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Sample records for dental fluorosis prevalence

  1. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been broadly termed dental fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is a condition that causes ... less than 2 milligrams per liter. What causes dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is caused by taking in ...

  2. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from......0977   Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years A. RICHARDS1, M. LARSEN1, L. MAARE2, and H. HEDEBOE2, 1Aarhus University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Denmark, 2Præstø School Dental Service, Denmark Objectives: To describe the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among all...

  3. PREVALENCE AND CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN KERALA

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    Gopalakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption of fluoride leads to toxic manifestations in man, collectively referred to as Fluorosis. Latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of Fluorosis. In India, 20 states are under fluoride attack. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and causative factors of dental fluorosis among children in the age group of 10-15 years in Kerala. METHODOLOGY: Two endemic districts and two neighboring non endemic districts were selected for this study. Sample size of 980 was calculated and adequate sample was selected from the school going children. A pretested modified questionnaire was used to collect the data. The fluorosis status was assessed by dental specialists. The information regarding the fluoride content of the water was also obtained. The data was entered and analyzed. The prevalence of fluorosis was calculated in percentages. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the endemic districts of Alappuzha and Palakkad were 37.4% and 39.2% respectively. The prevalence in the neighboring non endemic districts of Kollam and Thrissur were 4.4 % and 2.2% respectively. The community fluorosis index was 0.61 in Alappuzha and 0.63 in Palakkad. The prevalence was higher among boys than among girls

  4. Increased Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis after Twenty Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.

    2006-01-01

    tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...

  5. URINARY FLUORIDE LEVELS AND PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN CHILDREN OF JHAJJAR DISTRICT, HARYANA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J P Yadav, S Lata

    2003-01-01

    ..., 1.51 in Matanhail and 1.56 in Sahalawas. The mean prevalence of fluorosis on the basis of stage of dental fluorosis was highest of yellowish brown type and on the basis of TSIF score, score 4 type fluorosis was highest in most of the blocks...

  6. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in four English cities.

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    Pretty, I A; Boothman, N; Morris, J; MacKay, L; Liu, Z; McGrady, M; Goodwin, M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in four city-based populations using a robust photographic method with TF index reporting; and to record the aesthetic satisfaction scores of children in all four cities. Cross sectional epidemiological survey (surveillance). 1,904 children aged 11-14 years, in four English cities. Two cities were served by community water fluoridation schemes supplying water at 1mg/l F. The other two cities did not have water fluoridation schemes and had low levels of fluoride naturally present. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Scoring was undertaken using high quality digital images by a single calibrated examiner. Data suggest that the prevalence of fluorosis at levels greater than TF2 are broadly similar to previous studies (F 10%, NF 2%), with an apparent increase in the total number of TF1 cases across both fluoridated (41%) and non-fluoridated cities (32%) with a commensurate decrease in TF0 (F 39%, NF 63%). Data suggest that the proportion of children expressing dissatisfaction with the appearance of their teeth is the same in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities although the reasons for this may differ. The levels of fluorosis that might be considered of aesthetic concern are low and stable while the increase in TF1 may be due to an increase in self- and professionally-applied fluoride products or the increased sensitivity afforded by the digital imaging system. It is not however a public health problem or concern. Further monitoring appears justified.

  7. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

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    Soban Qadir Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its pattern in primary and permanent teeth among 6-12-year-old Pakistani school going children living in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between June and September 2014. A total number of screened children were 496 among them 259 were males and 237 were females. World Health Organization′s scale was used to examine children for dental fluorosis. Results: Prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 33% among a total number of examined children. Among the children who had dental fluorosis (n = 164, it was observed that mild and moderate level of fluorosis were prevailing in 113 (69% children. Furthermore, a number of males who were suffering from fluorosis was more than the females. There were 97 males and 67 females found affected from dental fluorosis and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.038. Conclusion: Prevalence of dental fluorosis among Pakistani school going children was not high. However, the severity of fluorosis was alarming, mild, and a moderate level of fluorosis was observed in most of the children who were affected from fluorosis.

  8. [Methodological discussion about prevalence of the dental fluorosis on dental health surveys].

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    Freitas, Cláudia Helena Soares de Morais; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the limitations of studying dental fluorosis in cross-sectional studies. Data from the Oral Health of the Brazilian Population (SBBrasil 2003) and the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) were used. Epidemiological trends for fluorosis in 12-year-old Brazilians, aspects of the reliability of the data as well as the accuracy of the estimates are assessed for these two studies. The distribution of prevalence of fluorosis was carried out according to the domains of the study (state capitals and regions) and the year in which the study took place. The confidence intervals (95%CI) were also shown for simple prevalence (without taking into account level of severity). The prevalence of dental fluorosis showed considerable variation, between 0% and 61% in 2003 and 0% and 59% in 2010. Inconsistencies were observed in the data in individual terms (for year and for domain) and in the behavior of the trend. Considering the expected prevalence and the data available in the two studies, the minimum sample size should be 1,500 individuals in order to obtain 3.4% and 6.6% confidence intervals, considering the minimum coefficient of variation to be 15%. Given the subjectivity in its classification, examinations for dental fluorosis may show more variation than those for other oral health conditions. The power to establish differences between the domains of the study with the sample of the SBBrasil 2010 is quite limited. Based on the 2003 and 2010 studies, it was not possible to analyze patterns of dental fluorosis in Brazil; these data are merely exploratory indicators of the prevalence of dental fluorosis. It was impossible to make comparisons due to different analysis models being used in the two surveys. Investigating dental fluorosis in population-based surveys is not even an economically viable technique, using localized epidemiological studies with a sampling plan would be more suitable [corrected].

  9. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur City, Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Ashish Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to find the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children residing in Kanpur city, Uttar Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: A total of 1343 school children, residing in the city since childhood and consuming the groundwater, in the age group of 7-17 years was selected from various schools. Schools were selected from all four directions of the city. Children were categorized in five age groups and were examined for dental fluorosis. Dean′s criteria for assessment of dental fluorosis were used, and observations were recorded on a study specific performa. Results: Among the 1343 children examined, 243 (18% were found to be having dental fluorosis, among which number of males (131 was more than females (112. Among the different grades of fluorosis observed, mild dental fluorosis was observed in most of the cases (158. It was observed that the southern part of the city had a maximum number of cases of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: It was evident from the results that the city had a good number of cases of dental fluorosis and that the groundwater in certain areas had more than normal quantity of fluoride. Since this study was the first attempt in this area, more studies can be undertaken to substantiate our findings.

  10. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in the district of Salem, Tamil Nadu, South India: A pilot study

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    Maya Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tamil Nadu is one of the 18 states affected by fluorosis in India. The maximum tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water specified by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1984 is 1.5 mg/l while it is proved to be above in many areas of Salem. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children in the district of Salem. To compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis between different sexes and age groups. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in a private school where oral examination was done using mouth mirror and probe under sunlight in 965 students, for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis. As it was a pilot study, the fluorosis indexes were not taken into consideration. Results: In our study, 965 students were examined for dental fluorosis out of which, 624 were boys and 341 were girls. Dental fluorosis was present in 31.1% of boys, and 30.3% of girls 297 students out of 965 (30.8% showed the presence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: The present study showed that Salem is one of the districts affected by dental fluorosis in Tamil Nadu. An extensive study including the grades of fluorosis and estimation of water fluoride levels in different areas is required for better evaluation of the situation. Government should take actions to prevent fluorosis. Awareness should be given to the population to drink only the water supplied by the government.

  11. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India.

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    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  12. [A socioeconomic classification and the discussion related to prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis].

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    Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Kozlowski, Fábio Carlos; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Zuleica M de A Pedroso

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a socioeconomic classification model and prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Piracicaba, Sâo Paulo, Brazil. For this classification five indicators were used (family monthly income, number of residents in the same household, parents' formal educational level, type of housing and occupation of person responsible for the family). A scoring system was used in order to arrange in a hierarchy, 812 12 year old school children distributed between six different social classes. Volunteers were examined in the school's back patio under natural light with a dental mirror, by two examiners calibrated for DMFT index (dental caries) and T-F (dental fluorosis). The qui-square test (pcaries.

  13. Decline in the prevalence of dental fluorosis among South Australian children.

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    Do, L G; Spencer, A J

    2007-08-01

    The use of fluoride involves a balance between protection against dental caries and risk of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis in Australian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990 s. Policy measures were introduced to control fluoride exposure so as to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. To evaluate the effectiveness of policy measures in reducing the prevalence of fluorosis among Australian children. A random sample of South Australian children born in 1989-1994 was selected in 2002/2003, stratified by fluoridation status and urban/rural residence. Children were targeted to form three successive birth cohorts: those children born in 1989/1990, 1991/1992 and 1993/1994, respectively. Fluoride exposures were assessed by questionnaire. One dentist examined 677 children for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Data were reweighted to reflect the state's child population. Case definitions of fluorosis were: having a TF score of 1+ (TF1+) or a TF score of 2+ (TF2+) on one or both maxillary central incisors. A higher proportion of children in the later birth cohorts used low-concentration fluoridated toothpaste, and a smaller amount of toothpaste was used when they commenced toothbrushing. The fluorosis experience in this population was mostly very mild to mild. There was a significant decline in the prevalence of fluorosis across the three successive birth cohorts. The prevalence of fluorosis by TF1+ case definition declined from 34.7% to 22.1% and by TF2+ case definition from 17.9% to 8.3%. Risk factors for fluorosis were use of standard-concentration fluoridated toothpaste, an eating and/or licking toothpaste habit and exposure to fluoridated water. The experience of fluorosis among the South Australian child population was mostly very mild to mild. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of fluorosis across the three successive birth cohorts. The decline was mainly linked with the reduction in exposure to fluoride from fluoridated toothpaste.

  14. [Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children between 6 to 15 years old].

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    Azpeitia-Valadez, María de Lourdes; Rodríguez-Frausto, Manuel; Sánchez-Hernández, Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    dental fluorosis is a defect in the formation of the enamel by high fluoride concentrations during tooth development. It produces hypomineralization of the enamel by increasing the porosity, thus exposing the tooth to decay. to determine the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in children aged 6 to 15 years. a sample of 456 children was evaluated. The diagnosis of fluorosis was made through physical examination and the severity of the damage was described by using a modified version of Dean's scale. 270 children presented fluorosis (59.2 %). The most affected were children of 8 to 12 years, students of first to fifth year of primary school. The severity was mild and very mild in 90 % of cases. Tooth decay appeared in 55 % of children with fluorosis and in 43 % of children without fluorosis. the prevalence of dental fluorosis is rapidly increasing. Tooth decay affected more often children with fluorosis. Assuming that the prevalence of fluorosis is due to excessive fluoride application rather than to environmental exposure is possible.

  15. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

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    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):256-263.

  16. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Karera Block, Madhya Pradesh.

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    Narwaria, Y S; Saksena, D N

    2013-09-01

    To determine prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in school going children of ten villages of Karera block of Shivpuri District, Madhya Pradesh. Fluoride ion concentration was measured in ten hand pump and two wells waters with a fluoride meter (ORION model 720). For the study total 750 school children were selected from ten government primary schools of ten rural villages. The survey was conducted during the period of November 2007 through December 2009. The dental and oral examination was done by two trained dentists. The occurrence and severity of dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index. Drinking water sources considered for study were hand pumps, and wells. Out of 750 children surveyed, 341 were found affected with dental fluorosis. The boys had greater prevalence (46.75%) as compared to girls (42.18%). Dental fluorosis, as assessed by Dean's Index shows that 20.8% children had grade I, 19.47% grade II, 5.2% grade III. Overall, 45.46% of the sample showed some grades of dental fluorosis. In all the 144 water samples from ten villages fluoride level was higher than permissible limits. The boys had greater prevalence of dental fluorosis over the girls.

  17. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.

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    Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Prevalence of dental fluorosis and additional sources of exposure to fluoride as risk factors to dental fluorosis in schoolchildren of Campeche, Mexico].

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    Beltrán-Valladares, Perla Rubí; Cocom-Tun, Héctor; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis, and to evaluate supplementary fluoride sources as potential risk factors to fluorosis in school children aged 6-9. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 320 children attending elementary schools protected by a public preventive dental program in the city of Campeche, Mexico. A self-administered questionnaire directed to the mothers was delivered through the schools and collected in the same way. The examiners were trained and calibrated (kappa > 0.90) in modified Dean's Index. The fluorosis community index (FCI) was calculated. Bivariate analyses were made with Chi2 test; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Logistic regression was used in the final model. Fluorosis prevalence was 56.3%, with very mild fluorosis present in 45% of children, mild in 10%, and severe in just 1.3%. The FCI was 0.7. The multivariate model showed that the effect of the supplementary fluoride sources was different between children that started brushing with toothpaste before two years of age (OR = 6.15; IC 95% = 2.03-18.67) and after (OR = 2.14; IC 95% = 1.16-3.94). Fluorosis prevalence was high for mild modalities, and low for more severe levels. According to FCI the dental fluorosis constitute a public health problem in the studied sample. Exposure to diverse fluoride sources -above and beyond the fluoridated salt program- was a risk factor for dental fluorosis in this community. Results suggest that toothpaste use in children two years of age and younger should be cautious, limited to follow current guidelines, and supervised by parents to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis.

  19. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

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    Ajayi, D M; Arigbede, A O; Dosumu, O O; Ufomata, D

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select the participants who consisted of children aged 12-14 years taken from eleven randomly selected secondary schools in the five local government areas of Ibadan Metropolis. The children were examined by the Principal Investigator after submitting parental administered questionnaires. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was based on the TF index. The mean age of the 1372 participants (825 males and 547 females) was 13.15 ± 0.80 years. Dental fluorosis was diagnosed in 157 (11.4%) children (98 males and 59 females). There was no statistically significant difference between age or gender and the occurrence of fluorosis. Most of the cases were very mild with greater than 90% of the affected teeth having a TF score of ≤3. The most severely affected were the maxillary molars. Severe disfiguring cases of dental fluorosis were not common among the secondary school children examined. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be low, with majority of the cases being very mild.

  20. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar district

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    Shruthi Narayanamurthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is an endemic disease resulting due to excess ingestion of fluoride. Ground water has been a significant water source for domestic, irrigating, and industrial purposes in India. India is placed in a geographical fluoride belt. Kolar, a drought prone area with semiarid climate, is one among 16 fluorosis endemic districts of Karnataka. Aims: To study the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children and to estimate the fluoride levels in drinking water sources. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-going children. Materials and Methods: School-going children from two randomly selected schools of two randomly selected Panchayat areas of Kyasamballi and Gollahalli were studied in August 2011. All the children in these schools were evaluated for dental fluorosis based on Dean′s index. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources in these communities were estimated by ion-electrode method. Statistical analysis: The data were analyzed with Epi-info 7 statistical software and expressed in proportions. Chi-square test was employed to test the significance. Results: A total of 380 children in the age group of 6-15 years were studied. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 31.05%, predominant in females. The community fluorosis index was 0.718 indicating slight public health importances. The fluoride levels in drinking water sources exceeded 1.5 mg/L. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kolar. High fluoride content in the sources of drinking water is the main reason for dental fluorosis, suggesting an urgent need for defluoridation of water sources with sustainable long-term measures in Kolar.

  1. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children of an area known for endemic fluorosis: Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh.

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    Sudhir, K M; Prashant, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Mohandas, U; Chandu, G N

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess dental fluorosis and to compare fluorosis in incisor teeth among 13- to 15-year-old school children of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh. Cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. A total of 1000 school children aged 13 to 15 years were selected by stratified cluster sampling from 4 different areas with different levels of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Fluorosis was recorded using TF index (TFI). Prevalence of fluorosis (TFI score, > or = 1) was 100% at all the 4 different fluoride levels. The prevalence and severity increased with increased fluoride levels in drinking water. Prevalence and severity of fluorosis did not show any significant variation between maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth. There is a high prevalence of mild-to-moderate fluorosis in Nalgonda district, even in areas with optimal fluoride levels in water.

  2. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children of an area known for endemic fluorosis: Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh

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    Sudhir K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess dental fluorosis and to compare fluorosis in incisor teeth among 13- to 15-year-old school children of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. A total of 1000 school children aged 13 to 15 years were selected by stratified cluster sampling from 4 different areas with different levels of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Fluorosis was recorded using TF index (TFI. Results: Prevalence of fluorosis (TFI score, ≥1 was 100% at all the 4 different fluoride levels. The prevalence and severity increased with increased fluoride levels in drinking water. Prevalence and severity of fluorosis did not show any significant variation between maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of mild-to-moderate fluorosis in Nalgonda district, even in areas with optimal fluoride levels in water.

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DMFT INDEX

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    V.S MORTAZAVI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The optimum amount of fluoride in drinking water has been determined 1ppm for special areas by WHO. In jarghoyeh the amount of fluoride in drinking water is less than optimum, but dental fluorosis has been observed in a great deal. The purpose of this comparative study is to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the mean DMFT values and their relationship among guidance school students in Jarghoyeh Olya and Jarghoyeh Sofia. Methods. The main reason of this research was to compare fluorosis prevalence in Jarghoyeh Sofia and Jarghoyeh Olya. A pilot study was carried out and 191 person for the number of specimen was determined. Since DMFT was also to be investigated, the number of specimen was incresed., Finally 256 guaidance school students in Jarghoyeh Sofia and 263 students in Jarghoyeh Olya were selected by sharing method. The DMFT and TF indices, respectively, were used to asses dental caries and dental fluorosis. Results. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Jarghoyeh Olya was 65.8 percent and in Jarghoyeh Sofia was 44.9 percent. The mean DMFT indices in these two regions were 2.2471 and 2.0508 respectively. Evaluation of amounts of DMFT in different scores of TF index, shows that from zero score to 1 score, DMFT decreases. Then it gradually increases and as a result in 5≤ score it reaches to the highest level. Discussion. Factors such as hot climate and salty drinking water causes the inhabitants to drink more water. Also they drink tea a lot. Thus in spite of the low fluoride content of drinking water, prevalence of dental fluorosis was high. During tooth mineralization, fluoride reacts with hydroxyapatite crystals and produces fluorohydroxyapatite, resulting in higher resistance to tooth caries. On the other hand, absorption of excessive fluoride, results in disorder of formation of enamel. This leads to a hypoplastic and porose enamal. This enamel has lower resistance to caries and higher potential to absorb

  4. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

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    Soban Qadir Khan; Imran Alam Moheet; Imran Farooq; Faraz Ahmed Farooqi; Aws Saleh ArRejaie; Mohammad Hassan Abdullah Al Abbad; Abdul Khabeer

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its pattern in primary and permanent teeth among 6-12-year-old Pakistani school going children living in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between June and September 2014. A total number of screened children were 496 among them 259 were males and 237 were females. World Health Organization′s scale was used to examine children for dental fluorosis. Results...

  5. [Prevalence of dental fluorosis and consumption of hidden fluoride in school children in the municipality of Nezahualcóyotl].

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    Chacón, Luis Fernando Galicia; López, María Lilia Adriana Juárez; Frechero, Nelly Molina

    2009-01-01

    Dental fluorosis is a dental tissue disease, characterized by hypomineralization resulting from excess fluoride reaching the developing tooth. In Mexico in recent years, the prevalence of fluorosis has increased by the exposure to different fluoridated sources such as those found in soft drinks and beverages. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children living in Nezahualcoyotl, state of Mexico and identify associated risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 455 children aged 6-13 years who had been assessed by a previously standardized observer following WHO criteria. We administered The Community Fluorosis index (FCI) and a survey that analyzed the exposure to fluorides hidden in carbonated drinks, juices, bottled water, tea and the use of fluoride toothpastes. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 73.4%. Very mild and mild fluorosis were the more common levels. The Community Fluorosis index (ICF) was 1.18 +/- 0.80. School children living at Nezahualcoyotl that answered they did drink hidden fluorides > 0.71 ppm thought bottled beverages were more of a risk to develop dental fluorosis (RM 1,554, 95% CI 1.016-2.378, pfluorosis results from fluoride intake by different sources, however our study, consumption of fluoride hidden in soft and bottled drinks showed a significant correlation with observed fluorosis.

  6. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fatemeh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Hosseini, Mostafa; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Parvizishad, Mina; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background. Regarding the lack of comprehensive systematic review on the efficacy of water fluoridation and prevalence of dental fluorosis, the aim of the current research was to systematically study the prevalence of dental fluorosis at different levels of water fluoride in the world and lay emphasis on the amount of fluoride in drinking water. Methods. Studies were searched in PubMed, Scopus, SID, and IranMedex, with regard to inclusion criteria. Study validity was assessed with some checklists, and analyses were performed to ascertain the prevalence of dental fluorosis among individuals categorized in age groups. Results. Investigation of the heterogeneity and analysis of the subgroups revealed that in the 6-18 year age group, when water fluoride level was less than 0.7 ppm and there was exposure to water fluoride in the first 6-8 years of life, no significant heterogeneity was detected among the studies in this subgroup. Thus, the pooled estimation of dental fluorosis prevalence in this subgroup was 12.9% (95% CI: 7.5-18.3%). Furthermore, meta-regression indicated that the exposure time to fluoride in drinking water, or exposure to fluoride in supplements, diets, air, etc as well as the quality of studies had a significant relation to the difference in the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Conclusion. The results revealed no heterogeneity in just 2 subgroups, and the results of subgroups could be pooled in them. Furthermore, the number of studies included in this review considerably decreased by considering all the detected confounding factors, whereas other similar systematic reviews mentioned at most 2 factors.

  7. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 4- to 14-year-old children from the town of Dimitrovgrad (Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukleva, Maria P; Isheva, Alexandra V; Kondeva, Veselina K; Dimitrova, Mariana M; Petrova, Svetla G

    2007-01-01

    There has been no study on the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bulgaria of today where people have free access to some fluoride-containing products. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis among children 4 to 14 years old from the town of Dimitrovgrad, where due to unsatisfactory qualities of tap water people consume bottled water including such with fluoride levels higher than 1.5 mg/l. The study included 1504 randomly selected children. We analysed subjects with dental fluorosis according to Dean's modified criteria. The following severity levels were defined: 0 - normal; 0.5 - suspicious; 1 - very mild; 2 - mild; 3 - moderate; 4 - severe. Data were analyzed separately for the different types of dentitions. Results showed that 54.52% of all children included in the study had dental fluorosis in different degrees. Primary teeth were affected by dental fluorosis less frequently than permanent teeth (P children had fluorosis of permanent teeth only, 1.64% had dental fluorosis of primary teeth only and 12.50% had both their primary and permanent teeth affected. The proportion of individuals with the lowest degree of severity - 0.5, was the greatest both for the primary and permanent teeth. Comparison with the proportions of children with more severe degrees of fluorosis revealed significant differences (P < 0.001). The results of the study showed excessive fluoride intake during tooth development and suggested a need for further research of risk factors.

  8. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Guntipalli. M; Rahamthullah, S. A. K. Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water ...

  9. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-12-01

    To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71.

  10. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ramires

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in scholars aging 12 to 15 years old, residents in the city of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 1318 volunteers were enrolled in this study and examined in 18 public schools of the State of São Paulo. The examinations were performed in the schools' court by three dentists (with a Master's degree in Public Health, after toothbrushing supervised by another dentist. The teeth were dried with cotton pellets and examined under natural light by visual inspection, using an explorer as recommended by the WHO, a plane mirror and a tongue depressor. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index was used for rating fluorosis. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility was calculated and data were submitted to descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Approximately 36% of the children presented dental fluorosis, of which 28% was diagnosed as TF1 while the remaining received scores between TF2 and TF4. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Bauru is within the expected range, based on previous studies. Although fluoride is an important resource for caries control, its use must be adequate to the needs of each specific population.

  11. The role of partial recording protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke; Iafolla, Timothy; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel; Adams, Amy; Kingman, Albert

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the role of partial recording protocols (PRPs) in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and assess whether prevalence/severity estimates derived from PRPs differ by race/ethnicity. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2004 were analyzed with Stata(®) v.11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis obtained from a full-mouth examination (28 teeth gold standard) was compared with estimates derived from four subsets of teeth (maxillary canine-to-canine; maxillary first-premolar-to-first-premolar; all-premolars; all-molars). Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), absolute bias, and correction factors were calculated against gold standard estimate. Analysis was stratified according to race/ethnicity to assess differences in estimates derived from PRPs. All subsets underestimated prevalence albeit to varying degrees. Two subsets (all-premolars and all-molars) had prevalence and severity estimates closest to gold standard estimates. The all-molars subset (eight teeth) recorded the highest sensitivity (84.5%) and the lowest absolute bias (3.5%) of all subsets relative to gold standard. Subsets derived from esthetically relevant teeth produced the lowest fluorosis prevalence. For instance, the maxillary canine-to-canine subset underestimated prevalence by 9.5%; incorporating the maxillary first premolars in the span improved prevalence estimate by 31%. Among non-Hispanic Whites, the all-premolars subset produced estimates closest to gold standard while the all-molars subset produced estimates closest to the gold standard among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. While the majority of dental fluorosis in the United States is very mild, concerns regarding its growing prevalence underscore the need for careful monitoring. The use of PRPs offers an alternative method of assessment, with validity of reported prevalence and severity dependent on choice of subset. Published 2014. This article is a U

  12. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of chidambaram taluk, cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Kalyani, C; Vijayarani, Mp; Jayakodi, P; Felix, Ajw; Nagarajan, S; Arunmozhi, P; Krishnan, V

    2008-07-01

    Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean's fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997). Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls) were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI) score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Three out of six villages studied were in 'borderline' public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6). A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the condition in the study region.

  13. [Dental fluorosis prevalence in eight cohorts of Mexicans born during the implementation of the Fluoridated Domestic Salt National Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    to determine the effect of birth cohort on dental fluorosis in Mexican schoolchildren during the implementation of the national program to fluoridate domestic salt. in a cross-sectional study we examined 1,644 schoolchildren 6-13 years old born between 1985-1992 in Campeche, México; a community where there is negligible naturally available fluoride in water supplies. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Dean’s index in the permanent dentition. Questionnaires were used to identify diverse socio-demographic and socio-economic variables. In the statistical analysis logistic regression was used. the prevalence of fluorosis was 15.5%. In the multivariate model,we observed fluorosis was associated with larger family sizes (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84-0.99) and female sex (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.57-0.98). Furthermore, using the cohort of 1985 as a comparison group, no significant dental fluorosis differences were found with those born between 1986-1987; in contrast, in the cohorts born between 1989-1992 the risk of dental fluorosis increased by almost four times (p fluorosis was low compared to other studies in Mexico. In this community with negligible fluoride in water supplies the likelihood of dental fluorosis increased as the windows of susceptibility in birth cohorts were closer to the chronologic beginning of the national domestic salt fluoridation program in 1991. This trend was more apparent after 1991.

  14. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Baelum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively; the prevalence of non-fluoride opacities was 8% and 19%, respectively; and the prevalence of hypoplasia was 12% and 16%, respectively, in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups. Higher caries levels were noted in children with no fluorosis compared to those with fluorosis recorded (mean DS difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions.

  15. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaradoss, Jagan Kumar; Clement, Roger B; Narayanan, Aswath

    2008-01-01

    This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children) of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  16. Assessment of fluoride level in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M; Husain, I; Hussain, J; Kumar, S

    2013-10-01

    In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L) in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%-72.1%) had dental fluoros---252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  17. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem.Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis.Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis.Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  18. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces....../teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm...... fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively...

  19. The impact of a dental program for maternal and infant health on the prevalence of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Carvalho, Mayana Monteiro; Silva, Mikaelle Claro Costa; de Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; de Deus Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida; de Melo Simplício, Alexandre Henrique

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children, whose parents had participated in an oral health program when the children were between zero and three years old, residing in a city with fluoridated water. Group 1 consisted of 128 eight- to 12-year-olds whose parents had visited a program on at least five occasions when the children were zero to three years old and received education about tooth-brushing and the proper use of fluoridated toothpaste in this young age group. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the permanent maxillary incisors, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index, in Group 1 was compared to that of an age-matched group of children (n=128) whose parents had not participated in the program (Group 2). Group 1 mothers reported higher education levels (Pchildren had a significantly lower prevalence (∼42 percent) and severity (Pfluorosis than those in the control group (∼61 percent). Children whose parents participated in a dental program that included counselling on the proper amount of fluoridated toothpaste when their children were between zero and three years old presented less frequently with dental fluorosis than a control group when examined at eight to 12 years old.

  20. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, S V; Bhalani, K D; Shah, D; Shah, V S; Mehta, K G

    2012-06-01

    Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings.

  1. [Dental fluorosis prevalence in Mexican localities of 27 states and the D.F.: six years after the publication of the Salt Fluoridation Mexican Official Regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Lineares, Armandor; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Mejía-González, Adriana; Zepeda-Zapeda, Marco; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in communities located in 28 states of Mexico. The National Dental Caries Survey 2001 (NDCS2001) data base was analyzed. The information of 26,893 students, ages 12 and 15 years old, of 27 states and the Federal District was examined. Dean's dental fluorosis index was applied by standardized examiners. The fluorosis prevalence and the Community Fluorosis Index (FCI) were calculated. The fluorosis prevalence was 27.9% (95% CI 24.4, 28.5). A statistical significance difference in the fluorosis prevalence was observed among the states studied (p dental fluorosis index. A low level of the FCI was found in the localities belonging to 19 (67.9%) of the states studied (FCI dental fluorosis is a public health problem. Two-thirds of the states had localities with low prevalence of dental fluorosis; however, approximately, one-third of the states investigated the fluorosis levels showed the need of a reduction in fluoride exposure among the young population.

  2. Dental caries and fluorosis prevalence and their relationship with socioeconomic and behavioural variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Aline Sampieri; da Silva, Renato Pereira; de Meneghim, Marcelo; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate caries experience and fluorosis prevalence in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Piracicaba, Brazil in 2007 and to verify the relationship of these changes with socioeconomic and behavioural variables. The sample consisted of 724 schoolchildren from public and private schools. A calibrated dentist performed the examination under natural light using CPI probes and mirrors. The mean number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) and the SiC (Significant Caries Index) were determined for dental caries and the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (T-F) for fluorosis. Socioeconomic and behavioural variables were collected by means of a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to verify the relationship of caries and fluorosis with socioeconomic and behavioural variables. The DMFT and SiC indices were 0.85 (±1.54) and 2.52 (±1.72). Fluorosis prevalence was 29.42%. The regression models showed that children whose families earned up to four minimum wages were 2.58 times more prone to having caries than those whose families earned over four minimum wages. Furthermore, children who visited the dentist were 4.27 times more likely to have DMFT > 0. However, for fluorosis, the regression model was not significant. The 12-year-old schoolchildren in Piracicaba presented very low caries prevalence. Significant associations were observed between the presence of caries, monthly family income and visiting the dentist. Considering dental fluorosis, the majority of the sample presented no clinical signs of fluorosis.

  3. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sunitha, S

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10-12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  4. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the

  5. Aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Ninawe, Nupur

    2013-05-22

    Significant numbers of patients visiting the paediatric dental clinics have aesthetically objectionable brown stains and desire treatment for them. Intrinsic tooth discolouration can be a significant aesthetic, and in some instances, functional, problem. Dental fluorosis, tetracycline staining, localised and chronological hypoplasia, and both amelogenesis and dentinogenesis imperfecta can all produce a cosmetically unsatisfactory dentition. The aetiology of intrinsic discolouration of enamel may sometimes be deduced from the patient's history, and one factor long associated with the problem has been a high level of fluoride intake. Optimal use of topical fluorides leads to a decrease in the caries prevalence but may show an increase in the prevalence of fluorosis staining because of metabolic alterations in the ameloblasts, causing a defective matrix formation and improper calcification. A 12-year-old male patient was screened at the dental clinic for routine dental care. He wanted us to remove and/or minimise the noticeable brown/yellow staining of his teeth. He requested the least invasive and most cost-effective treatment to change his smile. Various treatment modalities are present for the treatment of fluorosis stains. This report discusses the microabrasion technique in the patient having dental fluorosis.

  6. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram taluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors

  7. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years school children of Bharatpur city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Vardhan Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthy teeth are important for any section of society. Dental caries, the product of man's progress toward civilization, has a very high morbidity potential. Fluoride has been recognized as one of the most influential factor responsible for the observed decline of caries among children as well as adults of these countries. While fluoride is accepted as an effective method to prevent caries, the excessive consumption of fluoride can put teeth at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Aims and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–15 years old government and private school children of Bharatpur city, Rajasthan. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out on total 1400 school children, out of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental fluorosis according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was found higher among government school children, that is, 54.5% when compared to private school children, that is, 45.5% respectively, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The study showed the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis among government school children as compared to private school children. Dental fluorosis was found to be the major public health problem among both government and private school children of Bharatpur city which needed immediate attention. Regular dental check-ups and routine oral hygiene practice will enable them to lead a healthier life.

  8. [Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence in Senegalese children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming a poor fluoridated drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M; Diawara, C K; Ndiaye, K R; Yam, A A

    2008-01-01

    The role of fluoride in dental caries prevention when applied at optimal levels is well established. However, ingestion of excessive fluoride during tooth development can cause structural changes in tooth enamel named fluorosis. At Gandiaye a city situated in the Senegalese endemic fluorosis area, the main water supply provided by a unique drilling with highly fluoridated water has broken down in 1996. Since then, the drinking water comes from wells which have poor levels of fluorides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and tooth decays in children born and reared continuously at Gandiaye after the stoppage of the drills and who were drinking water well. Water samples were collected from two wells and analyzed using a spectrometer and a specific fluoride electrode. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis was evaluated according to Dean's method, and the caries experience was measured using the DMF teeth index in 150 children aged from 6 to 8 years. The fluoride levels in the water well were comprised between 0.03 ppm and 0.09 ppm according to the method used. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 39.33% with the predominance of the very low to low fluorosis forms. The tooth decay prevalence was 48.66% and the mean DMF tooth was 0.98. A significant relationship was found between the dental fluorosis and the low caries levels. A low to moderate dental fluorosis associated with a significant decrease of caries prevalence was found in children living in a high-fluoride area and consuming poorly fluorided water.

  9. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  10. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the m

  11. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the m

  12. Prevalence of dental caries among 13 and 15-year-old school children in an endemic fluorosis area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Br; Laxmi, G Sri; Sudhakar, P; Malik, Vn; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalaxmi; Prasanna, A Lakshmi

    2011-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children in Panyam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 school children and were examined for dental fluorosis and dental caries. This study shows that male students have a decrease in DMFT (Decayed, missing, filled, teeth) index and increase in Dean's index when compared with females. Among students with 13 to 15 years of age, 13-year-old student has increase in DMFT score when compared with other age groups and 14-year-old students has increase in Dean's score when compared with other age group students. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with the increase of fluorosis among the students examined. Patients with dental fluorosis show a decreased prevalence of dental caries.

  13. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaradoss Jagan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Results: Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P < 0.001. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  14. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children in Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B U Sarvaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean′s index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. Conclusion: There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  15. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children in Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district, Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvaiya, B U; Bhayya, D; Arora, R; Mehta, D N

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation with different fluoride levels in drinking water among school going children of 6-12 years age group. Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's index in school children of selected villages. The drinking water samples of all the selected villages were collected in polyethylene bottles and the fluoride content of these samples was determined by fluoride ion selective method using Orion microprocessor analyser. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 69.84%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) with corresponding increase in water fluoride content was found. There was an increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with a corresponding increase in water fluoride content from 0.8 ppm to 4.1 ppm. A significantly strong positive correlation was found between CFI and fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  16. Dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozny, J.

    1965-01-01

    Dental fluorosis in cattle was used as an indicator of toxic effects produced by fluorine emissions from an aluminium factory. Data are presented on the effects of a ten-year exposure to fluorides on cattle teeth. Emissions from the factory were observed in two directions from the factory, and extended as far as 16 km from the source.

  17. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    OpenAIRE

    Moimaz,Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando [UNESP; Marques, Lívia Bino; Garbin,Cléa Adas Saliba; Nemre Adas SALIBA

    2015-01-01

    This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion....

  18. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    OpenAIRE

    Moimaz,Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba,Orlando; Lívia Bino MARQUES; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; SALIBA,Nemre Adas

    2015-01-01

    This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study crit...

  19. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  20. Dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Gahder-Sara; May, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to excessive fluoride intake during the early childhood years can disrupt the normal development of enamel, resulting in dental fluorosis. This varies in severity, ranging from white opacities in mild cases to more severe black and brown discoloration or enamel pitting. This article aims to give the reader a better understanding of the aetiology, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient. Fluorosis can have a marked effect on dental aesthetics. The prevalence of fluorosis in the United Kingdom may increase following the publication of Delivering Better Oral Health, published by the Department of Health in 2007, which suggested changes to fluoride levels in children's toothpastes. This article highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of fluorosis and also explains the treatment options available to paediatric patients.

  1. Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a change in the mineralization of the dental hard tissues (enamel, dentin, and cementum) caused by long-term ingestion ( ... teeth excluding third molars). Once the tooth erupts, dental fluorosis ... changes in enamel. Changes range from barely visible lacy white markings ...

  2. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the high and low altitude parts of Central Plateau, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosu, T J; Zoakah, A I; Chirdan, O A

    2009-09-01

    To compare the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the high and low altitude parts of the Central Senatorial District of Plateau State. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. The community based study was carried out in Central Plateau Nigeria, in 2005. The study subjects were 12-15 year old life long residents selected using the multistage sampling technique. One Local Government Area each was randomly selected from the high and low altitude parts of the district and from each selected Local Government Area two health districts were randomly selected with probability proportional to size. From each of the selected health Districts two major settlements were selected again with probability proportional to size. 12-15 year old life long residents of the selected settlements were studied. Each respondent completed an interviewer administered questionnaire after which he/she was clinically examined to ascertain his/her fluorosis status. Samples of water were collected from water sources consumed by the respondents in each settlement. The main outcome measures were presence and severity of dental fluorosis as measured by the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. (TF score). One thousand one hundred children were studied, 554 (50.4%) from the high altitude part of the district and 546 (49.6%) from the low altitude part. Fluorosis prevalence was 12.9% in the district, but significantly higher (22.2%) in the high altitude areas compared to the low altitude ones (3.5%). The severest form of fluorosis in the district was TF 6 for tooth 14 and TF 5 for tooth 11. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis is significantly higher in the high altitude parts of the District compared to the low altitude ones. Efforts are needed to further investigate and control the problem.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and15 year-old school children in an endemic fluoride area of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature on the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in Nalgonda district, an endemic fluoride belt in India was scanty. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in Nalgonda district. Materials and Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration. The oral examination for dental caries and fluorosis among children who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using mouth mirror and CPI (Community Periodontal Index probe under natural daylight. The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among 12 and 15 year old school children was 42.6% and 48.6% respectively. The prevalence was more among females (56.9% than males (34.2%. The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (67% followed by very high fluoride area (56.1%. The lowest prevalence was in medium fluoride area (20.5%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in the gender and age distribution. Conclusion: Defluoridation of water in areas where the concentration of fluoride is more than optimal is an immediate need as dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in these areas.

  4. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  5. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72% and male (59% children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%, the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%. However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  6. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  7. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content. PMID:27307668

  8. Reversal of dental fluorosis: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhaval N; Shah, Jigna

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical reversal of dental fluorosis with various combinations of calcium, vitamin D3, and ascorbic acid, along with changes in levels of certain biochemical parameters concerned with dental fluorosis. The role of fluoride level of drinking water in the etiology of dental fluorosis and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in both dentitions and teeth were also assessed. A total number of 50 patients with clinical features of dental fluorosis without trauma and any adverse habits were selected. Of these, in 30 co-operative patients, estimation of water fluoride level and pretreatment and post-treatment serum and urine fluoride levels were done with ion selective electrode method. The selected 30 patients were divided into three groups, that is, group A, group B, and group C, and were given various combinations of medications like calcium with vitamin D3 supplements, ascorbic acid with vitamin D3 supplements, and chlorhexidine mouthwash (placebo) for three months, respectively. These 30 patients were assessed for any change in the clinical grading of dental fluorosis. No change in clinical grading of dental fluorosis was noted. Considerable reduction in serum and urine fluoride levels was noted in both group A and group B patients. Dental fluorosis was noted in permanent teeth more commonly than deciduous teeth, and permanent maxillary central incisors had the highest prevalence rate. This study comprises only 30 patients with three months of follow-up. So, this sample of patients and duration of follow-up period are conclusive to observe changes in biochemical parameters but not sufficient to observe changes in clinical grading.

  9. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in rural field practice area of a medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banavaram Anniappan Arvind

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.

  10. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children of an area known for endemic fluorosis: Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir K; Prashant G; Subba Reddy V; Mohandas U; Chandu G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess dental fluorosis and to compare fluorosis in incisor teeth among 13- to 15-year-old school children of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. A total of 1000 school children aged 13 to 15 years were selected by stratified cluster sampling from 4 different areas with different levels of naturally occurring fluoride in drinking water. Fluorosis was recorded using TF index (TFI). Result...

  11. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children's life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Marques, Lívia Bino; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Nemre Adas

    2015-01-01

    This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children's area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9%) children; from these, 220 (44.4%) children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9%) with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4%) with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2%) child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004) was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  12. Dental fluorosis and its influence on children’s life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba MOIMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old children and its association with different fluoride levels in the public water supply, and evaluated the level of perception of dental fluorosis by the studied children. To assess fluorosis prevalence, clinical examinations were performed and a structured instrument was used to evaluate the self-perception of fluorosis. The water supply source in the children’s area of residence since birth was used as the study criterion. In total, 496 children were included in the study. Fluorosis was diagnosed in 292 (58.9% children; from these, 220 (44.4% children were diagnosed with very mild fluorosis, 59 (11.9% with mild fluorosis, 12 (2.4% with moderate fluorosis, and 1 (0.2% child with severe fluorosis. A significant association (p = 0.0004 was observed between the presence of fluorosis and areas with excessive fluoride in the water supply. Among the 292 children that showed fluorosis, 40% perceived the presence of spots in their teeth. The prevalence of fluorosis was slightly high, and the mildest levels were the most frequently observed. Although most of the children showed fluorosis to various degrees, the majority did not perceive these spots, suggesting that this alteration did not affect their quality of life.

  13. Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Prevalence among 12 and 15-Year-Old School Children in Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi Jr; Parthasarathi, P; Anjum, S; Shekar, Brc; Padma, Cm; Rani, As

    2014-09-01

    Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries and dental fluorosis prevalence among 12 and 15-year-old school children in Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. This was a cross-sectional study. Two stage cluster sampling technique was employed to select 20 schools from Nalgonda district. The oral examination of available 12 and 15-year-old children fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria was carried out to assess dental caries and fluorosis. The examination was conducted by a single trained and calibrated examiner using the mouth mirror and community periodontal index probe under natural daylight. These areas were divided into four categories, low, medium, high and very high fluoride areas based on the fluoride concentration at the time of statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The caries prevalence was less among 12-year-old children (39.9% [369/924]) compared with 15-years-old children (46.7% [444/951]). The prevalence was more among females (50.4% [492/977]) than males (35.8% [321/898]). The prevalence was more in low fluoride area (60.5% [300/496]) followed by very high fluoride area (54.8% [201/367]), high fluoride area (32.4% [293/904]) and medium fluoride area (17.6% [19/108]) in the descending order. The fluorosis prevalence increased with increasing fluoride concentration with no difference in gender and age distribution. Low fluoride areas require fluoridation or alternate sources of fluoride, whereas high fluoride areas require defluoridation. Defluoridation of water is an immediate requirement in areas with fluoride concentration of 4 parts per million and above as dental fluorosis is a public

  14. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO...

  15. Dietary behaviours and dental fluorosis among Gaza Strip children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaloob, L; Abed, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. A cross-sectional study recruited a stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18 years and their mothers. Data about dietary behaviours in the first 7 years of life were collected by interview questionnaire. Dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index. A majority of children were breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months (82.9%) but 98.1% were given tea in the first year of life. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 78.0%. Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Further studies to investigate fluoride intake is required to plan preventive interventions.

  16. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among 6–12-Year-Old School Children of Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India − A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola S Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telangana state in southern India has many areas which have high–low fluoride levels in drinking water, and Mahabubnagar district is one among them, where people are affected with dental and skeletal fluorosis, with the majority belonging to low socio-economic status. Aims: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Mahabubnagar district and also to assess fluoride levels in drinking water from different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 children in the age group 6–12 years in different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Dental fluorosis status was assessed by using Modified Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Alizarin visual method was used to estimate fluoride levels in water. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Dental fluorosis in primary and permanent dentition was 15 and 70.3%, respectively. In the northern part of Mahabubnagar district, primary dentition was more affected by fluorosis whereas in southern part, the permanent dentition was more affected. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was more in 6–7-year-old children (35.5%, and in permanent dentition, it was more in 9–10-year-old children (70%. The fluoride level in drinking water was more in Kosghi, Kalwakurthy (2.0 ppm. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was more in 10-year-old and less in 6-year-old children. It was more in eastern and northern zones of Mahabubnagar district and less in local villages of Mahabubnagar.

