutathione, ascorbate plays important roles in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species and their interaction, giving rise to nitroso and nitrosyl product formation, are key components of the redox regulation/signaling network. Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated that these systems are interconnected via multiple chemical transformation reactions, but little is known about their dynamics and significance in vivo. We sought to investigate the time-course of changes in NO/redox status and vascular function during ascorbate depletion in rats unable to synthesize vitamin C. We here show that both redox and protein nitros(yl)ation status in blood and vital organs vary dynamically during development of ascorbate deficiency. Prolonged marginal ascorbate deficiency is associated with cell/tissue-specific perturbations in ascorbate and glutathione redox and NO status. Scurvy develops earlier in marginally deficient compared to adequately supplemented animals, with blunted compensatory NO production and a dissociation of biochemistry from clinical symptomology in the former. Paradoxically, aortic endothelial reactivity is enhanced rather than impaired, irrespective of ascorbate status. Innovation/Conclusion: Enhanced NO production and protein nitros(yl)ation are integral responses to the redox stress of acute ascorbate deprivation. The elevated cardiovascular risk in marginal ascorbate deficiency is likely to be associated with perturbations of NO/redox-sensitive signaling nodes unrelated to the regulation of vascular tone. This new model may have merit for the future study of redox-sensitive events in marginal ascorbate deficiency.

  19. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental socioeconomic status and child intellectual functioning in a Norwegian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Anders Lillevik; Holm, Silje Elisabeth Hasmo; Bøe, Tormod; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood has been linked to cognitive function and future academic and occupational success in studies from several countries. However, previous Nordic studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the strength of this link. We therefore investigated the association between SES and cognitive functioning in a sample of 255 Norwegian children, including 151 typically developing children and 104 children with a psychiatric diagnosis. The third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to assess cognitive function was used. SES was defined from maternal and paternal education and family income of typically developing children and of a subsample of children with a psychiatric diagnosis. Multiple adjusted regression analyses were used to investigate the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. The analyses showed that SES explained a significant part of the variance of the full-scale WISC-III score and two WISC-III indices (Verbal Comprehension and Freedom from Distractibility). Overall, the strength of the relations was weaker than expected from reports from other non-Nordic countries. Parental education was the only significant individual predictor, suggesting that income was of minor importance as a predictor of cognitive functioning. Further studies should investigate how diverse political and socioeconomic contexts influence the relation between SES and cognitive functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  2. Comparison of dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Zhang, Z Y; Jiang, X Q; Guo, L

    2010-05-01

    Different educational and professional developments within the dental field create different sets of missions, norms, and practices regarding dental diseases and their appropriate treatment. This review has addressed differences in dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America. Many factors influence the choice of model and it is very difficult to predict which model will become predominant. However, there is growing sentiment that the independent faculty model in North America is logical and superior to the model, which 'integrates' dental and medical education in mainland China. Many North America dental schools place a high priority on preclinical and clinical training in the curriculum in order to expose students to patient oral health needs and systemic dental problems much earlier than in mainland China. North America dental schools promote and embrace students self-learning skills by the use of PBL, CRL, and TRAD education methodologies and new e-based technologies and approaches whereby students learn rather than are taught. In mainland China, the traditional lecture-based format is still employed in the majority of dental schools; however, strategies to enhance students self-learning skills is increasingly utilised in most well-known Chinese dental schools. The Chinese dental education model, which treats dentistry as a sub-specialty of medicine, has brought about fundamental differences, with the dentist functioning essentially as a stomatologist. For example, China has built up a large oral and maxillofacial surgery society, and craniofacial surgery is performed to a much broader extent by Chinese dentists than by most North American counterparts. In North America, dentists engage in full-time work, attend continuing training/education programmes, belong to an association, gain legal status, and construct a code of ethics emphasising the quality of care delivered to the public. Currently, continuing dental

  3. Status differences in cross-functional teams: effects on individual member participation, job satisfaction, and intent to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Richard; Alexander, Jeffrey A; McCarthy, John F; Wells, Rebecca

    2004-09-01

    Cross-functional teams (CFTs) play an increasingly important role in health care. However, despite their potential, CFTs often fail to function effectively. This paper contributes to the literature in medical sociology by examining how the steep and well-defined hierarchy characteristic of the health occupations proves to be dysfunctional in the CFT setting. Previous research has shown that status differences among members of work teams negatively affect their functioning. Yet the specific mechanisms that connect variations in status to poor team functioning remain unclear. We hypothesize that it is the suppression of participation among low status team members that leads to poor CFT functioning. Our theoretical model integrates status characteristics theory and the value attainment theory of job satisfaction to link team members' statuses to participation in team decision-making and, ultimately, to their attitudes about the job. We use causal modeling to test our hypotheses. Our results indicate that relationships between health professionals defined in broader social contexts affect status, roles, and functions within CFTs, and these, in turn, affect the team's interpersonal processes. We suggest changes in organizational structure and in team leadership styles that might make CFTs more effective.

  4. FUNCTIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE BEING TREATED WITH HEMODIALYSIS IN PKU MUHAMMADIYAH HOSPITAL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiyati Mardiyah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis process is useful for patients with end-stage renal disease. However, this is a situation of abject dependence on a machine, a procedure and a group of qualified medical professionals for the rest of their lives that may influence their functional status. Objective: This study aims to describe the functional status of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Method: This was a descriptive study with cross-sectional design, which conducted in the PKU Muhammadiyah Hospital Yogyakarta on March 2017. There were 78 patients selected using purposive sampling. Functional status was measured using SF-36 questionnaire. Descriptive statistic was performed for data analysis Result:. The total average of functional status level was 42.92, with Physical Component Scale (PCS of 42.31 and Mental Component Scale (MCS of 45.78. Conclusion: There were functional deficiencies in both physical and mental status in patients with CKD undergoing hemodialysis. Thus, it is suggested that pharmacological management of these patients need stringent monitoring on part of the psychiatrist to deal with mental health problems, and the interdisciplinary team need to do great efforts to improve functional status and quality of life of patients with CKD.