  17. DENTAL FLUOROSIS IN CHILDREN

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    K. Imandel

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Some children of Borazjan area have minute white flecks, yellow or brown spot areas scattered irregularly over the tooth surface, the causative factor was attributed to excess of fluoride in water. To verify this matter short chemical examination of water samples from endemic area was carried out. The results of water analysis by colorimetric method, using zirconium a1izarin reagent after distillation the samples, showed that the average mount of fluoride of Borazjan and the mixture of treated. Water of Boshigan River with water piped of Borazjan wells were 4 and 2 times respectively more than recommended control limits for fluoride and confirmed that this was the causative agent of mottled, teeth (Dental Fluorosis.

  18. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla; Twetman, Svante; Wennhall, Inger; Matsson, Lars

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years. The study group consisted of 135 10- to 11-year-old children who had participated in the programme, including parent education, tooth-brushing instruction and prescribed fluoride tablets (0.25 mg NaF) (2-3 years: 1 tablet/day; 3-5 years: 2 tablets/day). The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the study group was compared with that in a nonintervention reference group consisting of 129 children of the same ages. The analysis was based on photos of the permanent maxillary front teeth using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov (TF) Index. No statistically significant difference in prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen between the two groups. Forty-three percent of the children in the study group and 38% in the reference group had fluorosis, the majority of a mild nature (TF-score 1). None had a TF score above 2. The pattern was the same after correction for parent reported intake of tablets at 3 and 5 years of age. Introduction of fluoride tablets at the age of 2 years did not result in increased prevalence of dental fluorosis.

  19. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás

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    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075, and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index. The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%, mild (4.4%, moderate (2.6%, and severe (0.5%. No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  20. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010. This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075), and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling) and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index). The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program) and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%), mild (4.4%), moderate (2.6%), and severe (0.5%). No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  1. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Chandra; Cheluvaiah, Manjunath Bhadravathi; Namile, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt) . 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean's fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3%) and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 years old school children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water in an endemic fluoride belt of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The published literature on the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis among school going children in Nalgonda district - An Endemic Fluoride belt was lacking . Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children in relation to fluoride concentration in drinking water . Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study, done in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, India (endemic fluoride belt . Materials and Methods: 5 of the 59 mandals in the district of Nalgonda were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 3 schools from each of these selected mandals were chosen at random. All the eligible 6 th and 9 th standard children were considered for final analysis. The demographic and other relevant information was collected by 3 trained and calibrated dentists, using a structured questionnaire. Dental caries were recorded using dentition status and treatment needs and fluorosis were recorded by Dean′s fluorosis index. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among children was 56.3% with the highest in below optimal fluoride area (71.3% and lowest in optimal fluoride area (24.3%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 71.5%. The prevalence was 39.7% in below optimal fluoride area and 100% in high and very fluoride areas. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. The caries experience was more among boys than girls. Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between dental caries and fluoride concentration for the entire study population. However, in high fluoride areas, there was a positive correlation between fluoride concentration and dental caries. Water defluoridation on an urgent basis is a priority here than water fluoridation, because the prevalence and severity of dental flurorosis is very high.

  3. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface; with more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix/mineral interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the doserelated decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffleended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As

  4. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  5. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean's criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in the age group between 12-13 years followed by the age group between 13-14 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased upto grade 2 and then decreased from grade 3 to grade 5.

  6. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.

  7. Grading and quantification of dental fluorosis in zebrafish larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Zhang, Yanli; Zheng, Xueni; Xu, Rongchen; He, Huiming; Duan, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary teeth are different from permanent teeth. Previous animal models of dental fluorosis mainly focus on juvenile rats, mice and zebrafish. Our experiment aims to set a dental fluorosis model using zebrafish larva and explore the characteristics of the first generation teeth by fluoride treatment. After the zebrafish eggs were laid, they were exposed to excess fluoride (19ppm, 38ppm and 76ppm) for five days. The morphological characteristics of first generation teeth were examined by H&E staining, whole-mount alizarin red and alcian blue staining, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. With whole-mount alizarin red and alcian blue staining, the tooth cusps presented red in normal control. 19ppm and 38ppmm fluoride resulted in extensive red staining from tooth cusps to the lower 1/3 of teeth. 76ppm fluoride caused malformed teeth with uneven red staining. H&E staining showed that excess fluoride caused cystic-like changes in 38ppm and 76ppm groups. SEM revealed the dose dependent pathological changes in zebrafish enameloid with fluoride treatment. Based on SEM findings, we set 0-4 dental fluorosis index (DFI) score to label the severity of dental fluorosis. Excess fluoride presented a dose dependent fluorosis changes in the teeth of zebrafish larva. The DFI scores in our experiment reflect dose dependent fluorosis changes in a good way and will benefit the future research of dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors associated to endemic dental fluorosis in Brazilian rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2010-08-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  9. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

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    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  10. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

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    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  11. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Ma...

  12. Dental fluorosis, dental caries, and quality of life factors among schoolchildren in a Colombian fluorotic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, M; Santamaria, R M; Gomez, J; Martignon, S

    2012-03-01

    To assess dental fluorosis, dental caries and quality of life factors associated with dental fluorosis among schoolchildren living in a Colombian endemic dental fluorosis area. 110 12-year olds were visually examined for dental caries (ICDAS) and dental fluorosis (TF) and a self-administered quality of life and fluorosis questionnaire was applied. The prevalence of dental fluorosis reached 100% in this sample with most children falling within the TF 3 severity category. Varying degrees of severity were observed as follows for TF 1 to 6: 1%, 16%, 62%, 16%, 4%, 2%. The prevalence of caries experience (DF-S2) was 54%. The DF-S2 mean was 4.4 (sd 4.3). The principal contributor to the DF-S2 outcome was the decayed component. When initial caries lesions were included (ICDAS-scores 1-3) the mean DF-S1,2 increased to 10 (sd 5.1). The association between fluorosis and dental caries was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Children not only detected the presence of something abnormal in their teeth but also reported feeling embarrassed, and worried due to their dental appearance. Almost 60% of the children reported avoiding smiling because of their teeth's appearance. The high prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries combined with the schoolchildren's negative perception about their dental health reflects the need to propose effective dental public health policies to regulate multiple exposures to fluoride at an early age, and to improve health outcomes in a highly vulnerable population.

  13. Relationships between daily total fluoride intake and dental fluorosis and dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanyong Xiang; Minghao Zhou; Ming Wu; Xinya Zhou; Li Lin; Jiuning Huang; Youxing Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationships between the dally total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis and dental caries.Methods:An epidemiological method was used to investigate the daily total intake of fluoride,dental fluorosis,and dental caries among 236 and 290 children aged 8-13 years in a severe endemic area and in a non-fluorosis control area,respectively.The children were divided into eight subgroups according to each child's estimated dally total intake of fluoride.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in each group was calculated.Results:As expected,elevated levels of fluoride intake were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis and an increasing amount of more severe defect dental fhiorosis.When the dally total F intake was 2.78 rag/child/day,the prevalence of dental fluorosis was nearly 100%,with the prevalence of defect dental fluorosis increasing with increasing fluoride intake.There was also a significant negative(inverse) dose-response relationship between the dally total intake of fluoride and the overall preva-lence of dental caries,the prevalence of which decreased when the daily total intake of fluoride increased up to 3.32 mg/child/day.However,at higher levels of daily total intake of fluoride the prevalence of dental caries increased,giving rise to a U-shaped dose-response relationship curve.Conclusion:It is important to monitor total fluoride exposure and protect children from excessive fluoride intake,especially during the years of tooth development.

  14. Estudo da prevalência de fluorose dentária em Aracaju Study of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Aracaju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wathson Feitosa de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de fluorose dentária em Aracaju (SE, 196 escolares foram submetidos a exame clínico bucal, utilizando o índice de Dean. Pôde ser concluído que a prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de cinco a quinze anos do município de Aracaju (SE foi de 8,16%, não implicando risco à saúde pública. Porém, estudos semelhantes devem ser realizados com periodicidade regular, além de orientação aos órgãos responsáveis pela fluoretação da água, para que os níveis considerados ótimos para essa região sejam respeitados, prevenindo assim o surgimento de tal ocorrência.With the aims of determining the prevalence dental fluorosis in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe State, 196 students were submitted to an oral exam, utilizing the Dean's index. It was concluded that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in students ranging from 5 to 15 years old in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe State was of 8.16%, not implying in a risk to public health. However, similar studies must be done regularly, besides orientation to governmental departments responsible for water fluoridation, so that the level considered excellent for this area can be respected, avoiding such problem to occur.

  15. Fluoride Exposure Effects and Dental Fluorosis in Children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Angulo, Marina; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; González González, Rogelio; Nevarez Rascón, Martina; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-11-26

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and to evaluate exposure to fluoridated products in students in the southwest part of the Federal District (Mexico City). MATERIAL AND METHODS Students between 10 and 12 years of age who were born and raised in the study zone were evaluated. The level of dental fluorosis was determined using the modified Dean index (DI) using criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). A bivariate analysis was performed with the χ2 test, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between dental fluorosis and the independent variables. RESULTS A total of 239 students were evaluated. Their mean age was 11±0.82 years, and there were 122 (51%) males. Overall, dental fluorosis was found in 59% of participants; 29.3% had very mild fluorosis, 20.9% had mild fluorosis, 6.7% had moderate fluorosis, and 2.1% had severe fluorosis. The mean fluorosis score was 0.887±0.956. In the final logistic regression model, dental fluorosis was significantly associated with frequency of brushing (OR: 0.444; 95% CI: 0.297-0.666) and with the absence of parental supervision (OR: 0.636; 95% CI: 0.525-0.771). CONCLUSIONS The association found with frequency of brushing and lack of parental supervision may be contributing to the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis.

  16. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age Valoración sanitaria de la superación del valor paramétrico de fluoruro en agua de consumo humano en relación con la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental en escolares de doce años de edad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gladis Gómez Santos; Concepción Fernández González; María Luisa Pita Toledo; Macrina María Martín Delgado

    2008-01-01

    .... The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition...

  17. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 anos de idade, Ouro Preto/MG - 2003 Prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12 year-old schoolchildren, Ouro Preto/MG - 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Fioravante Braga Barros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a prevalência da fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 anos de idade em Ouro Preto. METODOLOGIA: estudo seccional incluindo 248 crianças selecionadas aleatoriamente em 11 escolas do município. A amostra foi calculada de acordo com a metodologia descrita no Projeto SB2000. Os exames foram realizados por cirurgião-dentista treinado e calibrado. Os índices utilizados para medir a fluorose foram: índice de Dean e índice comunitário de fluorose. RESULTADOS: De 248 crianças selecionadas, 159 (64,1% participaram deste estudo. A prevalência de fluorose (índice de Dean encontrada foi de 11,4%, sendo composta pela condição muito leve (10,1% e leve (1,3%. A condição moderada e severa de fluorose não foi encontrada. Os dentes mais acometidos por fluorose foram os pré-molares, molares, incisivos e caninos. Não houve diferença entre os sexos quanto ao grau de fluorose, e o índice comunitário de fluorose foi de 0,29. CONCLUSÃO: a fluorose em crianças de 12 anos não é um problema de saúde pública em Ouro Preto, dado que a prevalência não é alta e quase todos os casos encontrados são muito leves.OBJECTIVE: to find out the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Ouro Preto. METHODOLOGY: cross-sectional study including 248 children randomly selected from 11 schools in the town. The sample was calculated according to the methodology described in Project SB2000. Exams were undertaken by a trained and calibrated dentist. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by the Dean index and index of community fluorosis. RESULTS: 159 (64.1% children, among the 248 who were selected, participated in the study. The prevalence of fluorosis (Dean index found was 11.4%, and it was found to be a very mild (10.1% or mild (1.3% condition. Moderate and severe fluorosis were not found. The teeth most affected by fluorosis were pre-molars, molars, incisors and canines. There was no difference between genders as to the

  18. [Dental fluorosis in 6-13-year-old children attending public schools in Medellín, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Puerta, Blanca S; Franco-Cortés, Angela M; Ochoa-Acosta, Emilia M

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed at determining dental fluorosis prevalence and severity amongst 6-13-year-old students residing in Medellin, Colombia. A descriptive study was carried out on 1,330 students attending 34 public schools in the city of Medellin. Two dentists trained in dental fluorosis diagnosis performed the examinations were after the teeth had been brushed. Teeth were dried with gauze, isolated with cotton pellets and visually examined in natural light. The Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) was used for rating fluorosis. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 81 % (TFI>1); 46.4 % was related to mild dental fluorosis (TFI1 and TFI2) and 8.8% to severe dental fluorosis (TFI >5). TFI > or = 1 was found in 21 % of the children being examined in at least 50 % of their teeth. Dental fluorosis prevalence level was found to be high in Medellín, Colombia; health authorities should thus focus their attention on preventing this problem.

  19. Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    Caries incidence and prevalence have decreased significantly over the last few decades due to the widespread use of fluoride. However, an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis has been reported simultaneously in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Dental fluorosis occurs due to excessive fluoride intake during the critical period of tooth development. For the permanent maxillary central incisors, the window of maximum susceptibility to the occurrence of fluorosis is the first 3 years of life. Thus, during this time, a close monitoring of fluoride intake must be accomplished in order to avoid dental fluorosis. This review describes the main sources of fluoride intake that have been identified: fluoridated drinking water, fluoride toothpaste, dietary fluoride supplements and infant formulas. Recommendations on how to avoid excessive fluoride intake from these sources are also given. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its relationship to socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness among 12-year-old school children in Quetta, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among 349 school children aged 12 years in Quetta, Pakistan. By interviewing children and questionnaire for parents, socioeconomic status, knowledge, and awareness of fluorosis were collected. Dental fluorosis was examined using Dean's Index and Community Fluorosis Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was high (63.6%) among children with a majority of moderate and mild degree at 32.1% and 27.5%, respectively. The community fluorosis index was 1.6. While most children and parents had low-to-moderate levels of fluorosis knowledge, the majority of them worried about dental fluorosis. Most parents (84.8%) were uncertain about the condition of fluorosis in their children, and 87.4% did not know about fluorosis before. Dental fluorosis was found significantly associated with gender, family income, and parents' awareness (p ≤ 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, and parent's awareness significantly predicted children's dental fluorosis. Knowledge and basic information regarding dental fluorosis is lacking in the community. Efforts in dissemination and communication about dental fluorosis should be increased in order to raise awareness and prevent the dental fluorosis in Pakistan.

  1. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    OpenAIRE

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according t...

  2. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de Brasília - Distrito Federal Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children from Brasília - Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Lopes CAMPOS

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de avaliar a prevalência de fluorose dentária, foi realizado levantamento epidemiológico em Brasília, Distrito Federal, comunidade na qual o teor de flúor na água de abastecimento público é de 0,8 ppm. Foram examinadas 833 crianças de ambos os sexos com idades variando entre 8 e 12 anos, escolares e residentes em Brasília desde o nascimento. Os exames foram realizados em escolas públicas, em cadeira comum, sob luz natural e campo seco obtido com auxílio de gaze. Por meio do exame dos dentes permanentes anteriores superiores foi levantado o índice de fluorose entre os sexos. O percentual de crianças livres de fluorose apresentou-se elevado (85,36%, enquanto 14,64% mostraram níveis de fluorose dentária entre muito leve e moderado.An epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Brasilia - Federal District, a community where fluoride concentration is 0.8 ppm in drinking water. The sample consisted of 833 school children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 12, who have been living in Brasilia since birth. The anterior upper permanent teeth were examined and HOROWITZ fluorosis index was applied to evaluate pathological occurrences. No sex differences were observed in dental fluorosis prevalence. The authors found a high number of dental fluorosis free children (85.36% and 14.64% of the sample showed light and moderate levels of fluorosis.

  3. Investigation on prevalent condition of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis after Water-improvement Projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City%青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜玲; 周进才

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后氟斑牙及氟骨症患病情况,以评价其改水防治效果.方法 采用流行病学抽样调查的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队,高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队(原高桥4队),未改水的大坝镇滑石沟5队共670名儿童和1 400名25岁以上成人分别进行了氟斑牙和氟骨症的调查.结果 改水与未改水地区儿童氟斑牙患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=9.954,P<0.05);改水与未改水地区氟骨症患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=13.098,P<0.05);改水后水氟浓度为0.24~0.32 mg/L.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区经改水降氟后,饮用水符合卫生要求,但氟斑牙及氟骨症尚存在一定程度的流行,还未达到完全控制.%OBJECTIVE The survey is conducted to evaluate the result of water-improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City.METHODS By applying epidemiological sample survey method,some 670 children and 1 400 adults (> 25 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team of Yesheng Township,where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; in Xinqiao 5th team Daba Township,endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huashigou 5th team in Daba Township was not included in water-improvement area.RESULTS There was an evident difference in the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without sater-improvement projects (x2 =9.954,P< 0.05).There was an evident difference in skeletal fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the places without water-improvement projects areas (x2 =13.098,P< 0.05).Since the drinking water improvement,the fluoride content in drinking water was 0.24-0.32 mg/L.CONCLUSION After water-improvement projects in the endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City

  4. Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanto Alvarez, Jenny; Rezende, Karla Mayra P C; Marocho, Susana María Salazar; Alves, Fabiana B T; Celiberti, Paula; Ciamponi, Ana Lidia

    2009-02-01

    Dental fluorosis is a developmental disturbance of dental enamel, caused by successive exposures to high concentrations of fluoride during tooth development, leading to enamel with lower mineral content and increased porosity. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on when and for how long the overexposure to fluoride occurs, the individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutritional factors and bone growth. The risk period for esthetic changes in permanent teeth is between 20 and 30 months of age. The recommended level for daily fluoride intake is 0.05 - 0.07 mg F/Kg/day, which is considered of great help in preventing dental caries, acting in remineralization. A daily intake above this safe level leads to an increased risk of dental fluorosis. Currently recommended procedures for diagnosis of fluorosis should discriminate between symmetrical and asymmetrical and/or discrete patterns of opaque defects. Fluorosis can be prevented by having an adequate knowledge of the fluoride sources, knowing how to manage this issue and therefore, avoid overexposure.

  5. Dental fluorosis: concentration of fluoride in drinking water and consumption of bottled beverages in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, N; Torres-Mendoza, N; Borges-Yáñez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify dental fluorosis prevalence and to analyze its association with tap water fluoride concentration and beverage consumption in school children from the city of Oaxaca, who were receiving fluoridated salt. A cross-sectional study was performed on elementary public school children. Dean's Index was applied to assess dental fluorosis. The parents of the children who were studied completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics and type of beverages consumed by their children. A total of 917 school children participated in this study. Dental fluorosis prevalence was 80.8%. The most frequent fluorosis category was very mild (41.0%), and 16.4% of the children were in the mild category. The mean water fluoride concentration was 0.43 ppm (±0.12). No association was detected between tap water fluoride concentration and fluorosis severity. The multinomial regression model showed an association among the mild fluorosis category and age (OR = 1.25, [95% CI 1.04, 1.50]) and better socio-economic status (OR = 1.78, [95% CI 1.21, 2.60]), controlling for fluoride concentration in water. Moderate and severe fluorosis were associated with soft drink consumption (OR = 2.26, [95% IC 1.01, 5.09]), controlling for age, socio-economic status, and water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was high. Mild fluorosis was associated with higher socio-economic status, while higher fluorosis severity was associated with soft drink consumption.

  6. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P children (r = 0.134, P prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  7. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation to water or salt fluoridation and reported use of fluoride toothpaste in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, D; McLoughlin, J; Clarkson, J J

    2007-03-01

    To compare prevalence of dental fluorosis (DF) in permanent teeth in children whose domestic water supply was fluoridated since birth with that in a community where fluoridated salt was available. A second aim was to analyse the relationship between DF prevalence and reported use of fluoride toothpaste in early childhood. Cross-sectional study. A representative, random sample of 12-year-old children was examined in water fluoridated Dublin (Ireland) and non-water fluoridated Freiburg (Germany), where fluoridated salt was available. DF was recorded using the Dean's Index. The child's early experience of toothpaste use was recorded using a questionnaire. 377 children in Dublin and 322 children in Freiburg were examined. In Dublin 11.7% of the whole sample had a 'Questionable' level of DF, 9.8% had 'Very Mild', 3.7% had 'Mild' and 0.3% had 'Moderate' fluorosis. The corresponding percentages in Freiburg for all children were 10.9%, 4.0%, 3.4% and 0%. The results suggest that children in Dublin started brushing their teeth at an older age than in Freiburg, but no difference in DF levels was found between 'early' and 'late' users. Fisher's test revealed that the difference in DF levels between the two populations was statistically significant (p=0.03). The prevalence of aesthetically important DF ('Mild' and 'Moderate') was low and similar in both communities and considerably lower than the expected level at water fluoridation concentrations of 1 ppm. However, the prevalence of 'Very Mild' fluorosis was twice as frequent in Dublin than in Freiburg.

  8. [Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Canhua; Zhang, Shinan; Li, Yanhong

    2011-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47 +/- 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42 +/- 1.83. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.

  9. 氟斑牙检出率与病区土壤化学元素含量相关性研究%Correlation between prevalence of dental fluorosis and soil chemical elements in endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 黄巧; 王力; 雍开文; 张茂忠; 罗兴建; 晏维

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between chemical elements in soil and dental fluorosis and to provide a scientific basis for prevention of endemic fluorosis.Methods In 2011,using cluster sampling,totally 38 of 55 townships (towns) in Fengjie and Wushan Counties were selected as investigation spots.Dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 were examined with Dean index in all individuals from the sampled townships (towns).We also detected the content of fluorine(F),zinc(Zn),copper(Cu),iodine(I),selenium(Se),cadmium (Cd),chromium (Cr),arsenic (As),nickel (Ni),mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in topsoil of sampled townships (towns).Using Spearman rank correlation analysis the correlation between dental fluorosis prevalence and the content of chemical elements in the topsoil of selected townships (towns) was analyzed.Results Children's dental fluorosis prevalence was positively correlated with surface soil F and Cd content in Wushan County,but negatively correlated with the content of Cu,Zn and Se,and the correlation coefficients were 1.0000,0.9053,-0.6617,-0.7353 and-0.5143,respectively (P < 0.05).Children's dental fluorosis detection rate was also positively correlated with the surface soil content of F and Cd in Fengjie County,but also negatively correlated with the content of Cu,Zn and Se,and the correlation coefficients were 0.9959,0.9298,-0.5728,-0.8308 and-0.6533,respectively(P <0.05).Conclusions The relationship between detection rate of children's dental fluorosis and the content of F,Cd,Cu,Zn and Se in topsoil was positively or negatively correlated in Fengjie and Wushan Counties.And the relationship between these elements and endemic fluorosis should be further studied.%目的 探索土壤中的化学元素与氟斑牙的关系,为地方性氟中毒的防治提供科学依据.方法 2011年,在巫山县与奉节县的55个乡(镇)中,采取整群随机抽样方法,选择38个乡(镇),采用Dean法对所有8~ 12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查,并检测

  10. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  11. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  12. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte; Vasconcelos, Mara; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2013-12-01

    It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  13. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Melo Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227, 10 to 12 years (n = 153, 13 to 15 years (n = 92, 16 to 22 years (n = 39. For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF, dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0 and severity (TF 5. In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p 0.05. The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  14. Differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis made by undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Lilian; Lodi, Leodinei; Garbin, Raíssa Rigo

    2015-01-01

    To check knowledge of undergraduate dental students to make diagnosis of dental fluorosis with varying degrees of severity and choose its appropriate treatment. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire addressing knowledge of undergraduates based on ten images of mouths presenting enamel changes. Only three images were correctly diagnosed by most undergraduates; the major difficulty was in establishing dental fluorosis severity degree. Despite much information about fluorosis conveyed during the Dentistry training, as defined in the course syllabus, a significant part of the students was not able to differentiate it from other lesions; they did not demonstrate expertise as to defining severity of fluorosis and indications for treatment, and could not make the correct diagnosis of enamel surface changes.

  15. Study on the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the influencing factors in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin county Sichuan province%古蔺县地氟病区居民氟斑牙患病及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶运莉; 刘娅; 张青碧; 杨超; 陈建国; 周显刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解古蔺县地氟病区居民氟斑牙患病状况及其影响因素,为改进地氟病防治策略提供根据.方法 采用多阶段分层抽样的方法抽取古蔺县地氟病区的部分居民进行调查.结果 居民氟斑牙患病率为84.97%,1998年后出生的居民(8~12岁儿童)CFI为(0.84±0.86),氟斑牙患病率44.59%,1981年后出生居民的氟斑牙患病率明显降低(x2趋势=85.08,P< 0.001). “12岁前家里煮饭和取暖用煤”是氟斑牙发生的主要危险因素,OR值(95%CI)为3.08 (2.12~4.47). “12岁前家中参加了改良炉灶、家庭经济年收入高”是氟斑牙发生的保护因素,OR值(95%CI)分别为0.45(0.29 ~0.69)、0.72 (0.58~0.88).结论 该地区的地氟病防制措施取得了显著的成效,但儿童氟斑牙患病率仍然较高,应进一步分析居民降氟炉灶的使用情况及其影响因素,改进防治方案,促进地氟病防治工作的可持续发展.%OBJECTIVE To study local people's prevalence and the influencing factors of dental fluorosis in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin county Sichuan province, and provide the the scientific basis for improving the control strategies. METHODS Multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to select some residents in fluorosis ill districts in Gulin, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the related factors were surveyed. RESULTS The prevalence rate of residents' dental fluorosis was 84.97% in Gulin county. The CFI of people born after 1998 (children aged 8-12) was (0.84 ± 0.86) and their dental fluorosis prevalence was 44.59%. The people's prevalence of dental fluorosis decreased significantly (X2tend = 85.08, P< 0.001) born after 1981. The results showed that "home cooking and warming with coal before 12 years old" was a major risk factor for the occurrence of dental fluorosis, OR (95%CI) =3.08 (2.12-4.47), and "people took part in the improved stoves before 12 years old and high families income" were the protective

  16. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bardal, Priscila Ariede Petinuci; OLYMPIO, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997) criteria for de...

  17. Dental fluorosis in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ikreet S; Dennison, Peter J; Evans, R Wendell

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the adjustment of the fluoride concentration to 1 ppm in the drinking water supplied to the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia in 1993 was associated with fluorosis incidence. In 2003, children attending schools in the Blue Mountains and a control region (fluoridated in 1967) that had been randomly selected at baseline in 1992 were examined for dental fluorosis (maxillary central incisors only) using Dean's index. A fluoride history for each child was obtained by questionnaire. Associations between fluorosis and 58 potential explanatory variables were explored. The response rate was 63%. A total of 1138 children aged from 7 to 11 years with erupted permanent central incisors were examined for dental fluorosis. Fluorosis prevalence was the same in both regions. The Community Index of Dental Fluorosis values were slightly different, but were both above 0.6, indicative of public health concern. For the group as a whole, we concluded that: (a) fluorosis prevalence (0.39) in both regions was similar; and (b) the higher-than-expected prevalence and severity of fluorosis was due mainly to two factors: (a) the higher-than-optimal fluoride level in drinking water; and (b) swallowing of fluoride toothpaste in early childhood. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  19. Determination of fluorosis prevalence in rural communities  of East Azerbaijan Province

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    Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intake of high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis. In this study, the prevalence of dental fluorosis in rural communities of East Azerbaijan Province was studied. Materials and Methods: 3 villages of Bashsizkooh, Bostanabad (fluoride concentration in drinking water = 0.12 mg/L, Nagharehkub,  Ahar (current water resource = 0.6 mg/L, old water resource = 1.1-1.2 mg/L, and Gharehbolaq, Jolfa (current water resource = 0.35 mg/L and old water resource = 2.4 mg/L old source were selected as low, medium, and high exposure to fluoride respectively. All village residents above 6 years old were visited by physician. Quality of water resources was determined by referring to the records archived and through conducting new analysis.Results: Dental fluorosis was observed in 62.7 % of the people visited. In 31.5% of participants, fluorosis Grade 1; in 22.4 % of participants, fluorosis grade 2; in 7.7 % of participants, fluorosis grade 3; and finally fluorosis grade 4 was observed in 4 patients. Different levels of fluorosis were observed in residents of the villages of Gharebolaq, Nagharehkub, and Bashsizkooh (83.3%, 70.5 %, and 32.5 % respectively. There was a significant difference in prevalence of fluorosis between villages (P < 0.001. Fluorosis was observed in both permanent and temporary teeth. Mean cumulative fluoride index (MCFI in people with and without fluorosis was 22660.2 and 4743.2 mg, respectively. There was a correlation between this index and fluorosis (R =0.413. Conclusion: In all three villages studied, even Bashsizkooh, different grades of fluorosis were endemic. It is recommended that the responsible authorities take a  new measure and approach  for the intake of fluoride from drinking water.

  20. Associations among dental caries experience, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure from drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer

    2010-01-01

    a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.

  1. Dental fluorosis in bovine temporary teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Clay, A.B.; Shearer, T.R.

    1985-02-01

    Deciduous incisors from calves born to dams fed an average of 40 mg of fluoride/kg of forage ration (40 ppm) were compared with incisors from calves born to dams fed a normal dairy ration. Skeletal fluoride concentration in the calves born to fluoride-fed dams was increased 5 to 8 fold, but enamel mottling and hypoplasia, typical of permanent bovine incisor dental fluorosis were not seen by gross, histologic, or radiologic examination. Decreases in the amount of enamel on the tooth or hardness of the enamel were not observed. These data do not support recent reports of widespread dental fluorosis of deciduous bovine teeth as a clinical sign of fluoride toxicity.

  2. Impact of dental fluorosis on the quality of life of children and adolescents

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    Laynna Marina Santos LIMA

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental fluorosis is a disturbance of high prevalence caused by the ingestion of fluoride ions present mainly in toothpaste. Preventive measures to avoid it are still controversial. Thus, knowing the impact that fluorosis can cause on the population's quality of life it is important for planning public health policies.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of dental fluorosis on the quality of life of children and adolescents.MATERIAL AND METHOD: We studied 300 subjects aged 8 to 12 years divided into 4 groups: children (8-10 years and adolescents (10 to 12 years with and without fluorosis. The diagnosis of fluorosis was performed according to the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov and quality of life was evaluated using Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 and 11-14. The socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were also evaluated. For inclusion in the sample, selected patients should present eight permanent incisors with crowns fully erupted. Patients who had extensive restorations, fractured teeth, other dental enamel defects and who wore braces were excluded.RESULT: Fluorosis was present in 64.7% of the patients analyzed and in most cases (80.3% was mild or very mild. In children, the average overall score of the questionnaire was 15.9 for the group without fluorosis and 18.3 for the group with fluorosis (p = 0.255. The teenagers' score in the group without fluorosis was 26.1, while the group with fluorosis was 22.7 (p = 0.104.CONCLUSION: Dental fluorosis caused impact on the quality of life of the population analyzed only in the functional domain.

  3. Study of Prevalence of fluorosis in endemic village of Kankar district of Chhattisgarh State, India

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    Sunil V Gitte, K M Kamble, Ramanath N Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 24.8 % and skeletal fluorosis was 6.0%. Both the types were more common in males. Dental fluorosis was higher in the age group of 13 to19 years. The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with increasing age. Common skeletal deformities were genu varum (12.2% and genu valgum (0.7 %. Water fluoride levels in different localities ranged from 0.5 to 2.8 ppm. Conclusions: This study has shown the relation of fluorosis to high fluoride levels of prime water sources. Change in water source from deep tube well and a hand pump with health education to the community is needed to reduce in order to reduce the problem."

  4. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

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    McGrady Michael G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively. Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  5. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 2: the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Taylor, Andrew; Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-08-21

    To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman's rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  6. Dental fluorosis severity in a group of school children

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    Susy Yukie Fujibayashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in a group of school children in the city of Campo do Tenente (Parana, Brazil in order to compare the mean fluoride concentration in public water supply and discuss the effective values for fluoridation of water supply, as well as, the need of control of fluoride concentration within the water consumed by population. Material and methods: Firstly, 362 children enrolled in regular public schools, at elementary level, were examined by a single researcher, previously calibrated for Dean’s index application. From these, 90 children were affected by some degree of fluorosis, but only 40 returned the signed free and clarified consent form for participating in the research. Results: It was found that 42.5% of the children presented mild fluorosis and 32.5% moderate fluorosis. Moreover, it was observed that the average fluoride concentration in public water supply, in 2004, was 1.7 ppm of fluoride. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the need of a closer supervision of the city situation, by the inclusion of fluoridation external control and constant monitoring of the oral health status of the population.

  7. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  8. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

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    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  9. Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth.

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    Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Levy, Steven M; Broffitt, Barbara; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Warren, John J

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have examined the relationship between timing of fluoride intake and development of dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth using period-specific fluoride intake information. This study examined this relationship using longitudinal fluoride intake information from the Iowa Fluoride Study. Participants' fluoride exposure and intake (birth to 10 years of age) from water, beverages, selected food products, dietary fluoride supplements, and fluoride toothpaste was collected using questionnaires sent to parents at 3- and 4- month intervals from birth to 48 months of age and every 6 months thereafter. Three trained and calibrated examiners used the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) categories to assess 16 late-erupting teeth among 465 study participants. A tooth was defined as having definitive fluorosis if any of the zones on that tooth had an FRI score of 2 or 3. Participants with questionable fluorosis were excluded from analyses. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the importance of fluoride intake during different time periods. Most dental fluorosis in the study population was mild, with only four subjects (1%) having severe fluorosis (FRI Score 3). The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 27.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that fluoride intake from each of the individual years from age 2 to 8 plays an important role in determining the risk of dental fluorosis for most late-erupting permanent teeth. The strongest association for fluorosis on the late-erupting permanent teeth was with fluoride intake during the sixth year of life. Late-erupting teeth may be susceptible to fluorosis for an extended period from about age 2 to 8. Although not as visually prominent as the maxillary central incisors, some of the late-erupting teeth are esthetically important and this should be taken into consideration when making recommendations about dosing of fluoride intake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  10. Caries and dental fluorosis in a western Saharan population of refugee children.

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    Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Montiel-Company, José María; Ruiz-Miravet, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental fluorosis and dental caries among western Saharan refugee children. The western Saharan child population is characterized by adverse living conditions, an unbalanced diet, poor oral hygiene habits, and a concentration of fluoride in the drinking water of around 2 p.p.m. (2 mg l(-1)). A sample consisting of 360 children, 6-7 yr of age, and 212 children, 11-13 yr of age, was obtained from four refugee camps (Smara, Awsard, El-Aaiun, and 27-February) situated in the vicinity of Tindouf (southern Algeria). The children were examined using the World Health Organization criteria for caries diagnosis and Dean's index for fluorosis. The decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) score was 0.48 in the 6-7-yr-old children and 1.69 in the 11-13-yr-old children, with a caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 or decayed and filled primary teeth (dft) > 0) of 47.2% and 63.2%, respectively. Among the 6-7 yr-old children examined, 36.9% were free of fluorosis, 15.6% presented moderate fluorosis, and 7.8% presented severe fluorosis. Among 11-13 yr-old children, only 4.2% were free of fluorosis, 30.2% exhibited moderate fluorosis, and 27.4% presented severe fluorosis. The mean DMFT, decayed permanent teeth (DT), and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 and DMFT or dft > 0) scores were significantly higher among the children affected by severe fluorosis, suggesting that severe fluorosis might increase the susceptibility to dental caries.

  11. Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India.

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    Chandrashekar, Janakiram; Thankappan, K R; Sundaram, K R

    2010-12-01

    Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 17 states of India. Earlier studies have reported that Jowar (a type of millet) consumption interacts with fluoride (F) in the body and enhances fluorosis. We conducted this study to determine the association between jowar consumption and severity of dental fluorosis. A community based case control study was carried out in villages having different F levels (low, medium, and high) in drinking water in North Karnataka, India. 352 school Children (12-15 years, male 58%) with severe dental fluorosis classified by Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (1988) were selected as cases. 428 school children (12-15 years, male 48.8%) with no dental fluorosis were selected randomly from the same area as controls. Exposure ascertainment of jowar consumption was done by 24-h diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the F level in spot urine samples of subjects and in drinking water. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS V. 11.01 Children who consumed jowar had 2.67 times more chance of getting severe dental fluorosis compared to those who did not [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.67, CI 1.98-3.62]. Children from high F level villages (OR 1.91, CI 1.27-2.85) had higher odds of severe dental fluorosis compared to children from medium and low F level villages. Daily jowar consumers (OR 2.14, CI 1.64-3.09) and weekly consumers (OR 1.68, CI 1.31-3.45) had higher risk for dental fluorosis compared to non jowar consumers. Children who started consuming jowar before 8 years of age had significantly higher proportion of severe dental fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Urinary F excretion among jowar consumers was significantly lower than non-jowar consumers. Jowar consumption was positively associated with severity of dental fluorosis in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Osteo-dental fluorosis in relation to chemical constituents of drinking waters.

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    Choubisa, S L

    2012-01-01

    Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.

  13. Bovine dental fluorosis: histologic and physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, T.R.; Kolstad, D.L.; Suttie, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Incisor teeth from 5- to 6-year-old Holstein-Friesian cattle maintained on a ration averaging 40 ppm F annually from 4 months of age were analyzed by a variety of histologic techniques. These techniques included photomicroscopy, microradiography, protein staining, and microhardness testing. The features of fluorotic enamel that were noted were: hypomineralized outer enamel, coronal cementum hyperplasia, disrupted subsurface pigment band, hypoplastic pits, puckered incremental lines, periodic radiolucent regions, positive protein staining, and decreased microhardness of the outer enamel. These results were similar to the lesions of dental fluorosis observed in other species, and explain the external appearance of fluorotic bovine teeth observed under field conditions.

  14. Assessment of periodontal status among dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs.

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    Kumar, Pradeep R; John, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To determine the periodontal status and treatment needs among dental fluorosis subjects residing in Ennore, Chennai, using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). All the subjects with dental fluorosis above 15 years of age, permanent residents of Ennore, were included in the study. Subjects with known systemic diseases and subjects with other intrinsic dental stains were excluded from the study. Periodontal status was estimated using CPITN and Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's Dental Fluorosis Index. The total number of study subjects was 1075, of which 489 were males and 586 were females. Males were predominantly affected with periodontal disease than females. This was found to be statistically significant (P=0.000). The association between Degree of Fluorosis and Periodontal Status is statistically significant (P=0.000). There was statistically significant difference in mean number of sextants between the degree of fluorosis in each of the periodontal status (P=0.000). The finding that the lower prevalence of shallow pockets in the study area, where the fluoride level in the drinking water ranges from 1.83 to 2.01 ppm, indicates that the use of fluoride in water is beneficial to the periodontal tissues.

  15. Prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de Marinópolis, São Paulo Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school children from Marinópolis, São Paulo

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    Ioneide Maria Gomes Brandão

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência e severidade da fluorose dentária em escolares de 5 a 12 e de 15 anos de idade da cidade de Marinópolis, São Paulo, Brasil, com o propósito de se obter um banco de dados-base inicial para o monitoramento da fluorose dentária nesta população. Foram envolvidos todos os escolares de ambos os sexos, nas idades citadas, matriculados nas instituições de ensino da referida cidade e tendo como pré-requisito a condição de residirem em Marinópolis desde o nascimento, totalizando 320 escolares. Os exames foram realizados por um examinador previamente calibrado para a aplicação do Índice de Dean. De acordo com os resultados, a prevalência de fluorose dentária no grupo estudado foi de 17,2%; no entanto, considerando apenas os graus de fluorose que determinam comprometimento estético (leve, moderado e severo, o percentual foi de 7,19%. O grau predominante foi o muito leve (10,0% seguido pelos graus leve (5,3%, moderado (1,3% e severo (0,6%. Conclui-se que a fluorose dentária na população estudada não se constitui em problema de amplas dimensões; estudos posteriores, contudo, são necessários, a fim de identificar as causas da presença de casos de fluorose moderada e severa.The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and severity of dental fluorosis in 5 to 12 and 15 year-old school children in the city of Marinópolis, São Paulo, Brazil, with the purpose of obtaining a baseline data for the monitoring dental fluorosis in this population. All of the school children in the both sexes, in the mentioned ages, enrolled in educational institutions and having the pre-requirement condition of to live in Marinópolis from their birth were involved, totaling 320 school children. The exams were made by one examiner previously calibrated to use the Dean Index. According to the results, the frequency of dental fluorosis in the studied group was 17.2%, however just considering the

  16. Dental fluorosis linked to degassing of Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu: a novel exposure pathway.

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    Allibone, Rachel; Cronin, Shane J; Charley, Douglas T; Neall, Vince E; Stewart, Robert B; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-04-01

    Ambrym in Vanuatu is a persistently degassing island volcano whose inhabitants harvest rainwater for their potable water needs. The findings from this study indicate that dental fluorosis is prevalent in the population due to fluoride contamination of rainwater by the volcanic plume. A dental survey was undertaken of 835 children aged 6-18 years using the Dean's Index of Fluorosis. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 96% in the target area of West Ambrym, 71% in North Ambrym, and 61% in Southeast Ambrym. This spatial distribution appears to reflect the prevailing winds and rainfall patterns on the island. Severe cases were predominantly in West Ambrym, the most arid part of the island, and the most commonly affected by the volcanic plume. Over 50 km downwind, on a portion of Malakula Island, the dental fluorosis prevalence was 85%, with 36% prevalence on Tongoa Island, an area rarely affected by volcanic emissions. Drinking water samples from West Ambrym contained fluoride levels from 0.7 to 9.5 ppm F (average 4.2 ppm F, n = 158) with 99% exceeding the recommended concentration of 1.0 ppm F. The pathway of fluoride-enriched rainwater impacting upon human health as identified in this study has not previously been recognised in the aetiology of fluorosis. This is an important consideration for populations in the vicinity of degassing volcanoes, particularly where rainwater comprises the primary potable water supply for humans or animals.

  17. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district

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    Dhar V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.

  18. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis......The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride.......72, respectively). When individual DFS counts were compared across examinations using Bland-Altman plots and estimation of prediction intervals for the differences, we observed a greater variability of the differences between recordings among children from the low-fluoride area. Contrary to our expectations...

  19. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Poornima; Kaur, Suminder; Sodhi, Alka

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th ) studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3%) study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033) and in anemic children (Pfluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth) among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  20. Knowledge of dental fluorosis of undergraduate dental students at a private university in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Juliana De Oliveira; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Leonetti, Eduardo Dos Santos; Suguio, Kenitiro; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Cassoni, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    The understanting of the dental fluorosis process, that begins with enamel maturation, is important to Dentistry students, since fluoride has drastically decreased the incidence of caries in several population groups, with a resultant increase in fluorosis prevalence and severity, as shown in literature. The objective of this paper is to report the changes in the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis of undergraduate Dentistry students at Guarulhos University. One hundred and twenty-four undergraduate students enrolled in the first and second semester (2008) and seventh semester (2008) were evaluated. The data was obtained through questionnaires with dichotomic questions (true and false) and an alternative to evaluate whether the subject had been presented in the classroom. The data obtained was submitted to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test (α=0.05). When evaluating the first semester students, differences were verified in numbers of the questions assigned with the alternatives true or false, when compared with seventh semester students (psemester students after six months (p=0.358). It is possible to conclude that the six months period was insufficient to increase the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis, and when the students beginning and concluding the dentistry course were compared, there was an increase in the number of correctly assigned true or false questions in the latter group.

  1. Knowledge of dental fluorosis of undergraduate dental students at a private university in Brazil

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    Juliana De Oliveira Ferla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The understanting of the dental fluorosis process, that begins with enamel maturation, is important to Dentistry students, since fluoride has drastically decreased the incidence of caries in several population groups, with a resultant increase in fluorosis prevalence and severity, as shown in literature. Aims: The objective of this paper is to report the changes in the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis of undergraduate Dentistry students at Guarulhos University. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four undergraduate students enrolled in the first and second semester (2008 and seventh semester (2008 were evaluated. The data was obtained through questionnaires with dichotomic questions (true and false and an alternative to evaluate whether the subject had been presented in the classroom. The data obtained was submitted to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: When evaluating the first semester students, differences were verified in numbers of the questions assigned with the alternatives true or false, when compared with seventh semester students (p<0.001. However, there were no differences when the same questionnaire was applied to the first semester students after six months (p=0.358. Conclusions: It is possible to conclude that the six months period was insufficient to increase the level of knowledge about dental fluorosis, and when the students beginning and concluding the dentistry course were compared, there was an increase in the number of correctly assigned true or false questions in the latter group.

  2. Fluorosis and dental caries: an assessment of risk factors in Mexican children.

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    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Pierdant-Rodríguez, Alberto Isaac; Oropeza-Oropeza, Anastasio; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2012-01-01

    To determine the sources of fluoride exposure and the prevalence and severity of fluorosis and dental caries and sources of fluoride exposure in the permanent dentition of 11-year-old children. A cross-sectional study of 111 children attending elementary schools in the State of Mexico, where the concentration of fluoride in drinking water is children' mothers. The level of fluorosis was determined using both the Dean's Modified Index (ID) and the Community Fluorosis Index (CFI). The decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was recorded using methods recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Statistical analysis was conducted using bivariate analysis with a chi2 test; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Logistic regression models were used in the final model. Children had a fluorosis prevalence of 52.73% (95% CI: 48.2-55.4) with CFI = 0.75 +/- 0.91 (95% CI: 0.58-0.92). The caries prevalence was 53.2% (95% CI: 50.1-56.3) with DMFT = 1.27 +/- 1.67 (D = 0.85 and F = 0.42). Children who had no fluorosis showed more caries (p = 0.001). Dental fluorosis was associated with the initial age of brushing (before age four), OR = 0.511 (0.338-0.772); frequency of brushing (three times a day), OR = 0.681 (0.483-0.958), brushing before sleeping (yes), OR = 0.664 (0.473-0.932), and applications of fluoride (yes), OR = 0.756 (0.576-0.994). Dental caries was associated with several variables, such as initial age of brushing, OR = 11.28 (4.6-27.7), frequency of brushing, OR = 0.245 (0.109-0.553), brushing before sleeping, OR = 8.03 (3.295-19.59), and applications of fluoride, OR = 14.2 (4.54-44.53). In the final regression model, the level of caries and fluorosis was significantly associated (p = 0.000) with the amount of fluoride exposure. The multivariate shows this relationship. Fluorosis prevalence was high for low levels and low for more severe levels. According to the CFI in the studied example, dental fluorosis represents a public health problem in the

  3. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

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    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition of a San Luis Potosi children population, and its association to fluoride concentration in drinking water and urine. An additional objective was, to develop, validate, and test a specific index for dental fluorosis in primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May 1997, to January 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. Study subjects were 100 children aged 3-6 years, selected at random from three kindergartens in three risk areas of San Luis Potosi. The specific index of dental fluorosis for primary dentition (Dental Fluorosis for Primary Dentition Index-DFPDI was validated by estimating fluoride concentrations in enamel of teeth with and without dental fluorosis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to assess the association between fluoride concentrations in drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis; the association between risk area and dental fluorosis was assessed with the Mantel-Haenszel chi² test. RESULTS: . The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was 78%; primary molars were most affected in both maxillae and the predominant color was a non-glossy white appearance. We found a strong direct correlation (r=0.93 between fluoride concentrations in primary teeth and the DFPDI. Associations were found between fluoride concentrations of drinking water and urine, with dental fluorosis (Kruskal-Wallis p=0.00001, and between risk area and dental fluorosis (Mantel-Haenszel chi² p=0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: DFPDI allowed adequate identification and grading of dental fluorosis in primary dentition. It is important to detect the initial toxic effects of fluoride exposure to predict dental fluorosis in permanent dentition and skeletal fluorosis.

  4. Evaluation of Craniofacial Morphology of Children with Dental Fluorosis in Early Permanent Dentition Period

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    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Methods Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and ...

  5. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, MCM; Lo, ECM; Glenny, AM; Tsang, BWK; Worthington, HV; Marinho, VCC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic search of the Cochra...

  6. Factors affecting dental fluorosis in low socioeconomic status children in Mexico.

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    Pérez-Pérez, N; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; Boges-Yañez, A S

    2017-06-01

    To assess the association between dental fluorosis and maternal education in schoolchildren of medium and low socioeconomic status in a low income region of Mexico. Cross-sectional study. Public schools in the south-central region of Oaxaca, Mexico where the mean fluoride water concentration was 1.01 mg/L (SD 0.21; range 0.71-1.40). Fluoridated salt (200mgF/kg) was available in the region. 794 schoolchildren. To identify the socioeconomic status of the participants, the Bronfman index was used. Dental fluorosis was assessed applying the Thysltrup-Fejerskov Index, (TF). The children's mean age was 10.4 (SD1.2) years. The prevalence of dental fluorosis (TF⟩0) was high 95.7% and 45.2% of the children showed dental fluorosis of TF≥4. The percentage of children showing TF≥4 was 48.8% where their mothers' education was ⟨6 years of schooling compared to 36.7% among other children (p⟨0.001). The multinomial logistic regression model using as base outcome category TF≤2 showed that severe forms of fluorosis (TF≥4) were associated with the consumption of boiled water, (OR= 1.65, p=0.039) of fluoridated salt (OR= 2.61 p=0.001), high brushing frequency (OR=3.12, p=0.001) and lower maternal education (OR=1.71, p=0.007). A high prevalence of dental fluorosis was observed in the study region. An unequal burden of fluorosis in aesthetically objectionable categories was found in children exposed to several sources of fluoride and whose mother had lower educational level. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  7. [Risk factors for dental fluorosis in children between 6 and 15 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lourdes Azpeitia-Valadez, Ma; Sánchez-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Frausto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    To identify risk factors for dental fluorosis in children between 6 and 15 years. A cross-sectional survey in 1284 students between 6 and 15 years from four living areas. Presence and degree of dental fluorosis were investigated by using the classification of Dean, tooth decay and variables like source of water consumption, juices, prepared gaseous drinks, tea, types of dental paste used, and periodic applications of fluoride. Descriptive statistics and chi(2) test were applied. The prevalence of fluorosis was 52.6 %, (very slight 45.5 %, slight 40.0 %, moderate 11.8 %, and severe 2.6 %). Tooth decay appeared in 52.7 % of the total of cases studied. The variables with more significant differences were the presenting age (the greater fluorosis in children was from 8 to 14 years), tea, juice and prepared gaseous drink consumption, the periodic application of fluoride and the area of residence, varying from 45 to 61 % of fluorosis between the areas of residence. All of these had p fluorosis.

  8. Dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and intake of manufactured soy-based foods with fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Cristiane Alves Paz; Zanlorenzi Nicodemo, César Augusto; Ferreira Mercadante, Daniela Cristiane; de Carvalho, Fábio Silva; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; de Carvalho Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena

    2013-06-01

    To identify manufactured soy-based products more recommended by pediatricians and nutritionists; to determine fluoride concentrations in these products; to evaluate children concerning fluorosis in primary teeth and its association with the consumption of soy-based products. Pediatricians and Nutritionists answered a questionnaire about soy-based products they most recommended to children. Fluoride concentrations of the 10 products more cited were analyzed with the ion-specific electrode. Dental fluorosis exams were performed in 315 4-6-year-old children. Dean's Index was used to assess fluorosis. Among the children examined, 26 had lactose intolerance. Their parents answered a questionnaire about children's and family's profile, besides permitting the identification of soy-based products use. Chi-squared and Multivariable Logistic Regression tests were used (p fluorosis was detected in 11% of the children, with very mild and mild degrees. Dental fluorosis in primary teeth was associated with lactose intolerance (p children do not offer risk of dental fluorosis in primary teeth, which had a low prevalence and severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Health assessment fluoride levels above the parametric value in water for human consumption in relation to the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis in school children 12 years of age Valoración sanitaria de la superación del valor paramétrico de fluoruro en agua de consumo humano en relación con la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental en escolares de doce años de edad

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    Gladis Gómez Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Real Decreto 140/2003 of February 7, provides the opportunity to request approval of a temporary exception to the parametric value for the parameter B of Annex I, including fluoride. The work presented aims at testing the effect of water with fluoride levels above the parametric value on the prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis, total and by grade, in the permanent dentition of schoolchildren in 12 years in order to establish the basis for the valuation of non-compliance and health decisions to applications for permits for temporary emergency situations and new parametric value. Sixty students were explored in a municipality of Tenerife where the concentration of fluoride in the water for human consumption has remained at 2,7 ± 0,5 mg / L, ie around the value ± 0,5 considered adequate to prevent dental caries and minimize the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The methodology used is standardized by the WHO. The examination included the recording of caries and dental fluorosis measured by the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF. There was a prevalence of dental caries of 38,33%, with a CAOD 0,87 and 81,67% of dental fluorosis: 35% for TF1-2, a 31,67% for TF3-4 and 15 % for grades TF5-9.Passing the values established requires the establishment of measures for health protection by restricting the use and consumption of water for children up to 8 years old.El R. D. 140/2003, de 7 de febrero, contempla la posibilidad de solicitud de autorización de excepción temporal al valor paramétrico establecido para parámetros de la parte B del anexo I, entre los que se encuentra el fluoruro. El trabajo que se presenta tiene como objeto la comprobación del efecto del consumo de agua con niveles de fluoruro superiores al valor paramétrico sobre la prevalencia de caries y fluorosis dental, total y por grados, en la dentición permanente de escolares de doce años con el fin de establecer las bases para la valoración sanitaria del incumplimiento y la toma

  10. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

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    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Classificação socioeconômica e sua discussão em relação à prevalência de cárie e fluorose dentária A socioeconomic classification and the discussion related to prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

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    Marcelo de Castro Meneghim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a relação entre classificação socioeconômica e a prevalência de cárie e fluorose dentária em Piracicaba, São Paulo,Brasil. MÉTODOS: A classificação foi baseada na seleção de cinco indicadores (renda familiar mensal, número de pessoas residentes na mesma moradia, grau de instrução dos pais, tipo de habitação e profissão do responsável pela família, buscando-se por sistema de pontuação hierarquizar 812 escolares na idade de 12 anos em até seis classes sociais distintas. Para a determinação da prevalência de cárie e fluorose dentária, os voluntários foram examinados no pátio das escolas, sob luz natural e com espelho bucal, por dois examinadores previamente calibrados para os índices CPO-D (WHO,1997 e T-F (Thylstrup & Fejerskov, 1978. O teste qui-quadrado (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a socioeconomic classification model and prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Piracicaba, Sâo Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: For this classification five indicators were used (family monthly income, number of residents in the same household, parents' formal educational level, type of housing and occupation of person responsible for the family. A scoring system was used in order to arrange in a hierarchy, 812 12 year old school children distributed between six different social classes. Volunteers were examined in the school's back patio under natural light with a dental mirror, by two examiners calibrated for DMFT index (dental caries and T-F (dental fluorosis. The qui-square test (p<0.01 was used in the statistical analysis for the association of DMFT and the dental fluorosis and between the socioeconomic variable and the proposed social classes. RESULTS: The DMFT average was 1.7, while 31.4%, of the children had dental fluorosis (T-Fe"1. CONCLUSION: With respect to socioeconomic class a statistically significant association was only verified with dental caries.

  12. A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China

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    Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601

  13. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

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    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  14. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  15. Association between infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Levy, Steven M; Spencer, A John

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between patterns of infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in a representative sample of Australian children. A population-based study gathered information on fluoride exposure in early childhood. Information on infant formula feeding and fluoridation status was used to group children: three groups in nonfluoridated areas (formula nonuser, user for ≤6 months, and user for 6+ months) and four groups in fluoridated areas (nonuser, user with nonfluoridated water, user with fluoridated water for ≤6 months, and user with fluoridated water for 6+ months). Children aged 8-13 years were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Primary tooth caries experience recorded at age 8-9 years was extracted from clinical records. Fluorosis cases were defined as having TF 1+ on maxillary incisors. Fluorosis prevalence and primary caries experience were compared across formula user groups in multivariable regression models adjusting for other factors. Total sample was 588 children. Children in fluoridated areas had higher prevalence of very mild to mild fluorosis, but lower caries experience than those in nonfluoridated areas. Among children in nonfluoridated areas, formula users for 6+ months had significantly higher prevalence of fluorosis compared with nonusers. There was no significant difference in fluorosis prevalence among the formula users in fluoridated areas. Among children in fluoridated areas, formula users with nontap water had higher caries experience. Infant formula use was associated with higher prevalence of fluorosis in nonfluoridated areas but not in fluoridated areas. Type of water used for reconstituting infant formula in fluoridated areas was associated with caries experience. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study

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    Maria Eneide Leitão de Almeida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral, Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  17. Agreement between parents and adolescents on dental fluorosis: a population-based study.

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    Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Teixeira, Ana Karine Macedo; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and compared the reports from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with those of their parents regarding the perceptions and concerns arising from this disease. The study was conducted in the cities of Viçosa and Sobral and the District of Rafael Arruda (Sobral), Ceará. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011, with 891 students examined and 780 parents or guardians interviewed. Dental fluorosis was measured using the Dean's Index, and the Child's and Parent's Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was used to assess the reports from parents and adolescents. A chi-squared test for trends was used to compare the opinions of parents and adolescents about fluorosis, and the agreement was measured using the weighted kappa. For the dichotomous variables, we used the unweighted kappa coefficient. The prevalence of fluorosis was 29.7%, but in the District of Rafael Arruda, evidence of very mild and mild fluorosis was found in 32.5% of the subjects, and moderate and severe fluorosis was found in 28.7%. There was poor agreement between the data reported by the adolescents and their parents or guardians regarding areas of concern and their perceived satisfaction with the appearance and color of their teeth. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was high in one of the communities studied, but the clinical diagnosis of this condition should not necessarily equate with concern and dissatisfaction with aesthetic appearances among teenagers and their parents.

  18. "Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Evica; Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Milicevic, Nemanja; Ivanovic, Mirjana; Carevic, Momir; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2016-06-01

    This study explores relation between dental fluorosis occurrence in schoolchildren, residents of Ritopek, a small local community near Belgrade, and fluoride exposure via drinking water. Additionally, fluoride levels were determined in children's urine and hair samples, and efforts were made to correlate them with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence were examined in a total of 52 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years (29 boys and 23 girls). Fluoride levels in three types of samples were analyzed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Results showed high prevalence of dental fluorosis (34.6 %) and low prevalence of dental caries (23.1 %, mean DMFT 0.96) among children exposed to wide range of water fluoride levels (0.11-4.14 mg/L, n = 27). About 11 % of water samples exceeded 1.5 mg/L, a drinking-water quality guideline value for fluoride given by the World Health Organization (2006). Fluoride levels in urine and hair samples ranged between 0.07-2.59 (n = 48) and 1.07-19.83 mg/L (n = 33), respectively. Severity of dental fluorosis was positively and linearly correlated with fluoride levels in drinking water (r = 0.79). Fluoride levels in urine and hair were strongly and positively correlated with levels in drinking water (r = 0.92 and 0.94, respectively). Fluoride levels in hair samples appeared to be a potentially promising biomarker of fluoride intake via drinking water on one hand, and severity of dental fluorosis on the other hand. Based on community fluorosis index value of 0.58, dental fluorosis revealed in Ritopek can be considered as "borderline" public health issue.

  19. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

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    McGrady Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0. Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester. Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02. Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical; 2.51 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical; 3.44 (photo and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical; 0.58 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical; 0.98 (photo. The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical; 0.36 (photo, Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical; 0.39 (photo. The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative

  20. The association between social deprivation and the prevalence and severity of dental caries and fluorosis in populations with and without water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the association between social deprivation and the prevalence of caries (including caries lesions restricted to enamel) and enamel fluorosis in areas that are served by either fluoridated or non-fluoridated drinking water using clinical scoring, remote blinded, photographic scoring for caries and fluorosis. The study also aimed to explore the use of remote, blinded methodologies to minimize the effect of examiner bias. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 11–13 years. Clinical assessments of caries and fluorosis were performed on permanent teeth using ICDAS and blind scoring of standardized photographs of maxillary central incisors using TF Index (with cases for fluorosis defined as TF > 0). Results Data from 1783 subjects were available (910 Newcastle, 873 Manchester). Levels of material deprivation (Index of Multiple Deprivation) were comparable for both populations (Newcastle mean 35.22, range 2.77-78.85; Manchester mean 37.04, range 1.84-84.02). Subjects in the fluoridated population had significantly less caries experience than the non-fluoridated population when assessed by clinical scores or photographic scores across all quintiles of deprivation for white spot lesions: Newcastle mean DMFT 2.94 (clinical); 2.51 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 4.48 (clinical); 3.44 (photo) and caries into dentine (Newcastle Mean DMFT 0.65 (clinical); 0.58 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 1.07 (clinical); 0.98 (photo). The only exception being for the least deprived quintile for caries into dentine where there were no significant differences between the cities: Newcastle mean DMFT 0.38 (clinical); 0.36 (photo), Manchester mean DMFT 0.45 (clinical); 0.39 (photo). The odds ratio for white spot caries experience (or worse) in Manchester was 1.9 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for caries into dentine in Manchester was 1.8 relative to Newcastle. The odds ratio for developing fluorosis in Newcastle was 3.3 relative to

  1. Independent and Additive Effects of Different Sources of Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Luz, Patricia Blaya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of different sources of fluoride related to dental fluorosis. This population-based, matched, case-control study (67 pairs) used a representative sample of 271 schoolchildren. Dental fluorosis was measured using Dean's index. Children's caregivers were interviewed about nine risk factors. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. The prevalence of questionable cases was 18.8 percent, and the prevalence of very mild, mild, or moderate cases of dental fluorosis was 11.5 percent, with no severe case. Age of start of toothbrushing, drinking water from wells, frequency of toothbrushing, type of tooth-paste, standard/ children's mouthrinse usage, and fluoride supplements were not significant (P>0.15). Drinking water from wells and using supplements were underpowered (N less than six). Children who frequently ate toothpaste had an odds ratio of 5.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75 to 17.73) times more fluorosis; those applying toothpaste to cover the bristles had 5.55 times more fluorosis (95% CI 1.44 to 21.42); and those using an adult size toothbrush had 3.17 times more flurosis (95% CI 1.15 to 8.71). There was a significant additive interaction (Pfluorosis are intentional toothpaste ingestion and tooth-paste applied on the whole toothbrush.

  2. Benchmark dose of saliva fluoride concentration in adolescents and it's relationship to the prevalence of dental fluorosis%儿童唾液氟基准剂量及与氟斑牙相关关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阳阳; 王连芳; 赵伟; 邹冬荣; 郭蕊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the benchmark dose (BMD) of fluoride concentration in saliva,and to evaluate the significance of saliva fluoride on control and prevention of endemic fluorosis.Methods In September 2014,middle school students in endemic fluorosis areas and non-endemic fluorosis areas in North China Petoleum were selected as objects.The contents of fluoride in water,urine and saliva were determined.The correlation of fluoride content in water,urine fluoride and fluoride concentration in saliva was analyzed.According to the levels of the saliva fluoride concentration,the children were divided into 11 groups,< 1.00,1.00-,2.00-,3.00-,4.00-,5.00-,6.00-,7.00-,8.00-,9.00-and ≥ 10.00 mg/L.The prevalence of dental fluorosis and defected dental fluorosis were investigated and the saliva fluoride concentration was calculated by Banch-Mark Dose Software.Results Compared with non endemic areas,the fluoride contents in water,urine and saliva [(2.13 ± 0.13),(1.29 ±0.73),(4.01 ± 3.61) mg/L] were higher than that in endemic areas [(0.67 ± 0.13),(0.38 ± 0.08),(0.75 ± 0.12) mg/L,t =158.730,24.780,18.114,all P < 0.01].The fluoride concentration in saliva was positively correlated with the fluoride content in water and urine in endemic areas (r =0.626,0.945,all P < 0.01).The (BMDs and benchmark dose lower bound (BMDLs) were 0.91,0.54,3.72,3.32 mg/L respectively,calculated by Banch-Mark Dose Software.With the increase of fluoride concentration in saliva,the prevalence of dental fluorosis and defect dental fluorosis had increased too,especially when the fluoride content in saliva was more than 4 mg/L.There were significant doseresponse relationships between the urine fluoride and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and defected dental fluorosis.Conclusion The fluoride concentration in saliva could be used as one of the evaluation indexes of fluorosis,and the BMD of saliva fluoride concentration in endemic fluorosis areas is suggested as 0.91 mg/L.%目的 探讨唾液氟

  3. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

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    Poornima Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition, skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Statistics: Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Results: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3% study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033 and in anemic children (P<0.001. However, there was no significant association of disease with gender (P=0.02, source of drinking water (P=0.417, and with BMI (P=0.826. Conclusion: As dental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  4. Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis.

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    Choubisa, S L

    2014-07-01

    Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed.

  5. [Dental fluorosis in children from São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 1998-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvai, Paulo Capel; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Frias, Antonio Carlos; Soares, Maria da Candelária; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Teixeira, Doralice Severo da Cruz; Frazão, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    To assess the trend of dental fluorosis prevalence in 12-year-old children, in the context of exposure to multiple sources of fluoride. An analysis was carried out of the trends in prevalence of dental fluorosis in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2010. The rates of prevalence were calculated for different years (1998, 2002, 2008 and 2010) using secondary data obtained from epidemiological surveys of representative samples of 12-year-old children. Occurrence of fluorosis was assessed in natural light using the Dean index, recommended by the World Health Organization and categorized into normal, questionable, very mild, mild, moderate and severe. In 1998, 125 children were examined, 249 in 2002, 4,085 in 2008 and 231 in 2010. In 1998 the prevalence of fluorosis was 43.8% (95%CI 35.6;52.8) in 2002 it was 33.7% (95%CI 28.2;39.8), it was 40.3% (95%CI 38.8;41.8) in 2008 and 38.1% (95%CI 32.1;44.5) in 2010.The categories very mild + mild totaled 38.4% (95%CI 30.3;47.6) in 1998, 32.1% (95%CI 26.6;38.2) in 2002, 38.0% (95%CI 36.5;39.5) in 2008 and 36.4% (95%CI 30.4;42.7) in 2010. Severe fluorosis was not observed, with statistical significance, in the analyzed period. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in children from São Paulo can be classified as stationary between 1998 and 2010, both when considering all categories, and when considering only the categories very mild + mild.

  6. FACTORES DE RIESGO DE FLUOROSIS DENTAL EN ESCOLARES DE LA I.E.P. N°40088 REYNO DE BÉLGICA DEL DISTRITO DE UCHUMAYO. AREQUIPA, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    GUEVARA MAMANI, LOURDES ISABEL

    2014-01-01

    FLUOROSIS DEFINICIÓN PATOGENIA CARACTERÍSTICAS CLÍNICAS DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL ÍNDICE DE FLUOROSIS REGISTRO DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL ÍNDICE COMUNITARIO DE FLUOROSIS DENTAL FLÚOR EN LA SAL DENTÍFRICOS FLUORADOS FLÚOR DE APLICACIÓN PROFESIONAL ENJUAGUES FLUORADOS BEBIDAS PREPARADAS CON AGUA FLUORADA PREVENCIÓN DE LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL

  7. Fluorosis and dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren residing in areas with different water fluoride concentrations and receiving fluoridated salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, A; Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; Borges-Yáñez, A

    2013-01-01

    To explore the association between fluoride in drinking water and the prevalence and severity of fluorosis and dental caries in children living in communities receiving fluoridated salt. Participants were schoolchildren (n = 457) living in two rural areas of the State of Morelos, Mexico, where the water fluoride concentration was 0.70 or 1.50 ppm. Dental caries status was assessed using Pitts' criteria. Lesions that were classified as D3 (decayed) were identified to determine the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (D3MFT). Fluorosis was assessed using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Information regarding drinking water source and oral hygiene practices (tooth brushing frequency, dentifrice use, and oral hygiene index) was obtained. The prevalence of fluorosis (TFI ≥1) in communities with 0.70 and 1.50 ppm water fluoride was 39.4 and 60.5% (p = 0.014), respectively, while the prevalence of more severe forms (TFI ≥4) was 7.9 and 25.5% (p 1) showed that higher fluorosis categories (TFI 5-6 OR = 6.81, p = 0.001) were associated with higher caries experience, adjusted by age, number of teeth present, tooth brushing frequency, bottled water use, and natural water fluoride concentration. The prevalence of fluorosis was associated with the water fluoride concentration. Fluorosis at moderate and severe levels was associated with a higher prevalence of dental caries, compared with lesser degrees of fluorosis. The impact of dental fluorosis should be considered in dental public health programs. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Comparison of Fluoride Content in Drinking Water and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in 6 - 12-Year-Old Students in Mariwan (a Cold Region and Behbahan (a Warm Region during the 2013 - 2014 Educational Year

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    Rezvan Rafatjou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluoride plays an important role in preventing dental caries. Low fluoride concentrations cannot prevent dental caries, but ingestion of very high concentrations of fluoride during enamel development and maturation could lead to fluorosis. Fluoridation of drinking water is the most effective and inexpensive method for preventing caries. The mandated concentration of fluoride incorporated into drinking water should consider the mean temperature of each region. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of fluorosis in children aged 6 - 12 in Mariwan and Behbahan and determine the fluoride content of drinking water in these two towns. Materials and Methods In the present descriptive and cross-sectional study, 13 water samples were taken from homes in Behbahan, 1 sample from the town’s water reservoir, 10 samples from homes in Mariwan (5 samples for each reservoir and 1 sample each from the town’s 2 reservoirs. The 26 samples (23 from homes and 3 from reservoirs were taken in polyethylene containers. The SPANDS colorimetric technique was used to determine fluoride content. Homes that used home-based water purification systems were excluded from the study. In addition, 128 students (62 girls and 66 boys in Behbahan and 90 students in Mariwan were randomly selected. Dean’s index was used to determine dental fluorosis. The mean yearly temperatures of the two towns were obtained from the metrological bureaus of the two towns. Results The means fluoride content of water in Behbahan’s reservoir and Mariwan’s reservoirs 1 and 2 were 0.7, 0.24 and 0.036 ppm, respectively. The mean fluoride content of Behbahan’s home waterlines and in the relevant home waterlines of reservoirs 1 and 2 in Mariwan were 0.67, 0.218, and 0.054 ppm, respectively. There were no significant differences between the relevant reservoirs. The prevalence of fluorosis in Behbahan was as follows: 84.4% healthy, 10.9% questionable, 1

  9. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination.

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    Martins, Carolina Castro; Chalub, Loliza; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67) and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49%) compared with the photographic method (36.7%). The photographic method presented higher specificity (96%) than sensitivity (70.8%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.

  10. Assessment of Dental Fluorosis in Mmp20+/− Mice

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    Sharma, R.; Tye, C.E.; Arun, A.; MacDonald, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Abrazinski, T.; Everett, E.T.; Whitford, G.M.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20+/− mice express approximately half the amount of MMP20 as do wild-type mice. The Mmp20 heterozygous mice have normal-appearing enamel, with Vickers microhardness values similar to those of wild-type control enamel. Therefore, reduced MMP20 expression is not solely responsible for dental fluorosis. With 50-ppm-fluoride (F−) treatment ad libitum, the Mmp20+/− mice had F− tissue levels similar to those of Mmp20+/+ mice. No significant difference in enamel hardness was observed between the F−-treated heterozygous and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we did find a small but significant difference in quantitative fluorescence between these two groups, which may be attributable to slightly higher protein content in the Mmp20+/− mouse enamel. We conclude that MMP20 plays a nominal role in dental enamel fluorosis. PMID:21386097

  11. Assessment of dental fluorosis in Mmp20 +/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Tye, C E; Arun, A; MacDonald, D; Chatterjee, A; Abrazinski, T; Everett, E T; Whitford, G M; Bartlett, J D

    2011-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20 (+/-) mice express approximately half the amount of MMP20 as do wild-type mice. The Mmp20 heterozygous mice have normal-appearing enamel, with Vickers microhardness values similar to those of wild-type control enamel. Therefore, reduced MMP20 expression is not solely responsible for dental fluorosis. With 50-ppm-fluoride (F(-)) treatment ad libitum, the Mmp20 (+/-) mice had F(-) tissue levels similar to those of Mmp20 (+/+) mice. No significant difference in enamel hardness was observed between the F(-)-treated heterozygous and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we did find a small but significant difference in quantitative fluorescence between these two groups, which may be attributable to slightly higher protein content in the Mmp20 (+/-) mouse enamel. We conclude that MMP20 plays a nominal role in dental enamel fluorosis.

  12. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

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    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05). Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  13. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

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    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  14. Caries with Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-Year School Children in Moderate-Fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Erum; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Satitvipawee, Pratana

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship with dental fluorosis, oral health behaviour and dietary behaviour among 12-year school children in moderate-fluoride drinking water community in Quetta, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Government and private schools of Quetta, from November 2012 to February 2013. Atotal of 349 children aged 12-year from 14 randomly selected schools were included. The data collection was done on questionnaire designed for children. Dental caries status was examined by using WHO criteria. Dental caries was found in 81 children (23.2%) with mean DMFT0.61. Boys had 1.6 times more chance to have dental caries than girls. Dental fluorosis was found in 63.6% of children with majority of moderate degree (50.5%). Dental fluorosis status was found significantly associated with dental caries status in children. The children who had mild, moderate and severe fluorosis, had 4 times more chances to develop caries than those who did not have fluorosis. There was no significant association between children's caries status and use of paste, brushing habit, miswak, and visit to the dentist. The use of pastries and juices had a direct relation with the children's dental caries status. Dental caries in children of Quetta is not so much frequent as compared to the fluoride deficient countries. However, the high prevalence of moderate dental fluorosis and consumption of pastries and juices resulted in dental caries.

  15. Prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in coal-burning type of endemic fluorosis areas in Guizhou Province%贵州省燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 高静; 张念恒; 张锐智; 胡小强; 叶红兵; 姚丹成; 王晓明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 in coalburning type of endemic fluorosis areas in Guizhou Province and to provide a scientific basis for assessment and acceptance of the diseased areas.Methods According to the "Diagnosis of Dental Fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011),dental fluorosis of all children aged 8-12 were examined in historic diseased areas of 13 counties (districts) from 2013 to 2014.The date of dental fluorosis of all children aged 8-12 was collected in 13 countries (districts) in 1986 and 2000.The date of 1986 was compared with that of 2000; the survey results were compared with those of 2000,and assessed by the standards for "Control Criteria for Endemic Fluorosis Areas" and "Elimination of Coalburning Type of Endemic Fluorosis".Results The total detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8-12 was 5.42% (12 446/229 428),and the total dental fluorosis index was 0.094 that covered 229 428 children from 1 673 villages of 166 towns of 13 counties (districts) in the province.The detection rate and dental fluorosis index in every county (district) ranged from 2.83% to 9.39% and from 0.037 to 0.174,respectively.The ratio of dental fluorosis detection rate ≤15% and > 15-30% was accounted for 98.09% (1 641/1 673) and 1.91% (32/1 673),respectively in the 1 673 villages.Compared with that of 2000 in each county (district),the difference was statistically significant (all P < 0.01).Compared between 2000 and 1986,the differences were not statistically significant in Zunyi County,Meitan County and Baiyun District (x2 =0.045,0.067,3.420,all P > 0.05),but the prevalence was significantly lower in Huishui County,Wudang District and Huaxi District (x2 =537.70,352.03,374.84,all P < 0.01).The prevalence was increased to varying degrees in counties (districts) including Honghuagang,Zhenning,Changshun,Pingba,Longli,Xifeng and Kaiyang (x2 =9.48,219.97,116.93,288.24,626.39,272.38,14.35,all P < 0

  16. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  17. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  18. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  19. Exposure to lead exacerbates dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, G A S; Sawan, R M M; Teófilo, J M; Porto, I M; Sousa, F B; Gerlach, R F

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that co-exposure to lead and fluoride alter the severity of enamel fluorosis. Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, and 3 groups that received water containing 100 ppm of fluoride (F), 30 ppm of lead (Pb), or 100 ppm of F and 30 ppm of Pb (F+Pb) from the beginning of gestation. Enamel analysis and F and Pb determinations in enamel, dentine, and bone were performed in 81-day-old animals. Fluorosis was quantified using a new fluorosis index based on the identification of incisor enamel defects (white bands and white islets, representing hypomineralization, and cavities) weighted according to their severity and quantity. Hypomineralization was validated histopathologically by polarizing microscopy and microradiography. Scores were given by two blinded calibrated examiners (intra and interexaminer kappa values were 0.8 and 0.86, respectively). The control and the Pb groups presented normal enamel. The F+Pb group presented more severe enamel defects compared with the F group (Pdental fluorosis in rodents, suggesting that co-exposure to lead may affect the degree of fluorosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

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    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  1. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-10-11

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluorosis using Opalustre (Ultradent Products) microabrasion slurry. This conservative approach may be considered an interesting alternative to more invasive prosthetic techniques like composite resin restorations, ceramic veneers or crown fabrications.

  2. Shangqiu drinking water type fluorosis monitoring village children aged 8 to 12 dental fluorosis prevalence survey analysis%商丘市饮水型氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔雪梅; 史宏凤; 邢艳平

    2014-01-01

    objective to understand the shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis illness,as the improvement of water decreasing fluorine,provide a scientific basis for prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis. Method choose HuiYangOu without changing water digoxin town-ship,Liu Qiaocun HouZhuang village,the ancient song township Xu Loucun;Have to change water to rein in town-ship JiaoZhuang zhuang village, township LinHeDian ShuangMiaoCun east ShuangMiaoCun. MinQuanXian BeiGuanZhen Jin Zhuang village;Garden township double Wells village,zhao village,ward building village,a total of eight as the infested,detection of residents drinking water fluoride concentration,8 and 12 years old children's den-tal fluorosis prevalence survey. Fluorine spot tooth diagnosis according to the dental fluorosis in accordance with the (Dean fluorine spot tooth diagnosis methods,sample collection and preservation and water fluoride detection using the standard test methods for domestic and drinking water (GB/T 5750-5750). Results The results of shangqiu drinking-water type endemic fluorosis monitoring village 8 to 12 years old children's dental fluorosis detection rate of 67.8%in 2011;34.8%in 2012. Dental fluorosis patients suspected,extremely light and mild accounted for most of the pa-tients,and patients with moderate and severe accounts for only a few. In 8 monitoring village water fluoride which in 2011 was 100.0%,87.5%in 2012. Conclusion exercises of endemic fluorosis monitoring village high fluoride drink-ing water is the direct cause of endemic fluorosis popularity,improvement of water decreasing fluorine,is urgently needed.%目的:了解商丘市饮水型地方性氟中毒监测村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,为降氟改水,防治地方性氟中毒提供科学依据。方法选择睢阳区未改水的高辛乡候庄村、刘桥村,古宋乡许楼村;已改水的勒马乡集庄村焦庄、临河

  3. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    OpenAIRE

    Aira Sabokseir; Ali Golkari; Aubrey Sheiham

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childh...

  4. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district

    OpenAIRE

    P K Shivaprakash; Kushagra Ohri; Hina Noorani

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations we...

  5. [Epidemiological surveillance of dental fluorosis in a city with a tropical climate with a fluoridated public drinking water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Barbosa, Pablo Renan Ribeiro; Nunes-Dos-Santos, Danila Lorena; Dantas-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Lima, Marina de Deus Moura

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, which is a tropical city with a fluoridated public drinking water supply. It involved a cross-sectional observational study on a sample of 571 students in public and private schools. Informed Consent forms were approved for the data collection and the exams were conducted at the schools. Data were recorded on a questionnaire answered by the parents, regarding the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits of the sample. The dental exam was performed qualified dental sugeons. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index was used. The prevalence of fluorosis was 77.9%, and only 12.5% of the affected children had TF ≥ grade 3 (with aesthetic damage). The premolars were the teeth most affected by fluorosis. Among the students with the highest severity of fluorosis, 98.6% belonged to the lowest social bracket (> B2), 91.5% were born and had always lived in Teresina, 94.4% consumed water from the fluoridated public supply, 76% used toothpaste for children and 64% of mothers reported that they swallowed toothpaste. The prevalence of fluorosis was high, though the severity was low in individuals exposed to fluoridation since birth.

  6. Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Malek Mohammadi; R, Derakhshani; M, Tavallaie; M, Raoof; N, Hasheminejad; Aa, Haghdoost

    2017-06-01

    The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region. This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region. This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean's Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS. Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25%) and had an educational status of high school level (66%). About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map. GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

  7. Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshani R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Statement of Problem: The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region. Objectives: This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean’s Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS. Results: Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25% and had an educational status of high school level (66%. About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map. Conclusions: GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

  8. Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, May Cm; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Tsang, Boyd Wk; Lo, Edward Cm; Worthington, Helen V; Marinho, Valeria Cc

    2010-01-20

    For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. To describe the relationship between the use of topical fluorides in young children and the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Electronic search of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Dissertation Abstracts and LILACS/BBO. Reference lists from relevant articles were searched. Date of the most recent searches: 9th March 09. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys, in which fluoride toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, paint-on solutions, and varnishes were compared to an alternative fluoride treatment, placebo or no intervention group. Children under the age of 6 years at the time topical fluorides were used. Data from all included studies were extracted by two review authors. Risk ratios for controlled, prospective studies and odds ratios for case-control studies or cross-sectional surveys were extracted or calculated. Where both adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios or odds ratios were presented, the adjusted value was included in the meta-analysis. 25 studies were included: 2 RCTs, 1 cohort study, 6 case-control studies and 16 cross-sectional surveys. Only one RCT was judged to be at low risk of bias. The other RCT and all observational studies were judged to be at moderate to high risk of bias. Studies were included in four intervention/exposure comparisons. A statistically significant reduction in fluorosis was found if brushing of a child's teeth with fluoride toothpaste commenced after the age of 12 months odds ratio 0.70 (random-effects: 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.88) (data from observational studies). Inconsistent statistically significant

  9. Relation between dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient in school children of Bagalkot district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprakash, P K; Ohri, Kushagra; Noorani, Hina

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted on 160 children, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state between August and October 2010, with the aim of finding out if there is a relation between dental fluorosis status and Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Children were categorized as, those suffering from dental fluorosis and those not suffering from dental fluorosis and for all children in both categories, Intelligence testing was done using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The following observations were made from the data gathered: The mean IQ score of children without dental fluorosis was significantly higher than those children who had dental fluorosis. The mean IQ scores did not vary with the severity of dental fluorosis as classified by Dean's fluorosis index. Also it was noticed that the percentage of children with dental fluorosis was more in Extremely Low and Low IQ categories whereas the percentage of children without dental fluorosis was more in Average and High Average IQ categories. Previous studies had indicated toward decreased Intelligence in children exposed to high levels of fluoride and our study also confirmed such an effect.

  10. Enamel microabrasion for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Moda, Preeti; Yadav, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Fluorosis has increased in recent times due to fluoridation of drinking water and addition of fluoride to various edible items, which leads to unaesthetic appearance of teeth visible at close quarters. The enamel microabrasion technique is a conservative method that improves the appearance of the teeth by restoring bright and superficial smoothness, without causing significant structural loss. The aim of this article is to describe an easy technique for managing mild to moderate dental fluoro...

  11. Aesthetic perception of dental fluorosis--opinions of dentists and non-specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukleva, Maria P; Kondeva, Vesselina K; Isheva, Alexandra V; Petrova, Svetla G; Rimalovska, Sevda I

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic perception of the changes in teeth appearance is one of the factors that makes a person undertake a dental treatment. The aim of this study was to survey dentists' and non-specialists' aesthetic perception of dental fluorosis. We recruited 120 young people (age range 18-22 years with little knowledge of dental fluorosis and 120 randomly selected dentists. Evaluation of the abnormalities in the teeth aesthetic appearance was conducted using cards specially designed for the purpose. The results suggest that changes in dental fluorosis, even in the mildest forms, are perceived as deviations in the aesthetic appearance of teeth. Non-specialists are more tolerant towards the changes characteristic of mild dental fluorosis compared with their reaction to other conditions that result in deviations in the type of dentition as a whole. Further studies are needed to more precisely determine the role of aesthetic perception in determining the indications for the complex treatment of dental fluorosis.

  12. Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water and Risk of Dental Fluorosis in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Indermitte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to drinking water fluoride and evaluate the risk of dental fluorosis among the Estonian population. The study covered all 15 counties in Estonia and 93.7% of population that has access to public water supplies. In Estonia groundwater is the main source for public water supply systems in most towns and rural settlements. The content of natural fluoride in water ranges from 0.01 to 7.20 mg/L. The exposure to different fluoride levels was assessed by linking data from previous studies on drinking water quality with databases of the Health Protection Inspectorate on water suppliers and the number of water consumers in water supply systems. Exposure assessment showed that 4% of the study population had excessive exposure to fluoride, mainly in small public water supplies in western and central Estonia, where the Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is the only source of drinking water. There is a strong correlation between natural fluoride levels and the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Risk of dental fluorosis was calculated to different fluoride exposure levels over 1.5 mg/L.

  13. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una a...

  14. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  15. Validation of ICMR index for identification of dental fluorosis in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ashima; Verma, Mahesh; Toteja, G S; Gauba, K; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mohanty, Utkal; Kaur, Rupinder

    2016-07-01

    The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) formulated a Task Force on dental fluorosis and recommended the subgroup to develop a simplified index for identification and grading of dental fluorosis to be used by the health workers. This study was conducted to pre-test the 'ICMR Index for Dental Fluorosis' in the field to check its reliability and reproducibility. A total of 600 photographs were taken, 150 in each grade of fluorosis by screening 14-17 yr school children from eight schools of Hisar (Haryana) and South west Delhi. Eighty photographs were finalized (20 in each grade) before calibration to be used for training of field workers. Calibration exercise was conducted involving the five member survey team on 100 diagnosed cases of dental fluorosis. The members again screened 74 children with dental fluorosis in the field to categorize in to different grades of fluorosis for assessment of inter-examiner reliability. The ICMR criteria showed more difference in agreement in very mild and mild categories during calibration. The inter-examiner reliability (κ) ranged from 0.59-1. The criteria was further modified and inter- examiner reliability (κ) found to be 0.83-0.98 which was almost perfect agreement. The tool developed by the ICMR to assess dental fluorosis can be used in a field set up by non-dental personnel reliably with high degree of reproducibility.

  16. Dental fluorosis and oral health status of 13–15-Year-Old school children of Chikkaballapur District: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and the crippling nature of oral diseases lead to significant absenteeism in schools and economic loss in the working population. Dental fluorosis is endemic in 15 states of India and Chikkaballapur district is one among them. Aim: To assess dental fluorosis and oral health status and in Chikkaballapur district among 13–15 years school going children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2400 school going children of 13–15-year-old in Chikkaballapur district. The data regarding the dental fluorosis were collected using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index. The clinical examination for the oral health status was determined using the WHO Oral Assessment Form 1997. Proportions were compared using Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance was used to test the differences. Results: It was seen that the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth was highest among the 13-year-old at 1.39. Bleeding on probing and calculus was highest among 15-year-old with 83.5% and 84.6%, respectively. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Chikkaballapur district was found to be 41.1%. Conclusion: The oral health status of the individuals was poor, and the prevalence of fluorosis was high. There is a need to create awareness regarding oral health and fluorosis.