  5. Vitamin A status regulates glucocorticoid availability in Wistar rats: consequences on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis ?

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    Damien eBonhomme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A disruption of the vitamin A signaling pathway has been involved in age-related memory decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations. Using vitamin A deficiency (VAD, a nutritional model leading to a hyposignaling of the retinoid pathway, we have recently demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is efficient to reverse VAD-induced spatial memory deficits and adult hippocampal neurogenesis alterations. Besides, excess of glucocorticoids (GCs occurring with aging is known to strongly inhibit hippocampal plasticity and functions and few studies report on the counteracting effects of RA signaling pathway on GCs action. Here, we have addressed whether the modulation of brain GCs availability could be one of the biological mechanisms involved in the effects of vitamin A status on hippocampal plasticity and functions. Thus, we have studied the effects of a vitamin A-free diet for 14 weeks and a 4-week vitamin A supplementation on plasma and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT levels in Wistar rats. We have also investigated corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG binding capacity and 11beta-Hydrosteroid Dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 activity, both important modulators of CORT availability at the peripheral and hippocampal levels respectively. Interestingly, we show that the vitamin A status regulates levels of free plasma CORT and hippocampal CORT levels, by acting through a regulation of CBG binding capacity and 11β-HSD1 activity. Moreover, our results suggest that increased CORT levels in VAD rats could have some deleterious consequences on spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis whereas these effects could be corrected by a vitamin A supplementation. Thus, the modulation of GCs availability by vitamin A status is an important biological mechanism that should be taken into account in order to prevent age-related cognitive decline and hippocampal plasticity alterations.

  6. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  7. Infant dental care (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  8. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation.

  9. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

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    Norhayati Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC. Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080. Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple.

  10. Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; García Pérez, A; Mejía González, A; Huizar Alvarez, R

    2016-01-15

    Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure the association between undernutrition and dental fluorosis in children living in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a state located in the central region of Mexico. Field work was performed in the region to identify the prevailing groundwater flow characteristics and water wells were sampled to analyze water fluoride concentration. Children were selected from three communities that had different drinking water fluoride concentrations (i.e., 0.56, 0.70 and 1.60 mg/l). Fluoridated salt was available in these communities. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to assess dental fluorosis. Categories four or higher of this index involve changes in the entire tooth surface (ITF ≥ 4). The weight and height of the children were measured. The assessment of undernutrition was based on the World Health Organization criteria: children were classified as being at risk of low-height (Height-for-Age Z score fluorosis categories (ITF ≥ 4) was 15.9%, 21.1% of the children were at risk of low height-for-age, and 8.0% had low height-for-age. The percentage of children with fluorosis (ITF ≥ 4) was 6.3%, 9.1% and 31.9% (p ˂ 0.001) and low high-for-age was 2.9%, 2.5% and 8.4% (p ˂ 0.001), for the communities with F concentrations of 0.56 mg/l, 0.70 mg/l and 1.6 mg/l, respectively. The logistic regression model showed an association between dental fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) and low height-for-age (OR 2.09, p = 0.022) after adjusting for sex, number of teeth erupted, source of drinking water, use of fluoridated toothpaste and tap water fluoride concentration in the community. Children with low height-for-age were more likely to have dental

  11. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Faulks

    Full Text Available Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY (WHO, provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs. International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%, Down syndrome (22.0%, mental retardation (17.0%, autistic disorders (16.1%, and dental anxiety alone (11.0%. The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical

  12. Biomolecular Cell-Signaling Mechanisms and Dental Implants: A Review on the Regulatory Molecular Biologic Patterns Under Functional and Immediate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue adapts its structure and mass to the stresses of mechanical loading. The purpose of this review article was to summarize recent advances on cell signaling relating to the phenomenon of bone remodeling, focused on bone ossification and healing at the interface of dental implants and bone under loading conditions. When a dental implant is placed within an osteotomy, osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts are all present. As functional loads are imposed, the remodeling processes adapt the peri-implant bony tissues to mechanical stimuli over time and reestablish a steady state. Based on the current literature, this article demonstrates fundamental information to these remodeling processes, such as the conversion of mechanical cues to electrical or biochemical signals. Multiple intracellular signals are involved in cellular mechanotransduction; the two Wnt signaling pathways (the canonical, β-catenin-dependent and the noncanonical, β-catenin-independent Wnt pathway) are particularly significant. Knowledge of how these molecular signaling pathways are translated into intracellular signals that regulate cell behavior may provide new therapeutic approaches to enhancing osteogenesis, especially around implants with immediate function or placed in areas of poor bone quality. New knowledge about the primary cilia as an organelle and bone cellular mechanosensor is critical for endochondral ossification and proper signal transduction. Other mechanisms, such as the expression of sclerostin as a negative regulator of bone formation (due to deactivation of the Wnt receptor) and downregulation of sclerostin under loading conditions, also present new understanding of the cellular and pericellular mechanics of bone. The complexity of the cell signaling pathways and the mechanisms involved in the mechanoregulation of the bone formation provide new technologies and perspectives for mechanically induced cellular response. Future novel therapeutic approaches based on the

  13. Functional status and its associated factors in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, M O; Agomoh, A O; Eaton, J; Ebigbo, P O; Onwukwe, J U

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed general functioning in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder. It also determined the factors associated with functioning in these adolescents. Adolescents with bipolar disorder diagnosed over one year or more attending the outpatient unit of Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Enugu (FNHE), Nigeria for follow-up visits were interviewed with a socio-demographic questionnaire and their functioning was rated with the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) based on the clinical information obtained from the children and their care givers during a one year follow-up period. Further information such as history of sexual risk behavior, pre-morbid peer relationship, relationship with siblings, level of religion activities among others were also obtained through clinical interview. A total of 46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up. Minimal to moderate impairment in functioning in the past year was found in these adolescents. The mean score on C-GAS was 68.41 ± 16.63. Factors including co-morbidity, pre-morbid peer relationship, relationship with siblings, level of religion activities and history of sexual risk behavior were significantly associated with functioning (p = 0.000), while marital status of the parents showed a weak association with functioning in these adolescents (p = 0.068). Negative correlation was also found between mean number of hospital admissions in the past year during follow up and mean score on C-GAS (r = - 0.908, p = 0.000). Functional impairments complicate bipolar disorder in Nigerian adolescents. To ensure good overall outcome in these adolescents, attention needs to be focused on promoting those factors that help good functioning. Future longitudinal follow up studies that would assess long-term outcome and its correlates in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder in this environment are desirable.