  17. Dental caries and fluorosis experience of 8-12-year-old children by early-life exposure to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Miller, Jenifer; Phelan, Claire; Sivaneswaran, Shanti; Spencer, A John; Wright, Clive

    2014-12-01

    It is important to evaluate concurrently the benefit for dental caries and the risk for dental fluorosis from early exposure to fluoride among children. To evaluate associations of different levels of exposure to fluoride in early childhood with dental caries and dental fluorosis experience in school children. A Child Dental Health Survey (CDHS) was conducted among school children in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) in 2007. Trained and calibrated examination teams conducted oral epidemiologic examinations to assess caries experience as decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces of the primary and permanent dentitions (dmfs/DMFS) and fluorosis using the Thylstrup & Fejerskov (TF) index on the maxillary central incisors only. A parental questionnaire collected information on residential histories and tap water usage to enable calculation of percentage of 3-year lifetime exposure to fluoride in water. Use of dietary fluoride supplements was also collected. Dental caries and fluorosis experience were compared among groups by levels of exposure to fluoride from water and fluoride supplements in bivariate and multivariable analysis, controlling for socioeconomic factors. Exposure to different fluoride sources varied in the group of 2611 children aged 8-12 years. Lower household income was significantly associated in both bivariate and multivariable analyses with the greater prevalence and severity of primary tooth caries among 8-10-year-old children and permanent tooth caries among 8-12 year old. Exposure to fluoride in water during the first 3 years of life was associated with both caries and fluorosis experience observed at age 8-12 years. Having higher percentage of 3-year lifetime exposure to fluoride in water was associated with higher prevalence of mostly mild fluorosis, but significantly lower prevalence and severity of caries in the primary and permanent dentitions. There were significant associations of dental caries and fluorosis experience with

  18. An investigation of social judgments made by young adults toward appearance of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashree, S R; Shankar Aradhya, M R; Arunadevi, M

    2012-01-01

    Smile is a crucial factor in creating a good first impression. However conditions like dental fluorosis hamper the esthetics of teeth. This study was conducted to find out whether young adults attribute socially relevant characteristics to people with dental fluorosis. A total of 150 young adults were presented with images of individuals with different severity levels of dental fluorosis along with images of normal tooth appearance on a computer screen. They had to attribute various socially relevant characteristics to these images. Images were digitally manipulated to simulate dental fluorosis. Images were displayed on a computer screen and Visual Basic Software was used to record the participants' responses as well as the time taken to respond. The time taken to respond or response latency indicates the response strength. A chi-square test was used to test the association between the dental appearances and the socially relevant characteristics. A Mann--Whitney test was used to compare the time taken to respond. As the severity of fluorosis increases, participants attribute less and less of positive characteristics. Attribution of negative characteristics also increases with the severity of dental fluorosis. For images with moderate and severe fluorosis, respondents took more time to accept positive characteristics and less time to reject positive characteristic. This means that the participants felt strongly when rejecting positive characteristics in these images. Social judgments are made by young adults when viewing digitally manipulated images of different levels of fluorosis.

  19. An investigation of social judgments made by young adults toward appearance of dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Nagashree

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Smile is a crucial factor in creating a good first impression. However conditions like dental fluorosis hamper the esthetics of teeth. This study was conducted to find out whether young adults attribute socially relevant characteristics to people with dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods : A total of 150 young adults were presented with images of individuals with different severity levels of dental fluorosis along with images of normal tooth appearance on a computer screen. They had to attribute various socially relevant characteristics to these images. Images were digitally manipulated to simulate dental fluorosis. Images were displayed on a computer screen and Visual Basic Software was used to record the participants′ responses as well as the time taken to respond. The time taken to respond or response latency indicates the response strength. Statistical analysis : A chi-square test was used to test the association between the dental appearances and the socially relevant characteristics. A Mann--Whitney test was used to compare the time taken to respond. Results : As the severity of fluorosis increases, participants attribute less and less of positive characteristics. Attribution of negative characteristics also increases with the severity of dental fluorosis. For images with moderate and severe fluorosis, respondents took more time to accept positive characteristics and less time to reject positive characteristic. This means that the participants felt strongly when rejecting positive characteristics in these images. Conclusion : Social judgments are made by young adults when viewing digitally manipulated images of different levels of fluorosis.

  20. Fluoride Varnish Applications in Preschoolers and Dental Fluorosis in Permanent Incisors: Results of a Nested-cohort Study Within a Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Malta, Marcella Cristina Bordallo; de Marsillac, Mirian de Waele Souchois; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa

    2016-10-15

    To compare the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in the permanent maxillary incisors of children who had participated in a two-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on fluoride varnish application in the primary dentition and to assess children's esthetic perception of their teeth. Parents of 200 one- to four-year-old children who had received biannual applications of fluoride or placebo varnish were contacted four years after the end of the trial. Two calibrated examiners assessed dental fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TF) and interviewed the children regarding their perceptions of teeth appearance. Fluorosis (TF equals at least one) and esthetically objectionable fluorosis (TF equals at least three) were observed in 38 (30.9 percent) and eight (6.5 percent) children, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in fluorosis prevalence between children who had received fluoride or placebo varnish. Children's responses regarding the esthetic perceptions of their teeth showed no statistically significant difference between children with and without fluorosis. Fluoride varnish applications in preschoolers were not associated with any level of fluorosis in their permanent maxillary incisors. The fluorosis found in this study did not influence the children's esthetic perception of their teeth.

  1. Dental caries, fluorosis, and oral health behavior of children from Herat, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Doost, Ferhat; Hopfenmüller, Werner; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Paris, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Decades of conflict, poverty, and dysfunctional public services have affected people's health in Afghanistan. To estimate treatment needs and guide health initiatives, epidemiologic data are required. Such data are currently unavailable for dental health. The present study assessed caries experience, fluorosis, and oral health behavior in children from Afghanistan. We performed a two-stage, school-based cross-sectional study in Herat province in Afghanistan. A total of 1059 children, 369 children aged 6-7, 300 aged 12, and 390 aged 15 years, were sampled. Caries was assessed according to ICDAS, and oral hygiene, dietary habits, and parental economic and educational status evaluated. Prevalence of fluorosis was assessed, and fluoride concentrations in drinking water and in used toothpastes were measured. Mean (SD) number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth was dmft = 4.88 (3.11), DMFT = 2.57 (2.16), and DMFT = 4.04 (3.03) in 6-/7-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, respectively. The majority of lesions in 6-year-olds were cavitated, while 12- and 15-year-olds showed more non- or microcavitated lesions. Most lesions, especially in young children, were untreated. Mean (range) water fluoride concentration was 0.37 (0.19-0.67) ppm. Fluoride concentrations in evaluated toothpastes did not meet internationally recommended levels. The majority of children showed no or minimal fluorosis. Having fluorosis, infrequently consuming sweets, or having a father with high education was associated with low caries experience (dmfs/DMFS children had high unmet dental treatment needs and caries experience. Sufficient access to restorative treatment and prevention measures is urgently required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relationship Between Dental Fluorosis and Intelligence Quotient of School Going Children In and Around Lucknow District: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Navit, Saumya; Chadha, Dheera; Johri, Nikita; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-11-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water, despite being regarded as one of the top ten public health achievements of the twentieth century, has remained a much debated concept. Various studies on animals and aborted human fetuses have confirmed that excessive fluoride intake during infancy and early childhood, causes a number of irreversible structural and functional changes in the CNS leading to memory, learning and intellectual deficits. To compare the IQ levels of school children of two different locations, having different fluoride levels in water, and to establish a relationship between fluoride levels, prevalence of fluorosis and its effect on IQ levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 children aged 6 - 12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from two different areas with different levels of fluoride in drinking water in and around Lucknow district. Dental fluorosis was measured using Dean's Fluorosis Index. Intelligence Quotient was measured using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (1998 edition). Majority of the fluorosis free children (76.3%) had an IQ grade 2 (definitely above the average). Majority of the children suffering from very mild and mild dental fluorosis were found to have IQ grade 3 (Intellectually average). Children with moderate cases of dental fluorosis were found to have IQ grade 4 (Definitely below average). Only 5 children with severe fluorosis were included in the study and they all were found to have an IQ grade 5. Hence, a trend of increase in the IQ grade (decrease in intellectual capacity) was observed indicating a strong correlation between fluorosis grade and IQ grade. Findings of this study suggest that the overall IQ of the children exposed to high fluoride levels in drinking water and hence suffering from dental fluorosis were significantly lower than those of the low fluoride area.

  3. Incidence of human dental fluorosis in the Raft River geothermal area in southern Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shupe, J.L.; Olson, A.E.; Peterson, H.B.

    1978-09-01

    A total of 270 school aged individuals representing 151 families living in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal area of Idaho were examined for evidence of dental fluorosis. Of these 132 had some dental anomaly. Fifty-two individuals from 45 families had lesions classified as typical dental fluorosis. Eleven of these, some of which had severe dental fluorosis recently moved into the area from other locations. Samples of the drinking waters that were likely consumed by the individuals with dental fluorosis were collected for analyses. In most instances the fluoride content of the waters were low and would not account for the tooth lesions. Possible reasons for lack of correlation are changing of the composition of the water, other sources of fluoride in the diet, and possibly analytical errors.

  4. Natural history and long-term impact of dental fluorosis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Ha, Diep H; Spencer, A John

    2016-01-18

    The study assessed longitudinal changes in the presentation of dental fluorosis and evaluated the impact of fluorosis on the perception of oral health among young adults. Prospective follow-up study during 2011-12 of a population-based study in South Australia conducted between 2003 and 2004. 8-13-year-old children initially examined in 2003 and 2004. Dental fluorosis was assessed with the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. The impact on perceptions of oral health by the study participants and their parents was assessed with the Global Rating of Oral Health (GROH). Pairwise comparative analysis of the presentation of fluorosis was conducted at the individual and tooth levels. Multivariable models of changes in fluorosis were generated. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between GROH with dental fluorosis, caries and other factors. A total of 314 participants completed the follow-up questionnaires and dental examination. Over 60% of teeth scored as TF 1 at baseline were scored as TF 0 at follow-up; 66% of teeth scored as TF 2 or 3 at baseline were scored as TF 0 or 1 at follow-up. In multivariable models, changes in fluorosis were not significantly associated with socio-economic factors or oral health behaviours, confirming that they were the result of a natural process. Perceptions of poor oral health were significantly associated with the number of untreated decayed tooth surfaces at follow-up, but not with fluorosis. Very mild and mild dental fluorosis diminished with time. Dental fluorosis did not have a negative impact on perceptions of oral health.

  5. clinical evaluation of enamel microabrasion for the aesthetic management of mild-to-severe dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Esra Uzer; Yildiz, Gül; Yazkan, Başak

    2013-12-01

    The clinical performance of enamel microabrasion alone for aesthetic management of dental fluorosis is debatable. This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of enamel microabrasion for the aesthetic management of mild-to-severe dental fluorosis. A total of 154 fluorosed incisors and canines in 14 patients on the basis of the fluorosis were included; the teeth were classified as mild (group I, n = 53), moderate (group II, n = 56), and severe (group III, n = 45). All teeth were treated with enamel microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT, USA). "Improvement in appearance," "changes in brown stains," "changes in opaque white areas," and "requirement for further treatments" were assessed by using visual scale systems. The data were analyzed using nonparametric tests (α = 0.05). The "improvement in appearance" score was the worst for group III (p fluorosis affected the clinical performance of enamel microabrasion except for its performance of removing brown stains. Increase in fluorosis severity led to increased requirements for further treatments. The clinical performance of enamel microabrasion is affected by the severity of dental fluorosis, except for its performance of removing brown stains. Even though its performance of improving appearance decreases with the increase in severity of fluorosis, it may not only remove the fluorosis stains but also may increase the success of additional subsequent treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride in 10-12 years old adolescents of Bushehr port

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    Giti Javan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoride increases tooth resistance to dental caries, but mild toxicity due to excessive ingestion of fluoride can cause dental fluorosis. Drinking water naturally contains fluoride and is a major source of fluoride. In Bushehr port, drinking water is supplied from limestone springs with normal fluoride levels but dental fluorosis is observed. Methods: A total of 95 native school children (between the ages of 10-12 years old were randomly selected from four Bushehr port regions. Dental fluorosis, height and weight were examined. Probable attributing factors of dental fluorosis were also questioned. A 16 to 18 hours urinary fluoride concentration was measured with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results: Dental fluorosis in four upper incisors was apparent in 52.6 % of the subjects. The urinary fluoride concentration was 2.18 mg/lit. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of schools ranged from 0.41 to 0.58 mg/lit. Forty percent of subjects were caries free. Conclusion: In spite of the normal range of fluoride concentration in the drinking water of Bushehr, dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are higher than the recommended ranges. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the amount and effects of fluoride ingestion in residents of Bushehr province.

  7. Stress Response Pathways in Ameloblasts: Implications for Amelogenesis and Dental Fluorosis

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    John D. Bartlett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human enamel development of the permanent teeth takes place during childhood and stresses encountered during this period can have lasting effects on the appearance and structural integrity of the enamel. One of the most common examples of this is the development of dental fluorosis after childhood exposure to excess fluoride, an elemental agent used to increase enamel hardness and prevent dental caries. Currently the molecular mechanism responsible for dental fluorosis remains unknown; however, recent work suggests dental fluorosis may be the result of activated stress response pathways in ameloblasts during the development of permanent teeth. Using fluorosis as an example, the role of stress response pathways during enamel maturation is discussed.

  8. Prevalência de cárie, gengivite e fluorose em escolares de 12 anos de Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, 1998/1999 Prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and fluorosis in 12-year-old schoolchildren from Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, 1998/1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Barbachan e SILVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de cárie, gengivite e fluorose em escolares de 12 anos de Porto Alegre - RS. Foram examinados 1.000 escolares da rede de ensino público e particular da cidade. Os índices utilizados foram o ISG, CPO e o ITF. Após a coleta do ISG, a criança foi submetida à remoção da placa e secagem dos dentes para proceder-se aos exames de cárie e fluorose. A média e erro padrão do CPOD, incluindo as lesões não cavitadas, foi de 2,22 ± 0,08, o ISG foi de 19,76% ± 0,54% e a prevalência de escolares com fluorose foi de 52,9%. Em relação à severidade, 45,9% das crianças apresentaram ITF 1, 6,1%, ITF 2 e 0,9%, ITF 3. Os escolares com CPOS maior que 7 (51,2% compreenderam 14,4% da amostra. Quanto ao sangramento gengival, observou-se que 12% das crianças apresentavam ISG > ou = 40%. O CPOD de Porto Alegre é comparável ao de países desenvolvidos, resultado provavelmente em decorrência do uso intensivo de flúor, que também está ocasionando a fluorose. A severidade da fluorose encontrada não justifica qualquer medida de saúde pública. As medidas de saúde pública de impacto populacional estão sendo efetivas, porém, existe uma parcela da população que necessita de cuidados adicionais.The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, gingival bleeding and fluorosis in twelve-year-old schoolchildren from Porto Alegre, Brazil. One thousand students from private and public schools were examined. The indexes used were BI, DMF and TFI. The data pertaining to BI were the first to be collected. After that, the children were submitted to plaque removal and their teeth were dried prior to the examination for caries and fluorosis. The average value for DMFT, including cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, was 2.22 ± 0.08 (standard error. The average value for BI was 19.76% ± 0.54% (standard error and the prevalence of students with fluorosis was 52.9%. Regarding the severity of

  9. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir; Golnaz Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mou...

  10. Fluoride concentration of drinking water and dental fluorosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Goodarzi; Amir Hossein Mahvi; Mostafa Hosseini; Ramin Nabizadeh Nodehi; Mohammad Javad Kharazifard; Mina Parvizishad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, a number of studies have investigated the impact of fluoride concentration of drinking water on dental fluorosis. These Studies should be reviewed to provide a new outlook on the analysis of the causes and effects of dental fluorosis in specific regions. The objective of this study was to systematically review the fluoride concentration of drinking water and investigate its relation to the frequency of dental fluorosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Dean′s index was u...

  11. Validation of fingernail fluoride concentration as a predictor of risk for dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, M A R; Massaro, C S; Rodrigues, M H C; Fukushima, R; Pessan, J P; Whitford, G M; Sampaio, F C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the use of fingernail fluoride concentrations at ages 2-7 years as predictors of the risk for developing dental fluorosis in the permanent dentition. Fifty-six children of both genders (10-15 years of age) had their incisors and premolars examined for dental fluorosis using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index. Fingernail fluoride concentrations were obtained from previous studies when children were 2-7 years of age. Data were analyzed by unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test when the fingernail fluoride concentrations were dichotomized (≤ 2 or >2 µg/g). Children with dental fluorosis had significantly higher fingernail fluoride concentrations than those without the condition, and the concentrations tended to increase with the severity of fluorosis (r(2) = 0.47, p dental fluorosis. The high positive predictive value indicates that fingernail fluoride concentrations should be useful in public health research, since it has the potential to identify around 80% of children at risk of developing dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Survey of habits and customs and prevalence of dental fluorosis in high-fluoride areas of Zhaotong city Yunnan province in 2008%2008年云南省昭通市高氟区人群生活习惯和氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范群; 姚霜; 王冰; 者丽萍; 王婉; 季娟娟; 杨苹

    2010-01-01

    area of Zhaotong city Yunnan province, and to provide reference value for monitoring and control of the disease. Methods In 2008, 600 people of a 12-year-old group (400 people) and a 35 - 44-year-old group(200 people) were examined for dental fluorosis and oral health status in an indoor coal-combustion-type fluorosis area of Zhaotong. A questionnaire survey of 120 students and 60 adults was carried out on their habits and customs, stove changing status, knowledge of prevention of dental fluorosis, social psychology status, oral health behavior and their need for medical treatment. Results The total prevalence of dental fluorosis was 91.0% (546/600), dental fluorosis index was 2.58. The total prevalence of dental fluorosis of 12-year-old group was 86.5%(346/400), and dental fluorosis index was 2.12. The total prevalence of dental fluorosis of rural student was 90.5% (181/200), which was obviously higher in the rural group than the urban group [82.5% (165/200), χ2 = 5.48, P < 0.05]. The total prevalence of dental fluorosis of 35-44-year-old group was 100% (200/200), which was obviously higher than that of the 12-year-old group(χ2 = 29.67, P < 0.01). The rates of using coal, baking of food, changing stoves were 66.7% (60/90), 14.4% (13/90),57.8% (52/90), respectively, and these values of the urban were much lower than those of the rural[95.6%(86/90) ,31.1%(28/90) ,76.7%(69/90),χ2 = 24.51,7.11,7.29, all P < 0.01]. Only 23.3% (42/180) of people surveied had the knowledge of prevention of dental fluorosis, and the rate in the adult group[56.7% (34/60)]was higher than that of the student group [6.7% (8/120), χ2 = 55.9, P < 0.01]. The same rate in the urban student group was 0(0/60), and the rural student group was 13.3%(8/60), there was a significant difference between them(χ2 = 5.66, P < 0.05). Seventy-three point nine per cent( 133/180) of these people thought dental fluorosis had significant effect on their life, 91.1%(164/180) of these 'people wished to be treated

  13. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10.

  14. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  15. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  16. Fluoride distribution in groundwater and survey of dental fluorosis among school children in the villages of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J P; Lata, Suman; Kataria, Sudhir K; Kumar, Sunil

    2009-08-01

    Fluoride concentration of groundwater reserves occurs in many places in the world. A critical area for such contamination in India is alluvial soil of the plain region, consisting of five blocks (Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Beri, Matanhail, and Sahalawas) of the Jhajjar District adjacent to the National Capital Territory of India, New Delhi. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between water fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India. The fluoride content in underground drinking water sources was found to vary in villages. Hence, the villages were categorized as high-fluoride villages (1.52-4.0 mg F/l) and low/normal-fluoride villages (0.30-1.0 mg F/l). The source of dental fluorosis data was school-going children (7-15 years) showing different stages and types of fluorosis who were permanent resident of these villages. The fraction of dental fluorosis-affected children varied from 30% to 94.85% in the high-fluoride villages and from 8.80% to 28.20% in the low/normal-fluoride villages. The results of the present study revealed that there existed a significant positive correlation between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental fluorosis in high-fluoride villages (r = 0.508; p fluoride villages.

  17. A cross-sectional study to assess the effect of dental fluorosis on periodontal status

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    Amandeep Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries is well established, its effect on periodontal tissues is enigmatic. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between dental fluorosis and the periodontal status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 600 subjects suffering from fluorosis. Variables such as age, gender, and smoking, which could act as covariates for the periodontal disease were recorded. The oral examination included assessment of oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S, community periodontal index and treatment need, and assessment of dental fluorosis by Jackson's fluorosis index. Results: Periodontitis was more common in females than in males. As the age advances, the rate of periodontal disease increases steadily. Periodontitis was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene and tobacco usage. As the degree of fluorosis increased, the severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased. Conclusion: There is a strong association between the degree of dental fluorosis and periodontal disease along with other factors such as age, gender, OHI-S, and tobacco usage.

  18. Características generales de la fluorosis dental

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    Josefa Calderón Betancourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, utilizando los recursos disponibles desde la red infomed, con el objetivo de describir las características generales de la fluorosis dental. Esta es la hipomineralización del esmalte dental y tiene tres formas de presentación: leve, moderada y severa. Su cuadro clínico esta dado principalmente por manchas blanquecinas que cubre una mínima superficie del diente, hasta manchas de color café oscuro y su complicación más temida es la fractura que causa una agresiva y acentuada pérdida de la estructura dentaria. Es causada por el acumulo excesivo de flúor en el diente. Su prevención está encaminada a la administración de flúor sistémico en las diferentes edades y entre las recomendaciones para evitarla se encuentra: usar en lo posible agua con el nivel adecuado de flúor, utilizar pastas de dientes con los contenidos óptimos de flúor, excepto en las zonas con aguas fluoradas y no aplicar las lacas fluoradas a estos niños

  19. Fluoridation of the public water supply and prevalence of dental fluorosis in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru, SP Fluoretação da água de abastecimento público e prevalência de fluorose dentária em bairro da periferia de Bauru, SP

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    Irene Ramires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the fluoride concentration in the public water supply and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years old, living in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this, fifty two water samples were collected on three different days of one week. These samples were analyzed for fluoride by means of the ion-sensitive electrode method (Orion 9609 coupled to a potentiometer (Procyon, model 720. In this method, 1.0 mL of TISAB II (Orion was added to 1.0 mL of the sample. For the epidemiological survey of fluorosis, 52 schoolchildren of both genders, aged between 7 and 15 were assessed, with prior authorization from their caretakers. Only one person examined the children, after supervised toothbrushing and drying with cotton wool rolls. The TF index was used. RESULTS: The fluoride concentrations in the water samples ranged from 0.62 to 1.20 mg/L, with a mean of 0.9 mg/L. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33%, with severity ranging from TF1 to TF4 (Kappa of 0.73 and concordance of 83.33%. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the analysis of water samples indicated a fluoride concentration greater than recommended for Bauru. The fluorosis levels found were higher than expected for a peripheral district, in which water is one of the few sources of fluoride.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a concentração de flúor na água de abastecimento público e a prevalência de fluorose dentária de escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade, residentes em um bairro da periferia de Bauru. MATÉRIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas 52 amostras de água durante três dias de uma semana e analisadas utilizando-se o eletrodo íon sensível (Orion 9609, acoplado a um potenciômetro (Procyon, modelo 720, com 1,0 mL da amostra à qual foi adicionado 1,0 mL de TISAB II (Orion. Para o levantamento epidemiológico de fluorose foram examinados 52 escolares entre 7 e 15 anos de idade

  20. EVALUATION OF YOUNG’S KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOR ABOUT DENTAL FLUOROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Domingos, Patrícia Aleixo dos Santos; Neves, Amanda Soler; Rios, Mariana Gisele; Oliveira,Ana Luísa Botta Martins de

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study has evaluated the knowledge about dental fluorosis and the behavior of young people regarding to the use of Fluor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 313 students from High School of Tabatinga/SP, from 15 to 21 years old have answered a questionnaire with pre-encoded questions in which was approached the variables: gender, age, schooling level, dwelling, water consumption, oral hygiene habits, frequency of consults to the dentist and perception about clinical characteristics of fluorosis. ...

  1. Combined influence of high fluoride and high iodine in drinking water on prevalence of dental fluorosis in school-age children in the countryside of Tianjin%高氟高碘饮水对天津市农村学龄儿童氟斑牙患病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿; 曾强; 侯常春; 崔维琪; 张磊; 冯宝佳; 赵亮; 崔玉山; 刘洪亮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the joint effects of excessive fluoride and iodine in drinking water on school-age children's dental fluorosis in the countryside of Tianjin.Methods Based on the screening results of fluorine and iodine contents in drinking water in rural areas of Tianjin,three towns in Jinghai County and Wuqing District of Tianjin were selected as high fluoride and high iodine group,high fluoride and suitable iodine group,suitable fluoride and suitable iodine(control) group.Children aged 8-10 were selected as survey subjects.Morning urine was collected and dental fluorosis was examined.The concentration of urinary iodine was determined using arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry(WS/T 107-2006),and urinary fluoride was detected using fluoride ion selective electrode method (WS/T 89-1996).Dean method was used to check the prevalence of dental fluorosis.Results The urinary iodine median was 721.7,788.3,293.5 μg/L,respectively,and urinary fluorosis median was 2.48,2.70,1.59 mg/L,respectively.Urinary iodine and fluorosis were the highest in high fluoride and high iodine group,followed by high fluoride and suitable iodine group and control group(x2 =35.10,17.01,all P < 0.05).There was a significant difference of prevalence of dental fluorosis among the three groups(x2 =15.39,P< 0.05).The prevalence of dental fluorosis was the highest in high fluoride and suitable iodine group(85.3%,29/34),followed by high fluoride and high iodine group(66.7%,14/21) and control group(48.8%,21/43).Multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of dental fluorosis was adversely associated with fluorine concentration in drinking water[OR =7.273,95% confidence limits(CI):1.676 ~ 31.562,x2 =7.020,P < 0.05].Conclusion Drinking water with high fluoride and exposure of high fluoride combined with high iodine has a definite impact on children's dental fluorosis.%目的 观察高氟高碘饮水对天津市农村学龄儿童

  2. Coal-burning roasted corn and chili as the cause of dental fluorosis for children in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun-li; Li, Ling; Zhang, Shi-xi

    2011-01-30

    To find the pathologic cause of the children's dental fluorosis in southwestern China, diet structure before the age of 6 and prevalence rate of dental fluorosis (DF) of 405 children were investigated, and the fluorine and arsenic content of several materials were determined. The prevalence rate of DF of children living on roasted corn before the age of 6 is 100% with nearly 95% having the mild to severe DF; while that of children living on non-roasted corn or rice is less than 5% with all having very mild DF. The average fluorine and arsenic concentration are 20.26 mg/kg and 0.249 mg/kg in roasted corn, which are about 16 times and 35 times more than in non-roasted corn, respectively. The average fluorine concentration is 78 mg/kg in coal, 1116 mg/kg in binder clay and 313 mg/kg in briquette (coal mixed with clay). The average arsenic concentration of coal is 5.83 mg/kg, the binder clay is 20.94 mg/kg, with 8.52 mg/kg in the briquette. Living on roasted corn and chili is the main pathologic cause of endemic fluorosis in southwestern China. The main source of fluorine and arsenic pollution of roasted corn and chill is the briquette of coal and binder clay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Dental fluorosis in San Luis Potosi and its solution alternatives (pilot study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Prieto, M; Vázquez Guerrero, V; Silva Romo, E; Moreno Vélez, R; Ochoa Flores, L; Hernández, M J

    1988-12-01

    A study exposing the situation affecting the population of San Luis Potosí in central México, caused by dental fluorosis. Findings point to the need of implementing devices capable of regulating the concentrations of Fluorine ion (generating the efficient prevention of dental cavity incidence), to maintain them at optimal levels and without deletereal effects.

  4. Adult perceptions of dental fluorosis and select dental conditions-an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rahul; Chuang, Janice Cheah Ping; Lee, Pauline Shih Jia; Leo, Song Jie; Yang, Naomi QiYue; Yee, Robert; Tong, Huei Jinn

    2016-04-01

    To compare lay people's perceptions with regard to various levels of dental fluorosis and select dental defects versus normal dentition. Adults rated digitally created photographs made showing lips (without retraction) and teeth depicting the following conditions: no apparent aesthetic defects (normal, Thylstrup- Fejerskov score 0 - TF0), 6 levels of fluorosis (TF1-6), carious lesions (two cavitated and one noncavitated), malocclusions (Class II, Class III, anterior open bite and greater spacing), extrinsic staining and an incisal chip. The photographs were displayed on colour-calibrated iPads(™) . Participants used a self-administered questionnaire to rate their perceptions on (Item 1) how normal teeth were, (Item 2) how attractive the teeth were, (Item 3) need to seek correction of teeth, (Item 4) how well the person took care of their teeth and (Item 5) whether the person was born like this. Data from Item 5 were excluded due to low reliability. Ratings for Item 1 showed that TF1-4 was similar or significantly better than TF0. For Item 2, TF1 and TF4 were significantly better than TF0, with TF2 and TF3 being similar. For Item 3, there was significantly lower need to seek correction with TF2 and TF4 versus TF0, whereas TF1 and TF3 were similar to TF0. TF5 and TF6 were rated significantly lower than TF0 for Item 1 and Item 2, and significantly higher rating for Item 3 (need to seek correction). Ratings for Item 4 were similar, with TF1, TF2 and TF4 being rated significantly higher than TF0, and TF5 and TF6 being rated lower. Cavitated caries and staining were generally perceived as being significantly less favourable than TF6, with higher need to seek correction as well. Noncavitated carious lesion and incisal chip were rated similar to TF0. Cavitated carious lesions were rated aesthetically similar or significantly worse than TF0 and TF6. Severe fluorosis (TF5 and 6) was perceived to be less aesthetically pleasing and received higher ratings for need to seek

  5. Survey on the Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in High Fluorine District in Zhaotong, Yunnan after Improving Ovens to Reduce Fluoride Pollution%云南昭通高氟区改灶降氟后氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季娟娟; 范群; 姚霜; 王冰; 王婉; 杨苹

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesTo provide some advice to the prevention and treatment of endemic dental fluorosis of Zhaotong by investigating the prevalence of dental fluorosis in high fluorine districe in Zhaotong. Methods According to the basic methods of diagnostic criteria for dental fluorosis of the third national oral health epidemiological survey, a sample survey of dental fluorosis and oral health status were carried out. The samples were randomly gotten from the 12-year-old students and 35 - 44 year-old adults of local residents. In accordance with the respective proportions of 30% of the two groups for the questionnaire survey. Results In 35-44 year old group, the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 100.0%, The dental fluorosis prevalence rate in 12 year-old students was 86.5%. Between the two groups there was a significant difference (P< 0.01, χ2 - 29.67). The coal utilization rate and the baking food rate in urban areas were lower than in rural areas (P < 0.01). The endemic fluorosis prevention and treatment knowledge rate was only 23.3%. 73.9% people thought dental fluorosis affecting their lives and aesthetics, and 91.1% of the population had an urgent treatment needs. 84.4% of the population had habit of brushing teeth, while 50.7% of the population still used fluoride toothpaste. Conclusions After improving ovens to reduce fluoride pollution in high fluoride areas in Yunnan Zhaotong, the prevalence rate of DF decreased, but Zhaotong is still the moderate prevalent district. Besides improving ovens, the health education, scientific management, local economic and cultural levels also need to be improved.%目的 调查云南省昭通煤染型高氟区改灶降氟后氟斑牙患病情况,了解当地人群生活习惯及地方性氟中毒防治知识知晓情况,为地方性氟中毒的防治提供参考.方法 参考第三次全国口腔健康流行病学抽样调查的基本方法与诊断标准,对云南昭通高氟地区改灶降氟前出生的35~44岁

  6. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  7. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Singh, Anukriti; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-12-01

    Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis.

  8. Development and psychometric testing of a visual analog scale for dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to develop and psychometrically test a visual analog scale (VAS for dental fluorosis. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, esthetic perceptions of varying severities of fluorosis in permanent maxillary incisor teeth presented in 36 photographs were graded on a 10 cm VAS by two groups - an expert panel of dental specialists and lay group comprising 1 st year dental students. The photographs were also graded using Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TFI. Inter and intra-examiner reliability testing and comparison of specialists′ and 1 st year students′ perceptions were made using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Mean VAS values were validated against TFI scores using Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: A VAS for dental fluorosis was constructed with the help of mean values of subjective ratings for each of the photographs. Inter-rater reliability was found to be moderate (ICC = 0.59. The intra-rater reliability for both the lay group (ICC range: 0.91-0.98 and dental specialists′ group (ICC range: 0.87-0.98 was found to be excellent. High correlation was obtained between lay group′s and dental specialists′ perception of fluorosis on VAS (r = 0.93. VAS scores correlated moderately with TFI scores for the photographs (Spearman′s ρ = 0.725. All the findings were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The developed VAS was found to be a valid and reliable tool to assess dental fluorosis. Validation of the scale on a larger sample from the general population is recommended before it is applied in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  9. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  10. Relação entre níveis de fluoreto na água de abastecimento público e fluorose dental Relationship between fluoride levels in the public water supply and dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bonadia Catani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da fluorose dentária em escolares sujeitos a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto na água de abastecimento público das suas cidades. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta de 386 escolares de sete anos de idade, moradores de dois municípios do estado de São Paulo que realizaram heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de 1998 a 2002, um deles apresentando concentração homogênea de fluoreto e o outro oscilante. Fluorose dental foi determinada examinando os incisivos superiores permanentes (secos pelo índice de Dean, o grau de fluorose classificado como questionável foi considerado como fluorose. Variáveis sociodemográficas e questões sobre saúde bucal foram avaliadas com questionário estruturado enviado aos pais/responsáveis. Associações foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística múltipla (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among schoolchildren subjected to different fluoride concentrations in the public water supply of their cities. METHODS: The sample comprised 386 seven-year-old schoolchildren living in two municipalities in the State of São Paulo that practiced external control over the fluoridation of the water from 1998 to 2002: one with homogenous fluoride concentration and the other with oscillating concentration. Dental fluorosis was determined by dry examination of the upper permanent incisors using Dean's index. Scores classified as questionable were considered to represent fluorosis. Sociodemographic variables and questions regarding oral health were assessed using a structured questionnaire sent to the children's parents or the adults responsible for these children. Correlates of fluorosis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression (p<0.05. RESULTS: Both municipalities presented a mild degree of fluorosis. The prevalence of fluorosis in the municipality with oscillating fluoride content in the water was 31.4%, and it was 79.9% in the

  11. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca; Naisé López Larquin; Magda Lima Álvarez; Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Miriam Elina García Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índice...

  12. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Dobarganes Coca; Naisé López Larquin; Magda Lima Álvarez; Josefa Calderón Betancourt; Miriam Elina García Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índice...

  13. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  14. The prevalence of fluorosis in children is associated with naturally occurring water fluoride concentration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo

    2013-09-01

    Fluorosis and dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren residing in areas with different water fluoride concentrations and receiving fluoridated salt. Garcia-Perez A, Irigoyen-Carnacho ME, Borges-Yanez A. Caries Res 2013;47(4):299-308. Rodrigo Mariño Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and fluoride concentration in drinking water? and Is there an association between the severity of fluorosis and dental caries experience in schoolchildren residing in two rural towns in Mexico (with water fluoride concentrations of 0.70 and 1.50 ppm) that also receive fluoridated salt? Government: National Council of Science and Technology (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, CONACYT) Other: Autonomous University, Xochimilco (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, UAM-X) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional Level 3: Other evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naise López Larquin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce años y la muestra por 67 escolares. La fluorosis dental se clasificó en: leve, moderada y grave. Las concentraciones de flúor natural en el agua de consumo, la exposición a altas concentraciones del elemento y el tiempo de exposición al mismo, fueron los factores de riesgo asociados a la fluorosis dental estudiados. Al concluir el estudio, se observó un predominio de la fluorosis dental leve (52,9 %, seguido de la moderada (38,2 %. Las concentraciones de flúor natural encontradas en las aguas de consumo fueron óptimas (0,7 y 1,2 ppm en el 44,8 % de los casos y altas (1,7 y 2,0 ppm en el 55,2 %. El 81,8 % de los casos sin fluorosis han estado expuestos a la acción del flúor solamente de uno a tres años, mientras que todos los niños con fluorosis dental lo han recibido por más de cuatro años, aumentando la severidad en la medida en que se incrementa el tiempo de exposición. El 36,4 % de los niños que ingirieron flúor antes de los seis años no presentaron fluorosis dental

  16. [Association between ameloblastin gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yong-zhuo; Mu, Li-hong; Wang, Ying-xiong; An, Wei; Jiang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    To study the distribution of ameloblastin (AMBN) gene polymorphism in coal-fire caused fluorosis (CFCF) in Chongqing municipality and the relationship between AMBN gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to dental fluorosis. Under a case-control study, 100 children aged 8 - 12 and 30 adults with dental fluorosis were enrolled in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing from December 2010 to February 2011. Another 100 children aged 8 - 12 and 30 adults with non-dental fluorosis were chosen as internal control groups together with 50 children and 30 adults without dental fluorosis were selected as external control groups in the non-epidemic area of Yubei district. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood sample of these people. Genotype of AMBN gene 7 extron 538_540delGGA, 10 extron 657A > G and 13 extron 986C > T loci were detected using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The rates of 7 extron 538_540delGGA loci among case, internal and external control groups were as follows: GGA/GGA-/- 61.2% (74/121), 78.5% (102/130), 74.3% (52/70) ; GGA/-: 24.0% (29/121), 15.4% (20/130), 22.9% (16/70) ; -/-: 14.8% (18/121), 6.1% (8/130), 2.8% (2/70), the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 14.353 P 0.05). CC appeared as 81.0% (98/121), 90.0% (117/130), 87.1% (61/70) while CT as 19.0% (23/121), 10.0% (13/130), 12.9% (9/70), with difference not statistically significant (χ(2) = 4.319, P > 0.05). In comparing with the two control groups, the frequency of GGA/GGA was decreasing (χ(2) values were 8.957, 3.405, respectively, P fluorosis (OR values were 2.7, 5.9, respectively, P fluorosis (OR = 2.1, P T loci polymorphism in AMBN gene might serve as the susceptibility factors causing the coal-fired fluorosis.

  17. Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death, Clare; Coulson, Graeme; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Morris, William K; Hufschmid, Jasmin

    2015-11-15

    Particulate and gaseous fluoride emissions contaminate vegetation near fluoride-emitting industries, potentially impacting herbivorous wildlife in neighboring areas. Dental fluorosis has been associated with consumption of fluoride-contaminated foliage by juvenile livestock and wildlife in Europe and North America. For the first time, we explored the epidemiology and comparative pathology of dental fluorosis in Australian marsupials residing near an aluminium smelter. Six species (Macropus giganteus, Macropus rufogriseus, Wallabia bicolor, Phascolarctos cinereus, Trichosurus vulpecula, Pseudocheirus peregrinus) demonstrated significantly higher bone fluoride levels in the high (n=161 individuals), compared to the low (n=67 individuals), fluoride areas (pdental lesions considered characteristic of dental fluorosis in eutherian mammals. Within the high-fluoride area, 67% of individuals across the six species showed dental enamel lesions, compared to 3% in the low-fluoride areas. Molars that erupted before weaning were significantly less likely to display pathological lesions than those developing later, and molars in the posterior portion of the dental arcade were more severely fluorotic than anterior molars in all six species. The severity of dental lesions was positively associated with increasing bone fluoride levels in all species, revealing a potential biomarker of excess fluoride exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Northern England. Methods Consented participants were invited to rank in order of preference (appearance a collage of 10 computer generated images on a touch-screen laptop. The images comprised an assortment of presentations of teeth that included white teeth, a spectrum of developmental defects of enamel and dental caries. Data were captured directly and exported into SPSS for analysis. Results Data were available for 1553 participants. In general, there were no significant differences in the rank positions between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, with the exception of teeth with caries and teeth with large demarcated opacities. Very white teeth had the highest rating in both localities. Overall, there was a trend for teeth with fluorosis to be ranked more favourably in the fluoridated community; for TF 1 and TF 2 this preference was significant (p Conclusions The results of this study suggest teeth that are uniformly very white have the highest preference. The rankings suggest teeth with a fluorosis score of TF 1 may not be considered aesthetically objectionable to this population and age group. The image depicting a tooth with caries and the image with large demarcated opacities were deemed to be the least favoured. Participant preference of images depicting fluorosis falls with increasing severity of fluorosis.

  19. Adolescents' perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images) of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Northern England. Methods Consented participants were invited to rank in order of preference (appearance) a collage of 10 computer generated images on a touch-screen laptop. The images comprised an assortment of presentations of teeth that included white teeth, a spectrum of developmental defects of enamel and dental caries. Data were captured directly and exported into SPSS for analysis. Results Data were available for 1553 participants. In general, there were no significant differences in the rank positions between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, with the exception of teeth with caries and teeth with large demarcated opacities. Very white teeth had the highest rating in both localities. Overall, there was a trend for teeth with fluorosis to be ranked more favourably in the fluoridated community; for TF 1 and TF 2 this preference was significant (p fluorosis score of TF 1 may not be considered aesthetically objectionable to this population and age group. The image depicting a tooth with caries and the image with large demarcated opacities were deemed to be the least favoured. Participant preference of images depicting fluorosis falls with increasing severity of fluorosis. PMID:22325055

  20. Fluorosis dental en niños de 12 y 15 años del municipio de Andes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanca Susana Ramírez-Puerta; Héctor Manuel Molina-Ochoa; Jessica Lorena Morales-Flórez

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: dental fluorosis is a problem of oral health that occurs in varying degrees of severity depending on exposure to fluoride during tooth formation, the WHO recommends monitoring this problem in the population...

  1. Pronounced reduction of fluoride exposure in free-ranging deer in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) as indicated by the biomarkers skeletal fluoride content and dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Bahelková, Petra; Sedláček, František; Kierdorf, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Wild deer have been recommended as bioindicators of fluoride pollution. We compared bone fluoride concentrations and prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in free-ranging European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) from five counties in the northwestern part of the Czech Republic that had been collected by hunters and whose mandibles were presented at trophy exhibitions in the years 1996/1997 ("early period") and 2009 ("late period"). Data on atmospheric fluoride deposition suggested that the deer from the early period had been exposed to markedly higher fluoride levels than those from the late period. We therefore predicted a decline in skeletal fluoride levels and prevalence of dental fluorosis for both species from the early to the late period. Fluoride concentrations were determined in the coronoid process of the mandible, and assessment of dental fluorosis was performed on the permanent cheek teeth. A pronounced drop in fluoride concentrations from the early period (roe deer (n = 157), median: 3147 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 127), median: 1263 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) to the late period (roe deer (n = 117), median: 350 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone; red deer (n = 72), median: 288 mg F(-)/kg of dry bone) was recorded. Prevalence of dental fluorosis also markedly declined from the early to the late period (roe deer: from 93% to 12%, red deer: from 87% to 28%). The reduction of fluoride deposition in the study area and, in consequence, fluoride exposure of the resident deer populations, is attributed largely to the implementation of emission control devices in the brown coal-fired power plants located in North Bohemia from the mid 1990s onwards. The findings of the present study demonstrate that wild deer are well suited for monitoring temporal changes in fluoride pollution of their habitats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A minimally invasive treatment of severe dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ardu, Stefano; Stavridakis, Minos; Krejci, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a minimally invasive technique to treat a severe case of enamel fluorosis using microabrasion to eliminate the hypermineralized, white-colored, superficial enamel layer, followed by home bleaching treatment and chairside re-creation of superficial enamel microstructure. The proposed technique may improve the esthetics of fluorotic teeth without requiring other restorative procedures. Microabrasion followed by home bleaching may be an interesting alternative for the rest...

  3. Severe dental fluorosis in juvenile deer linked to a recent volcanic eruption in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Werner T; Smith-Flueck, Jo Anne M

    2013-04-01

    The Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption deposited large amounts of tephra (ashes) on about 36 million ha of Argentina in June of 2011. Tephra was considered chemically innoxious based on water leachates, surface water fluoride levels were determined to be safe, and livestock losses were attributable to inanition and excessive tooth wear. To evaluate effects on wild ungulates, we sampled wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at 100 km from the volcano in September-November 2012. We show that tephra caused severe dental fluorosis, with bone fluoride levels up to 5,175 ppm. Among subadults, tephra caused pathologic development of newly emerging teeth typical of fluorosis, including enamel hypoplasia, breakages, pitting, mottling, and extremely rapid ablation of entire crowns down to underlying pulp cavities. The loss of teeth functionality affected physical condition, and none of the subadults was able to conceive. Susceptibility to fluorosis among these herbivores likely resides in ruminant food processing: 1) mastication and tephra size reduction, 2) thorough and repeated mixing with alkaline saliva, 3) water-soluble extraction in the rumen, and 4) extraction in the acidic abomasum. Although initial analyses of water and tephra were interpreted not to present a concern, ruminants as a major component of this ecosystem are shown to be highly susceptible to fluorosis, with average bone level increasing over 38-fold during the first 15.5 mo of exposure to tephra. This is the first report of fluorosis in wild ungulates from a volcanic eruption. The described impact will reverberate through several aspects of the ecology of the deer, including effects on population dynamics, morbidity, predation susceptibility, and other components of the ecosystem such as scavenger and plant communities. We anticipate further impact on livestock production systems, yet until now, existence of fluorosis had not been recognized.

  4. The relationships between low levels of urine fluoride on children's intelligence, dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunpeng; YanhuiGao; Sun, Huixin; Han, Hepeng; Wang, Wei; Ji, Xiaohong; Liu, Xuehui; Sun, Dianjun

    2011-02-28

    There has been public concern about children's intellectual performance at high levels of fluoride exposure, but few studies provide data directly to the question of whether low fluoride exposure levels less than 3.0 mg/L in drinking water adversely associated with children's intelligence. In this survey, we investigated the effects of low fluoride exposure on children's intelligence and dental fluorosis. 331 children aged from 7 to 14 were randomly recruited from four sites in Hulunbuir City, China. Intelligence was assessed using Combined Raven Test-The Rural in China while dental fluorosis was diagnosed with Dean's index. Mean value of fluoride in drinking water was 1.31±1.05 mg/L (range 0.24-2.84). Urine fluoride was inversely associated with IQ in the multiple linear regression model when children's age as a covariate variable was taken into account (Pdental fluorosis (Pdental health and confirmed the dose-response relationships between urine fluoride and IQ scores as well as dental fluorosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride in People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yue; Huang, Hui; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Zhu, Jingyuan; Zhu, Cairong; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-11-01

    Excessive fluoride intake has been shown to affect dentin and cementum mineralization throughout life. Some studies indicated that a HindIII polymorphism, of osteocalcin (OC) gene, was associated with bone metabolism-related diseases. Therefore, it is possible that the variation in OC genotypes will be associated with dental fluorosis (DF) status and/or serum caciotropic hormone level. A case-control study was conducted among children aged 8-12 years in Henan Province, PR China to investigate the association between dental fluorosis, serum calciotropic hormone level, and polymorphisms in the OC gene. HindIII polymorphism in OC gene was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP procedure. OC and calcitonin (CT) level in serum was detected using radioimmunoassay. No significant difference was observed for OC HindIII genotypes among the cases with dental fluorosis, the controls from endemic fluorosis area (EFA) and the controls from non-endemic fluorosis area (NEFA). A significant negative correlation was observed between serum calcium and OC level. No significant relationship was found between OC HindIII polymorphisms and the level of OC and CT. In conclusion, OC HindIII polymorphisms may not be a useful genetic marker for differential risk of dental fluorosis among children in PR China.

  6. Effects of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoriobe, U; Rozier, R G; Cantrell, J; King, R S

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of enamel fluorosis and dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in North Carolina schoolchildren and their families. Students (n = 7,686) enrolled in 398 classrooms in grades K-12 were recruited for a onetime survey. Parents of students in grades K-3 and 4-12 completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), respectively. Students in grades 4-12 completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10 in grades 4-5; CPQ11-14 in grades 6-12). All students were examined for fluorosis (Dean's index) and caries experience (d2-3fs or D2-3MFS indices). OHRQoL scores (sum response codes) were analyzed for their association with fluorosis categories and sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS according to ordinary least squares regression with SAS procedures for multiple imputation and analysis of complex survey data. Differences in OHRQoL scores were evaluated against statistical and minimal important difference (MID) thresholds. Of 5,484 examined students, 71.8% had no fluorosis; 24.4%, questionable to very mild fluorosis; and 3.7%, mild, moderate, or severe fluorosis. Caries categories were as follows: none (43.1%), low (28.6%), and moderate to high (28.2%). No associations between fluorosis and any OHRQoL scales met statistical or MID thresholds. The difference (5.8 points) in unadjusted mean ECOHIS scores for the no-caries and moderate-to-high caries groups exceeded the MID estimate (2.7 points) for that scale. The difference in mean FIS scores (1.5 points) for the no-caries and moderate-to-high groups exceeded the MID value (1.2 points). The sum of d2-3fs and D2-3MFS scores was positively associated with CPQ11-14 (B = 0.240, p caries experience negatively affects OHRQoL, while fluorosis has little impact.

  7. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  8. Molecular mechanisms of dental fluorosis%氟斑牙发生的分子机制的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 李玲; 管晓燕; 吴家媛; 刘建国

    2016-01-01

    Endemic dental fluorosis has been reported in some regions of the world. China seemed to have high prevalence of endemic dental fluorosis, especially in southwest China. It is now most likely that excessive fluoride intake during enamel development play a key role in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. However, excessive intake of fluoride-induced cellular and molecular mechanisms of dental fluorosis are not entirely conclusive. Scholars at home and abroad have made a lot of research on pathogenesis of enamel fluorosis by using various experimental techniques. More recent studies mainly suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress and calcium overload-associated apoptotic pathway may participate in fluoride excess-evoked pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Furthermore, the functional changes of enamel matrix protein and protease activity may be involved in the pathological event. This paper summarized the recent research progress on this topic.%氟斑牙是一种世界范围内多个国家流行的地方病,我国是地方性氟中毒发生最严重的国家之一,尤其在西南地区分布更为广泛。牙胚发育过程中机体摄入过量氟而导致釉质发育障碍是氟斑牙的发病原因,但氟斑牙发生的具体机制尚不完全清楚。国内外学者应用多种方法对氟斑牙的分子发病机制进行了研究,近几年来研究重点主要集中在氟对釉基质蛋白及蛋白酶的影响以及通过内质网应激、钙超载引起的细胞凋亡途径等方面。现就上述分子机制研究现状进行以下综述。

  9. Manejo integral estético del sector anterior en el paciente con fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    Giandoménico Villota, Camilo Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente, la odontología estética ha alcanzado gran importancia en la población general, lo cual se evidencia en la alta demanda de pacientes que buscan una sonrisa armónica, bella, blanca y llamativa. Uno de los principales problemas que más aqueja a la población colombiana y de relevancia en salud pública es la fluorosis dental, que se describe como una “patología endémica asociada al exceso de ingesta del ion flúor, cuya manifestación dental acarrea un problema estético que se caracteri...

  10. Manejo integral estético del sector anterior en el paciente con fluorosis dental

    OpenAIRE

    Giandoménico Villota, Camilo Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente, la odontología estética ha alcanzado gran importancia en la población general, lo cual se evidencia en la alta demanda de pacientes que buscan una sonrisa armónica, bella, blanca y llamativa. Uno de los principales problemas que más aqueja a la población colombiana y de relevancia en salud pública es la fluorosis dental, que se describe como una “patología endémica asociada al exceso de ingesta del ion flúor, cuya manifestación dental acarrea un problema estético que se caracteri...

  11. Dental fluorosis, fluoride in urine, and nutritional status in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Aguilar-Díaz Fatima; Javier, de la Fuente-Hernández; Aline, Cintra-Viveiro Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess urine fluoride concentration, nutritional status, and dental fluorosis in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted including participants aged 11-20 years. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis was registered according to the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) criteria. Anthropometric measures were also recorded. Urine sample of the first morning spot was recollected to assess urine fluoride concentration by using the potentiometric method with an ion-selective electrode. Water samples were also recollected and analyzed. Bivariate tests were performed to compare urine fluoride concentration according to different variables such as sex, body mass index, and TFI. Nonparametric tests were used. A logistic regression model was performed (SPSS® 21.0). This study included 307 participants with a mean age of 15.6 ± 1.6; 62.5% of the participants showed normal weight. A total of 91.9% of the participants had dental fluorosis, and 61.6% had TFI > 4. Mean fluoride content in urine ranged between 0.5 and 6.65 mg/L, with a mean of 1.27 ± 1.2 mg/L. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration. The increment of urine fluoride was a related (OR = 1.40) to having severe dental fluorosis. Most of the studied population had moderate or severe dental fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentration was related to fluorosis severity and nutritional status. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration as well as severe dental fluorosis.

  12. The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shibao; Li, Anqi; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hongyang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Luo, Yixin; Hao, Qianyun; Hou, Jiaxiang; Ba, Yue

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children. A case-control study was conducted in two counties (Kaifeng and Tongxu) in Henan Province, China in 2005-2006. Two hundred and twenty-five children were recruited and divided into three groups including dental fluorosis group (DFG), non-dental fluorosis group (NDFG) from high fluoride areas, and control group (CG). Urine fluoride content was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode; PTH Bst BI were genotyped using PCR-RFLP; osteocalcin (OC) and calcitonin (CT) levels in serum were detected using radioimmunoassay. Genotype distributions were BB 85.3% (58/68), Bb 14.7% (10/68) for DFG; BB 77.6% (52/67), Bb 22.4% (15/67) for NDFG; and BB 73.3% (66/90), Bb 27.7% (24/90) for CG. No significant difference of Bst BI genotypes was observed among three groups (P > 0.05). Serum OC and urine fluoride of children were both significantly higher in DFG and NDFG than in CG (P 0.05). Serum OC level of children with BB genotype was significantly higher compared to those with Bb genotype in high fluoride areas (P dental fluorosis and PTH Bst BI polymorphism. Serum OC might be a more sensitive biomarker for detecting early stages of dental fluorosis, and further studies are needed.

  13. Collagenase 1A2 (COL1A2) gene A/C polymorphism in relation to severity of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-García, Diana; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Jarquín-Yáñez, Lizet; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the putative association between the presence of the COL1A2 gene A/C polymorphism and the severity of dental fluorosis in a sample exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 80 children residing in a community with high concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. To determine whether the presence of this polymorphism and dental fluorosis are associated, the presence of the dental fluorosis was considered to be a response variable, while fluoride concentration in water and urine was designated as independent variables. In addition, the children's parents completed questionnaires with general information about drinking and cooking with tap water, consumption of milk and soft drinks, and other putative risk factors. Individuals with the polymorphism had nonsignificant odds (OR = 2.24; 95% CI = 0.55-9.02) of having dental fluorosis at higher exposures to fluoride. This finding was similar in individuals without the polymorphism (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 0.44-6.17). The presence of polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene was not associated with the severity of dental fluorosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Early detection of dental fluorosis using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Martínez-Cano, Evelia; Magaña-López, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopic technique has the potential to provide vibrational spectra of minerals by analyzing scattered light caused by monochromatic laser excitation. In this paper, recent applications of Raman spectroscopy in the study of dental hard tissues are reported. Special attention is given to mineral components in enamel and to calcium fluoride formed in/on enamel. The criteria used to classify the dental hard samples were according to the Dean Index (DI), which consists into healthy or control, mild, moderate, and severe, indicating the amount of dental fluorosis observed on enamel. A total of 39 dental samples (9 control, 9 mild, 10 moderate, and 11 severe) were analyzed in the study. Dental samples were positioned under an Olympus microscope, and around 10 points were chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected by a Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRAM HR800 Raman Spectrometer with a laser of 830-nm and 17-mW power irradiation. Raw spectra were processed by carrying out baseline correction, smoothing, and normalization to remove noise, florescence, and shot noise and then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). In the spectra of dental samples, we observed the main bands as the broad band due to CO[Formula: see text] (240-300 cm (-1)), CaF 2 (322 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (437 and 450 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (582, 598, and 609 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (960 cm (-1)), PO[Formula: see text] vibrations (1,045 cm (-1)), and CO[Formula: see text] vibration (1,073 cm (-1)). Nevertheless, the intensity of the band at 960 cm (-1) associated to symmetric stretch of phosphate, PO[Formula: see text], decreases as the amount of dental fluorosis increases, suggesting that the intensity of this band could be used to quantitatively measure the level of fluorosis on a dental sample. On the other hand, PCA allowed to identify two large clusters discriminating between control, and severe and moderate samples

  15. Endemic fluorosis:prevalence and prevention in Liaoning Province%辽宁省地方性氟中毒的流行和防治现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健辉; 郑照霞; 刘微; 刘羽; 高嵘; 李子荣; 赵伟光; 王思茜; 刘万洋

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of control of endemic fluorosis in Liaoning Province.Methods To investigate the prevalence rate of endemic fluorosis and water fluoride content in regions with different extent of endemic fluorosis,dental fluomsis among 8-12 years old children and clinical fluorosis at adult above 16 years old were extensively surveyed,urinary fluoride among 8-12 years old children was detected.Results We surveyed 842 undefluorided drinking water in endemic fluorosis villages and 1234 projects of improving drinking water in 1829 endemic fluorosis viflages.Water fluoride content was 0.01-7.10 mg/L in unimproved drinking water in endemic fluorosis resions,averaging(0.96±0.64)mg/L;29.2%(246/842)of the endemic fluorosis regions had a fluoride content more than 1.2 mg/L In 1234 projects of improving drinking water.drinking water fluoride content was between 0.06-7.67 mg/L.The project normally operated and having a fluoride content≤1.2 mg/L accounted for 68.31%(843/1234),while 31.69%(391/1234)of the projects did not function well.The prevalence of dental fluomsis in 8-12 years old child ren in endemic fluorosis regions was 24.4%(2960/12 127),the prevalence of clinical fluorosis among adults was 2.22%(1900/85 636).The prevalente of dental fluorosis in slight,moderate and serious fluorosis regions had remarkable statistics differences(X2=19.25,P<0.01).The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children in serious fluorosis regions was the highest,reaching 100%,while the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis wns 18.03%(97/538).The median of urinary fluoride was 2.01.2.00mg/L in serious and slight fluomsis regions,respectively.Conclusions Endemic fluorosis is still serious.so we need urgently to improve water in serious fluorosis regions without defluoridaton of drinking water.Endemic fluomsis resions where worn-out and closed defluoriding projects exist need defluoriding management.%目的 了解辽宁省地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)流行现状和防

  16. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sukumar Vora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an association between dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of severity of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status in the patients assessed. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was carried out at rural parts of Raichur. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects with dental fluorosis were selected for the study with age range of 15-45 years. Assessment of dental fluorosis and periodontal status was done by Dean′s Community Fluorosis Index (DCFI and Ramfjord′s Periodontal Index (RPI, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance (ANOVA test, chi-square test, and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between severity of dental fluorosis and severity of periodontal diseases (Spearman′s correlation coefficient 0.88, significant. Discussion: Dental fluorosis may have significant effect on periodontal condition. But, further studies on the periodontal status of subjects from naturally high water fluoride regions from different parts of India are essential.

  17. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  18. Dental fluorosis associated with chronic ingestion of dentifrices – what health professionals should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two cases of dental fluorosis caused by inadvertent ingestion of fluoridated dentifrice. An eight-year-old child showed whitish spots and loss of dental enamel in first permanent molars and whitish spots without structure loss in permanent incisors and primary second molars, whereas a fourteen-year-old teenager showed whitish spots in all permanent teeth. In both cases, homologue teeth were affected similarly and mothers did not report on the use of fluoride supplements during pregnancy or children’s infancy. The water fluoridation of the city where they live is considered optimal. Both patients reported eating dentifrice frequently during tooth brushing and in other occasions. Mothers also stated that they did not receive instructions about oral hygiene or about the fact that chronic ingestion of dentifrice could contribute to the development of dental fluorosis. It is believed that the cooperative work between dentists and other health professionals is a way to prevent the occurrence of this condition.

  19. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  20. Fluorosis dental en escolares de una zona rural de Camagüey

    OpenAIRE

    Naise López Larquin; Magda Lima Álvarez; Ana María Dobarganes Coca; Lourdes González Vale; Josefa Calderón Betancourt

    2014-01-01

    El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de esta enfermedad. Determinar su severidad y evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados fue el objetivo de esta investigación, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo en los consultorios 46 y 64 de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, en el período comprendido entre julio de 2011 y febrero de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por 84 niños de seis a doce a...

  1. Prevalence of enamel fluorosis in 12-year-olds in two Swiss cantons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Kathrin; Gerwig, Patric; Weber, Catherine; Minnig, Peter; Wiehl, Peter; Schild, Samuel; Meyer, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    The neighbouring cantons Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft had introduced different fluoridation schemes for caries prevention: Basel-Stadt provided drinking water fluoridated at 0.8-1 ppm F since 1962, while Basel-Landschaft introduced fluoridated domestic salt (250 ppm F since 1983). Representative samples of 12-year-old schoolchildren (6th-graders) were studied to evaluate the prevalence of (I) dental fluorosis (FOP) using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index, (II) non fluoride-associated enamel opacities (non-FOP), and (III) hypoplasia of the incisors. Standardised frontal colour photographs were taken and assessed by four examiners after projection. Of 373 schoolchildren studied in 1999 in Basel-Stadt 119 (31.9%) showed fluoride-associated enamel opacities, i. e. 66 (17.7%) a very mild form (TF score 1), 47 (12.6%) a mild form (TF score 2), five scored TF3 and one TF5. In addition, non-FOP were diagnosed in 115 (30.8%) and hypoplasia in 47 (12.6%) children. Among the 448 children evaluated in 2001 in Basel-Landschaft 143 (31.9%) showed FOP, namely 74 (16.5%) scored TF1, 54 (12.2%) scored TF2, 12 (2.7%) scored TF3, and three (0.7%) scored TF5. Non-FOP were found among 93 (20.8%) and hypoplasia among 56 (12.5%) children. Thus, in spite of different fluoridation schemes in the two cantons, the prevalences of FOP were identical. Most fluoride-associated enamel opacities were mild or very mild. They did not represent an aesthetic problem and certainly not a public health concern.

  2. Investigation on fluoride content in well water and prevalent state of fluorosis in endemic fluorosis area of Yangyuan County Hebei Province%河北省阳原县高氟区水氟含量和地方性氟中毒病情调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀平; 王志祥; 杨富花; 韩国毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the fluoride contents of well water and prevalent state of fluorosis in endemic fluorosis area of Yangyuan County in Hebei Province. Method Randomly selecting 2 villages as objects, including one endemic area named Nanwa and one non — endemic area named Dongbu. Detemination fluoride content in well water and, investigation of dental fluorosis prevalence rate and deformed skeletal fluorosis in these villages. Results The fluoride content in well water of Nanwa was obviously higher than that in Dongbao (P < 0. 01), contents at the range of 2. 20 to 2. 91mg/L, which were higher than the limit of Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water Quality (2001) . The urine fluoride and dental fluorosis rate of children in Nanwa were obviously higher than that in Dongbao (P <0. 01), the dental fluorosis rate was 81.4%. There were 26 deformed skeletal fluorosis patients in Nanwa. Conclusions The fluoride contents in well water of endemic fluorosis area were seriously higher than the sanitary standard and people in endemic area still had severe fluorosis.%目的 了解河北省阳原县地方性氟中毒病区水氟含量以及人群氟中毒患病情况.方法 选择阳原县地方性氟中毒病区南洼村和非病区东堡村为调查点,测定井水氟含量、儿童尿氟含量,并进行儿童氟斑牙患病率及人群残废型氟骨症情况调查.结果 南洼村井水氟含量明显高于东堡村(P<0.01),井水氟含量范围为2.20~2.91mg/L,均超过《生活饮用水卫生规范》(2001),南洼村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率为81.4%,其氟斑牙患病率和尿氟含量均明显高于东堡村(P<0.01);南洼村仍存在成人残废型氟骨症患者.结论 阳原县地方性氟中毒病区南洼村井水氟含量超标严重,病区人群仍存在严重的氟中毒流行.

  3. Fluorose dentária em crianças de Princesa Isabel, Paraíba Dental fluorosis in children from Princesa Isabel, Paraíba

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    Franklin Delano Soares FORTE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas localidades da Paraíba possuem níveis moderados ou elevados de fluoreto in natura nas águas de abastecimento. Nas áreas onde os níveis de fluoretos são considerados "ótimos" para a região (0,6 ppm, já constatou-se uma moderada prevalência de fluorose dentária (30-40%. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo observar a prevalência de fluorose dentária na cidade de Princesa Isabel, com níveis "subótimos" de fluoretos (0,4 ppm. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 142 escolares de 10 a 15 anos para o levantamento de fluorose dentária pelo índice TF (de Thylstrup e Fejerskov. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados, sob luz natural indireta e após escovação supervisionada e secagem dos elementos dentários. Cerca de 20% dos escolares examinados apresentaram fluorose dentária, sendo que 70% com TF 1 e outros 30% distribuídos em diversos graus (TF 2 a 5. Fluorose foi mais prevalente no sexo masculino e em dentes pré-molares. Embora a fluorose dentária observada esteja dentro dos níveis esperados para o teor de fluoretos (0,4 ppm, outras fontes sistêmicas de fluoretos devem ser controladas. A prevalência de fluorose dentária observada não é problema de saúde pública nesta localidade.Several communities in Paraíba have moderate or high levels of fluoride naturally present in the drinking water. A moderate prevalence of dental fluorosis (30-40% has been observed in some areas where the levels of fluoride are regarded as "optimal" for the region (0.6 ppm. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Princesa Isabel, a city with "sub-optimal" fluoride levels (0.4 ppm. The sample comprised 142 schoolchildren (10- to 15-year-old subjects randomly selected and examined by means of the TF (Thylstrup & Fejerskov index. The clinical exams were carried out under indirect natural light by three calibrated examiners. Prior to the examination the teeth were

  4. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  5. Fluorosis en dentición temporal en un área con hidrofluorosis endémica Dental fluorosis in primary dentition in an endemic hydrofluorosis area

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez; Amaury de Jesús Pozos-Guillén; Juan Carlos Hernández-Guerrero; Juan Francisco Hernández-Sierra

    2000-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en la población infantil de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, y su asociación con la concentración de flúor en agua de consumo y de orina. Asimismo, desarrollar, validar y probar un índice específico para fluorosis en dentición temporal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio transversal analítico, de mayo de 1997 a enero de 1999, en tres jardines de niños, seleccionados al azar, en tres áreas de riesgo en San Luis Potosí. Se seleccionaro...

  6. Acceptability, efficacy and safety of two treatment protocols for dental fluorosis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kaline Silva; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; Duarte, Rosângela Marques; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Meireles, Sônia Saeger

    2014-08-01

    This parallel randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of two treatments for removing fluorosis stains. Seventy individuals living in an area endemic for fluorosis, with at least four maxillary anterior teeth presenting fluorosis with a Thylstrup and Fejerskov index from 1 to 7, were randomized into two treatment groups (n=35): GI - enamel microabrasion or GII - microabrasion associated with at-home bleaching. Microabrasion was performed using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice and, at-home tooth bleaching was performed with 10% carbamide peroxide. Areas of enamel opacities were recorded by digital camera at baseline and 1-month (1M) after treatment. Two blinded examiners evaluated the reduction in the area (mm(2)) of opacity using software. Two visual analogue scales were used: one for recording tooth sensitivity and/or gingival irritation ranging from 1 (none) to 5 (severe) and the other to evaluate participant satisfaction with the treatment used ranging from 1 (no improvement) to 7 (exceptional improvement). 1M after treatment, both groups showed a significant reduction in the area of enamel opacity (p=0.0001) and there was no difference between groups (p=0.1). Most of the participants from both treatment groups reported no or mild tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation (p>0.05). Participants reported that they were happy with the improvement in dental appearance, however, individuals from GII reported that they were happier than those from GI (p=0.004). Both treatment protocols were effective in reducing fluoride stains, however, when home bleaching was associated to enamel microabrasion, patients reported a major satisfaction with dental appearance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain or resistant (129P3/J strain to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Material and Methods: Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra was measured. Results: The mean (±SD Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247. Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013 than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm. Conclusion: enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  8. Effect of a short period of fluoride ingestion on dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suttie, J.W.; Faltin, E.C.

    1971-02-01

    The effects of the ingestion of 2.5 mg of fluoride per kilogram of body weight by dairy heifers during their 13th to 15th or 16th to 18th months of age were studied. This short-term exposure was sufficient to cause severe dental fluorosis in at least one pair of incisors, especially in the 2nd group of heifers, even though the total fluoride intake was not excessive. The plasma fluoride concentrations rapidly increased to 0.5 ppm in both groups of heifers and decreased rapidly after fluoride was removed from the ration. Evidence of dental fluorosis was seen when crown formation was completed before exposure to fluoride and also when the fluoride exposure preceded any calcification of the crown. The most severe effects were seen when the exposure coincided with the initiation of crown formation for a particular incisor. Fluoride analysis of consecutive chronologic sections of the avascular enamel indicated that there was a regular pattern of enamel apposition from the top to the bottom of the crown of one incisor before the top of the crown of the next incisor calcified. 13 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Barbosa, Carolina Silveira; Leite, Aline de Lima; Chang, Sywe-Ren; Liu, Jun; Czajka-Jakubowska, Agata; Clarkson, Brian

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain) were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra) was measured. The mean (±SD) Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm) was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm) but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247). Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm) were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013) than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm). enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  10. Perceptions of adolescents and young people regarding endemic dental fluorosis in a rural area of Brazil: psychosocial suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilho, Lia Silva; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Perini, Edson

    2009-11-01

    Severe dental fluorosis is endemic in some rural areas of Brazil. This paper describes the psychosocial consequences of this condition and how it has affected the self-esteem of adolescents and young people in a rural area in Brazil. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 23 adolescents and young people affected by severe dental fluorosis and 14 of their teachers. The study revealed the affected individuals were embarrassed to smile at strangers due to a presumed association between fluorosis and a lack of dental hygiene. Further findings include conflicts between affected and non-affected students at school, problems in pursuing a romantic relationship and uncertainties regarding a professional future. Disbelief and scepticism were observed regarding the ethical position that science can offer a solution to the problems stemming from the disease. Lesions from severe dental fluorosis appear to be a stigmatizing factor and have contributed toward suffering and self-exclusion among an entire generation of adolescents and young people.

  11. Dental fluorosis and lumbar spine bone mineral density in adults, ages 20 to 49 years: results from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is an urgent public health concern. Many factors influence bone mineral density (BMD), a criterion used to diagnose osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if dental fluorosis may be a marker for osteoporosis. The association between dental fluorosis and BMD at the lumbar spine was examined. Using a cross-sectional design with 1,805 adults, ages 20 to 49 years, from the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, an analysis of the association between dental fluorosis and BMD was performed, using chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Other variables included predisposing factors (gender, age and race/ethnicity), enabling factors (marital status, education, poverty status and health insurance) and lifestyle/behavioral factors (perceived health status, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and body mass index). Overall, 13.5% had fluorosis; 6.8% with fluorosis and 9.8% without fluorosis had low lumbar spine BMD. Multivariable analysis found there was not a statistically significant association between fluorosis and lumbar spine BMD (adjusted odds ratio=0.82; 95% CI (0.43. 1.56)). Dental fluorosis and lumbar spine BMD were not found to be associated in a sample of adults.

  12. Study of thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in subjects with dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosur, Mahadevi B; Puranik, R S; Vanaki, Shrinivas; Puranik, Surekha R

    2012-04-01

    Apart from its well-known deleterious dental and skeletal effects, fluoride excess can have toxic effects on many other tissues. Fluoride, when in excess, is known to interfere with thyroid gland function. Fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances similar to those observed in iodine deficiency state in spite of adequate iodine intake have been documented. Similar thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis have not been well studied in populations with endemic fluorosis. This work was undertaken to study the effects of fluoride-induced thyroid disturbances in individuals with dental fluorosis. The study group included 65 subjects with dental fluorosis from endemic fluorosis populations. An additional control group was comprised of 10 subjects without dental fluorosis. The drinking water fluoride levels of the study populations were analyzed. Serum free FT3, FT4, and TSH levels of both groups were assessed. All subjects with dental fluorosis had serum levels of thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH) within the normal range, with the exception of 1 individual, who had elevated levels of TSH. Statistical significance was found when FT3 and TSH values were compared with different Dean's index groups by a 1-way ANOVA test: FT3 (F = 3.4572; P=.0377) and TSH (F = 3.2649 and P=.0449). Findings of this study did not show any significant alterations in the levels of the thyroid hormones FT3, FT4, and TSH in subjects with dental fluorosis. Our observations suggest that thyroid hormone levels were not altered in subjects with dental fluorosis. Hence, future studies of this kind, along with more detailed investigations are needed.

  13. Epidemiologic Survey of Dental Fluorosis and Caries in School Students in Wensu Cotmty in Xinjiang%新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症与龋病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程竑; 梁爱喜; 艾力·阿不都如苏里; 林自强; 李存荣

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the dental fluorosis and caries, and their prevalence features in school students in Wensu county in Xinjang. Methods The study groups consisted of 1 527 Weuer and Han students at the age of 6 to 16. Dental fluorosis and caries diseases were assessed strictly by Dean' s Classification Standard and WHO ”Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods” (the 3rd ed). The concentration of fluorine in water and urine was measured by using selective electrod. Results The prevalence and index of dental fluorosis in Weuer and Han students were 73.70%, 64.67 %, 1.647,1.303, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and DMFT were 61.19%, 42.66%, 1. 648, 1. 023 respectively. The corresponding values were 51. 94% ,52.99% ,1,305,1. 449 for students of fluorosis group and non-fluorosis group, respectively. The fluorine degree of water was 2~5mg/L,the average value of fluorine in urine was 3.64mg/L in Han students,and 5.28mg/L in Weuer students. Conclu- sions The prevalence of dental caries didn' t decrease, eventhough the prevalence of fluorosis was high in Wensu county. The prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in Weuer students were significantly higher than those in Han students. It showed no signifi- cant different between the group of fluorosis and the group of non-fluorosis in the prevalence of dental caries, perhaps due to thehigh fluorine intake, poor oral hygiene, and unqualified medicalservice.%了解新疆温宿县中小学生氟牙症和龋病发病特点及相互关系。方法按Dean分度标准和WHO第 3版《口腔健康调查基本方法》对1527名6~16岁维、汉族学生进行氟牙症和冠龋流行病学调查,并以电极法进行水 和尿氟含量测定。结果维、汉族氟牙症患病率和指数分别为73.70%、64.67%和1.647、1.303;维、汉族患龋率和 龋均分别为61.19%、42.66%和1.648、1.023;氟牙症组与非氟牙症组患龋率和龋均分别为51.94%、52.99%和 1.305、1

  14. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokseir, Aira

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs) other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL). Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov) Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115) children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm), optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm), and low (0.24–0.29 ppm) fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001). After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3%) of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4%) of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects. PMID:26966672

  15. Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aira Sabokseir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inconsistent prevalence of fluorosis for a given level of fluoride in drinking water suggests developmental defects of enamel (DDEs other than fluorosis were being misdiagnosed as fluorosis. The imprecise definition and subjective perception of fluorosis indices could result in misdiagnosis of dental fluorosis. This study was conducted to distinguish genuine fluorosis from fluorosis-resembling defects that could have adverse health-related events as a cause using Early Childhood Events Life-grid method (ECEL. Methods. A study was conducted on 400 9-year-old children from areas with high, optimal and low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of Fars province, Iran. Fluorosis cases were diagnosed on the standardized one view photographs of the anterior teeth using Dean’s and TF (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Indices by calibrated dentists. Agreements between examiners were tested. Early childhood health-related data collected retrospectively by ECEL method were matched with the position of enamel defects. Results. Using both Dean and TF indices three out of four dentists diagnosed that 31.3% (115 children had fluorosis, 58.0%, 29.1%, and 10.0% in high (2.12–2.85 ppm, optimal (0.62–1.22 ppm, and low (0.24–0.29 ppm fluoride areas respectively (p < 0.001. After matching health-related events in the 115 (31.3% of children diagnosed with fluorosis, 31 (8.4% of children had fluorosis which could be matched with their adverse health-related events. This suggests that what was diagnosed as fluorosis were non-fluoride related DDEs that resemble fluorosis. Discussion. The frequently used measures of fluorosis appear to overscore fluorosis. Use of ECEL method to consider health related events relevant to DDEs could help to differentiate between genuine fluorosis and fluorosis-resembling defects.

  16. Estudo sobre a fluorose dentária num município do sul do Brasil Study on the dental fluorosis in a Southern city of Brazil

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    Lilian Rigo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência e a severidade da fluorose dentária, bem como verificar possíveis associações com cárie dentária, sexo, idade, etnia e localização geográfica das escolas, nos escolares de doze e de quinze a dezenove anos de idade do município de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. A população estudada foi constituída por 633 escolares, de ambos os sexos, matriculados em vinte e seis escolas municipais de ensino fundamental, nas idades índices citadas. Os exames foram realizados por três examinadores previamente calibrados para a aplicação do Índice de Dean. A prevalência de fluorose dentária no grupo estudado foi de 32,8%. O grau predominante foi o muito leve (78,4%, seguido pelos graus leve (11,1%, questionável (8,7% e moderado (1,9%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária na população estudada foi expressiva, embora com um baixo grau de severidade. Os fatores idade e índice de cárie dentária mostraram-se relacionados à variável resposta.The objective of this article is to determine the frequency and severity of dental fluorosis, as well as to verify possible associations with dental caries, gender, age, ethnicity and geographic location of schools in schoolchildren of 12 years old and from 15 to 19 years in the city of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A total of 633 schoolchildren of both genders at the cited ages, enrolled in 26 public schools of fundamental teaching were involved in the epidemiological study. The inspection was performed by three examiners previously trained to apply Dean's Index. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the studied group was of 32.8%. Predominant degree was the very light (78.4%, followed by light (11.1%, questionable (8.7% and moderate (1.9%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was expressive in this population, however, with a low degree of severity. Factors such as age and dental caries index showed to be related to the variable response.

  17. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

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    Gholamhossein Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied.

  18. A fluorose dentária no Brasil: uma revisão crítica Dental fluorosis in Brazil: a critical review

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    Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se neste trabalho a pertinência de se considerar a fluorose dentária como um problema de saúde pública no Brasil, utilizando como método a revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos publicados no país sobre prevalência e severidade da doença e dos seus possíveis fatores de risco. Os resultados sugerem que já são encontradas freqüências mais altas que as esperadas, embora com poucos casos de maior severidade. São necessárias, então, medidas de vigilância à saúde bucal.This paper discusses dental fluorosis as a relevant public health problem, using a review of epidemiological studies published in the last 10 years on the disease's prevalence, severity, and risk factors. The results suggest that there are already more cases than expected, although few studies refer to major severity. Thus, measures are needed for the prevention and surveillance of dental fluorosis.

  19. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) follow...

  20. The relationships between two different drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis and bone mineral density of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Louw, A J; Chikte, U M E; Rossouw, R J; van W Kotze, T J

    2009-04-03

    This field study included the whole population of children aged 10-15 years (77 from a 0.19 mg/L F area; 89 from a 3.00 mg/L F area), with similar nutritional, dietary habits and similar ethnic and socioeconomic status. The fluoride concentration in the drinking water, the bone mineral content, the bone density and the degree of dental fluorosis were determined. The left radius was measured for bone width, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. The mean fluorosis score was 1.3 in the low fluoride area and 3,6 in the high fluoride area. More than half the children in the low fluoride area had no fluorosis (scores 0 and 1) while only 5% in the high fluoride area had none. Severe fluorosis (30%) was only observed in the high fluoride area. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicated that fluorosis levels differed significantly (p density in the two areas (Spearment Rank correlations). A significant increase in bone width was found with age but no differences amongst and boys and girls. A significant positive correlation was found in the high fluoride area between bone mineral density over age. In the 12-13 and 13-14 year age groups in the high fluoride area, girls had higher bone mineral densities. However, a significant negative correlation (p<0.02) was found for the low fluoride area (0.19 mg/L F) over age.

  1. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 6 a 12 años

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    Ana María Dobarganes Coca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de la fluorosis y la caries dental es importante para disminuir la prevalencia de estas enfermedades. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en niños de la zona rural de Ingenio Viejo, del municipio de Camagüey, con el objetivo de caracterizar la fluorosis y la caries dental, desde septiembre de 2011 hasta septiembre de 2012. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por 67 escolares, a los que se les determinó la presencia de fluorosis dental y los índices de dientes cariados, perdidos y obturados, en la dentición temporal y en la permanente (ceo-d y COP-D, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la caries dental que se tomaron en consideración fueron: susceptibilidad del esmalte, dieta cariogénica e higiene bucal deficiente. Se detectó la presencia de higiene bucal deficiente (71,6 % y dieta cariogénica (82,1 %, sin embargo, el 29,8 % y el 41,8 % de los niños, respectivamente, aunque estuvieron sometidos a estos factores de riesgo no desarrollaron caries dental. El mayor por ciento de los niños sin caries (70,3 % presentó esmalte resistente. Se observó un índice ceo-d de 1,50 y COP-D de 0,20. De los pacientes sin fluorosis, el 60,6 % no presentó caries dental

  2. Soluble fluoride levels in drinking water-a major risk factor of dental fluorosis among children in Bongo community of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firempong, Ck; Nsiah, K; Awunyo-Vitor, D; Dongsogo, J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between fluoride ions in drinking water and the incidence of dental fluorosis in some endemic areas of Bongo District, Ghana. Two hundred children were randomly selected from various homes and taken through a questionnaire. Their teeth were examined for the detection of dental fluorosis using the Dean's specific index. Samples of their permanent sources of water were taken for the determination of soluble fluoride levels by SPADNS spectrophotometric method. The study revealed that the incidence of dental fluorosis among the children in the main Bongo township was 63.0%, whereas villages outside the township recorded less than 10.0%. The respondents from the various communities had similar age group, educational background, sources of drinking water, oral hygiene habits and usage of oral health products, p-value > 0.05. However, there were statistically significant differences in the cases of dental fluorosis and fluoride ions among the communities, p-value dental fluorosis and the other characteristics, except the age group and fluoride ion concentration of the area. These findings strongly support the association between the dental fluorosis and the high fluoride levels in the underground water of Bongo community. Therefore, policy makers need to consider an alternative source of drinking water for the area.

  3. Epidemiological survey of fluorosis in a village of Bastar division of Chhattisgarh state, India

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    Sunil Vilasrao Gitte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is an important public health problem in few pockets of some states of India. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of fluorosis, mapping the deformities, the type and severity of deformities and to assess the fluoride concentration in prime drinking water sources in the Dimrapal village of Bastar region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of the Dimrapal village was done by door to door visit and on-site clinical examination of the study population was carried out. This was followed by collection of drinking water samples in selected paras for estimating fluoride levels. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using prevalence rate, Chi-square test, mean and standard deviation. Results: Overall prevalence of fluorosis cases was found to be 23.10%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 12.6% that of skeletal fluorosis was 28.8%, and the combined prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was 1.8%. Dental fluorosis was found to be very common in children and teenagers. Skeletal fluorosis was found to be more common in age group above 45 years, however, it was lower in the children's (6-12 irrespective of the gender. The fluoride level in surveyed ground water sources from various para ranged from 0.1 to 7.30 ppm.

  4. Prevalence Of Dental Problems In School Children - A Study In A Rural Community In Haryana

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    Bajaj M

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out by 13 undergraduate students during their rural posting in Community Medicine at Ballabgarh (Haryana. The Study was performed in a High School to find out the prevalence of dental problems and their probable etiology in 490 school children between 4-17 years of age. The prevalence of caries was found to be 65% and that of dental fluorosis was 40.4%. Consumption of refined sugar in the form of sweets between meals greatly enhanced the problem of dental caries. Plaque, Inadequate cleaning practices leading to poor dental hygiene, flurosis and the lack of earl medical intervention were other contributing factors. There was a lack of awareness about dental hygiene. Community therapy in the form of distribution of pamphlets, posters, giving health talks and a health talks and a health march was imparted with the aim of aiding the primary prevention of dental diseases.

  5. Dental Fluorosis and Catalase Immunoreactivity of the Brain Tissues in Rats Exposed to High Fluoride Pre- and Postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Şirin; Uyar-Bozkurt, Süheyla; Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Menteş, Ali

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated dental fluorosis of the incisors and immunoreactivity in the brain tissues of rats given chronic fluoride doses pre- and postnatally. Female rats were given drinking water with 0, 30 or 100 ppm fluoride ad libitum throughout gestation and the nursing period. In addition, 63 male offspring were treated with the same water regimens as the mothers after weaning and were followed for 1, 3 or 5 months. The upper and lower incisors were collected, and all teeth were examined under a stereomicroscope and scored by two blinded examiners using a modified rodent enamel fluorosis index. Cortical, hippocampal and cerebellar brain samples were evaluated morphologically and immunohistochemically. All fluoride-treated pups were born with low body weight (p = 0.001). All animals from the fluoride groups had enamel fluorosis with defects of various degrees. The increase in the dental fluorosis scores in the fluoride treatment groups was significant (p fluoride groups was significantly higher than that in the controls after 1, 3 and 5 months (p fluoride.

  6. POLLUTION OF DRINKING WATER DUE TO FLUORIDE AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS AT HUNAGUND TALUK OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

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    N.M.Kugali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water quality in Hunagund taluk of Bagalkot district has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. The main purpose is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis. Out of 3000 people aged 8-50 years 1275 (42.5% had dental fluorosis of some degree. The well being of humans depends on quality of drinking water. Consumption of water containing excess fluoride over over long period results in fluorosis. Currently, fifteen states of India are endemic for fluorosis. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or waste water can be removed by an ion exchange/ adsorption process or by coagulation. Precipitation process. The paper presents the current information on defluoridation

  7. Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Jeuland, Marc; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Weinthal, Erika; Kravchenko, Julia; Paul, Christopher; McCornick, Peter

    2014-10-15

    This cross-sectional study explores the relationships between children's F(-) exposure from drinking groundwater and urinary F(-) concentrations, combined with dental fluorosis (DF) in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) Valley. We examined the DF prevalence and severity among 491 children (10 to 15 years old) who are life-long residents of 33 rural communities in which groundwater concentrations of F(-) cover a wide range. A subset of 156 children was selected for urinary F(-) measurements. Our results showed that the mean F(-) concentrations in groundwater were 8.5 ± 4.1 mg/L (range: 1.1-18 mg/L), while those in urine were 12.1±7.3 mg/L (range: 1.1-39.8 mg/L). The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe DF in children's teeth was 17%, 29%, and 45%, respectively, and the majority (90%; n=140) of the children had urinary F(-) concentrations above 3 mg/L. Below this level most of the teeth showed mild forms of DF. The exposure-response relationship between F(-) and DF was positive and non-linear, with DF severity tending to level off above a F(-) threshold of ~6 mg/L, most likely due to the fact that at ~6 mg/L the enamel is damaged as much as it can be clinically observed in most children. We also observed differential prevalence (and severity) of DF and urinary concentration, across children exposed to similar F(-) concentrations in water, which highlights the importance of individual-specific factors in addition to the F(-) levels in drinking water. Finally, we investigated urinary F(-) in children from communities where defluoridation remediation was taking place. The lower F(-) concentration measured in urine of this population demonstrates the capacity of the urinary F(-) method as an effective monitoring and evaluation tool for assessing the outcome of successful F(-) mitigation strategy in relatively short time (months) in areas affected with severe fluorosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  9. 氟牙症发病机制的研究进展%Research progress on pathogenesis of dental fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盘龙; 周红艳; 王东苗; 梅予锋

    2013-01-01

      氟离子在氟牙症的形成中起着重要的作用,釉质形成的各个时期均受其影响。本文就氟的细胞毒性、氟对釉基质蛋白酶功能的影响和钙离子对氟作用的影响等三方面简述氟对釉质发生过程的影响,探讨氟牙症发生的相关机制。%The fluorine is a master morbigenous factor of dental fluorosis and plays a role in all stages of enamel formation. The influence of fluoride on amelogenesis, which includes the cell toxicity of fluorine, the influence of enamel matrix protease and the mineralized processes, are reviewed in this article. The correlated mechanism of dental fluorosis was also discussed.

  10. Dental caries and dental fluorosis in 7-12-year-old schoolchildren in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil Cárie e fluorose dentária em escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade em Catalão, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ariede Petinuci Bardal

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Over the last two decades, the prevalence of dental caries in children has decreased and the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased. Knowledge on the epidemiologic conditions of a population is fundamental for the planning of health programs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren, in Catalão, Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of 432 schoolchildren aged 7-12-years old was obtained. WHO (1997 criteria for dental caries and fluorosis diagnosis were used. RESULTS: The DMFT indexes were 0.97; 1.20; 1.80; 1.62; 2.40 and 2.51 for 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 years old, respectively. Analysis of dental fluorosis for the same ages presented higher prevalence at 12 years old and for the female gender. The percentage of questionable dental fluorosis (Dean's classification was 34.0%. Only 3% of the sample presented dental fluorosis with scores very mild, mild and moderate. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of caries in schoolchildren of Catalão, Goiás, Brazil, was low. In average, private schools showed better results than public schools; however, all schools presented a low DMFT index. In this study, dental fluorosis is not a public health problem and has not damaged dental esthetics.INTRODUÇÃO: Nas últimas duas décadas, a prevalência de cárie dentária tem diminuído e a prevalência de fluorose dentária tem aumentado. Para se planejar programas de saúde é fundamental conhecer o perfil epidemiológico das populações. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de cárie dentária e fluorose dentária em escolares do município de Catalão, Goiás, Brasil. MÉTODOS: A amostra randomizada foi composta por 432 escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade. Os critérios utilizados para determinar a prevalência de cárie dentária e fluorose seguiram a metodologia proposta pela OMS, 1997. RESULTADOS: Os valores do Índice CPOD foram de 0,97; 1,20; 1,80; 1,62; 2,40 e 2,51 para as idades de

  11. Fluoride concentration of drinking water and dental fluorosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Goodarzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, a number of studies have investigated the impact of fluoride concentration of drinking water on dental fluorosis. These Studies should be reviewed to provide a new outlook on the analysis of the causes and effects of dental fluorosis in specific regions. The objective of this study was to systematically review the fluoride concentration of drinking water and investigate its relation to the frequency of dental fluorosis in Iran. Materials and Methods: Dean′s index was used to classify data, and a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary measure with 95% confidence interval (CI. In this regard, Stata/SE 11.1 was employed for data analysis based on random effect models for reporting the results. In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID and IranMedex databases were searched and studies were included based on specific criteria. Data validity was assessed using the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE checklist adapted for cross-sectional study designs. Furthermore, a series of predefined keywords were used, and the combination of these keywords were considered using operators. The inconsistency was examined using the χ2 test at a significance level of 10%. In addition, heterogeneity was quantified across studies using the І2 statistic. The difference between study variance was analyzed based on τ2 statistic. Results: In the age group of 6-18 years old based on the fluoride level in drinking water and exposure time, there was significant heterogeneity among the studies in all subgroups for determining the frequency of dental fluorosis and assessing the effect of other variables. Conclusions: The variables, water fluoride exposure time, and any exposure to fluoride are considered as confounding factors. Analyzing the subgroups and examining the heterogeneity showed that the results of the studies in all subgroups cannot be pooled.