  14. Clinical and functional evaluation of the joint status of hemophiliac adults at a Brazilian blood center

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    Adriana Aparecida Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemophilia is a potentially disabling condition as hemophilic arthropathy develops early in life and is progressive, especially in patients treated in an on-demand regime. Objective: This study aimed to describe the structural joint status and the functional independence score of hemophiliac adults and correlate structural damage with the functional deficits found in these patients. METHODS: Hemophiliacs at the Juiz de Fora Regional Blood Center - HEMOMINAS Foundation, aged 18 years and over and treated in an on-demand regime, were clinically evaluated in respect to structural joint damage using the World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale (WFH-PE and functional deficits using the Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH. The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlation between the two scores. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were evaluated. The mean age was 36.8 years. Target joints were detected in 69.2% of patients studied. The mean Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score were 16.87 and 25.64, respectively. Patients with mild hemophilia showed no significant joint involvement. Patients with severe or moderate hemophilia had similar results regarding structural damage (p-value < 0.001 and functional deficits (p-value = 0.001. There was statistical significance in the correlation between the two scores (r = -0.850; p-value = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The World Federation of Hemophilia Physical Examination Scale and Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia may be useful to clinically assess structural joint damage and functional deficits in hemophiliacs as the tools are inexpensive and easy to administer and may be able to detect hemophilic arthropathy, which results from recurrent hemarthrosis and is common in the population studied.

  15. Obesity and Diabetes as Accelerators of Functional Decline; Can Lifestyle Interventions Maintain Functional Status in High Risk Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons has become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. PMID:23832077

  16. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes. © 2013.

  17. A comparison between uni- and multidimensional frailty measures: prevalence, functional status, and relationships with disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roppolo M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mattia Roppolo,1,2 Anna Mulasso,1 Robbert J Gobbens,3,4 Cristina O Mosso,1 Emanuela Rabaglietti1 1Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; 2Department of Developmental Psychology, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Faculty of Health, Sports and Social Work, Inholland University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Zonnehuisgroep Amstelland, Amstelveen, the Netherlands Background: Over the years, a plethora of frailty assessment tools has been developed. These instruments can be basically grouped into two types of conceptualizations – unidimensional, based on the physical–biological dimension – and multidimensional, based on the connections among the physical, psychological, and social domains. At present, studies on the comparison between uni- and multidimensional frailty measures are limited.Objective: The aims of this paper were: 1 to compare the prevalence of frailty obtained using a uni- and a multidimensional measure; 2 to analyze differences in the functional status among individuals captured as frail or robust by the two measures; and 3 to investigate relations between the two frailty measures and disability.Methods: Two hundred and sixty-seven community-dwelling older adults (73.4±6 years old, 59.9% of women participated in this cross-sectional study. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS index and the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI were used to measure frailty in a uni- and multidimensional way, respectively. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and the Loneliness Scale were administered to evaluate the functional status. Disability was assessed using the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Data were treated with descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, correlations, and receiver operating characteristic analyses through the evaluation of the areas under the curve.Results: Results showed that

  18. Health maintenance facility: Dental equipment requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were to test the effectiveness of the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) dental suction/particle containment system, which controls fluids and debris generated during simulated dental treatment, in microgravity; to test the effectiveness of fiber optic intraoral lighting systems in microgravity, while simulating dental treatment; and to evaluate the operation and function of off-the-shelf dental handheld instruments, namely a portable dental hand drill and temporary filling material, in microgravity. A description of test procedures, including test set-up, flight equipment, and the data acquisition system, is given.

  19. Effect On mechanical functions of high-speed dental handpieces by different cleaning methods%3种清洗方法对牙科手机机械性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒香云; 王晓彦; 耿发云; 叶森娣; 叶静梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较不同清洗方法对牙科手机机械性能的影响,探讨最佳清洗方法.方法:将全新牙科手机120支随机分成A、B、C3组,A组:采用纯手工的方法清洗;B组:采用超声清洗机清洗;C组:采用热清洗机清洗,1年后对3种不同方法清洗后的牙科手机机械性能进行比较分析.结果:A组手机转速、夹持力及锈蚀损坏都是最严重的.C组次之,而B组清洗的牙科手机损坏是最轻的.结论:采用超声波清洗机(B组)能较好地维护牙科手机的机械性能,建议推广使用.%Objective: To explore the best cleaning method through comparing the effect on mechanical function of high-speed dental handpieces by different cleaning methods. Methods: One hundred and twenty new high-speed dental handpieces were divided into A, B and C groups randomly. Dental handpieces in group A were cleaned by manual method;ultrasonic cleaning system and auto-heating cleaning unit were used in Group B and C. Mechanical functions of high-speed dental handpieces were tested one year later. Results: The mechanical functions including rotation speed, clamping force and tarnishing of high-speed dental handpieces in group A were damaged most severely, then group C, and dental handpieces in group B were damaged most lightly. Conclusion: The use of ultrasonic cleaning machine could better maintain mechanical functions of dental handpieces.

  20. The Effects and Functions of Speaker Status in CALL-Oriented Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Do you know how to change your relationship status on Facebook? What about your language status? In most web 2.0 contexts, music preference or relationship status are more important than information about one's linguistic repertoire. In language learning communities and affinity spaces (Gee, 2004), however, language status is forefronted. This…

  1. Non-weight-bearing status compromises the functional level up to 1 yr after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza-Vega, Patrocinio; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of weight-bearing (WB) status after hip fracture surgery on 1-yr functional outcome. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study, carried out in a public acute hospital trauma service. The 194 patients (36 men and 158 women), with a mean...... (SD) age of 81.4 (6.1) yrs, were admitted with a hip fracture within 2009 and were followed for 1 yr thereafter. The influence of postoperative WB status on the 1-yr functional outcome was assessed using the Functional Independence Measure (18-126 points), adjusting for other known factors by multiple...... linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (39%) were not allowed WB for a period of 2-4 wks after surgery. Improved functional outcomes were associated positively with prefracture functional level and having a trochanteric fracture during the first year after fracture (P ≤ 0.01). Non-WB status...

  2. Dental Hygienists Licensed in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Dept. of Social and Health Services, Olympia. Health Manpower Project.

    Beginning with a statement on the profession of dental hygiene and the two types of professional preparation available in the field, the pilot study then presents a two-part summary of its findings and an explanation of the methodology employed. Part I of the main portion of the report concerns employment characteristics (status, age, residence,…

  3. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  4. Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group. METHODS: We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression. RESULTS: We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups. CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.

  5. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  6. Discriminating cognitive status in Parkinson’s disease through functional connectomics and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abós, Alexandra; Baggio, Hugo C.; Segura, Bàrbara; García-Díaz, Anna I.; Compta, Yaroslau; Martí, Maria José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Junqué, Carme

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in the potential of neuroimaging to help develop non-invasive biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, connection-wise patterns of functional connectivity were used to distinguish Parkinson’s disease patients according to cognitive status using machine learning. Two independent subject samples were assessed with resting-state fMRI. The first (training) sample comprised 38 healthy controls and 70 Parkinson’s disease patients (27 with mild cognitive impairment). The second (validation) sample included 25 patients (8 with mild cognitive impairment). The Brainnetome atlas was used to reconstruct the functional connectomes. Using a support vector machine trained on features selected through randomized logistic regression with leave-one-out cross-validation, a mean accuracy of 82.6% (p < 0.002) was achieved in separating patients with mild cognitive impairment from those without it in the training sample. The model trained on the whole training sample achieved an accuracy of 80.0% when used to classify the validation sample (p = 0.006). Correlation analyses showed that the connectivity level in the edges most consistently selected as features was associated with memory and executive function performance in the patient group. Our results demonstrate that connection-wise patterns of functional connectivity may be useful for discriminating Parkinson’s disease patients according to the presence of cognitive deficits. PMID:28349948

  7. [The relationship between quality of life and functional status measurements in shoulder impingement syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Ayşe; Tulum, Zeliha; Bacakoğlu, A Kadir

    2003-01-01

    We compared three questionnaires that are used in the assessment of function and quality of life of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. The study included 54 patients (42 females, 12 males; mean age 54 years) with a diagnosis of stage I or II shoulder impingement syndrome. All the patients were administered a standard questionnaire regarding their general health status (Short-Form 36 / SF-36). Functional evaluations were made using the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) and Constant scoring systems. The results of the UCLA and Constant scores were compared with those of SF-36 with the use of Pearson correlation analysis. A strong correlation was found between the UCLA and Constant scores (p=0.006). SF-36 parameters of physical function, vitality, and social function showed a strong correlation with the UCLA scores (p<0.005), whereas parameters of general health and role emotional exhibited a moderate correlation (p<0.05). When compared with the Constant scores, SF-36 showed a strong correlation only in parameters of pain and general health (p<0.005). The parameter of role emotional was negatively correlated with the Constant scores. Demonstration of correlations between some parameters of SF-36 and the UCLA and Constant scoring systems suggests that SF-36 can be used to assess quality of life of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

  8. Oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence and dental anxiety: An epidemiological cross-sectional study of middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Wide

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few publications report on the relationship between salutogenesis, as measured by the concept of sense of coherence, and oral health-related quality of life. Even less information is to be found when the behavioural aspect of dental anxiety is added. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how oral health-related quality of life is related to sense of coherence and dental anxiety. Method The study had a cross-sectional design and included 500 randomly selected women in Gothenburg, Sweden, 38 and 50 years of age, from health examinations in 2004–05. The survey included questionnaires covering global questions concerning socio-economic status, oral health/function and dental care behaviour, and tests of oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, and dental anxiety. Results High dental anxiety and low sense of coherence predicted low oral health-related quality of life. In addition, socioeconomic status as measured by income, perceived oral functional status as captured by chewing ability and self-reported susceptibility to periodontal disease were also important predictors of oral health-related quality of life. Conclusion Dental anxiety and sense of coherence had an inverse relationship with regard to oral health-related quality of life. These associations were stronger than other risk factors for low oral health-related quality of life.

  9. Oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence and dental anxiety: an epidemiological cross-sectional study of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Ulla Wide; Wennström, Anette; Stenman, Ulrika; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2012-06-18

    Few publications report on the relationship between salutogenesis, as measured by the concept of sense of coherence, and oral health-related quality of life. Even less information is to be found when the behavioural aspect of dental anxiety is added. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how oral health-related quality of life is related to sense of coherence and dental anxiety. The study had a cross-sectional design and included 500 randomly selected women in Gothenburg, Sweden, 38 and 50 years of age, from health examinations in 2004-05. The survey included questionnaires covering global questions concerning socio-economic status, oral health/function and dental care behaviour, and tests of oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, and dental anxiety. High dental anxiety and low sense of coherence predicted low oral health-related quality of life. In addition, socioeconomic status as measured by income, perceived oral functional status as captured by chewing ability and self-reported susceptibility to periodontal disease were also important predictors of oral health-related quality of life. Dental anxiety and sense of coherence had an inverse relationship with regard to oral health-related quality of life. These associations were stronger than other risk factors for low oral health-related quality of life.