  12. 滨海新区儿童口腔氟牙症和龋齿流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of dental fluorosis and dental caries in children from binhai new area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莲莲; 李长春

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of dental fluorosis and pit caries in school-age children from binhai new area of Tianjin, and to discuss the relationship between dental fluorosis and pit caries, providing the guidance for the prevention and treatment of them. Methods Referring to WHO’s“Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods”(Fourth Edition) and protocols of the third national oral epidemiology investigation, 3 778 children aged 7 to 9 year-old with similar levels of education were investigated for their dental fluorosis and fissure caries using the cross sectional survey method. Results The data showed that the incidence of dental fluorosis was less than 10%in the samples, and the community fluorosis index (CFI) was 0.075. The caries prevalence rate and mean decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT) of first permanent molars were 15.57%and 0.46 in male students, and those were 17.41%and 0.58 in female students. There were no significant differences in the caries prevalence rate and DMFT of first molar between male and female children (χ2=2.345, P>0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the caries rate and DMFT between different age groups (χ2=172.576, P<0.05), and both increased with age. Conclusion After years of defluoridation project in Tianjin, the detection rate and index of dental fluorosis in children have showed a downward trend. The caries prevalence rate may be related to the eruption rate of the first permanent molar.%目的:调查滨海新区适龄儿童氟斑牙与窝沟龋的患病情况,探讨氟斑牙与窝沟龋的关系,为氟斑牙与窝沟龋的防治提出指导意见。方法参考《WHO口腔健康调查基本方法》(第四版),并参照第三次全国口腔流行病学调查方法,采用横断面调查研究方法对3778名7~9岁教育水平相近的儿童进行氟斑牙与窝沟龋情况进行调查。结果样本中氟牙症发生率<10%,社区氟牙症指数(CFI)为0.075。男学生第一

  13. [Study of the effect of fluoride removal agent and microabrasion technology in LED teeth whitening of dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Zhang, Rong; Luo, Hong-Xia; Li, Ping; Zhang, Chun-Lei

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluoride removal agent and microabrasion technology in LED teeth whitening of dental fluorosis. One hundred and twelve patients with moderate dental fluorosis treated from August 2012 to July 2015 were divided into experimental group and control group according to random number table, with 61 cases in each group. In addition to pretreatment for all patients, patients in the control group were given combined treatment of Beyond LED whitening and fluoride removal agent; while patients in the experimental group were given microabrasion before LED whitening, with the same subsequent treatment process as that in the control group. The whitening effect and tooth sensitivity during whitening were compared between the two groups at the completion of treatment, 1 month and 6 months after treatment. SPSS 19.0 software package was employed for statistical analysis. There were no ineffective or lost patients in 2 groups. The effective rate of whitening for patients in the experimental group at completion of treatment, 1 month and 6 months after treatment was significantly higher than that in the control group (P0.05). Combined treatment with fluoride removal agent and microabrasion technology in LED teeth whitening for dental fluorosis can significantly improve the whitening effect and will not interfered by significantly increased tooth sensitivity.

  14. Assessment of aesthetic perception of mild and moderate dental fluorosis levels among students from the Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleber-Netto, Frederico Omar; Diniz, Ivana Márcia; Mudado, Flávia Amata; Fraga, Marina Guimaraes; Vargas, Andréa Maria

    2011-01-01

    To verify the aesthetic impact of mild and moderate dental fluorosis on young adult students from the UFMG using pictures with different fluorosis levels simulated in a computer program. The sample consisted of 396 university students, randomly selected from various courses (except dentistry). These participants were shown three mouth pictures with different rates of dental fluorosis (TFO, TF2 and TF4) according to the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TF). The volunteers gave an individual assessment of the pictures and graded them (from 1 to 10) based on their aesthetics. In addition, they answered if they would feel uncomfortable smiling and if they would seek dental treatment in each case. The results were submitted to a chi-square test (P < 0.05). The students preferred the TF4 picture to the TF2. The picture which presented no fluorosis was more often preferred than the pictures which presented some form of change due to fluorosis. Higher scores were recorded by men for the TF2 picture than by women (P < 0.05). As for the TF0 and TF4 pictures, the scores were similar among males and females. Furthermore, women reported more discomfort in smiling (P = 0.001) and a greater desire to seek out dental treatment than did men. Only 27.5% of all students stated that they knew what dental fluorosis was. Mild and moderate dental fluorosis had a negative aesthetic effect on the studied population, leading to a strong desire to seek dental treatment to change the appearance of affected teeth.

  15. Fluorosis dental en niños de 13 a 15 años del colegio Felipe Santiago Salaverry de Picsi. Chiclayo, Perú, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova Sotomayor, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y severidad de fluorosis dental según edad y sexo, en niños de 13 a 15 años del colegio Felipe Santiago Salaverry. Material y método: El estudio fue descriptivo y prospectivo en 133 niños, determinándose la presencia de fluorosis y su severidad, registrando edad y sexo. Resultados: La prevalencia de fluorosis fue del 61,65%, siendo los más afectados los de 13 y 14 años con el 37,80% y 42,68% respectivamente y los de sexo masculino con un 59,7...

  16. Environmental epidemic characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis and the safety threshold of coal fluoride in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.H.; Wang, W.Y.; Yang, L.S.; Li, H.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2003-05-01

    Data on coal-burning endemic fluorosis throughout China and on the exposure-response relationship between concentrations of fluoride determined in coal samples and the prevalence of dental fluorosis reported from 17 representative surveillance stations in Southwest China were used to estimate the safety threshold for coal fluoride. Coal-burning endemic fluorosis occurs mainly in the mountainous areas of this part of China, where the prevalence of the disease is closely linked to geochemical parameters of the local environment. In these regions the incidence of dental fluorosis has a significant positive correlation with the concentration of fluoride in coal. The safety threshold of coal fluoride is estimated to be 190 mg/kg by the criterion of 0% incidence of dental fluorosis.

  17. 青铜峡市8~12岁学龄儿童氟斑牙防治效果分析%Preventive efficacy of dental fluorosis among 8-12 school-age children in Qingtongxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕楠; 周进才; 李胜玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水后儿童氟斑牙患病情况及其防治效果,为指导地方性氟中毒的防治工作提供科学依据.方法 采取整群随机抽样的方法,对青铜峡市2006年已改水的改水队1(高氟重病区叶盛镇叶盛5队)、改水队2(高氟轻病区大坝镇新桥5队)、未改水队(大坝镇滑石沟5队)670名8~12岁儿童进行氟斑牙患病情况调查,根据病变程度进行分型分度,计算患病率.结果 2011年改水队1和改水队2儿童氟斑牙患病率均低于未改水队,差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为5.012,20.676,P值均<0.05).儿童氟斑牙临床分度与水氟质量浓度间显著相关(r=0.638,P<0.05).2个改水队改水后水氟质量浓度分别为(0.24±0.05) mg/L、(0.32 ±0.07) mg/L,已达到国家正常标准.结论 青铜峡市地方性氟中毒病区改水降氟防治措施取得了一定成效.但儿童氟斑牙尚存在一定程度的流行,未达到完全控制.%Objective To evaluate the results of water improvement project aimed in eliminating the prevalence of dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas of Qingtongxia City. Methods By using epidemiological sample survey methods, 670 children (8-12 years) had been examined in dental fluorosis in Yesheng 5th team Yesheng Township, where endemic fluorosis was seriously prevailed and had become water-improvement area in 2006; Daba township, where endemic fluorosis mild prevailed; and Huash-igou 5th team, which was not included in water-improvement area. And according to the degree of disease classification indexing, prevalence rate was calculated. Results There was evident differences of the dental fluorosis in water-improvement areas and the place was not in the water-improvement Projects areas(x2 =5.012, 20.676, P<0.05). There was significant correlation between water fluorine concentration and Childrens dental fluorosis clinical dividing(r = 0. 638, P <0. 05 ). The fluoride content in drinking

  18. Epidemiological Factors for Dental Fluorosis among 12-year-old Age Goup in Industrial Zone of Baiyin City%白银市工业区域12岁人群氟牙症的行因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素萍; 彭晓泽; 王鸿玉; 赫永虎

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the oral health status and the prevalence of dental fluorosis for industrial region in Baiyin Cit-y, to analyze prevalence factors, and to explore prevention and treatment measures in order to provide information support to oral health care in Baiyin city.[Methods]Selected 480 people of 12-year-old residents of industrial region in Baiyin City with random, multi-stage, stratified sampling method, male and female are half-and-half. Inspection for fluorosis cases was conducted in accordance with the clinical inspection methods and standards for dental fluorosis of " The Third National Oral Health Epidemiology Survey Program". By using of SAS software to make statistics, the prevalence rate comparing was conducted by x2 te8t-[Results]Fluorosis prevalence rate of 12-year-old crowd was 31. 88% , fluorosis index was 0. 3, and dental fluorosis is in the prevalence edge.[Conclusion]Fluorosis prevalence rate and fluorosis index of industrial region in Baiyin city are higher than the national level, which are at the edge of prevalence and related to industrial region fluorine pollution and environmental fluorine pollution.%目的 了解白银市工业区域人群口腔健康状况及恒牙氟牙症流行状况,分析流行因素,探讨防治对策,为白银市口腔卫生保健工作提供信息支持.方法 采用多阶段、分层、等容量、随机抽样的方法,抽取白银市工业区域城乡12岁常住人口480人,男女各半.按照《第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查方案》中临床氟牙症的检查方法和标准,检查全口恒牙牙冠氟牙症情况.数据采用SAS软件统计,患病率比较采用x2检验.结果 12岁人群氟牙症患病率为31.88%,氟牙症指数为0.3,氟牙症处于流行边缘.尿和水的中氟含量均在正常范围.结论 白银市工业区域氟牙症患病率和氟牙症指数均高于全国水平,处于流行边缘,推测与工业区域空气氟污染和环境氟污染有关.

  19. Impact of caries and dental fluorosis on oral health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren receiving water naturally fluoridated at above-optimal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Álvaro; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Borges-Yáñez, S Aída; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco Antonio; Bolona-Gallardo, Irvin; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of caries and fluorosis on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among schoolchildren living in areas with high concentrations of fluoride in water. Five hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren (8-12 year olds) residing in rural communities in central Mexico were examined for oral hygiene, caries (International Caries Detection and Assessment System, ICDAS II), and fluorosis (Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index, TFI). OHRQoL was evaluated with the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for two age groups (CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14). Generalized structural equation models were constructed for data analysis. Overall prevalence of caries was 88.5% and fluorosis 46.9%. In the group of 8-10 year olds, 48% of the children had advanced carious lesions in primary or permanent teeth (ICDAS ≥4), 22.6% had moderate/severe fluorosis, and 59.9% of children had an impact on OHRQoL. Schoolchildren with ICDAS ≥4 were more likely [OR = 1.75, (95% CI 1.34-2.28)] to suffer a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the group of 11-12 year olds, 19.9% of children had advanced carious lesions and 23.2% showed moderate/severe fluorosis; 67.3% of children reported had an impact on OHRQoL. Children 11-12 year olds with fluorosis (TFI ≥4) [OR = 2.39 (95% CI 2.12-2.69)], caries (ICDAS ≥4) [OR = 2.18 (95% CI 2.13-2.24)], and low brushing frequency [OR = 2.04 (95% CI 1.21-3.44)] were more likely to have deterioration on OHRQoL. A negative impact on OHRQoL was observed in children with caries and fluorosis. Deterioration on OHRQoL found in children as a sequel of caries and fluorosis should be considered when designing health policies leading to prevention and effective health promotion programs and incorporated to clinical guidelines for timely dental treatment.

  20. Child fluorosis in Chhattisgarh, India: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilasrao, Gitte Sunil; Kamble, K M; Sabat, Ramanath N

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and type of fluorosis among children from randomly selected villages of Chhattisgarh, and its relationship with fluoride levels in drinking water. A community based door-to-door survey was conducted in the sampled villages of seven districts of Chhattisgarh state during the year 2013-14. The field case definitions were used for labelling types of fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in drinking water was estimated by ion selective electrode method. The prevalence of fluorosis ranged between 12 to 44% in children of surveyed districts. The fluoride levels in drinking water of selected villages were in the range of 0.1-9.0 ppm. Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic among children in the surveyed districts of Chhattisgarh State, and is related to drinking water with fluoride content of =1.5 ppm.

  1. Fluorosis dental en niños y fluor en el agua de consumo humano. Mexticacán, Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en los niños de 6 a 12 años y su relación con la concentración de flúor en agua para consumo humano de Mexticacán, Jalisco. Material y métodos: Estudio Ecológico Exploratorio. Se estudiaron 355 niños para diagnosticar fluorosis dental. Se determinaron las concentraciones de flúor en las fuentes de agua de consumo de la población, por espectrofotometría SPADN utilizando las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NMX-AA-077 y NOM127, NOM041) Resultad...

  2. Evaluating the use of fluorescent imaging for the quantification of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Taylor, Andrew; Maguire, Anne; Goodwin, Michaela; Boothman, Nicola; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-11-01

    The quantification of fluorosis using fluorescence imaging (QLF) hardware and stain analysis software has been demonstrated in selected populations with good correlation between fluorescent image metrics and TF Index scores from photographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of QLF to quantify fluorosis in a population of subjects (aged 11-13) participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in Northern England. Fluorescent images of the maxillary incisors were captured together with standardized photographs were scored blind for fluorosis using the TF Index. Subjects were excluded from the analysis if there were restorations or caries on the maxillary central incisors. Data were available for 1774 subjects (n=905 Newcastle, n=869 Manchester). The data from the fluorescence method demonstrated a significant correlation with TF Index scores from photographs (Kendall's tau = 0.332 pfluorosis or at low levels of fluorosis severity had an adverse impact on tooth fluorescence and hence the outcome variable. This in conjunction with an uneven distribution of subjects across the range of fluorosis presentations may have resulted in the lower than anticipated correlations between the fluorescent imaging metrics and the photographic fluorosis scores. Nevertheless, the fluorescence imaging technique was able to discriminate between a fluoridated and non-fluoridated population (pfluorosis when used adjunctively with photographic scoring.

  3. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed.

  4. Analysis of monitoring results of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province in 2011%2011年辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙病情监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恩来; 郑照霞; 刘微; 王健辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查辽宁省饮水型地方性氟中毒病区儿童氟斑牙的流行现况,评价改水措施的防病效果.方法 2011年9月,在辽宁省海城市、凌海市、法库县、阜蒙县、辽阳县、建平县6个地方性氟中毒病区县(市),每个县抽取3个已改水病区村,共18个病区村作为调查点.各调查村普查8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况.每个调查村采集1份末梢水样,进行水氟测定.结果 共检查8~12岁儿童786人,检出氟斑牙患者110人,氟斑牙检出率为14.0%,无缺损型氟斑牙病例,氟斑牙指数为0.27.其中,极轻度76例,检出率为9.7%;轻度33例,检出率为4.2%;中度1例,检出率为0.1%;重度0例.8岁组病例4例,占3.6%;9岁组病例20例,占18.2%; 10岁组病例26例,占23.6%;11岁组病例32例,占29.1%; 12岁组病例28例,占25.5%.各年龄组儿童氟斑牙检出率比较差异有统计学意义(x2=13.57,P<0.05).采集的18份改水工程末梢水样水氟范围为0.34~ 2.03 mg/L.77.8%(14/18)的改水病区达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准.结论 饮水氟含量高的病区儿童氟斑牙患病率仍较高,改水措施还有待于加强.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of children dental fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Liaoning province and to evaluate the disease prevention effects of water improvement measures.Methods Haicheng city,Linghai city,Faku county,Fumeng county,Liaoyang county and Jianping county six endemic fluorosis diseased counties (cities) of Liaoning province were included in the study in September 2011.In each county,3 water improvement villages were selected as survey points.In each surveyed village,children aged 8-12 were generally surveyed the prevalence of dental fluorosis.One tap water sample was collected in each surveyed village for determination of water fluorine.level.Results A total of 786 children aged 8-12 were examined; 110 of them were found with dental

  5. 昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症流行状况调查%Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 刘娟; 张灿华; 张石楠; 李艳红

    2011-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Methods Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1 149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. Results The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47± 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42±1.83. The prevalence of dental fluo- rosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Conclusion Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.%目的 通过对昆明市儿童龋病和氟牙症的流行病学调查,为该区开展饮水加氟预防龋齿提供可行性依据,并为昆明市龋病和氟牙症长期流行病学研究提供基础数据.方法 采用分层、整群随机抽样方法,调查5、12岁2个年龄组儿童各212、1 149人,调查内容包括5、12岁儿童龋病患病现状以及12岁儿童氟牙症流行现状.结果 昆明市5岁儿童乳牙患龋率73.6%,龋均4.47+4.39; 12岁儿童恒牙患龋率53.5%,龋均1.42±1.83; 12岁儿童氟牙症患病率4.1%,社区氟牙症指数为0.03.结论 昆明市属于龋病患病状况较严重和氟牙症非流行区,从流行病学角度认为该地区具有调节水氟浓度预防龋齿的必要性及可行性.

  6. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

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    Nelly Molina-Frechero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs. Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%, TF 4–5 (45.6% and TF 6–7 (4.4% for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%, TF 4–5 (67.1% and TF 67 (20.6% for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05. The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6, smile (OR = 1.2 and appearance (OR = 3.36. Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  7. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  8. Prevalence of Fluorosis in 5-12 Year-old Children in the North-Western Villages of Makoo in 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aminabadi, Nasser; Taghizdeh Gangi, Azin; Balayi, Esrafil; Sadighi, Mehrnoosh

    2007-01-01

    .... Major contributing factors are temperature, altitude and hygienic trends. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in 5-12 year-old children in the North-Western villages of Makoo...

  9. [Surveillance on drinking-water-born endemic fluorosis in China, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L J; Pei, J R; Zhang, W; Wang, W; Yu, G Q; Sun, D J; Gao, Y H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of fluorosis and related control measures on drinking water type of endemic fluorosis in China. According to the national program- "Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Borne Endemic Fluorosis" , 136 counties were selected in 29 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Three epidemic villages were randomly selected as fixed monitoring sites in each county. Dental fluorosis of all the children aged 8-12 living in the villages under the monitoring program, was identified under the ariteria from "Diagnosis of dental fluorosis" (WS/T 208-2011). Operating conditions and contents of fluoride in all the'water-improved projects' were investigated. Contents of fluoride in drinking water were tested in villages without the 'water-improved projects'. "Standard Test Method for Drinking Water" (GB/T 5750.5-2006) was used to detect the water fluoride. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis among children aged 8-12 in all the villages under monitor program, was 28.58% (7 950/27 817), with the dental fluorosis index (DFI) as 0.58. Among them, the prevalence was 22.28% (3 917/17 583) and DFI was 0.44 in the'water-improved projects' villages that under normal operation and with qualified fluoride contents. The prevalence appeared as 38.74% (1 926/4 971) with DFI as 0.84 in those villages with 'water-improved projects' but mal-operated or with excessive fluoride. The prevalence was 40.03% (2 107/5 263), and DFI was 0.81 in those villages without 'water-improved projects'. The prevalence rates of dental fluorosis in children from the three types of endemic areas were significantly different. For 'water-improved projects', the normal opration rate was 93.77% (286/305) and the qualification rate of fluoride content was 76.77% (228/297). Dental fluorosis in children living in the drinking-water-born endemic fluorosis areas was on the edge of epidemics in China. Effective improvement on the quality of drinking water can significantly reduce the

  10. Relationship between dental fluorosis and quality of life: a population based study Relação entre fluorose dentária e qualidade de vida: um estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Michel-Crosato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren aged 6 to 15 and its possible association with the impacts on their daily activities. This study is observational, cross-sectional and analytical. A total of 513 schoolchildren from the city of Pinheiro Preto, SC, took part in this study. The children were examined by three calibrated dentists, after obtaining a kappa > 0.80. To assess the prevalence of fluorosis, clinical examinations were performed according to the methodology set forth by the 4th edition of the WHO. To assess the impact of fluorosis on their daily activities, a modified OIDP (Oral Impacts on Daily Performance was adopted. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-squared test with a 5% significance level. Of the total number of children examined, 262 (51.1% were of the female gender and 251 (48.9% were of the male gender. In regard to the prevalence of fluorosis, 94 (18.3% of the children presented this condition, while 419 children (81.7% presented a normal condition. In regard to the severity of fluorosis, few children presented severe alterations. No association was found between dental fluorosis and gender (p = 0.646, between fluorosis and socioeconomic status (p = 0.848 or between fluorosis and access to public water supply system (p = 0.198. The activities that most affected children's daily performance were: oral hygiene (40.9% and food intake or enjoying food (40.4%. None of the daily activities could be associated with the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was consonant with the standards found for locations with optimum fluoride content in the water supply. The questionable and very slight levels of fluorosis were the most frequently found, without influence in the quality of life of the schoolchildren participating in the study.O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência de fluorose dentária em escolares de 6 a 15 anos de idade e sua poss

  11. An investigation of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing%重庆市巫山和奉节县8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫菊; 钟朝晖; 王应雄; 罗兴建; 晏维; 牟李红

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解重庆市巫山和奉节2个县8~12岁儿童氟斑牙流行现状及分布特征,为氟斑牙防治工作提供科学依据.方法 2010年,采取整群随机抽样的方法,在巫山、奉节2个县各抽取20、18个乡(镇)作为调查点,用Dean法对抽中乡(镇)的所有8~ 12岁儿童进行氟斑牙检查,计算并比较2个县的儿童氟斑牙检出率、缺损率及氟斑牙指数.结果 2个县共调查8~12岁儿童38 209人,氟斑牙总检出率为43.09%( 16 466/38 209),巫山、奉节2个县氟斑牙检出率分别为48.98%(9397/19 186)、37.16%(7069/19 023),二者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=544.03,P<0.01);8、9、10、11、12岁年龄组儿童氟斑牙总检出率依次为32.52%(2157/6632)、40.07%(2672/6668)、43.67%(3420/7831)、46.01%(3861/8391)、50.14%(4356/8687),各年龄组间比较差异有统计学意义(x2=510.50,P<0.01);巫山、奉节2个县8~ 12岁儿童氟斑牙指数分别为0.713、0.485,氟斑牙缺损率分别为4.05%(777/19 186)、1.57%(298/19 023).结论 巫山和奉节2个县8~12岁儿童氟斑牙总检出率仍较高;随着年龄增长,儿童氟斑牙检出率逐渐升高;巫山县仍是氟斑牙流行区,奉节县则处于边缘区.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution characteristics of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing and to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of the disease.Methods Twenty townships(towns) in Fengjie county and 18 in Wushan county were selected as survey points by random cluster sampling in 2010.Dental fluorosis of all the children aged 8 - 12 was examined with Dean index.The detection rate of children's dental fluorosis,defect rate and dental fluorosis index were compared between the two counties.Results Totally 38 209 children aged 8 - 12 were investigated.The total detection rate of dental fluorosis was 43.09%( 16 466/38 209) in the two counties.The detection

  12. Child Skeletal Fluorosis from Indoor Burning of Coal in Southwestern China

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    Xianghui Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We assess the prevalence and pathogenic stage of skeletal fluorosis among children and adolescents residing in a severe coal-burning endemic fluorosis area of southwest China. Methods. We used a cross-sectional design. A total of 1,616 students aged between 7 and 16 years in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China in late 2004 were selected via a cluster sampling of all 9-year compulsory education schools to complete the study questionnaire. Any student lived in a household that burned coal, used an open-burning stove, or baked foodstuffs over a coal stove was deemed high-risk for skeletal fluorosis. About 23% (370 of students (188 boys, 182 girls were identified as high-risk and further examined by X-ray. Results. One-third of the 370 high-risk participants were diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis. Overall prevalence of child skeletal fluorosis due to indoor burning of coal was 7.5%. Children aged 12–16 years were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with skeletal fluorosis than children aged 7–11 years (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.90; = .0082. Four types of skeletal fluorosis were identified: constrictive (60.7%, raritas (15.6%, mixed (16.4%, and soft (7.4%. Most diagnosed cases (91% were mild or moderate in severity. In addition, about 97% of 370 high-risk children were identified with dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was highly correlated with skeletal fluorosis in this study. Conclusions. Skeletal fluorosis among children may contribute to poor health and reduced productivity when they reach adulthood. Further efforts to reduce fluoride exposure among children in southwestern of China where coal is burned indoors are desperately needed.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of MIH in school children residing in an endemic fluorosis area of India: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, R; Ramesh, M; Chalakkal, P

    2015-12-01

    This was to study the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) among school children residing in a fluorosis endemic area in Tamilnadu (Salem, India). A target sample of 5000 children of age ranging between 9 and 14 years, comprising 250 children from each of 20 blocks of Salem, participated in this study. The examination was completed in their respective schools by a calibrated examiner using EAPD criteria. Of 4989 children examined, 384 children had MIH. A prevalence of 7.3 %. The MIH found in girls was 8.9 % compared with 6.1 % in boys. Single-tooth involvement of MIH was seen predominantly in incisors (2.24 %), whereas with molars usually three teeth were involved (1.1 %). MIH with caries involvement was found in 51 % of the teeth. The prevalence of MIH in the endemic fluorosis district was found to be 7.3 %. A gradual increase in MIH was seen with age due to post enamel breakdown. Caries involvement was also seen in more than 50 % of the MIH-involved teeth. This prevalence study for molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is rare in the literature, especially in a fluorosis endemic district in Tamilnadu.

  14. Relationship between dental fluorosis and serum chemical element levels of 8-12 year-old children in endemic fluorosis areas and non-diseased areas%地方性氟中毒病区与非病区8-12岁儿童氟斑牙及与血清化学元素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晓红; 梁妍; 冯永亮; 王素萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children aged 8 - 12 years, and to explore the relationship between dental fluorosis and serum chemical elements. Methods The cross-sectional study was used to investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis. The dental fluorosis was diagnosed according to Dean method. The contents of serum calcium ( Ca ),copper ( Cu ),iron ( Fe ),magnesium ( Mg ),phosphorus ( P ),zinc ( Zn ) were determined using IRIS Intrepid Ⅱ XSP ICP spectrometer. Results The prevalence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 - 12 years in severe endemic fluorosis areas, the wards, the control areas were 93.0% , 81.5% and 11.8% , respectively. Serum levels of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P, and Zn in the children of severe endemic fluorosis areas, the wards, the control areas were different( Fca= 12. 150,P < 001; FCu= 3. 326, P < 0.05; FFe= 11. 893, P < 001; FMg= 13. 053, P < 001; FP= 3. 131,P < 0.05 ;Fzn= 28. 019,P < 001 ). Content of calcium in the wards was lower than that in the control areas ( P < 0.001 ). Iron content in the wards was higher than that in the control areas ( P < 0. 001 ). Magnesium content was lower in the severe areas and the wards than that in the control areas ( P < 0.001 ). Phosphorus content in severe areas was lower than that in the control zone ( P < 0.05 ). Zinc content in seriously ill areas was higher than that in the control areas, while it was lower in the wards than that in the control areas ( P < 0.05 ). Level of magnesium in dental fluorosis patients was higher than that in normal children( t= 2.14, P < 0.05 ), but there was no significant difference in the rest chemical elements between them. Conclusion The higher the concentration of fluoride in drinking water is, the higher the detection rate of dental fluorosis is. Calcium and magnesium can be antagonistic with dental fluorosis.%目的 了解8-12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况,探讨化学元素与氟斑牙的关系.方法

  15. Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated Caspase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weishan; Jiang, Binghua; Cao, Xianglin; Xie, Yongjiang; Huang, Ting

    2017-01-05

    Fluoride is an environmental toxicant and induces dental fluorosis and oxidative stress. Lycopene (LYC) is an effective antioxidant that is reported to attenuate fluoride toxicity. To determine the effects of LYC on sodium fluoride (NaF) -induced teeth and ameloblasts toxicity, rats were treated with NaF (10 mg/kg) and/or LYC (10 mg/kg) by orally administration for 5 weeks; ameloblasts were treated with NaF (5 mM) and/or LYC (2 μM) for 6 h. We found that the concentrations of fluoride, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expressions of Bax were significantly decreased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated rats group; concentrations of MDA and ROS, gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expression of Bax, and ameloblasts apoptosis rate were significantly decreased, while the activities of SOD and GPX, the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated ameloblasts group. These results suggest that LYC significantly combated NaF-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis by attenuation oxidative stress and down-regulation Caspase pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Lekic, Charles P; Carevic, Momir

    2009-06-01

    The amount of fluoride present naturally in drinking water is highly variable, being dependent upon the individual geological environment from which the water is obtained. Chronic exposure to exceeding fluoride doses induces set of toxic effects, i.e. fluorosis. The aim of this study was to examine fluoride content in water and in the most frequently used vegetables, potato and bean, grown in two different Serbian regions, i.e. control region (Valjevo) and high naturally occurring fluoride region (Vranjska Banja), and moreover, to correlate estimated daily intake with dental fluorosis occurrence as an adverse effect of fluoride exposure of schoolchildren in Serbia. Study confirmed significant difference in fluoride content in water, potato and bean, consumed by 12-year-old children in two investigated municipalities. Results of the study indicated positive and statistically significant correlation between daily intake of fluoride and dental fluorosis level in the fluorotic municipality of Vranjska Banja (r = 0.61; p = 0.000017). Obtained relationship could be evaluated by means of binary logistic regression analysis, whereas probability for fluorosis occurrence could be predicted using the following equation: fluorosis occurence (%) = (34.852 x Cwater -12.644 x Cpotato - 9.362 x Cbean - 7.673) x 100 (Chi-Square (3) = 33.033; p < 0.001).

  17. Establishment of animal model of dental fluorosis by drinking in SD rat%饮水型SD大鼠氟斑牙模型的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长城; 刘晓利; 刘克俭; 崔彩岩; 刘芸; 余立凯; 黄安斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立饮水型大鼠氟斑牙模型,为深入研究氟性骨损伤发病机制提供科学依据.方法 采用饮水加氟的方法复制大鼠氟斑牙模型,染氟剂量采用日测体重然后按体重(mg/kg)给予及尿氟、血氟监测的方法进行,尿氟、血氟采用微量氟法测定,血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)采用全自动生化分析仪测定,氟斑牙采用数码相机拍照,按照氟斑牙观测标准进行诊断及分度.结果 90d末,高、中剂量组大鼠均出现明显氟斑牙,尿氟、血氟及血ALP含量与对照组相比均明显升高(P<0.05).染氟剂量与尿氟水平显著相关(r =0.924,P=0.038);染氟剂量与血氟水平呈显著相关(r =0.948,P=0.026);高、中剂量组大鼠氟负荷水平明显高于对照组;氟斑牙发生率与染氟剂量呈正相关(r=0.983,P=0.017).结论 染氟剂量与氟斑牙的发生存在明显的剂量-反应关系:16 mg/kg和32 mg/kg的染氟剂量,14 d即可发生Ⅰ度氟斑牙,35 d即可发生典型氟斑牙.%Objective To establish a rat model of dental fluorosis by drinking thereby provide a scientific basis (or researching the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Methods The animal model of dental fluorosis was made by adding fluoride in drinking water for rats, the dose was adjusted with the daily body weight ( mg/kg), the urine and blood fluoride were monitored everyday by micro determination of fluoride; meanwhile, the serum ALP was also detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. At last, the dental fluorosis was documented by photographing with digital camera and diagnosis was made according to the dental fluorosis criteria. Results The results showed that all the rats exposed to middle and high doses of fluorine developed significant dental fluorosis 90 days later after exposure, the urinary fluoride, blood fluoride and serum ALP also increased compared with those of control group (P < 0.05). The urine fluorine and blood fluorine were all markedly associated with

  18. Evaluating the use of fluorescent imaging for the quantification of dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of fluorosis using fluorescence imaging (QLF hardware and stain analysis software has been demonstrated in selected populations with good correlation between fluorescent image metrics and TF Index scores from photographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of QLF to quantify fluorosis in a population of subjects (aged 11–13 participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities in Northern England. Methods Fluorescent images of the maxillary incisors were captured together with standardized photographs were scored blind for fluorosis using the TF Index. Subjects were excluded from the analysis if there were restorations or caries on the maxillary central incisors. Results Data were available for 1774 subjects (n=905 Newcastle, n=869 Manchester. The data from the fluorescence method demonstrated a significant correlation with TF Index scores from photographs (Kendall’s tau = 0.332 p Conclusions Despite confounding factors the fluorescence imaging system may provide a useful objective, blinded system for the assessment of enamel fluorosis when used adjunctively with photographic scoring.

  19. Survey of the Incidence of Dental Fluorosis in High Fluoride Areas of Zhaotong, Yunnan Province after Stove Changing and Decreasing of Fluorine%云南昭通高氟区改灶降氟后氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范群; 姚霜; 季娟娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To survey the incidence of dental fluorosis in coal polluted high fluoride areas of Zhaotong, Yunnan province after stove changing and decreasing of fluorine. The result will give us reference of prevention of endemic fluorosis. Methods: Using the methods and diagnostic criteria of the third national oral health epidemiologi-cal sample survey and Dean's dental fluorosis classificationas as reference, we give sample survey to the dental fluorosis and oral health status of 35 - 44 years - old people born before stove changing and decreasing of fluorine and 12 years -old students born after stove changing and decreasing of fluorine. Give questionnaire survey of 30% of people in each group,about their using of coal,their living habit,stove changing status,their knowledge of prevention of endemic fluorosis and their oral hygiene behavior. Use SPSS 15. 0 to do the statistical analysis of the survey data. Re-sultS: The total prevalence of dental fluorosis of these people was 91. 0% , and dental fluorosis index was 2. 58. The detection rate of dental fluorosis in 35 - 44 years-old group was 100% , and moderate to severe dental fluorosis rate in this group was 87. 50% , dental fluorosis index was 3. 49. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12 years-old students group was 86. 5% , moderate to severe dental fluorosis rate in this group was 47. 25% , dental fluorosis index was 2. 12,there were significant differences between the two groups(P<0. 01). At the age of 12 students group, no gender differences, but there are urban and rural differences (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Prevalence rate and severity of dental fluorosis in high fluoride areas of Zhaotong decreased after stove-changing and fluorine decreasing,but these areas still belong to moderate dental fluorosis epidemic areas. It is suggested that in the premise of stove changing and de-screasing of fluorine, we use these measures such as health education, improvement of scientific management and e-conomic and cultural

  20. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  1. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  2. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; Mejía-Saavedra, José de Jesús; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect. PMID:25789336

  3. Association between urine fluoride and dental fluorosis as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquín-Yañez, Lizet; de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra, José; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Gaona, Enrique; Rocha-Amador, Diana Olivia; López-Guzmán, Olga Dania; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean's index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14±1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

  4. Prevalencia de fluorosis y experiencia de caries dental en un grupo de escolares en el area urbana del Municipio de Yondo (Antioquia, Colombia), 2010.(Articulo de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Florez, Lina M; Bernal-Alvarez, Tomas; Agudelo-Suarez, Andres A; Marulanda-Montoya, Elizabeth; Norena-Salazar, Maura A

    2011-01-01

    .... El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de fluorosis dental en escolares de 12 anos, y la historia de caries en escolares de 5 y 12 anos en la Institucion Educativa Luis Eduardo Diaz del area...

  5. Prevalence of fluorosis and identification of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan; Siva Ilango, S.

    2012-12-01

    Prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to identify the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures for the people under the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study were to identify the exact location of fluoride endemic areas in Manur block of Tirunelveli District and to estimate fluoride exposure level through drinking water for different age groups. Identification of fluoride endemic areas was performed through Isopleth and Google earth mapping techniques. Fluoride level in drinking water samples was estimated by fluoride ion selective electrode method. A systematic clinical survey conducted in 19 villages of Manur block revealed the rate of prevalence of fluorosis. From this study, it has been found that Alavanthankulam, Melapilliyarkulam, Keezhapilliyarkulam, Nadupilliyarkulam, Keezhathenkalam and Papankulam are the fluoride endemic villages, where the fluoride level in drinking water is above 1 mg/l. Consumption of maximum fluoride exposure levels of 0.30 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.27 mg/kg/day for children and 0.15 mg/kg/day for adults were found among the respective age group people residing in high fluoride endemic area. As compared with adequate intake level of fluoride of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, the health risk due to excess fluoride intake to the people of Alavanthankulam and nearby areas has become evident. Hence the people of these areas are advised to consume drinking water with optimal fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  6. Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; García Pérez, A; Mejía González, A; Huizar Alvarez, R

    2016-01-15

    Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure the association between undernutrition and dental fluorosis in children living in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a state located in the central region of Mexico. Field work was performed in the region to identify the prevailing groundwater flow characteristics and water wells were sampled to analyze water fluoride concentration. Children were selected from three communities that had different drinking water fluoride concentrations (i.e., 0.56, 0.70 and 1.60 mg/l). Fluoridated salt was available in these communities. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to assess dental fluorosis. Categories four or higher of this index involve changes in the entire tooth surface (ITF ≥ 4). The weight and height of the children were measured. The assessment of undernutrition was based on the World Health Organization criteria: children were classified as being at risk of low-height (Height-for-Age Z score fluorosis categories (ITF ≥ 4) was 15.9%, 21.1% of the children were at risk of low height-for-age, and 8.0% had low height-for-age. The percentage of children with fluorosis (ITF ≥ 4) was 6.3%, 9.1% and 31.9% (p ˂ 0.001) and low high-for-age was 2.9%, 2.5% and 8.4% (p ˂ 0.001), for the communities with F concentrations of 0.56 mg/l, 0.70 mg/l and 1.6 mg/l, respectively. The logistic regression model showed an association between dental fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) and low height-for-age (OR 2.09, p = 0.022) after adjusting for sex, number of teeth erupted, source of drinking water, use of fluoridated toothpaste and tap water fluoride concentration in the community. Children with low height-for-age were more likely to have dental

  7. PERCEPTION OF FLUOROSIS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RIO GRANDE DA SERRA – SP AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED. A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Paiato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the perception of dental fluorosis in children with 12 years old and associated variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 year old school children (393 from all of 10 public schools of Rio Grande da Serra town of Sao Paulo district. Only one dental surgeon, previously calibrated (Kappa = 0.84, performed all clinical examinations. A structured questionnaire was answered by the children themselves and also for their parents. The prevalence of dental fluorosis (Dean Index found was 57%, restricted to the very mild and mild levels, but higher than expected for Brazilian standards. Significant associations between dental fluorosis stains and perception by children or guardians weren’t found. Dental fluorosis in the degree of severity found, had no adverse effect on the health of these children, but warns of the need for constant monitoring of these changes and rational use of fluoride.

  8. PERCEPTION OF FLUOROSIS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RIO GRANDE DA SERRA – SP AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED. A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Paula Paiato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the perception of dental fluorosis in children with 12 years old and associated variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 12 year old school children (393 from all of 10 public schools of Rio Grande da Serra town of Sao Paulo district. Only one dental surgeon, previously calibrated (Kappa = 0.84, performed all clinical examinations. A structured questionnaire was answered by the children themselves and also for their parents. The prevalence of dental fluorosis (Dean Index found was 57%, restricted to the very mild and mild levels, but higher than expected for Brazilian standards. Significant associations between dental fluorosis stains and perception by children or guardians weren’t found. Dental fluorosis in the degree of severity found, had no adverse effect on the health of these children, but warns of the need for constant monitoring of these changes and rational use of fluoride.

  9. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a herbal compound made for treatment of discolorations caused by dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammdi Basir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was research on a new herbal compound (Seidlitzia Rosmarinus made by Traditional Medicine Research Group, University of shahed to find a safer alternative to HCL-Pumice compound technique.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial seventy two anterior teeth from 9 patients were divided in to three groups according to fluorosis severity: mild (34 teeth, moderate (14 teeth, and sever (24 teeth. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with “Shahed” compound and other half treated with HCL-Pumice compound. Before and after treatment, photographs were taken in both groups. HCL-Pumice treatment compound was applied for 30 seconds periods and continued for 10 minutes if necessary. In case of herbal Shahed compound the time was determined by clinical symptoms or when labial contour was dismissed, If the result was not esthetistically acceptabale for the patient, HCL-Pumice compound was applied on teeth. NaF was applied after mouth washing. The photographs of the teeth before and after treatment were reviewed by two experienced observer unaware of the treatment modality. The results were analyzed using willcoxon’s, kruskal-wallis and scheffe test.   Results: There was over 81.3% acceptance between two observers and no significant differences in intraobservers evaluation (P>0.05. Improvement in beauty indexes were observed in all degrees of dental fluorosis by 18% with HCL-Pumice compound application, but “Shahed” herbal compound induced significant reduction in the amount of white spots in mild fluorosis and stain intensity of moderate fluorosis (P<0.05 , while the reduction in the severity of discoloration in group 2, these two techniques were statistically equivalent but in the remainder, HCL-Pumice compound was more significantly effective (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: HCL-Pumice compound reduces the severity of the discoloration of the teeth. Shahed herbal compound

  10. Prevalence of Fluorosis in 5-12 Year-old Children in the North-Western Villages of Makoo in 2004

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    Esrafil Balaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Fluorosis is defined as a sort of enamel hypocalcification. Clinical features of fluorosis vary from thin white lines on the enamel to chalky and opaque enamel. The enamel may be destroyed after tooth eruption. Various prevalence rates have been reported in different populations. Major contributing factors are temperature, altitude and hygienic trends. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in 5-12 year-old children in the North-Western villages of Makoo.

    Materials and methods. A total of 58 children aged between 5 and 6, and 421 students aged between 7 and 12 from the North-Western villages of Makoo were selected. Dean Index was used to evaluate the prevalence of fluorosis in the primary and permanent dentition. To compare the severity of fluorosis in the maxilla and mandible and also to assess the coordination rate of fluorosis in the left and right sides of the jaw, TF Index was used. TSIF was used to compare fluorosis rate in different tooth surfaces. Discoloration prevalence and rate were compared between maxillary and mandibular incisors. Chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the results.

    Results. Fluorosis rate in the primary and permanent dentition was 100%. According to TF Index, the highest coordination rate was observed in mandibular incisors and the least was observed in maxillary second molars. The difference in the severity of fluorosis between maxilla and mandible was statistically significant (p< 0.05. Discoloration rate increased in maxillary central incisors with age.

    Conclusion. Very high prevalence rate of fluorosis in the primary and permanent teeth in the North-West of Makoo revealed a major regional problem; therefore, preventive strategies such as informing people of improper use of fluoride-containing supplements and reduction of the fluoride content of

  11. Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin, S; Reddy, E R; Manjula, M; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, S T; Rajesh, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare retention and caries occurance following placement of Clinpro and FUJI VII fissure sealants, by two different techniques simultaneously in unsealed, contralateral young permanent molars of 7- to 10-year-old children affected by mild to moderate dental fluorosis at various recall intervals of 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. 80 schoolchildren with mild to moderate dental fluorosis were assigned to Group A and Group B with 40 children in each group. In Group A Clinpro fissure sealant and in Group B Fuji VII fissure sealant was used. In both the groups fissure sealants were applied by conventional fissure sealant technique (CST) on one side and enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) on the other side of the same arch. The applied fissure sealants were evaluated clinically for retention and caries incidence. Clinpro fissure sealant showed a retention rate of 95% when compared with Fuji VII (57.5%) at the end of 12 months, which was statistically significant. Regarding techniques, EST showed better results than CST in both the groups. Comparison of groups with respect to retention and techniques at different time periods was performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Comparison of different time periods with respect to retention and technique in all the groups was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks (p < 0.05). Clinpro fissure sealant showed better retention at all treatment intervals, when compared with Fuji VII. Further follow-up is required to study the efficacy of the fissure sealant placement techniques.