  10. Inhibition of central angiotensin II enhances memory function and reduces oxidative stress status in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bild, Walther; Hritcu, Lucian; Stefanescu, Cristinel; Ciobica, Alin

    2013-06-03

    While it is now well established that the independent brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has some important central functions besides the vascular ones, the relevance of its main bioactive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) on the memory processes, as well as on oxidative stress status is not completely understood. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of central Ang II administration, as well as the effects of Ang II inhibition with either AT1 and AT 2 receptor specific blockers (losartan and PD-123177, respectively) or an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (captopril). These effects were studied on the short-term memory (assessed through Y-maze) or long-term memory (as determined in passive avoidance) and on the oxidative stress status of the hippocampus. Our results demonstrate memory deficits induced by the administration of Ang II, as showed by the significant decrease of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze (p=0.015) and latency-time in passive avoidance task (p=0.001) when compared to saline. On the other side, the administration of all the aforementioned Ang II blockers significantly improved the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task, while losartan also increased the latency time as compared to saline in step-through passive avoidance (p=0.042). Also, increased oxidative stress status was induced in the hippocampus by the administration of Ang II, as demonstrated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde-MDA concentration) (p0.0001) vs. saline. Moreover, significant correlations were found between all of the memory related behavioral parameters and the main oxidative stress markers from the hippocampus, which is known for its implication in the processes of memory and also where RAS components are well expressed. This could be relevant for the complex interactions between Ang II, behavioral processes and neuronal oxidative stress, and could generate important therapeutic approaches. Copyright

  11. Strength of knee flexors of the paretic limb as an important determinant of functional status in post-stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Joanna; Czernicki, Jan; Pruszyńska, Magdalena; Miller, Elżbieta

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the multi-modal exercise program (MMEP) in patients after stroke, and to identify muscles that are the best predictors of functional performance and changes in functional status in a 3-week rehabilitation program. Thirty-one post-stroke patients (60.6±12.7 years) participating in a 3-week MMEP took part in the study. Measurements of extensor and flexor strength of the knee (Fext, Fflex) were done. Functional performance was measured using Timed Up & Go test (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT) and Tinetti Test. The rehabilitation program improved all the results of functional tests, as well as the values of strength in the patients. Both baseline and post-rehabilitation functional status was associated with knee flexor and extensor muscle strength of paretic but not of non-paretic limbs. At baseline examination muscle strength difference between both Fflexkg(-1) and Fextkg(-1) had an influence on functional status. After rehabilitation the effect of muscle strength difference on functional status was not evident for Fextkg(-1) and, interestingly, even more prominent for Fflexkg(-1). MMEP can effectively increase muscle strength and functional capacity in post-stroke patients. Knee flexor muscle strength of the paretic limb and the knee flexor difference between the limbs is the best predictor of functional performance in stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashis Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year of exposures in the work environment, ETA 1 (less than 5 years, ETA 2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years, and ETA 3 (more than 10 years. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF 25% , FEF 50% , FEF 75% , FEF 25-75% were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India. The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01 decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01 efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths.

  13. Physical activity and mortality related to obesity and functional status in older adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Graciani, Auxiliadora; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Older people who increase or maintain their physical activity have lower mortality than those who remain sedentary. This could result from a lower body weight and a better functional status that allow to be more active. However, this explanation would be unlikely if the benefits of physical activity on mortality were seen also in older people with obesity or functional limitations. This study examined the association between change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and mortality in older adults, and whether this association varied with obesity and functional limitations. Data were taken from a prospectively follow-up study of 2732 people representative of the Spanish population aged ≥60 years. Changes in LTPA from 2001 to 2003 were linked to all-cause mortality from 2003 to 2009. Analyses were performed in 2010 with Cox models adjusted for the main confounders, and were stratified by obesity and functional limitations. Compared with people who were continually sedentary from 2001 to 2003, those who increased their LTPA had 34% lower mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.66, 95% CI=0.52, 0.84), and those who were continually active had 45% lower mortality (HR=0.55; 95% CI=0.43, 0.70). These results did not vary in analyses stratified by obesity and functional limitations. Increasing or maintaining LTPA is associated with greater longevity in older adults, even those with obesity or functional limitations. Given the high frequency of these disorders, the current results suggest that most older adults can benefit from an active lifestyle. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinicohistopathological correlation and Helicobacter pylori status in patients with functional dyspepsia

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    Anita Basavaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD is a condition of immense clinical significance. Helicobacter pylori may be responsible for FD in a subset of patients. Materials and Methods: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in sixty patients of FD fulfilling ROME III criteria, and gastric and duodenal biopsies were taken. Duodenal histopathological findings and H. pylori status were correlated with the symptomatology. Standard treatment was given according to the H. pylori status, and the response was analyzed using 6-point Likert scale. Results: Sixty percent of cases were infected with H. pylori. 72.5% of cases with predominant epigastric pain were H. pylori-positive. 96.5% patients with early satiety had duodenal eosinophilia and duodenitis. Epigastric pain was significantly associated with H. pylori, and early satiety was associated with duodenal eosinophilia and duodenitis. Sixty-five percent of cases had increased duodenal intraepithelial lymphocyte count. 88.8% cases showing no response to treatment had duodenal eosinophilia. Conclusion: H. pylori infection constitutes an important subset of FD patients. H. pylori infection, duodenitis, and duodenal eosinophilia contribute to symptom generation. H. pylori eradication can provide symptomatic relief. A duodenal biopsy can identify an important subset of patients with duodenal eosinophilia and duodenitis which can be a contributor for poor treatment response and can be clinically amenable to new treatment avenues.