  12. Fluorose dentária em incisivos superiores permanentes em crianças de escola pública do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Dental fluorosis in upper permanent incisors of public schoolchildren in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branca Heloísa de Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e a intensidade de fluorose dentária em crianças com idade entre 7 e 12 anos. MÉTODOS: A população de estudo foi constituída por 266 crianças matriculadas em uma escola pública do Município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. As crianças tinham idades entre 7 e 12 anos e foram selecionadas pelo método de amostragem aleatória simples. Todos os exames foram feitos entre os meses de agosto e dezembro de 1999 por um único examinador treinado e calibrado (Kappa = 0,92. Depois da obtenção do consentimento dos pais, as crianças tiveram seus incisivos superiores permanentes inspecionados sob luz natural. Os dentes foram previamente limpos e secos com rolos de algodão. Os critérios de Russel foram empregados, no diagnóstico diferencial, entre fluorose dentária e opacidades decorrentes de outras causas. O índice de Thylstrup e Fejerskov foi utilizado na determinação da intensidade de fluorose. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de fluorose foi igual a 7,9% (IC 95%, 5,0-11,8. A intensidade variou de 1 a 3, sendo que 77% dos dentes afetados tiveram registros de grau 1. CONCLUSÃO: A fluorose dentária não se constitui em problema de saúde pública para a população estudada.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in children aged 7 to 12. METHODS: The study population comprised 266 children aged 7 to 12 years, enrolled in a public school in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, selected using a simple random sample method. All examinations were carried out between August and December 1999 by a single trained and calibrated examiner (Kappa = 0.92. After obtaining their parents' consent the children had their upper permanent incisors examined under natural light. Their teeth were previously cleaned and dried with cotton rolls. The differential diagnosis between milder forms of dental fluorosis and nonfluoride enamel opacities was made according to Russel's diagnostic criteria. The severity of

  13. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results.

  14. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-08-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results.

  15. Fluorosis dental en escolares de 6 a 13 años de instituciones educativas públicas de medellín, colombia. 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca S. Ramírez-Puerta; Franco-Cortés, Ángela M.; Ochoa-Acosta, Emilia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo   El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y severidad de la fluorosis dental en escolares entre los 6 y 13 años de edad de la ciudad de  Medellín, Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un  estudio descriptivo en 1 330 niños matriculados en 34 instituciones educativas públicas. Los exámenes clínicos fueron realizados por dos odontólogas entrenadas y calibradas en el diagnóstico de fluorosis dental. Después de aislar con rollos de algodón y secar con gasa, se  examinaron las ...

  16. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Young; Choi, Han-Sol; Ku, Hee-Won; Kim, Hyun-Su; Lee, Yoo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results. PMID:27508165

  17. A dental fluorosis trend analysis of children aged 8 to 12 in drinking-water-type endemic fluorosis areas of Hubei Province from 2010 to 2014%2010-2014年湖北省饮水型氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧云; 李明健; 周素华; 戴馨; 熊培生; 祝淑珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective Through the dynamical monitoring of the water improvement projects operation,we intend to understand the prevalent trends of endemic fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 in Hubei,to evaluate the effect of control measures and to provide the basis for making preventive measures.Methods In Hubei,ten surveillance counties were selected,and three epidemic villages were selected as fixed monitoring villages in each county from 2010 to 2014.In those villages,the operation situation of water improvement projects and the fluoride content in drinking water were detected,and the dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was diagnosed.Results From 2010 to 2014,the normal operation rate of water improvement projects was 75.61%-100.00%,the average of water fluorine content did not change,the differences were not statistically significant (F =2.00,P > 0.05).The numbers of water improvement projects with water fluorine content in excessive amount was increased in the past five years which was only one project in 2010-2012 and was increased to two projects in 2013 and 2014.In 2010-2014,the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of whole children was 9.45% (525/5 557),the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of exceeding-standard villages of water fluoride content was 42.40% (92/217),the dental fluorosis prevalence rate of qualified villages was 8.11% (433/5 340).The children's dental fluorosis prevalence rate of exceeding-standard villages of water fluoride content was higher than that in qualified villages;the differences were statistically significant (x2 =282.60,P < 0.05).Conclusions The operation rate of water-improving projects is mostly higher than 90%,and so is the qualification rate of fluoride content in drinking water.The operation condition and water quality of the water-improving projects in Hubei need to be improved.The prevalence of children dental fluorosis of affected villages has dropped significantly after low fluoride water is provided continuously

  18. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi

    OpenAIRE

    Lizet Jarquín-Yañez; José de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra; Nelly Molina-Frechero; Enrique Gaona; Diana Olivia Rocha-Amador; Olga Dania López-Guzmán; Ronell Bologna-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinica...

  19. Laminados de resina: Opción estética para dientes con fluorosis dental severa. Reporte de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera C., Andrea Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dental fluorosis is a widespread condition of the enamel, which occurs systemically when fluoride is consumed in excess of the recommended dose and may be a significant concern for the patient. Fluorosed enamel is characterized by white opaque lines in mild cases, are so fine that they resemble shadows of lines drawn with a pencil and can be perceived clearly by drying the enamel surface. In severe cases irregular opaque white to brown spots appear, this requires that patients wit...

  20. Exploration of Clinical Whitening Procedure for Dental Fluorosis Bleaching%氟斑牙临床有效治疗方法的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 张英

    2015-01-01

    目的 将氟斑牙的治疗手段有序结合,探讨氟斑牙最佳临床美白治疗方法.方法 选取2013年1月至2014年12月本科室就诊且诊断为氟斑牙患者90例,患者均知情同意并签署知情同意书.按照症状(轻度、中度、重度)将患者随机均分为A、B、C组.A组患者(30例,180颗患牙)采取微打磨—酸处理(35%磷酸酸蚀牙面)—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗;B组(30例,175颗患牙)采取微打磨—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗;C组(30例,180颗患牙)采取酸处理—冷光美白(Beyond美白凝胶8 h)治疗.各组患者治疗前后利用Vita比色板进行比色,计算色阶提高值和有效率.结果 3组轻度氟斑牙患者的色阶提高值和治疗有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);A组中、重度氟斑牙患者色阶提高值和有效率与B组、C组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);结论 中重度氟斑牙采取微打磨—酸处理—美白有序结合治疗可以取得满意效果.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of combination of Beyond cold light whitening and fluoride removing material bleaching sys-tem for treatment of dental fluorosis. Methods Ninety patients with light,medium and heavy dental fluorosis were recruited for the study and ran-domly divided into three groups. Thirty patients with 180 dental fluorosis from the A group were treated with microbrasion and etch and Beyond cold light bleaching. Thirty patients with 175 dental fluorosis from the B group were treated with microbrasion and beyond cold light bleaching. Thirty pa-tients with 180 dental fluorosis from the C group were treated with etch and Beyond cold light bleaching. The effects of whitening were evaluated by Vita shade guide matching after treatment. Results Good lightening efficacy and 100%bleaching efficacy was achieved in the light dental fluorosis subjects from all the three groups. The Shade value improvement and overall efficacy of observer group were better than the

  1. 农安县地方性氟中毒病情调查结果分析%Research result of the prevalent state of endemic fluorosis area of in Nongan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unde(Changchun City Center for Disease Control and prevention of rstand the prevatent state of endemic fluorosis in Nongan County,advance of work in prevention and cure of endemic fluorosis,and to provide science basis to deep going of prevention and treatment of endemic fluorosis.Methods The place of research was selected in slight,medium,serious areas and non-disease area of whole county used to method of flock lay-ering sampling,10%of the samples were extracted to investigate water fluoride content were detected , dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis clinical examination.Results The farmers were detected in 30 wards County resident and non-endemic fluoride content of drinking water , in line with the national drinking water standard for fluoride content in only three villages , accounting for 10%, 90%of the survey area than the national standard . Light ward where the fluorine content 0.63-1.77 (mg/L), the fluorine content in the ward 0.75-1.96 (mg/L), illness district fluorine content of 0.87-2.46 (mg/L);each survey area aged 7-12 ages dental fluorosis result of the comparison data , the detection rate of dental fluorosis 26.44%, P=0.042,*P<0.05;each survey area skeletal fluorosis data comparison of results of skeletal fluorosis detection rate of 28.28%, P=0.032,*P<0.05, explain differences were statistically significant.Conclusion As the county's water improvement work , Ward masses mostly on low-fluoride drinking water , fluoride content of the water reached the national standard , lower detection rate of dental fluorosis , skeletal fluorosis prevalence of clinical reduced effective control Nong'an endemic fluorosis occurrence and development.%目的:调查了解农安县地方性氟中毒病情现状及防治方法,为深入开展地方性氟中毒的防治提供依据。方法采用分层随机抽样方法,在全县的轻病区、中病区、重病区和非病区分别抽取10%的样本进行调查,分别进行水中氟含量检测、氟斑牙

  2. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  3. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  4. Accuracy of the Simplified Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index in Rural Communities with Endemic Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the values of the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TF index for the determination of the prevalence of dental fluorosis using either all teeth (gold standard or six upper anterior teeth (simplified TF index. The sample was made up of 396 individuals aged six to 22 years from three Brazilian cities with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high fluoride concentration. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was evaluated by a single trained examiner with excellent intraexaminer agreement (kappa = 0.95. Intraexaminer reproducibilities were calculated at tooth level. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the simplified TF compared to gold standard were 90.6 (95%CI: 86.6 to 93.6, 100 (95%CI: 95.3 to 100, 100 (95%CI: 98.3 to 100 and 77.5 (95%CI: 69.8 to 83.5, respectively. The ROC value was 0.953 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.973. The simplified TF index proved suitable for determining the prevalence of dental fluorosis in regions with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high concentrations of fluoride.

  5. Dental fluorosis in children in areas with fluoride-polluted air, high-fluoride water, and low-fluoride water as well as low-fluoride air: A study of deciduous and permanent teeth in the Shaanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J.P.; Bardsen, A.; Astrom, A.N.; Huang, R.Z.; Wang, Z.L.; Bjorvatn, K. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Oral Science

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess dental fluorosis (DF) in the deciduous and permanent teeth of children in areas with high-F coal (area A) and high-F water (area C) compared to children from area B, with low-F water and coal. DF was found to be prevalent in both dentitions in areas A and C. Similarity in percentages of DF may indicate that indoor air with about to 60 {mu}g F/m{sup 3} and drinking water with 3.6 mg F/L are similarly toxic to developing permanent teeth. The percentage of deciduous teeth with DF was significantly lower in area A compared to area C. Where low-F coal and low-F water were used (area B), similar to 20% of permanent teeth had DF, indicating a relatively low tolerance to fluoride in Chinese children brought up under the present living conditions.

  6. Tratamiento para manchas por fluorosis dental por medio de micro abrasion sin instrumentos rotatorios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Villegas-Ham, Julio; Nevarez-Rascon, Alfredo; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Castaneda-Castaneira, Enrique; Nevarez-Rascon, Martina M

    2010-01-01

    ...%, sobre el esmalte afectado. Su indicacion clinica es para coloraciones superficiales localizadas en el esmalte, donde el blanqueamiento dental no resuelve satisfactoriamente el problema estetico. Palabras clave...

  7. Fluorose dentária em escolares de 12 e 15 anos de idade. Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, nos anos 2001 e 2004 Dental fluorosis in schoolchildren 12 and 15 years of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in 2001 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Regis de Oliveira Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os resultados de dois estudos populacionais, conduzidos em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, sobre a prevalência e severidade da fluorose dentária nas idades de 12 e 15 anos. Discutiram-se as metodologias dos estudos em relação ao processo amostral, calibração dos examinadores, sistemática de coleta, comparando-se as diferenças obtidas por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e intervalo de confiança (95%, obtidas pelo índice de Dean. Foram examinados 3.313 adolescentes de 12 e 15 anos, em 2001, e 1.032, em 2004. Nos dois períodos, procedeu-se à calibração dos examinadores, e as amostras foram de base populacional. No segundo estudo, houve maior proporção de alunos de escolas públicas nas duas idades em relação ao ano de 2001 (p This article compares the results of two surveys in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, on prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 12 and 15-year-olds. The article discusses the survey methodologies in relation to their sampling process, calibration of examiners, and data collection procedures, comparing the resulting differences using chi-square and 95% confidence intervals obtained with the Dean index. A total of 3,313 adolescents 12 and 15 years of age were analyzed in 2001 and 1,032 in 2004. Both surveys used examiner calibration, and the samples were population-based. In the second survey there were a higher proportion of students from public schools for both ages, as compared to 2001 (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the fluorosis rate at 12 years, with a prevalence of 32.64% in 2004 and 31.4% in 2001. For 15-year-olds, the prevalence in 2004 (16.83% was lower than in 2001 (27.6%. No increase was observed in the prevalence or severity of fluorosis in Salvador from 2001 to 2004.

  8. Clinical application and evaluation of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide%自制氟斑牙比色板临床使用效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王屹; 杨敏; 刘晔; 黄宴斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide. Methods Color matching was performed by three prosthodontists with the home-made dental fluorosis shade guide and VITA16 shade guide respectively in 30 patients with dental fluorosis. According to the results, two sets of crowns were fabricated for each patient, and the satisfactory degree of the dentists and patients was calculated and compared respec tively. Results According to the survey of satisfactory degree, the dentists and patients were more satisfactory with the dental fluorosis shade guide than the VITA16 shade guide. Conclusion In dental fluorosis patients' color matching, home-made dental fluorosis shade guide was more timesaving and efficient than VITA16 shade guide.%目的 研究自制氟斑牙比色板的临床使用效果.方法 由3名口腔修复专业医生,分别采用自制氟斑牙比色板及VITA16色比色板对30例氟斑牙患者在自然光下进行比色,按照2种比色结果分别制作修复体,根据医生及患者满意度对疗效进行评价.结果 通过对修复体的满意度调查,医生及患者对根据自制氟斑牙比色板制作的修复体满意度明显高于根据VITA16色比色板制作的修复体.结论 在对氟斑牙患者比色中,自制氟斑牙比色板较VITA16色比色板省时、高效.

  9. National and sub-national drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth in Iran from 1990 to 2015: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Nader; Amini, Heresh; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Taghipour, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Fluoride intake, fluorosis, and dental caries could affect quality of life and disease burden worldwide. As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD) in Iran, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate province-year-specific mean drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) in Iran from 1990 to December 2015. We did electronic searches of all English and Persian publications on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Iranian databases. Results revealed that the weighted mean drinking water fluoride concentration in Iran from 1990 to 2015 has been about 0.65 ± 0.38 mg/l. However, based on the WHO guideline value (1.50 mg/l) and the maximum permissible Iranian national fluoride standard (1.40 to 2.40 mg/l depending on the region's climate), there have been some regions in Iran with non-optimum fluoride concentrations in their drinking water (up to 7.0 mg/l). Overall, concentrations have been higher in southern parts of Iran and in some areas of Azerbaijan-e-Gharbi Province in the northwest and lower in the rest of the northwest and central parts of Iran. In addition, some hotspots have been found in Bushehr Province, southwest of Iran. The highest prevalence of dental flourosis has been reported in normal index while the lowest prevalence has been expressed in severe index. The lowest DMFT (about 0.1) was in Arsanjan City in Fars Province, and the highest (about 6.7) was for Najaf Abad City in Isfahan Province. Prevalence of fluorosis has been rather high in studied areas of Iran (e.g. 100 % in Maku City in Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi Province), and there was discrepancy for DMFT, but a lack of studies renders the results inconclusive. Further studies, health education and promotion plans, and evidence-based nutrition programs are recommended.

  10. Dental fluorosis knowleDge anD perception among stuDents of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different courses including diploma and undergraduate students. study design: ... Data collection: Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and tables .... There's need for special initiatives at individual and community dental ...

  11. Tratamiento para manchas por fluorosis dental por medio de micro abrasion sin instrumentos rotatorios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Villegas-Ham, Julio; Nevarez-Rascon, Alfredo; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Castaneda-Castaneira, Enrique; Nevarez-Rascon, Martina M

    2010-01-01

    ... llenar las expectativas esteticas del paciente. La microabrasion es uno de los tratamientos mas conservadores para tratar las pigmentaciones y defectos causados en el esmalte dental por la ingesta de fluor...

  12. 西安市古汉城遗址高氟区儿童氟牙症现况调查%Survey on fluoride in drinking-water and dental fluorosis of children in Hancheng ancient district of Xi'an city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓转云; 谌淑敏; 田宏良; 赵育民

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in Hancheng district, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and cure of endemic fluorosis in fulture.[Methods]The fluoride content in drinking-water was determined by the fluoride selective ion electrode in the ruins of an ancient city in Hancheng district.The dental teeth of children aged 8~12 years at school was examined with Dean's index The fluoride content in drinking water was detected with F-ion selective electrode.[Results]The dental fluorosis of 457 children aged 8~ 12 years in 11 villages in Hancheng district were examined the total detectable was 177.The detectable rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8~ 12 years was 16.4 %, tiny patients 57(the prevalence rate was 12.2%), light patients 18 (the prevalence rate was 3.9 %).No moderate and severe patients were oberserved.[Conclusions]The total detectable rate of children dental fluorosis in Hancheng district is 16.4 %, in order to maintain prefect ancient relics in Hancheng district, meanwhile, to improve the present situation of manage and usage for the well of control fluorosis.The most efficient method to deal with a situation preventing drinking water fluorosis is altering water source in order that advance the work of control fluorosis.%[目的]了解西安市古汉城遗址区儿童地方性氟中毒现状,为饮水改造工程的实施提供科学依据.[方法]对古汉城遗址内11个村集中式饮用的井水用氟离子选择电极法对水氟含量进行测定,并用Dean氏法检查8~12岁儿童氟牙症患病情况.[结果]在汉城乡11个高氟村,检查8~12周岁儿童457人,检出氟牙症患者75人,检出率为16.4%,极轻患者57人(检出率为12.2%),轻度患者18人(检出率为3.9%),未见中度和重度氟牙症出现.[结论]古汉城遗址内8~12岁儿童氟牙症检出率16.4%.在保存古汉城遗址完整的同时,政府应加大力度进行饮水改造措施的实施,从根

  13. Initial development and chromatic value analysis of customized dental fluorosis shade guide%氟斑牙体瓷层比色板的初步研制及颜色分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛岭; 刘炜; 廖健; 吴兰; 王永

    2012-01-01

    目的 为解决个别牙缺失及缺损的氟斑牙患者烤瓷修复中的比色及颜色调配问题,定制氟斑牙金属基底体瓷层比色板来模拟氟斑牙的基色调.方法 采用牙本质修饰瓷和牙本质瓷粉按一定比例混合后烧制而成氟斑牙体瓷层比色板.分别模拟轻、中、重度氟斑牙基色调.采用松风Shade eye NCC电脑比色仪测定其色度学各要素(L*a*b*)值.结果 (1)比色板各组颜色分布具有一定规律性.(2)各组比色板色差及分布区域明显不同.(3)定制比色板的色度值范围绝大多数在氟斑牙色度值范围内,说明定制比色板的颜色能模拟一部分氟斑牙颜色.结论 定制氟斑牙金属基底体瓷层比色板对于临床氟斑牙比色有一定意义,但其精度有待于进一步提高.%Objective In order to resolve the problems of shade selection and color matching in porcelain for the patients with a-part of odontoptosis dental fluorosis. Customized dental fluorosis shade guide simulate dental fluorosis dentinal primary colour. Methods Vita dentinal porcelain powders and Vita dentine modifier porcelain powders were selected in special prescription to mix and shade guide tabs were made,Which simulate the lightly degree,the midrange degree and weight degree dental fluorosis dentinal primary color. Chromaticity element valueCL * , a * , b * ) were measured by a computer-aided Shade Eye NCC. Results (l)The color distribution in each group of customized dental fluorosis shade guide showed regular pattern. (2) The arrangement order of chroma of the each group color guide marked different color stage in chrome and diffeange. (3) The majority chromatic value rent ramplitude of customized shade guide was simulated the chromatic value amplitude of dental fluorosis. Conclusion The customized metal dental fluorosis shade guide have a special meaning in clinical dental fluorosis shade guide, but its precision need to be improved in the future.

  14. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption.

  15. The progress in the study for the risk factor of dental fluorosis%氟斑牙的危险因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 徐洪兰

    2001-01-01

    氟斑牙的危害因素除与水中氟化物的含量、氟化物的应用、营养及饮食、氟化物的暴露时间有关外,还与母乳喂养时间、居住地的海拔高度、环境污染、父母所受教育的程度、社区健康保健服务等水平有关 。另外,牙医的学识水平、个人卫生生活习惯、家庭经济状况等因素对氟斑牙的发病也有一定的影响。随着社会的发展,氟化物的暴露因素日趋增多,对氟化物应用的卫生政策应因地制宜。%The risk factor of dental fluorosis are mainly related to the cancen tration of fluoride in the drinking water,the supplements of fluoride,nutrition states and regime,the time of fluoride exposure.Other factor such as the period of mother's milk feeding,the altitude of resident,the environmental pollution,the education degree of parents,and the level of health service of the community are also contributed to the development of dental fluorosis.Besides,the knowledge of dentists,the health habits of individual,the condition of economic,and so on is somehow the risk factor of dental fluorosis.The chances of fluoride exposure will become more often as the prosperous of the society.Thus any health policy of the complement of fluoride should be adapted to local conditions.

  16. THE EFFECT OF BEYOND FLUORIDE-REMOVING MATERIAL ON BLEACHING DENTAL FLUOROSIS%Beyond祛氟剂治疗氟斑牙的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟博; 邓婧

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察Beyond祛氟剂治疗氟斑牙的临床疗效.方法 将20例着色型氟斑牙病人的左、右侧氟斑牙分别作为该研究的实验组和对照组,实验组用Beyond祛氟剂漂白治疗,对照组采用Beyond祛氟剂联合Beyond冷光美白治疗.用Vita比色板进行美白治疗前后颜色的对比.结果 实验组与对照组的脱色显效率有显著性差异(χ2=4.556,P0.05).结论 Beyond祛氟剂对治疗着色型氟斑牙有较好的美白效果,并且无明显副作用.Beyond祛氟剂联合冷光美白治疗的疗效更显著.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of fluoride-removing material on bleaching dental fluorosis. MethodsThe left teeth of 20 patients treated with fluoride-removing material served as experimental group, and the right teeth of the same patients treated with fluoride-removing material combined with Beyond cold light-bleaching technique as controls. The changes of tooth color were evaluated by VITA shade guide matching after treatment. Results The effective rate of experimental group was higher than that of the controls (χ2= 4.556,P0.05). Conclusion Beyond fluoride-removing material is proved to be effective and safe for bleaching discolored dental fluorosis. A combination of Beyond fluoride-removing material and Beyond cold light-bleaching technique is better than using Beyond fluoride-removing material alone for bleaching dental fluorosis.

  17. Exploración del riesgo para fluorosis dental en niños de las clínicas odontológicas universidad de cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine Margarita; Gonzalez Martinez, Farith Damian; Luna Ricardo, Luzmayda

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Describir la prevalencia de fluorosis dental y su relación con factores asociados en niños que acuden a las clínicas de Odontopediatría Universidad de Cartagena. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal, realizado en la Universidad de Cartagena durante el 2009. Se seleccionó una muestra probabilística aleatoria simple con remplazo. Se examinaron 230 niños utilizando el índice de Thylstrup y Fejerskov y se aplicó una encuesta a las madres de los participantes, que indagaba sobre los facto...

  18. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  19. FACTORES ASOCIADOS A LA FLUOROSIS DENTAL EN ESCOLARES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL JOSE DOMINGO ZUZUNAGA OBANDO, UCHUMAYO-AREQUIPA 2015

    OpenAIRE

    BÉJAR DE CALDERÓN, ZAIDA MOYA

    2016-01-01

    FLÚOR DINÁMICA DEL FLÚOR ADMINISTRACIÓN DEL FLÚOR FLÚOR TÓPICO FLÚOR SISTÉMICO INTOXICACIÓN AGUDA TOXICIDAD CRÓNICA: FLUOROSIS PATOGÉNESIS ASPECTOS CLÍNICOS DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS FACTORES DETERMINANTES FACTORES DE RIESGO FACTORES DE PROTECCIÓN ÍNDICES DE FLUOROSIS

  20. Dental fluorosis in Brazil: a systematic review from 1993 to 2004 Fluorose dentária no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática do período 1993/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The current article proposes a reflection on several aspect pertaining to dental fluorosis in Brazil, based on a systematic review of epidemiological surveys. The authors assess the prevalence and degrees of severity found in different studies and show that in methodological terms, there is a need for progress in procedures for population-based studies on fluorosis. Despite the different data collection approaches, there is some consensus among the different studies as to the limited severity of fluorosis in Brazil, as well as its association with the independent variables age and socioeconomic status. The authors also highlight the importance of adding subjective aspects to the normative diagnosis as a contribution to public health policy decisions, since the use of exclusively clinical criteria gives dental fluorosis more space than society ascribes to it. There is a lack of empirical evidence to reassess the fluoride content in public water supplies, a method that is known to be necessary to improve dental caries epidemiological indicators.O presente trabalho propõe uma reflexão sobre alguns aspectos relativos à fluorose dentária no Brasil, a partir de uma revisão sistemática de estudos e inquéritos epidemiológicos. A prevalência e os níveis de severidade encontrados nos diferentes estudos são avaliados, verificando-se que, quanto aos aspectos metodológicos, há necessidade de avançar no que diz respeito aos procedimentos para estudo da fluorose em âmbito populacional. Apesar das diferentes abordagens para coleta de dados, há algum consenso, entre os diferentes estudos, quanto à baixa severidade da fluorose no Brasil e a sua associação com as variáveis independentes idade e condição sócio-econômica. Destaca-se também a importância de incluir aspectos subjetivos ao diagnóstico normativo, como uma contribuição às decisões que envolvem o planejamento de políticas públicas de saúde, uma vez que o uso de crit

  1. LS8 cell apoptosis induced by NaF through p-ERK and p-JNK - a mechanism study of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Li, Juedan; Su, Jiali; Snead, Malcolm L; Ruan, Jianping

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the possible biological mechanism of dental fluorosis at a molecular level. Cultured LS8 were incubated with serum-free medium containing selected concentrations of NaF (0 ∼ 2 mM) for either 24 or 48 h. Subcellular microanatomy was characterized using TEM; meanwhile, selected biomolecules were analysed using various biochemistry techniques. Transient transfection was used to modulate a molecular pathway for apoptosis. Apoptosis of LS8 was induced by NaF treatment that showed both time and concentration dependency. The activity of caspase-3, -8, -9 was found to be increased with NaF in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot revealed that the protein expression of p-ERK and p-JNK were decreased, while the expression of p-P38 was increased. Inhibition of the p-ERK and p-JNK pathways resulted in a similar decrease for caspase-3. During NaF-induced apoptosis of LS8, p-ERK and p-JNK were closely associated with induction of apoptosis, which might be a mechanism of dental fluorosis.

  2. Aspectos epidemiológicos da fluorose dentária no Brasil: pesquisas no período 1993-2006 Epidemiologic aspects of dental fluorosis in Brazil: research in the period 1993-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Salles de Almeida Barros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A epidemiologia da fluorose dentária resulta de inquéritos realizados recentemente, em decorrência da melhor compreensão de aspectos metabólicos dos fluoretos no organismo humano e de preocupações no âmbito da saúde coletiva. Objetiva-se apresentar os estudos realizados sobre a fluorose entre 1993 e 2006. O período 1993-2004 demarca o intervalo entre a 2ªe a 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde Bucal. Em 2005-2006, a busca de dados primários apresentados em reuniões científicas confirmou os achados existentes na literatura, mostrando que a agenda científica brasileira não foi substancialmente influenciada pelas discussões travadas durante a 3ª Conferência. A maioria dos estudos concentra-se em áreas urbanas e a predominância no Brasil dos graus "muito leve" e "leve" de fluorose mostra não haver comprometimentos de ordem funcional. A baixa percepção da fluorose pela população, aliada à sua baixa prevalência, evoca o necessário debate sobre as questões de saúde coletiva no país. Visto que a produção científica nacional constitui uma importante fonte de conhecimentos para subsidiar a elaboração de políticas públicas para o setor da saúde, os sucessivos e pontuais estudos analisados mostram que, no que diz respeito à fluorose, o diagnóstico epidemiológico reafirma a necessidade, a importância e a segurança da fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público como medida de saúde coletiva.The epidemiology of dental fluorosis derives from surveys carried out in recent years, as a result of a better comprehension of metabolic aspects of fluoride in the human organism and oral health concerns. This reflection aims at presenting studies carried out on fluorosis between 1993 and 2006. The period of 1993-2004 delimits the interval between the 2nd and the 3rd National Conferences on Oral Health, and, in the period of 2005-2006, the search of primary data presented in scientific meetings confirmed the findings in

  3. Beyond冷光美白在治疗氟斑牙和四环素牙中的临床应用%Clinical application of Beyond cold light whitening in treatment of dental fluorosis and minocvcline teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉武; 夏惠丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical effects of Beyond cold light whitening agent on the bleaching treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis. Methods Beyond cold light whitening instrument and Beyond the cold light whitening agent were used for bleaching treatment for 11 patients with different degrees of dental fluorosis and 8 patients with minocycline teeth. Before bleaching, VITA-3 D MASTER colorimetric plate (VITA Toothguide-MASTER, hereinafter referred to as " VITA colorimetric plate" ) was used to compare the teeth' color and records were made. Observe bleaching treatment effect. Results Beyond cold light whitening were used in the treatment of 11 cases with dental fluorosis and 8 cases with minocycline teeth. As a result, dental fluorosis disappeared, color on the surfaces of the teeth was close to normal. Conclusions Reliable bleaching treatment effects can be achieved in the treatment of dental fluorosis and minocycline teeth with Beyond cold light whitening agent.%目的 观察Beyond冷光美白剂对氟斑牙和四环素牙患者的漂白效果.方法 对11例不同程度氟斑牙及8例四环素牙患者,采用Beyond冷光美白仪及配套的冷光美白剂进行漂白治疗,分别于漂白前用VITA - 3D MASTER比色板(VITA Toothguide - MASTER,以下简称Vita比色板)对牙齿比色并记录,观察漂白效果.结果 使用Beyond冷光美白治疗氟斑牙11例,四环素牙8例,氟斑消失,牙面颜色接近正常.结论 Beyond冷光美白剂对氟斑牙及四环素牙患者的漂白效果可靠.

  4. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination Concordância no diagnóstico da fluorose dentária em incisivos centrais realizado por um método fotográfico padronizado e pelo exame clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castro Martins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard. 49 children (aged 7-9 years were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67 and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49% compared with the photographic method (36.7%. The photographic method presented higher specificity (96% than sensitivity (70.8%, a positive predictive value (PPV of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis.O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o diagnóstico de fluorose dentária realizado por um método fotográfico com o exame clínico (padrão ouro. Quarenta e nove crianças, de 7 e 9 anos, foram clinicamente examinadas por um examinador calibrado para fluorose dentária. Os incisivos foram fotografados com câmera digital e as fotografias foram apresentadas a três odontopediatras, que examinaram as imagens. A concordância por kappa entre o método fotográfico e o padrão ouro foi boa (0,67 e a acurácia foi de 83,67%. A prevalência de fluorose dentária foi levemente maior pelo método clínico (49% do que pelo fotográfico (36,7%. O método fotográfico apresentou maior especificidade (96% que sensibilidade (70,83%, valor de predição positivo (VPP de 94

  5. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somsiri Decharat; Piriyalux Phethuayluk; Supandee Maneelok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat pr...

  6. Fatores associados à fluorose dentária = Factors associated with dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigo, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência e a severidade da fluorose dentária e verificar os fatores associados em adolescentes de escolas com atividades coletivas de promoção em saúde bucal. Metodologia: A amostra foi composta de 535 escolares de 12 e 15-19 anos moradores de um município da Região Sul do Brasil. Para a coleta de dados foram realizados exames clínicos utilizando o índice de Dean. As variáveis exploratórias demográficas, socioeconômicas, de acesso a serviços odontológicos e de hábitos de higiene bucal foram coletadas utilizandose um questionário semi-estruturado. Os dados foram analisados por análise de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: A prevalência de fluorose dentária foi de 25%, sendo que o grau predominante foi o muito leve (18,3%. A fluorose foi associada ao sexo feminino (OR=1,55; IC95%1,03-2,32. Beber água de poço artesiano ou engarrafada foi um fator de proteção para fluorose no grupo de escolares investigado (OR=0,51; IC95% 0,27-0,95. Conclusão: A prevalência de fluorose dentária nos escolares desta amostra foi elevada, porém sua severidade foi baixa. A água ingerida e o sexo foram associados à fluorose dentária no modelo testado

  7. Investigation of children's intelligence quotient and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area in Pucheng county Shaanxi province before and after drinking water change%陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒病区改水前后儿童智商及氟斑牙患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺明侠; 张崇农

    2010-01-01

    Objective To further understand the effect of anti-fluoride water on intellectual development of children and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area Pucheng county Shaanxi province.Methods Two hundred 8 to 12 years old children were randomly selected in endemic fluorosis area with changed water or unchanged water, in 2009 in Pucheng county Shaanxi province. Intelligence quotient(IQ) of children was measured by Raven's test. Children's dental fluorosis was examined by Dean's classification scheme. Results The rates of child dental fluorosis in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis areas were 28.50%(57/200), 87.88%(203/231) , respectively, the difference was statistically significant(x2 = 159.19, P< 0.01),while dental fluorosis indices were 0.57,1.97, was marginal, moderate epidemic. Children with IQ above 90 was accounted for 89.5% (179/200), 91.5% (183/200) in changed water and unchanged water endemic fluorosis area,respectively, the difference was not significant (x2 = 0.46, P > 0.05). Conclusions Changed water may decrease the incidence of child dental fluorosis, but has no obvious effect on children's IQ development in endemic fluorosis area.%目的 了解防氟改水前后陕西省蒲城县饮水型地方性氟中毒(简称地氟病)病区儿童智力发育和氟斑牙患病情况.方法 2009年,在陕西省蒲城县饮水型地氟病病区中,从改水与未改水病区各抽取8~12岁儿童200名,采用瑞文测验进行儿童智商测定,Dean法进行儿童氟斑牙检查.结果 改水和未改水病区儿童氟斑牙检出率分别为28.50%(57/200)、87.88%(203/231),两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=159.19,P<0.01);氟斑牙指数分别为0.57、1.97,呈边缘、中等流行.改水病区智商≥90的儿童占89.5%(179/200),而未改水病区占91.5%(183/200),两者比较差异无统计学意义(x2=0.46,P>0.05).结论 防氟改水明显降低病区儿童氟斑牙的发生,但对儿童智力发育作用不明显.

  8. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  9. Quantitative light fluorescence (QLF) and polarized white light (PWL) assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; McGrady, Michael; Zakian, Christian; Ellwood, Roger P; Taylor, Andrew; Sharif, Mohammed Owaise; Iafolla, Timothy; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Goodwin, Michaela; Dye, Bruce A

    2012-05-20

    To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL) and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF) is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3) participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean's and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean's and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean's and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa's) between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  10. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF) and Polarized White Light (PWL) assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL) and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF) is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3) participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s) between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status. PMID:22607363

  11. Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Marshall, Teresa A.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Warren, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The authors describe associations between dental fluorosis and fluoride intakes, with an emphasis on intake from fluoride in infant formula. Methods The authors administered periodic questionnaires to parents to assess early fluoride intake sources from beverages, selected foods, dentifrice and supplements. They assessed relationships between fluorosis of the permanent maxillary incisors and fluoride intake from beverages and other sources, both for individual time points and cumulatively using area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimates. The authors determined effects associated with fluoride in reconstituted powdered infant formulas, along with risks associated with intake of fluoride from dentifrice and other sources. Results Considering only fluoride intake from age 3 to 9 months, the authors found that participants with fluorosis (97 percent of which was mild) had significantly greater cumulative fluoride intake (AUC) from reconstituted powdered infant formula, other beverages with added water or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. For participants aged 16 to 36 months, participants with fluorosis had significantly higher fluoride intake from water by itself, dentifrice or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. In a model combining both the 3- to 9-month and 16- to 36-months age groups, the significant variables were fluoride intake from reconstituted powder concentrate formula (by participants aged 3–9 months), other beverages with added water (also by participants aged 3–9 months) and dentifrice (by participants aged 16–36 months). Conclusions Greater fluoride intakes from reconstituted powdered formulas (when participants were aged 3–9 months) and other water-added beverages (when participants were aged 3–9 months) increased fluorosis risk as did higher dentifrice intake by participants when aged 16 to 36 months. Clinical Implications Results suggest that prevalence of mild dental fluorosis could be

  12. The prevalence, causes, and relativity of dental anxiety in adult patients to irregular dental visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Balgis O; Alagl, Adel S; Al-Ansari, Asim A

    2014-06-01

    To assess the frequency and causes of dental anxiety and their relation to irregular dental visits among adult dental patients. The Dental Anxiety Question (DAQ) included within a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1025 patients attending the Interns' Dental Clinics in the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2012 to February 2013. A cross-sectional study design was used. The questionnaire consisted of 22 closed-ended questions divided into 4 sections; 1) demographics, 2) regularity of dental visits, and related causes, 3) DAQ, cancellation of dental appointments, history of previous trauma, dental anxiety provoking factors within dental environment and procedures, and 4) patients' status in dental clinics, preferences of dentists, and perceptions regarding dental anxiety. The prevalence of dental anxiety among the study sample was 27%. Anesthetic injection was the main factor of dental fear (88.2%), while dental surgical procedures (35.7%) and extractions (23%) were the most terrifying dental procedures. Lack of time (79.5%), cost (71.5%), far-situated dental services (62.2%), and fear (57.1%) were causes listed for irregular dental visits; while 31.3% had no specific reason. Irregular dental visits were not related to dental anxiety. Dental anxiety continues to be an obstacle despite the vast improvement in dentistry; and this raises an alert regarding personal and communication factors in the patient-dentist relationship. Factors such as equal distribution of dental services, time, and cost should also be addressed.

  13. Traumatic dental injuries: etiology, prevalence and possible outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleckiene, Vaida; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Brukiene, Vilma; Drukteinis, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    . The aim was to overview the etiology, prevalence and possible outcomes of dental trauma. An electronic search of Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, SSCI (Social Citation Index), SCI (Science Citation Index) databases from 1995 to the present, using the following search words: tooth injuries, tooth trauma, traumatized teeth, dental trauma, dentoalveolar trauma, oral trauma, epidemiology, etiology, prevalence, prevention, pulp necrosis, inflammatory resorption, ankylosis, cervical resorption, was performed. During last decade traumatic dental injuries were recognized as public dental health problem worldwide. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries varies between countries. According to the existing data they are more prevalent in permanent than in primary dentition. All treatment procedures in case of dental trauma are directed to minimize undesired consequences despite that treatment of traumatic dental injuries in the young patient is often complicated and can continue during the rest of his/her life. The changing lifestyle and requirements of modern society lead to an emergence of new patterns of dental trauma. A regular update of knowledge in dental traumatology is required.

  14. Ultrastructural observation of rat maxillary incisors with varied severity of dental fluorosis%大鼠切牙不同程度氟牙症的超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓转云; 郭永利; 陈明霞; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察大鼠饮用不同剂量氟水后发生中、重度氟斑牙的下颌切牙超微结构.方法 给SD雄性大鼠分别自由饮用0、25、50、100m g/L的含氟水,于不同的时间点用数码相机对大鼠下颌切牙进行唇侧正位照相,将中、重度氟斑牙的左、右侧下颌切牙分别进行扫描电镜及透射电镜的超微结构观察.结果 正常鼠切牙的釉质是一层由成釉细胞形成的棕色色素薄层,呈橘黄色、棕黄色;中度氟斑牙表面呈现不同程度棕、白色相间的水平状条纹,透光度降低;重度氟斑牙牙面出现白垩色外观,不透明.扫描电镜显示正常大鼠下颌切牙牙面平整、致密,仅在颈部有小的点窝;中、重度氟斑牙牙面粗糙,点窝在牙冠和牙颈部都明显存在,颈部甚至出现堆积的无釉柱状突起.透射电镜显示随着氟斑牙严重程度加重成釉细胞呈现一系列细胞凋亡的迹象.结论 不同程度的氟斑牙分泌期成釉细胞呈现一系列细胞凋亡迹象,且氟斑牙越严重,细胞凋亡的改变越明显.%Objective To observe the ultrastructural changes of rat maxillary incisors with varied severity of dental fluorosis induced by different concentration of fluoride in their drinking water. Methods Male SD rats drank water containing graded doses of fluoride (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L), respectively. At different time points the labial tooth surface of the maxillary incisors in each rat was taken a picture. Each side of the maxillary incisors with moderate or severe fluorosis was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope, respectively. Results The enamel of rat normal incisors, of an orange-yellow or brown-yellow color, was a film of brown pigment layer formed by ameloblasts. Enamel changes in the rat incisor teeth with fluorosis occurred as brown and white horizontal marks (moderate fluorosis) and progressively developed into a white chalky appearance (severe

  15. An analysis of the incidence of dental Fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years in endemic fluorosis villages that changed water in Lianyungang city%连云港市降氟改水氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建梅; 周晓梅; 吴同浩; 单建声; 李永久

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解连云港市降氟改水措施对氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率的影响.方法 对连云港市部分已改水的氟病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病情况进行调查,并检测居民饮水氟含量.结果 (1)8~12岁儿童氟斑牙患病率由改水前的74.91%降至44.26%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)降氟改水工程一直正常运行的氟病区村儿童氟斑牙患病率为23.32%(<30.00%),达到了地方性氟中毒病区控制标准要求;(3)居民饮水氟含量均值为0.71 mg/L,范围为0.19~3.04 mg/L.结论 连云港市降氟改水有一定成效,病情呈现下降趋势但未得到完全控制,需要加强对降氟改水工程的管理与维护,确保有效控制病情.%Objective To understand the measures of changing water to lower the fluoride content in impacting on the incidence of dental Fluorosis of children aged 8 tol2 years in endemic fluorosis villages in Lianyungang city. Methods Investigated the incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 tol2 years in some endemic fluorosis villages that changed water and measured the fluoride content in drinking water for residents in Lianyungang City. Results (1) The incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was 74. 91% in the villages before water changed and decreased to 44. 26% after water changed. And the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). (2) The incidence of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 years was 23. 32% in the villages that projects had been running since completed. And it reached the endemic fluorosis control standards. (3)The average content of water fluoride for residents living in endemic fluorosis villages was 0.71 mg/L, and fluoride contents ranged from 0. 19 mg/L to 3.04 mg/L. Conclusions There is a certain effect of the measures that change water to lower the fluoride content to control endemic fluorosis in Lianyungang City. And the disease state is declining, but still out of

  16. Prevalence of Systemic Diseases in Patients with Dental Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo; Mohammad Bayat; Fatemeh Afshar Hezarkhani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and other risk factors in patients with dental infections.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients who preferred in maxillofacial word of shariaty hospital with acute dental infections in 9 months. A self-administered questionnaire was administered during a dental appointment in order to gather demographic information and recorded past history of systemic disease, OPG...

  17. Observation on the clinical curative effect of porcelain fused to metal crown restoration of dental fluorosis%金属烤瓷冠修复氟斑牙临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐春科

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical application effect of porcelain fused to metal crown for restoration of dental fluorosis and the appearance of anterior teeth repair.Methods:16 patients with dental fluorosis were required aesthetics of anterior teeth.They were taken porcelain fused metal crown to restorate 98 dental fluorosis of cosmetic repair,then followed-up for 3 years and comprehensive evaluated the therapy effect.Results:After 3 years of follow-up,the shape and color of all the 98 teeth did not change,and also kept a good function.Conclusion:Using porcelain fused to metal crown restoration of anterior teeth can provide beautiful appearance,vivid color,smooth and wear characteristics,so we can concluded that metal porcelain crown has a good effect on the restoration of dental fluorosis cosmetic repair.%目的:探讨金属烤瓷冠用于修复氟斑牙的临床应用效果及对前牙的美观修复情况。方法:16例氟斑牙患者要求前牙美观,采用金属烤瓷冠对98颗氟斑牙进行美容修复,进行3年随访,综合评价。结果:随访3年,98颗金属烤瓷冠修复后色泽形态良好,功能良好。结论:金属烤瓷冠修复前牙具有美观、色泽逼真、光滑耐磨等特点,金属烤瓷冠对氟斑牙美容修复有着良好的修复效果。

  18. Prevalence of Systemic Diseases in Patients with Dental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and other risk factors in patients with dental infections.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients who preferred in maxillofacial word of shariaty hospital with acute dental infections in 9 months. A self-administered questionnaire was administered during a dental appointment in order to gather demographic information and recorded past history of systemic disease, OPG radiography, gingival examination, and the result of lab tests such as CBC , FBS, PT, Bilirubin , Creat, T3, T4, TSH, HIVAb and HBSAg.Results: 28% of the subjects and diabetes, 28% Anemia, 4% Hepatitis and 4% suffered from thyroid deficiency.28% were smokers and 18% declared using alcohol. 6% of this population was addicted to narcotic substances.There was a significant correlation between age, education, diabetes and dental infections (P<0.05. DMFT forpeople with dental infections without any systemic disease were 8, for diabetic patients, smokers and alcohol users were respectively 17.16, 17 and 14.Conclusion: Diabetes found highly prevalent in patients with dental infection and high DMFT.It indicates a need to establish a comprehensive oral health promotion program based on whole examination and blood glucose control in diabetic patients who have acute dental infection by collaboration between dental and general health care professionals. Moreover, it is recommended that all patients should be educated in dental and oral health forprevention of dental infections.

  19. The Census Analysis of Dental Fluorosis of 1660 Students Aged 7-14%1660名7~14岁在校学生氟斑牙患病的调查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣; 吴金荣

    2013-01-01

      Objective The objective is to understand the state of dental fluorosis of students aged 7 to 14 in 133 mission, research the preventive treatment of students’ chronic fluorosis and formulate appropriate intervention measures. To perfect oral diseases prevention and control network in schools and strengthen oral health care of students are important. Method The state of dental fluorosis of 1660students aged 7 to 14 from No1 and No2 Middle School in 133 mission in 2012 has been investigated. Result The number of students is 1660 and 410 of them have dental fluorosis. The rate of this disease is 24.7%. Conclusion In order to know the situation of regional chronic fluorosis to achieve early discovery and early prevention, regular inspection of students’ dental fluorosis is necessary. It is also contribute to improving students’ health level and prevent the occurrence of chronic endemic disease.%  目的为了解一三三团7~14岁学生氟斑牙患病情况,探讨学生慢性氟中毒的防治工作,制定相应的干预措施。健全学校口腔疾病防治网,加强学校学生口腔保健工作。方法对2012年一三三团一中、二中1660名7~14岁在校学生进行了氟斑牙患病情况调查。结果受检人数1660人,患氟斑牙410例,患病率达24.7%。结论定期开展学生氟斑牙患病情况的检查,以掌握本地区性慢性氟中毒的情况,以做到早发现,早预防,对提高学生的健康水平,预防慢性地方病的发生有重要的意义。

  20. Effect of Beyond cold light tooth whitening in treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis:a comparison%Beyond冷光美白对四环素牙和氟斑牙的美白效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽琴; 陈慧霞; 沈云娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较Beyond冷光美白技术对轻中度四环素牙及氟斑牙的美白效果。方法选择2010年1月-2012年8月在我院口腔美容科进行牙齿美白的轻中度四环素牙及氟斑牙患者各30例,采用Beyond冷光美白技术对其进行美白,术前及术后用Vita比色板比色,比较美白后即刻、1周(诊室护理后)、6个月、12个月时的美白效果及满意度。结果四环素牙及氟斑牙患者美白后的美白有效率逐渐降低( P<0.05)。氟斑牙颜色接近正常,而氟斑并未完全消失,而患者的满意度一直保持在较高水平;四环素牙患者的满意度下降较多(P<0.05)。结论四环素牙和氟斑牙均可以采用Beyond冷光美白技术进行美白,随着时间的延长,需要进行护理以保持美白效果。%Objective To compare the effect of Beyond cold light tooth whitening in treatment of minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis.Methods 30 cases with mild and moderate minocycline teeth and 30 cases with dental fluorosis were selected respectively.Beyond cold light tooth whitening technology was used.The whitening effect and satisfaction were recorded before and after the treatment.Results The whitening effective rate of minocycline teeth and dental fluorsis after the treatment was declining(P<0.05).The color of dental fluorosis was close to normal,but dental fluorosis didn't disappear completely.The satisfaction of patients with minocycline teeth was lower 12 month later after the treatment(P<0.05).Conclusion Beyond cold light tooth whitening technology can be used on minocycline teeth and dental fluorosis effectively.

  1. 釉基质蛋白酶与氟牙症的发病机制%Enamel matrix proteinase and the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮建平; 田剑刚

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that the delay of enamel matrix degradation might be the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Some studies have shown that fluoride induces down-regulation of MMP-20 and KLK4, which play an important role in the degradation of enamel matrix. This paper makes a systematical review of the molecular structure and biological functions of MMP-20 and KLK4, possible effects of fluoride on MMP-20 and KLK4, and the relationship between dental fluoroasis and enzymes.%目前认为,釉原蛋白降解延迟和清除障碍是氟牙症形成的关键.一些研究表明,氟可减少在釉原蛋白被水解、清除过程中发挥重要作用的釉基质蛋白酶的表达.釉基质蛋白溶解酶包括基质金属蛋白酶(MMP-20)和丝氨酸蛋白酶(KLK4).本文从分子结构和生物学功能等方面对两种酶的研究现状进行了系统回顾,同时分析了氟对釉基质蛋白酶的可能影响及其与氟牙症发病机制间的关系.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of dental anxiety in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Birn, H.; Kirkegaard, E.;

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence, characteristics and consequences of dental anxiety in a randomly selected sample of 645 Danish adults were explored in telephone interviews. Participation rate was 88%. Demographics, fear of specific procedures, negative dentist contacts, general fear tendency, treatment utilization...... and perceived oral conditions were explored by level of dental anxiety using a modified Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). A Seattle fear survey item and a summary item from the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) were also included for fear description comparisons. Correlation between these indices (DAS-DFS: rs = 0.72; DAS......-Seattle item: rs = 0.68) aided semantic validation of DAS anxiety intensity levels. Extreme dental anxiety (DAS > or = 15) was found in 4.2% of the sample and 6% reported moderate anxiety (DAS scores 14-12). Bivariate (B) and logistic regression (L) odds ratios (OR) showed that high dental anxiety...

  3. The relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Mu, Lihong; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Yingxiong; Yan, Wei; Jiao, Yongzhuo

    2014-04-01

    To study the relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution, ecological and case-control studies were carried out. We determined the concentrations of 11 chemical elements and pH values in soil in two fluorosis-affected counties in Chongqing, China, and analyzed the correlation between these values and prevalence of dental fluorosis. Ni, I, F, Hg, and pH values positively correlated with fluorosis prevalence (P soil parameters may be related to coal-fired pollution fluorosis. Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Fe concentrations in whole blood, and fluoride levels in urine of residents in epidemic and non-epidemic areas were determined. Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe levels of the children in the case group were lower than those of the children in the external control group; urine fluoride level in the children in the case group was higher than that of the children in the internal and external control groups (P < 0.05). The levels of Mg, Fe, and urine fluoride were higher in the case adult group than in the internal adult control group (P < 0.05). Anti-fluoride elements were deficient in endemic areas.

  4. The effect of non-fluoride factors on risk of dental fluorosis: evidence from rural populations of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Rango, Tewodros; Akushevich, Igor; Atlaw, Behailu; McCornick, Peter G; Merola, R Brittany; Paul, Christopher; Weinthal, Erika; Harrison, Courtney; Vengosh, Avner; Jeuland, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Elevated level of fluoride (F(-)) in drinking water is a well-recognized risk factor of dental fluorosis (DF). While considering optimization of region-specific standards for F(-), it is reasonable, however, to consider how local diet, water sourcing practices, and non-F(-) elements in water may be related to health outcomes. In this study, we hypothesized that non-F(-) elements in groundwater and lifestyle and demographic characteristics may be independent predictors or modifiers of the effects of F(-) on teeth. Dental examinations were conducted among 1094 inhabitants from 399 randomly-selected households of 20 rural communities of the Ziway-Shala lake basin of the Main Ethiopian Rift. DF severity was evaluated using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Household surveys were performed and water samples were collected from community water sources. To consider interrelations between the teeth within individual (in terms of DF severity) and between F(-) and non-F(-) elements in groundwater, the statistical methods of regression analysis, mixed models, and principal component analysis were used. About 90% of study participants consumed water from wells with F(-) levels above the WHO recommended standard of 1.5mg/l. More than 62% of the study population had DF. F(-) levels were a major factor associated with DF. Age, sex, and milk consumption (both cow's and breastfed) were also statistically significantly (p<0.05) associated with DF severity; these associations appear both independently and as modifiers of those identified between F(-) concentration and DF severity. Among 35 examined elements in groundwater, Ca, Al, Cu, and Rb were found to be significantly correlated with dental health outcomes among the residents exposed to water with excessive F(-) concentrations. Quantitative estimates obtained in our study can be used to explore new water treatment strategies, water safety and quality regulations, and lifestyle recommendations which may be more appropriate for

  5. 氟牙症患者对托槽粘接效果影响的临床研究初探%Clinical studies the affect of bracket bonded on dental fluorosis patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜国有; 王晓红

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨影响氟斑牙患者对托槽粘接效果.方法 选取氟斑牙为轻、中、重患者30例,分成A、B、C 3组,年龄在14~20岁的患者,观察托槽粘接效果及时间.结果 轻度氟斑牙A组中轻扫牙面组托槽脱落率明显小于牙面未磨除组;中度氟斑牙B组釉质磨除0.1 mm组托槽脱落率明显小于牙面轻磨除组;重度氟斑牙C组釉质磨除量在0.15 mm以上组托槽脱落率明显小于牙面磨除0.1 mm组.结论 氟斑牙表层釉质的磨除能改变了釉质裘面的物理性状,可提高了粘接效果.%Objective To exploring the effective of patient with the fluorosis to the bracket bonded.Methods Selected 30 cases of patient, age range from 14ys to 20ys old with the dental fluorosis. They were divided into three groups as of A,B,C based on the degrees of mild,sever,and very sever. Observe the time and effect of bracket bonded. Results In mild fluorosis patient ( A group) , the bracket off rate was less in gently grinding dental surface than in non-grinding dental surface patient. In group B, bracket off rate enamel surface grinding 0. 1 mm group was smaller than gently grinding dental surface group; In group C, grinding dental surface in > 0. 15 mm were better than grinding dental surface in 0. 1 mm patient in bracket off rate. Conclusion Grinding the enamel surface of dental fluorosis could be in changing the physical properties of the enamel surface, and enhance the adhesive effect.

  6. Prevalence of dental diseases in 5- to 14-year-old school children in rural areas of the Barabanki district, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Singh

    2011-01-01

    Results: The prevalence of gingivitis, fluorosis, and malocclusion was 78.35%, 33.37%, and 34.09%, respectively. The difference between age groups for the prevalence of gingivitis was highly significant, and was more among girls as compared to boys. A significant increase in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed with age. No significant difference was found among genders for the prevalence of malocclusion. An increase in the prevalence of fluorosis was highly significant with age. The difference in fluorosis was insignificant between boys and girls.

  7. The sampling report of the dental fluorosis among the people aged 12 to 15 in Tianjin area%天津市儿童氟斑牙抽样调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德章; 牛金福

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemic situat ion of the dental fluorosis among the people in Tianjin area.Methods With the method of random sampling we investigated epidemic situation of the dental fluorosis among the people aged 12 to 15 in Tianjin area.Results The minimum patient's rate for this disease among those aged 12 to 15 is 32.11 percent while the maximum is 78.09 percent.The l owest dental fluorosis index is 0.851 and the highest is 1.923.The patient's rate and the index are both higher than the average rate and index of the whole cou ntry.Conclusions Tianjin is one of the areas where the dental fluorosise epidemic mostly occurs.%目的 了解天津市人群氟斑牙 流行状况。方法 采用随机抽样方法,调查天津市城乡12,15岁 人群氟斑牙流行状况。结果 12,15岁人群氟斑牙患病率最低为32.11%,最高为78.09%;氟斑牙指数最低为0.851,最高为1.923;患病率和指数均高于全国 平均水平。结论 天津市是全国氟斑牙流行最重的地区之一。

  8. Dental fluorosis in children attending basic health units Fluorose dentária em crianças usuárias de unidades básicas de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Andrade Janene Gonini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among patients attending basic health units in Londrina. METHODS: Five basic health units of the urban area were randomly selected and 434 children attending these units, born between 1986 and 1989 (9 to 12 years of age, were examined. Diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by means of the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Index. Oral examinations were carried out by 5 previously trained dentists with the patients lying in the dental chair, under artificial light, preceded by prophylaxis, isolation with cotton rolls and air-drying of the teeth. Ten percent of the sample was reexamined and an almost perfect agreement on diagnostic criteria was obtained either on the intra-examiner or inter-examiner evaluation (K=1.00, pOBJETIVOS: Estabelecer a freqüência e severidade de fluorose dentária entre pacientes de clínicas odontológicas da rede de Unidades Básicas de Saúde de Londrina. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cinco Unidades Básicas de Saúde - zona urbana - foram sorteadas e 434 pacientes das clínicas odontológicas destas unidades de saúde, nascidos entre 1986 e 1989 (9 a 12 anos de idade, foram examinados. O diagnóstico da fluorose dentária foi feito utilizando-se o Índice Thylstrup e Fejerskov (TF. Os exames bucais foram realizados por cinco cirurgiões dentistas previamente treinados, com o paciente deitado, utilizando-se iluminação artificial, tendo-se procedido profilaxia, isolamento relativo e secagem dos dentes. Dez por cento da amostra foi reexaminada, tendo-se obtido concordância quase perfeita nos critérios de diagnóstico, tanto intra-examinador como inter-examinadores (K=1.00, p< 0.0001. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de fluorose dentária verificada foi de 91.0%, com 87.8% dos indivíduos classificados como TF grau 2 ou menor. CONCLUSÕES: A alta freqüência encontrada, embora a severidade tenha sido baixa, aponta a necessidade

  9. Geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples, and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children in four municipalities of the department of Huila (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Opazo-Gutiérrez, Mario Omar; Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Orjuela-Osorio, Iván Rodrigo; Avila, Viviana; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; González-Carrera, María Clara; Ruiz-Carrizosa, Jaime Alberto; Silva-Hermida, Blanca Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride is an element that affects teeth and bone formation in animals and humans. Though the use of systemic fluoride is an evidence-based caries preventive measure, excessive ingestion can impair tooth development, mainly the mineralization of tooth enamel, leading to a condition known as enamel fluorosis. In this study, we investigated the geochemical characterization of fluoride in water, table salt, active sediment, rock and soil samples in four endemic enamel fluorosis sentinel municipalities of the department of Huila, Colombia (Pitalito, Altamira, El Agrado and Rivera), and its possible relationship with the prevalence of enamel fluorosis in children. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water, table salt, active sediment, rock, and soil was evaluated by means of an ion selective electrode and the geochemical analyses were performed using X-ray fluorescence. Geochemical analysis revealed fluoride concentrations under 15 mg/kg in active sediment, rock and soil samples, not indicative of a significant delivery to the watersheds studied. The concentration of fluoride in table salt was found to be under the inferior limit (less than 180 μg/g) established by the Colombian regulations. Likewise, exposure doses for fluoride water intake did not exceed the recommended total dose for all ages from 6 months. Although the evidence does not point out at rocks, soils, fluoride-bearing minerals, fluoridated salt and water, the hypothesis of these elements as responsible of the current prevalence of enamel fluorosis cannot be discarded since, aqueducts might have undergone significant changes overtime.

  10. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  11. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water on patients having various clinical manifestations of fluorosis in an endemic village of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal K Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of

  12. Prevalence and Distribution of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in paediatric patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study consisted a sample of 9173 patients, aged between 0-15 years, referred to our clinic between 1 August 2011-1 August 2012. The patients were examined clinically and radiographically in terms of the number, size, shape, structure and color anomalies. Results: One hundred sixty six children (1.8% were found to have developmental dental anomalies. The most frequently observed anomalies were congenitally missing teeth (0.52% and supernumerary teeth (0.27%. Anomalies such as dens invaginatus (0.03%, dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.02% and dilaceration (0.02% were encountered more rarely. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and determination of the prevalence of dental anomalies in children is important in the treatment planning.

  13. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Dental Practitioners: Prevalence and Health Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Alnazzawi, Ahmad; Shoqair, Noora; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence, practice, and the associated health perceptions among dental practitioners have not been previously reported. This study aims to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners and to evaluate their awareness of health hazards of waterpipe smoking, particularly the adverse effects on oral health. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among dental practitioners. Surveyed dental practitioners practiced dentistry in the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a city in the Central-Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and the study was conducted during March 2015. The questionnaire consisted of questions on demographic data, history and practices of tobacco use, and perceptions toward the health hazards of smoking. Dentists were approached at their work places and invited to participate. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample's demographic and smoking characteristics, while cross-tabulation and chi-square test were used to determine the statistical significance of association between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). One hundred dental practitioners participated in the survey, with 55 males and 45 females. Twenty-six percent indicated that they were waterpipe smokers. Male gender and cigarette smoking were the only factors to be significantly associated with waterpipe smoking (P = 0.008 and P = 0.000, respectively). Most participants stated that waterpipe smoking is harmful to health, and the most commonly reported health hazard was respiratory disease, which was reported by 81% of participants. Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners is comparable to adult populations but lower than younger populations of university students. Health awareness of dental practitioners regarding waterpipe smoking was judged to be insufficient.

  14. Experimental study on antagonistic effects of Mg-Se preparation on dental fluorosis of mice%镁硒制剂拮抗小鼠氟牙症的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 侯铁舟; 唐成芳; 娄鸣; 李洁洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the antagonistic effects of Mg-Se preparation on dental fluorosis of mice and its mechanism for providing fundamental data in the prevention and control of dental fluorosis. Methods Eighty male ICR mice were randomly divided into 8 groups:control group,magnesium group,selenium group,magnesium-selenium group,fluorine group,magnesium-fluorine group,selenium-fluorine group and magnesium-selenium-fluorine group. The mice were given the double distilled water in control group,magnesium group, selenium group and magnesium-selenium group, and the double distilled water containing fluorinion 50 mg/L in the other four groups. The mice were fed conventionally in control group and fluorine group,while in the other groups the mice were given additionally a certain amount of magnesi-um,selenium. The growth rate of body weight and tooth length,final grade of dental fluorosis were observed. Results ①In magnesium-sele-nium-fluorine group, the growth rate of tooth length was significantly higher than in fluorine group(P<0. 01). ②The morbidity of dental fluorosis was significantly lower in magnesium-selenium-fluorine group than in the other groups(P<0. 01),and the fluorosis degree was lower. Conclusion Adding a certain amount of magnesium-selenium in mice food could better reduce the morbidity of dental fluorosis.%目的:通过动物实验研究镁硒制剂对小鼠氟牙症的影响及其机制,为氟牙症的防治提供基础数据。方法80只雄性ICR小鼠随机分为对照组、单镁组、单硒组、镁硒组、加氟组、镁氟组、硒氟组和镁硒氟组。对照组、单镁组、单硒组、镁硒组每日饮用双蒸水,各加氟组每日饮用含F-浓度50 mg/L的氟化双蒸水。除对照组、加氟组外,小鼠常规饲料中分别添加一定量的镁、硒。饲养42 d,观察小鼠体重、牙长增长情况,以及第42天时氟牙症的发生情况、病变程度。结果①镁硒氟组小鼠牙长增长率明显高于加氟组(P<0

  15. The prevalence of academic dishonesty in Texas dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhney, Kelly A; Gutmann, Marylou E; Schneiderman, Emet; DeWald, Janice P; McCann, Ann; Campbell, Patricia R

    2008-11-01

    The media has given much attention to the academic cheating crisis in America. A majority of college students believe that, in today's global environment, it is necessary to cheat in order to get ahead and to compete with their peers. The prevalence and attitudes concerning academic dishonesty of health professions students, including those in medical, dental, and nursing schools, have been extensively researched. No such studies exist in the discipline of dental hygiene. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cheating in Texas dental hygiene programs. Four hundred surveys were mailed to twenty Texas dental hygiene schools for graduating students to complete. A total of 289 usable surveys was returned for a response rate of 72.25 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS with frequencies and chi-square tests. Findings from this study reveal that 86.5 percent of graduating Texas dental hygiene students have cheated a minimum of one time during matriculation. Students identified the demands of what they considered academic overload as the primary justification for cheating behavior.

  16. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

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    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  17. The relationship between dental fluorosis and tooth fluoride concentration - a study in an endemic area - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Daniel Grynpas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between dental fluorosis (DF severity and fluoride [F] concentration in tooth and water in DF endemic areas. Methods: Life-long residents from two DF endemic communities were studied. Forty-five extracted teeth were collected and analyzed for DF severity and tooth [F]. Thylstrup-Ferjeskov Index (TFI was used to measure DF severity and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA for tooth [F] concentration. Water from regional wells was also collected (n=9 and analyzed for F content using specific ion F electrode. Results: Water [F] varied between 0.2ppm and 4.7ppm. TFI scores ranged from 0 to 6; [F] from 120ppm to 2,140ppm in enamel and 304ppm to 4,800ppm in dentin. No correlation was found between DF severity and [F] in enamel (rs=0.22,p=0.15 and dentin (rs=-0.19,p=0.20, nor between water [F] and [F] in enamel (rs=-0.09,p=0.65 and dentin (rs=-0.11,p=0.56. Weak correlation between DF severity and water [F] (rs=0.38,p=0.04 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that TFI couldn’t be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables (age, enamel and dentin [F]. When enamel, dentin and water [F] were used as independent variables in the linear regression (predict DF severity, only water [F] showed influence in DF severity (p=0.013;t=2.67. Conclusion: Even in areas of endemic DF, tooth [F] didn’t correlate with DF severity and the relationship between water [F] and DF severity was very weak. Therefore, tooth [F] may not be a good predictor/indicator of DF severity.

  18. Multiple regression analysis of urinary fluoride, s aliva and plaque fluoride levels of adolescents dental fluorosis%氟斑牙青少年尿氟与唾液氟及菌斑氟的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阳阳; 赵伟; 刘晓燕; 邹冬荣; 杨晓昀; 刘荣; 于晓峰; 营杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to study the correlation between dental fluorosis, saliva and plaque fluoride levels and urinary fluoride values in adolescents dental fluorosis. Methods A middle school was chosen as a survey point in the study. Two hundred adolescents were examined the degree of dental fluorosis by Dean's method. These adolescents were divided into four groups according to the severity of fluorosis (n = 52, 40, 28 and 80). Fluoride ion specific electrode was used to measure the fluoride levels in dental plaque, saliva, urinary and drinking water. The differences were analyzed b y ANOVA. Correlation of the fluoride levels between dental plaque, saliva, urine and the degree of dental fluorosis were analyzed by the method of multiple linear regression. Results The average fluoride content of drinking water was (2.20 ± 0.40) mg/L. Compared with controls, the fluoride concentrations in dental plaque, saliva and urine were higher in light, medium and severe dental fluorosis groups [(1.55 ± 0.88), (1.94 ± 0.77), (2.74 ± 0.83) than (0.32 ± 0.20) mg/L; (4.44 ± 1.62), (8.09 ± 0.93), (10.72 ± 0.99) than (0.02 ± 0.01) mg/L;(31.77 ± 6.09), (57.98 ± 1.83), (65.98 ± 2.78) than (13.06 ± 2.11) μg/g, all P<0.05]. Urinary fluoride was correlated with fluoride in saliva and dental plaque (r=0.245, 0.440, all P<0.05). Saliva fluoride was correlated with fluoride in dental plaque (r=0.849, P<0.01). The degree of dental fluorosis was correlated with fluoride in urine and saliva (r = 0.497, 0.896, 0.924, all P< 0.01). The multiple linear regression equation between fluoride in urine and the degree of dent al fluorosis, fluoride in dental plaque and saliva was as follow: y = 1.357 + 1.618x1 + 0.001x2 - 0.331x3 ± 0.69. Conclusions The metabolism of fluoride in body is related with oral fluoride repository in adolescents dental fluorosis. Fluoride in urine is influenced by plaque fluoride level, saliva fluoride concentration and the degree of dental

  19. Epidemiology of fluorosis and dental caries according to different types of water supplies Epidemiologia da fluorose e cáries dentárias de acordo com diferentes tipos de abastecimento de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange de Oliveira Braga Franzolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between fluorosis/dental caries in schools, according to the level of fluoride in public water supply. The sample comprised of twelve-year-old daytime students (360 of both genders, attending schools close to the region where they were born. The schools were classified into three groups according to the presence of fluoride in the water supply: 1 fluoridation in the Water Treatment Station-WTS; 2 Direct Fluoridation in Wells-DFW; and 3 Non Fluoridated Areas-NFA. The χ2 and Goodman tests (significance=5% were used to evaluate the association between the origin of water and degree of fluorosis; percentage of distribution and descriptive measures were used for investigation of the degree of fluorosis. The following outcomes were predominant: presence of dental caries in the entire sample (P0.05. Dental caries is still an important problem in this population, despite the establishment of preventive measured. The observation of fluorosis in students living in non-fluoridated areas confirms the presence of other sources of fluoride.O objetivo do presente artigo é investigar a relação fluorose/cáries em escolas, de acordo com o nível de fluoreto no abastecimento público de água. A amostra consistiu em 360 alunos de doze anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, que frequentam as escolas próximas da região em que nasceram. As escolas foram classificadas em três grupos de acordo com a presença de fluoreto no abastecimento de água: 1 fluoretação na Estação de Tratamento de Água (ETA; 2 fluoretação direta em poços; e 3 áreas não fluoretadas (ANF. Os testes deχe de Goodman (significância = 5% foram utilizados para avaliar a associação entre a origem da água e o grau de fluorose. Os resultados mais predominantes foram presença de cáries em toda a amostra (P0,05. As cáries ainda são uma importante questão nessa população, apesar do estabelecimento de medida preventiva. A

  20. Prevalence and Measurement of Dental Caries in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Bruce A; Hsu, Kuei-Ling C; Afful, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in preschool children was historically considered to have a unique and more intense pattern of decay and was known by a variety of terms. In 1999, the term early childhood caries (ECC), along with a classification system, was proposed to facilitate epidemiologic research of dental caries in young children. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of those early childhood caries recommendations on the prevalence and measurement of caries in preschool children. A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was performed. Key search words included: ECC, dental decay, dental caries, carious dentin, baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, maxillary anterior caries, and labial caries. English language studies and studies on more than 100 children younger than six years old were eligible for selection. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2011 to 2012 were used to assess ECC prevalence using different operational definitions. There were 87 articles selected for this review. The term ECC was used in 55 percent of the selected articles as the primary outcome measure. The majority of studies used a cross-section study design, but diagnostic criteria varied greatly. Caries experience in young children may be shifting away from majority of untreated surfaces to a majority of restored surfaces. Little difference was observed by dental surface type in the distribution of decayed and filled surfaces in primary teeth. Although the term early childhood caries is widely used, varied use of diagnostic criteria and operational definitions continue to limit comparability across studies. Emerging changes in the proportion of decayed and filled surfaces in the United States also raises questions regarding the ECC case definition limiting our ability to understand the epidemiology of dental caries in preschool children.

  1. Sexual harassment in Dentistry: prevalence in dental school

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    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.

  2. THE PREVALENCE OF DENTAL ANOMALIES IN A TURKISH POPULATION

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    Gamze Aren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a Turkish population according to the gender and age. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 2025 patients (885 males and 1140 females ranging in age from 9 to 35 (mean age 25.61±10.04 years attending Department of Oral Radiology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Dentistry. These patients were examined to determine the presence of developmental dental anomalies involving hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, taurodontism and other root anomalies. The incidence of these anomalies were assessed according to the gender and age. Results: Among the 2025 subjects, a total of 96 individuals (42 males and 54 females showed at least one of the selected dental anomalies (4.74%. Tooth agenesis was the most common dental abnormality (1.77% followed by taurodontism (1.18%, hyperdontia (0.79%, microdontia (0.54% and root anomalies (0.44%, respectively. Conclusion: Tooth agenesis is the most common developmental dental anomaly in the studied Turkish population followed by taurodontism.

  3. Study on the effects of enamel treatments on losing ratio of orthodontic brackets bonding to different degree of dental fluorosis%不同氟斑牙程度及临床处理方法对正畸托槽脱落率的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晶

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different enamel treatments on losing ratio of orthodontic brackets bonding to different degree of dental fluorosis. Methods A total of 30 patients with fluorosis were selected.They were divided into mild,moderate and severe degree groups according to Dean's criteria.Patients within each group were randomly assigned to 2 subgroup. Different methods including bonding after extending the etching time and bonding after microabrasion and normal acid etching were used respectively in the 2 subgroups of each group.The losing ratio of brackets was observed.The main effect and interaction effect of the degree of fluorosis and enamel treatments on losing ratio were analyzed. Results There was significant difference in the losing ratio between severe dental fluorosis and mild,moderate dental fluorosis in both treatments.The losing ratio of severe dental fluorosis was higher.There was no significant difference in the losing ratio between two treatments in the condition of mild dental fluorosis.There was significant difference in the losing ratio between two treatments in the condition of moderate and severe dental fluorosis.The method of bonding after microabrasion and normal acid etching was superior to the method of bonding after extending the etching time in the condition of moderate and severe dental fluorosis. Conclusion The main effect and interaction effect of the degree of fluorosis and enamel treatments on losing ratio are significant.The specific degree of dental fluorosis should be considered during the course of selecting appropriate treatment methods.%目的:探讨不同氟斑牙程度及处理方法对临床正畸托槽脱落率的影响.方法:选择需进行正畸治疗的氟斑牙患者共30例,按Dean氏法分为轻度、中度、重度3个组,各组内随机分为2个分组,分别采用延长酸蚀时间后粘结和磨除后常规酸蚀粘结的临床操作方法.观察托槽脱落率,并分析氟斑程度和处理

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program...

  6. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... while limiting the risk of dental fluorosis. The proposed recommendation was published in the Federal... dental fluorosis, fluid intake among children, and the contribution of fluoride in drinking water...

  7. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

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    Blerim Kamberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12 in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42 in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12 among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81 in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41 in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P<0.001. Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old.

  8. The effectiveness of enamel Microabrasion and in office bleaching for dental fluorosis%Opalustre釉质微调磨膏结合诊室漂白治疗氟斑牙的疗效探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏林; 梁斌宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨应用Opalustre釉质微调磨和诊室快速漂白法对棕黄色着色型氟斑牙的疗效。方法:将患者有氟斑牙着色的上颌前牙按中线分为两组,随机采用Opalustre釉质微调磨法打磨或Opalustre微打磨后行诊室即刻漂白,通过比色板记录牙齿的颜色,并记录这两种方法对牙齿敏感的影响。结果:Opalustre釉质微打磨后漂白的牙齿颜色比单独釉质微打磨的牙齿颜色更白(<0.01),这两种方法牙齿敏感差异无显著性(>0.05)。结论:Opalustre釉质微调磨法与诊室漂白联合应用治疗氟斑牙效果更好。%Objective To explore the combination of Opalustre enamel microabrasion and in office bleaching for dental fluorosis. Methods The subjects' maxillary anterior teeth with fluorosis stain were divided into two groups according to tooth midline, each group were treated randomly with enamel microabrasion and enamel microabrasion followed by in office bleaching. The change of tooth color was evaluated by shade guide matching and the tooth sensitivities were compared by sensitive records. Results Enamel microabrasion followed by in office bleaching made the teeth more lighter than only by enamel microabrasion.There was no difference between the two methods for teeth sensitivities. Conclusion enamel microabrasion followed by bleaching was better for changing the color of tooth with fluorosis stained than only enamel microabrasion.

  9. Impact of aesthetic restorative treatment on anterior teeth with fluorosis among residents of an endemic area in Brazil: intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Endemic dental fluorosis has already been described in some regions of the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and psychosocial impact of direct aesthetic restorative treatments in endemic fluorosis patients in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Was a quasi-experimental intervention study. Methods The reference population consisted of individuals between 9 and 27 years of age that were served by a project intended to recover the smiles of patients with severe fluorosis. The questionnaires were administered on two occasions, 24 months apart (before and after dental treatment). Initially, descriptive analyses were conducted. Prevalence and severity, as well as the extent of the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders were estimated based on the Oral Health Impact Profile instrument (OHIP-14). Comparisons between baseline and follow-up and between treatment techniques were carried out using the McNemar, Wilcoxon, and Mann–Whitney tests. Results The study involved 53 individuals, with a mean age of 15.9 years, treated with microabrasion, dental composite, or a combination of both techniques. The treatments performed proved to be competent for reducing the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders as measured by the OHIP-14, pointing to the possibility of establishing protocols to be used in programs aimed at restoring the aesthetics and functionality of the anterior teeth in large populations. Conclusions After performing the direct aesthetic restorative treatments in patients with endemic fluorosis, a significant improvement was observed in the prevalence and severity, as well as the extent of the functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders. PMID:24886223

  10. 釉质微打磨联合威十漂白治疗氟斑牙的临床效果%Effect of Wy 10 teeth whitening combined with enamel microabrasion on bleaching dental fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁颖娟; 廖隽琨; 常少海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of Wy 10 whitening combined with enamel microabrasion on bleaching dental fluorosis.Methods Forty patients with dental fluorosis were in-cluded and divided into two groups (20 each):group A was treated with Wy 10 whitening and enamel microabrasion,and group B only with Wy 10 whitening.Efficacy was measured according to the Vita classical shade guide before and after treatment.Sensitivity between groups was also tested.Results The effective rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B (x2 =5.096,P<0.05).The sensitive rates were 20.0% (4/20) and 15.0% (3/20) in group A and group B,respectively.No significant difference was found between the two groups in sensitivity (P>0.05).Conclusions Wy 10 whitening combined with enamel microabrasion is an effective and safe method for bleaching dental fluorosis.%目的 评价釉质微打磨联合威十漂白治疗氟斑牙的临床效果.方法 收集于中山大学孙逸仙纪念医院口腔科就诊氟斑牙Dean4级患者共40例.按治疗方法不同完全随机分为A组和B组,A组20例患者采用釉质微打磨联合威十漂白进行治疗,B组20例患者仅用威十漂白进行治疗.对治疗前、治疗后Vita值及敏感度进行评价.结果 A组疗效优于B组,差异有统计学意义(x2 =5.096,P<0.05),A组患者治疗后敏感度为20.0%(4/20),B组为15.0%(3/20),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 釉质微打磨联合威十漂白治疗氟斑牙有显著疗效,且不会增加牙齿敏感.

  11. 两种正畸粘接剂与氟斑牙粘接临床效果观察%CLINICAL OBSERVATION OF THE FAILURE RATE AFTER APPLYING TWO KINDS OF THE ORTHODONTIC ADHESIVES TO THE DENTAL FLUOROSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    回宏伟; 齐素青

    2011-01-01

    [目的]比较光固化复合树脂祜接剂与京津釉质粘接剂应用于氟斑牙上对托槽脱落率的影响.[方法]选择24例氰斑牙正畸固定矫治病例,通过随机排列法将两种粘接剂分别与用于患者左右两侧上下颌的托槽粘接,比较其在4周、8周、12周时的托槽脱落情况.[结果]两种粘接剂的托槽脱落率经t检验差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]光固化复合树脂粘接剂的托槽脱落率明显低于京津釉质粘接剂,建议在临床上对于氟斑牙患者有条件还是选用光固化复合树脂粘接剂,以减少托槽脱落.%[Objective]To compare the influence on the failure rate of the bracket bonding to the dental fluorosis between the groups which applied the light-cured resin composite bond and the Jingjin enamel adhesive.[Methods]24 patients who had the dental fluorosis and received the fixed orthodontic treatment were chosen.Two kinds of the adhesives were used to bond the brackets randomly.Compared the failure rates at the 4th week, 8th week and 12lh week.[Results]The bracket bonding failure rates by using two kinds of the adhesives were statistically significant after t test (P < 0.05).[Conclusion]The group which using the light-cured resin composite bind has significantly lower failure rate.It suggest we should use the light-cured resin composite bond to reduce the bracket bonding failure for the patients with the dental fluorosis.

  12. Prevalence of Common Postural Disorders Among Academic Dental Staff

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    Vakili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems among dentists. These conditions may lead to inappropriate postures and impairment in physical and psychological function. On the other hand, poor postures and inappropriate ergonomic may result in a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common postural disorders of the spine and shoulder girdle among the dentists and possible correlations between demographic, anthropometric and occupational characteristics with these abnormal postures. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 96 dental staff including academic staff, residents and senior students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire and posture assessment tools such as plumb-line, checkerboard and flexible ruler. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 17. Results The prevalence of the forward head posture (FHP, rounded shoulder posture (RSP, scoliosis and hyperlordosis were reported in 85.5%, 68.8%, 18.8% and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. A significant correlation was found between gender and FHP (P = 0.04 and also scoliosis (P = 0.009. On the other hand, a significant correlation was seen between weight and hyperlordosis (P = 0.007. Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of postural disorders especially FHP, RSP and scoliosis among Iranian dental staff. The female dentists were less susceptible to FHP and scoliosis.

  13. A epidemiological study of children's dental fluorosis in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas of three counties in Guizhou Province%贵州省3个县燃煤型地方性氟中毒病区8~12岁儿童氟斑牙流行变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 张念恒; 何平; 胡小强; 王晓明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of children's dental fluorosis before and after implementation of comprehensive prevention and control intervention in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas of Guizhou Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making corresponding prevention and control measures.Methods In 2010,according to a simple random cluster sampling method,1/5 of the villages out of 1/5 of the towns of Zunyi,Kaiyang and Longli Counties,were selected as investigation sites for inspection of dental fluorosis in 8-12 years old children and a longitudinal comparison was done with historical related dental fluorosis (year 1986 and 2000).Dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by Dean method.Results In Zunyi,Kaiyang and Longli Counties,the detection rates of 8-12 years old children's dental fluorosis were 23.76%(202/850),15.77% (79/501) and 11.17%(42/376),respectively.The detection rates of dental fluorosis in the 8,9,10,11 and 12 years old age group of children were 11.52%(19/165),17.19%(44/256),20.20% (81/401),18.61% (75/403) and 20.72% (104/502),respectively,and there was no significant difference between groups (x2 =2.90,P > 0.05).The survey results of this investigation in the three counties in 2000 were 34.20%(7 805/22 821),39.77%(1 782/ 4 481),60.88%(2 806/4 609),and the differences were statistically significant between the results of 2010 and 2000(x2 =37.81,110.91,350.76,all P < 0.01).And compared with the results of 1986[34.29% (9 463/27 596),36.30% (2 708/7 460),35.72% (1 896/5 308)],the difference of Zunyi County was not statistically significant (x2 =0.045,P > 0.05),but for Kaiyang and Longli the differences were statistically significant(x2 =14.35,626.39,all P < 0.01).Conclusions The effect of comprehensive prevention and control intervention is very obvious.In the 3 counties,the incidence rates of 8-12 years old children's dental fluorosis are already dropped to below 30% of the control standard

  14. 氟斑牙患者的牙齿颜色和心理相关性研究%Correlation study between teeth colour and psychologic status of patients with dental fluorosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文芝; 刘宗响; 王鹏来

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究氟斑牙患者的牙齿颜色和他们社会心理状况的相关性,从而对氟斑牙患者的美白需求趋势作出评估。方法:以2008年12月~2010年12月来徐州市口腔医院就诊的氟斑牙患者336例作为调查对象,采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)对其心理反应症状进行评定,按年龄分组与常模组进行比较,应用统计学软件CS10.34对数据进行t'检验。采用牙齿颜色认知与美白心理问卷评定被测试者对牙齿颜色的认知程度。结果:18~29岁组患者的人际关系敏感、焦虑、敌意因子得分高于常模组(P<0.05)。30~39岁组患者人际关系敏感因子得分高于常模组(P<0.05)。40~49岁组患者人际关系敏感、抑郁因子得分高于常模组(P<0.05)。50~60岁组患者各因子得分与常模组差异无统计学意义。71.4%的氟斑牙患者对自己的牙齿颜色不满意,72.6%的被调查者认为牙齿颜色美白对他们重要。结论:氟斑牙患者的牙齿颜色与心理状况相关,大多数氟斑牙患者可能有牙齿美白需求。%Objiective:To study the correlation between tooth colour of patients with dental fluorosis and their social psychologic status. Method:A total of 336patients with dental fluorosis were divided in 4 groups According to the age group and measured with SCL-90,the results were contrasted with the normal.All the subjects were measured with a Questionnaire about Teeth color cognitive and teeth bleaching. CS10.34 was used as a statistical software and P <0.05 was considered as significant difference. Result:Compared to Normal model,the value of patient's SCL-90 increased on interpersonal sensitiv-ity,anxiety and hostility in 18~29,on interpersonal sensitivity in 30~39, on interpersonal sensitivity and depressed in 40~49 with statistic difference (P <0.05). 71.4 % of patients were not satisfacted with the colour of their teeth and 72.6 % of pa

  15. Clinical effects of Beyond cold light whitening on patients with stained type of dental fluorosis%Beyond冷光美白治疗着色型氟斑牙的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英新

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of Beyond cold light whitening on patients with stained type of dental fluorosis.Methods Twenty patients received 3 periods of Beyond cold light whitening treatment.The effects were graded after each period by the patients themselves and the other two dentists who didn't participat in the treatment.Results After 3 periods of treatment,grades by patients and doctors were all above 90,which were 95.43 ± 5.98,95.61 ± 7.11,96.12 ± 5.76 respectively.The effects were satisfactory.Conclusion Beyond cold light whitening can achieve very satisfactory effects on patients with stained type of dental fluorosis after 3 periods of treatment.%目的 探讨Beyond冷光美白对着色型氟斑牙的临床效果.方法 20名着色型氟斑牙受试者,用Beyond冷光美白进行3个疗程的漂白治疗,每个疗程结束后由患者本人和两位未参与治疗的医生对疗效进行评分.结果 3个疗程结束后,受试者评分为(95.43 ±5.98)分,医生甲评分为(95.61±7.11)分,医生乙评分为(96.12±5.76)分.结论 3个疗程的Beyond冷光美白对着色型氟斑牙疗效满意.

  16. Effect of dietary nutrition on dental fluorosis degrees in school children%膳食营养对小学生氟斑牙发病程度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪亮; 房军; 冯利红; 徐永俊; 丁雪尘; 郑和辉; 经正; 韩永成

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨氟中毒病区小学生的膳食营养状况对其氟斑牙发病程度的影响.方法 从饮水型氟中毒历史重病区某直辖市郊区镇(以下简称郊区镇)和某自治区某旗镇(以下简称某旗镇)整群随机抽样208名8~12岁小学生作为调查对象,用离子选择电极法测定尿氟,按Dean分类法检查氟斑牙病损程度,采用三日膳食调查法和双份饭菜法分析小学生营养素摄入状况.结果 某旗镇小学生尿氟为(6.80±3.90)mg/L,明显高于郊区镇小学生[(5.20±2.75)mg/L,t=3.21,P<0.01].郊区镇小学生氟斑牙指数为1.8,某旗镇小学生氟斑牙指数为1.9,二者比较差异有统计学意义(H=10.266,P<0.01).某旗镇小学生氟斑牙临床分度数加权值≥2的人数所占比例[63.3%(57/90)]高于郊区镇小学生[48.3%(57/118),χ2=4.633,P<0.05].三日膳食调查法发现,郊区镇小学生对蛋白质、钙、维生素C等12种营养素的摄入量明显高于某旗镇小学生,而膳食纤维、维生素E、镁等5种营养素的摄入量则低于某旗镇小学生(P均<0.01).双份饭菜法发现,某旗镇小学生镁、锂、铅的日摄入最高于郊区镇小学生,而镉的日摄入量则低于郊区镇小学生(P<0.01或<0.05).郊区镇小学生膳食中氟的日摄入量[(2.24±1.18)mg/d]高于某旗镇小学生[(1.78±0.06)mg/d,t=4