  15. The Impact of Secondary Lymphedema after Head and Neck Cancer Treatment on Symptoms, Functional Status, and Quality Of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Murphy, Barbara A.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Gilbert, Jill; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphedema may disrupt local function and affect quality of life (QOL) in patients with head and neck cancer. The study aim was to examine the associations among severity of internal and external lymphedema, symptoms, functional status, and QOL in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods The sample included 103 patients who were ≥3 months post head and neck cancer treatment. Variables assessed included severity of internal and external lymphedema, physical/psychological symptoms, functional status, and QOL. Results Severity of internal and external lymphedema was associated with physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. Patients with more severe external lymphedema were more likely to have a decrease in neck left/right rotation. The combined effects of external and internal lymphedema severity were associated with hearing impairment and decreased QOL. Conclusions Lymphedema severity correlates with symptom burden, functional status, and QOL in patients post head and neck cancer treatment. PMID:22791550

  16. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    , exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  17. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  18. Determinants of DHA status and functional effects on metabolic markers and immune modulation in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram

    intake and other potential determinants in infancy and childhood. The first part of the PhD thesis describes several potential determinants of infant and young child DHA status including genetic variation in FADS, breastfeeding and fish intake. Results can be found in Paper 1. Evidence for effects of n-3...... LCPUFA on metabolic markers such as glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and blood pressure in young children is limited. No studies have explored whether polymorphisms of genes encoding proteins involved in the mechanisms behind the effect (such as PPARG2 and COX2) can support the findings of diet studies...... by identifying the involved pathways and genes. The second part of the PhD thesis explores whether functional effects of n-3 LCPUFA on metabolic markers and immune maturation in young children can be supported by polymorphisms in genes involved in the mechanisms (PPARG2, COX2 and NFKB1). Results can be found...

  19. Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, B J; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, T S; Gibson, R S; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, N F; Hambidge, K M

    2009-07-01

    The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) mumol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 mumol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven's scale A, which is the simplest scale, ranged from 4 to 10 of a possible 12. Women with plasma zinc 7.6 mumol/l. Plasma zinc and maternal age and education predicted 17% of the variation in Raven's CPM scale A scores. We conclude that zinc deficiency is a major factor affecting cognition in these pregnant women.

  20. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  1. Renal function markers and thyroid hormone status in undialyzed chronic kidney disease

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    Balaji Rajagopalan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to quantify thyroid hormones in undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses controls and to study the correlation between renal function markers and thyroid hormones. Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with a higher prevalence of primary hypothyroidism (HT, but at the same studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients has reported conflicting results. Methods: Thyroid hormones and renal function parameters like serum urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, total protein and albumin were estimated and correlations between thyroid hormones and renal function parameters were studied in 60 undialyzed chronic kidney disease patients’ verses 100 healthy controls. Results: We found both T3 and T4 were significantly reduced (p<0.0001 for T3 and 0.007 for T4 whereas TSH remains to be unchanged in patient group compared to controls. We also observed that urea and creatinine were negatively correlated whereas creatinine clearance was positively correlated with both T3 and T4 that has high statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.01 level. But urea alone is negatively correlated with TSH that has statistical (two-tailed significance at 0.05 level. Conclusion: From our data, we speculate that renal insufficiency may lead to thyroid hormone disturbances.

  2. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  3. Dental insurance and dental service use by U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2011-01-01

    Oral health has a significant effect on health, and for women, poor oral health can lead to poor birth outcomes and can affect their child's health. Nursing interventions to improve the oral health of at-risk women have the potential to increase maternal and child systemic and oral health. The identification of women at a high risk for poor oral health is a necessary to develop and evaluate these interventions. This study examined the factors related to dental insurance and dental service use for women of childbearing age in the United States. A secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was completed to examine the predisposing, enabling, and need variables associated with dental insurance status and dental service use in a representative random sample of 1,071 women. The results showed that over 40% of women had no dental insurance. Women with less education, lower income, and dental need were significantly less likely to have dental insurance. Dental utilization by the uninsured was low and a racial/ethnic disparity was noted. A lack of dental insurance and dental service utilization is a significant concern. Nurses working with low-income women should educate the population about oral health and advocate for policies to increase dental insurance coverage. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Neural Responses to Visual Food Cues According to Weight Status: A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies...

  5. Dental fear-related cognitive vulnerability perceptions, dental prevention beliefs, dental visiting, and caries: a cross-sectional study in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Crego, Antonio; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the role that psychosocial elements may play concerning dental attendance and oral health in children. In particular, we explored the associations among dental fear-related cognitive vulnerability perceptions, dental prevention beliefs, the pattern of dental visits, and the number of decayed teeth. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren who completed a questionnaire. Oral health status was evaluated by pediatric dentists. Statistical analyses were mainly based on binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression, which allowed us to test possible associations among variables as well as interaction and mediation effects. Children with more vulnerability-related cognitions (Adj. OR = 0.74 P dental prevention beliefs (Adj. OR = 1.47 P dental prevention beliefs and cognitive vulnerability perceptions was associated with more decayed teeth (β = -0.13 P dental visit, associated with fearful and unfavorable dental prevention cognitions, accounted for 20% of the effects of these variables on dental caries. The combination of greater cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions and low awareness of the benefits of dental prevention increased the risk of dental caries. Children with this profile also tended to demonstrate a more inadequate pattern of dental attendance. Preventive oral health programs would benefit from considering the role of children's cognitions on their oral health habits and dental health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Timing of stroke onset determines discharge-functional status but not stroke severity: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Liou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian variation of the onset time of acute ischemic stroke has been well studied. However, little is mentioned about the circadian variation of discharge-stroke severity and discharge-functional status. This study evaluated the impact of onset time on discharge-stroke severity and the functional status of acute ischemic stroke. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 274 acute ischemic stroke patients (66.42% male; mean age = 64.81 ± 12.80 years. All times of onset were assigned to 4-hourly periods (six groups starting from midnight. Stroke severity/functional status was evaluated on admission and discharge using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score/modified Rankin Scale (mRS and Barthel Index (BI, respectively. Using mRS, but not NIHSS score and BI, it was possible to differentiate the best and worst groups on discharge. Patients in group 2 (4 to <8 am and group 6 (8 to <12 pm had best and worst functional status, respectively. To control other stroke risk factors, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the role of onset time in discharge mRS. Aside from age, onset time was a significant indicator in mRS, while gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and current smoking were not. In conclusion, there is also circadian variation of discharge-functional status in patients with acute ischemic stroke when assessed by mRS.

  7. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.

  8. The hyporheic zone and its functions: revision and research status in Neotropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mugnai

    functions and significance as an ecotone. We also highlighted the key aspects considering also the current status of research in Neotropical regions.

  9. HIV-positive status and preservation of privacy: a recent decision from the Italian Data Protection Authority on the procedure of gathering personal patient data in the dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Adelaide; Delbon, Paola; Laffranchi, Laura; Paganelli, Corrado; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The processing of sensitive information in the health field is subject to rigorous standards that guarantee the protection of information confidentiality. Recently, the Italian Data Protection Authority (Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali) stated their formal opinion on a standard procedure in dental offices involving the submission of a questionnaire that includes the patient's health status. HIV infection status is included on the form. The Authority has stated that all health data collection must be in accordance with the current Italian normative framework for personal data protection and respect the patient's freedom. This freedom allows the patient to decide, in a conscious and responsible way, whether to share health information with health personnel without experiencing any prejudice in the provision of healthcare requested. Moreover, data collection must be relevant and cannot exceed the principles of treatment goals with reference to the specific care of the concerned person. However, the need for recording information regarding HIV infection at the first appointment, regardless of the clinical intervention or therapeutic plan that needs to be conducted, should not alter the standard protection measures of the healthcare staff. In fact, these measures are adopted for every patient.

  10. Current trends in dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evoluti...

  11. Hygiene in dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, L; Mosca, G; Giuliani, A R

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hygienic quality of dental practices on the basis of the self-awareness expressed by dentists respondents to a self-reported questionnaire about the health/hygiene characteristics of practice, the knowledge of biologic/toxicological risks and the preventive procedures and devices improvements in professional practice. Of the 127 practitioners contacted, 108 (85%) agreed to participate. The knowledge of infective risks was self- evaluated as good only in 24%: even if vaccinated, most of the dentists (57%) considered HBV the main infective agent to fear, not giving the same importance to the air-borne transmission of diseases. The presence of a single dental unit per surgery (90%) was considered an index of good health/hygiene education but, in spite of the use of disposable gloves, caps and masks, the dentists do not always change their coats or wash their hands between patients yet. The management of dental instruments can be considered efficient as long as they are sterilised in an autoclave (97%) and undergo periodic sterilization efficacy tests (76%). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The results indicate a good structural and organisational status, but there is the need for continuous education concerning the prevention of cross-infections.

  12. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nuala A.; Wright, Mathew W.; Brister, J. Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M.; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M.; Murphy, Michael R.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H.; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D.; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S.; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E.; Vatsan, Anjana R.; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J.; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2016-01-01

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55 000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40 000 prokaryotes and >10 000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management. PMID:26553804

  13. Impact of nutritional status on body functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how to intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniwidyaningsih, Wahju; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Cano, Noel; Pison, Christophe

    2008-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. This study reviews diet as a risk or protective factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanisms of malnutrition, undernutrition consequences on body functioning and how to modulate nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different dietary factors (dietary pattern, foods, nutrients) have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the course of the disease. Mechanical disadvantage, energy imbalance, disuse muscle atrophy, hypoxemia, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress have been reported to cause systemic consequences such as cachexia and compromise whole body functioning. Nutritional intervention makes it possible to modify the natural course of the disease provided that it is included in respiratory rehabilitation combining bronchodilators optimization, infection control, exercise and, in some patients, correction of hypogonadism. Diet, as a modifiable risk factor, appears more as an option to prevent and modify the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduction of mechanical disadvantage, physical training and anabolic agents should be used conjointly with oral nutrition supplements to overcome undernutrition and might change the prognosis of the disease in some cases. Major research challenges address the role of systemic inflammation and the best interventions for controlling it besides smoking cessation.

  14. Nutritional status and functional digestive histology of the carnivorous Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Hayley J; Tong, Lydia; Shaw, Michelle; Van Sluys, Monique; McAllan, Bronwyn; Raubenheimer, David

    2017-03-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia. Currently many animals are being held in captivity as a management procedure to combat Devil Facial Tumor Disease. Only one published study thus far has investigated nutrition in Tasmanian devils, determining their maintenance energy requirements and digestibility on a rodent diet. More information is needed on Tasmanian devil nutritional and gastrointestinal function to aid in their management. Our study aimed to investigate the current nutritional status of Tasmanian devils in a captive population and functional morphology and histology of their gastrointestinal tract. Animals were maintained on a diet of kangaroo, rabbit, quail and chicken wings and digestibility of these items by the devils was high (>85% for dry matter, protein and lipid). Kangaroo and rabbit were high protein diet items while the quail and chicken wings provided high lipid to the diet, and carbohydrates were minimal (≤3% energy). Maintenance energy requirements were determined to be 620kJkg(-0.75)d(-1) with no significant difference between males and females. Opportunistic samples for gastrointestinal morphology were obtained from captive specimens. Tasmanian devils have a simple digestive tract similar to other dasyurid species. Both the morphology and histology of the gastrointestinal tract show specialization for a high protein carnivorous diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reference sequence (RefSeq) database at NCBI: current status, taxonomic expansion, and functional annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nuala A; Wright, Mathew W; Brister, J Rodney; Ciufo, Stacy; Haddad, Diana; McVeigh, Rich; Rajput, Bhanu; Robbertse, Barbara; Smith-White, Brian; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Astashyn, Alexander; Badretdin, Azat; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga; Brover, Vyacheslav; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Choi, Jinna; Cox, Eric; Ermolaeva, Olga; Farrell, Catherine M; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gupta, Tripti; Haft, Daniel; Hatcher, Eneida; Hlavina, Wratko; Joardar, Vinita S; Kodali, Vamsi K; Li, Wenjun; Maglott, Donna; Masterson, Patrick; McGarvey, Kelly M; Murphy, Michael R; O'Neill, Kathleen; Pujar, Shashikant; Rangwala, Sanjida H; Rausch, Daniel; Riddick, Lillian D; Schoch, Conrad; Shkeda, Andrei; Storz, Susan S; Sun, Hanzhen; Thibaud-Nissen, Francoise; Tolstoy, Igor; Tully, Raymond E; Vatsan, Anjana R; Wallin, Craig; Webb, David; Wu, Wendy; Landrum, Melissa J; Kimchi, Avi; Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Kitts, Paul; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D

    2016-01-04

    The RefSeq project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) maintains and curates a publicly available database of annotated genomic, transcript, and protein sequence records (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/). The RefSeq project leverages the data submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC) against a combination of computation, manual curation, and collaboration to produce a standard set of stable, non-redundant reference sequences. The RefSeq project augments these reference sequences with current knowledge including publications, functional features and informative nomenclature. The database currently represents sequences from more than 55,000 organisms (>4800 viruses, >40,000 prokaryotes and >10,000 eukaryotes; RefSeq release 71), ranging from a single record to complete genomes. This paper summarizes the current status of the viral, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic branches of the RefSeq project, reports on improvements to data access and details efforts to further expand the taxonomic representation of the collection. We also highlight diverse functional curation initiatives that support multiple uses of RefSeq data including taxonomic validation, genome annotation, comparative genomics, and clinical testing. We summarize our approach to utilizing available RNA-Seq and other data types in our manual curation process for vertebrate, plant, and other species, and describe a new direction for prokaryotic genomes and protein name management.

  16. Swallowing Function and Nutritional Status in Japanese Elderly People Receiving Home-care Services: A 1-year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Y; Furuta, M; Akifusa, S; Takeuchi, K; Adachi, M; Kinoshita, T; Kikutani, T; Nakamura, S; Yamashita, Y

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people. Poor oral function leading to insufficient food intake can contribute to the development of malnutrition. In the present study, we explored the longitudinal association of malnutrition with oral function, including oral health status and swallowing function, in elderly people receiving home nursing care. Prospective observational cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Two mid-sized cities in Fukuoka, Japan from November 2010 to March 2012. One hundred and ninety-seven individuals, aged ≥ 60 years, living at home and receiving home-care services because of physical disabilities, without malnutrition. Oral health status, swallowing function, taking modified-texture diets such as minced or pureed foods, nutritional status, cognitive function, and activities of daily living were assessed at baseline. The associations between malnutrition at 1-year follow-up and these related factors were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Swallowing disorders [risk ratio (RR): 5.21, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.65-16.43] were associated with malnutrition. On the other hand, oral health status did not have a direct association with malnutrition. Swallowing disorders may be associated with the incidence of malnutrition in elderly people receiving home-care. The findings indicate that maintaining swallowing function may contribute to the prevention of malnutrition in frail elderly people.

  17. Shoulder Pain, Functional Status, and Health-Related Quality of Life after Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer (HNC patients experience treatment-related complications that may interfere with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom experience (shoulder pain and functional status factors that are related to global and domain-specific HRQOL at one month after HNC surgery. In this exploratory study, we examined 29 patients. The outcome variables included global HRQOL as well as physical, functional, emotional, and social well-being. Symptom experience and functional status factors were the independent variables. In the symptom experience variables, shoulder pain distress was negatively associated with physical well-being (R2=0.24. Among the functional status variables, eating impairment was negatively related to global HRQOL (R2=0.18 and physical well-being (R2=0.21. Speaking impairment and impaired body image explained a large amount of the variance in functional well-being (R2=0.45. This study provided initial results regarding symptom experience and functional status factors related to poor HRQOL in the early postoperative period for HNC patients.

  18. Health-related quality of life and functional status quality indicators for older persons with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Sydney M; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Salive, Marcel E; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Review. Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  19. Functional status of United States children supported with a left ventricular assist device at heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulic, Anica; Maeda, Katsuhide; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Sharon; McElhinney, Doff B; Dykes, John C; Hollander, Amanda M; Hollander, Seth A; Murray, Jenna; Reinhartz, Olaf; Gowan, Mary Alice; Rosenthal, David N; Almond, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    As survival with pediatric left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has improved, decisions regarding the optimal support strategy may depend more on quality of life and functional status (FS) rather than mortality alone. Limited data are available regarding the FS of children supported with LVADs. We sought to compare the FS of children supported with LVADs vs vasoactive infusions to inform decision making around support strategies. Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data were used to identify all United States children aged between 1 and 21 years at heart transplant (HT) between 2006 and 2015 for dilated cardiomyopathy and supported with an LVAD or vasoactive infusions alone at HT. FS was measured using the 10-point Karnofsky and Lansky scale. Of 701 children who met the inclusion criteria, 430 (61%) were supported with vasoactive infusions, and 271 (39%) were supported with an LVAD at HT. Children in the LVAD group had higher median FS scores at HT than children in the vasoactive infusion group (6 vs 5, p < 0.001) but lower FS scores at listing (4 vs 6, p < 0.001). The effect persisted regardless of patient location at HT (home, hospital, intensive care) or device type. Discharge by HT occurred in 46% of children in the LVAD group compared with 26% of children in the vasoactive infusion cohort (p = 0.001). Stroke was reported at HT in 3% of children in the LVAD cohort and in 1% in the vasoactive infusion cohort (p = 0.04). Among children with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing HT, children supported with LVADs at HT have higher FS than children supported with vasoactive infusions at HT, regardless of device type or hospitalization status. Children supported with LVADs at HT were more likely to be discharged from the hospital but had a higher prevalence of stroke at HT. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences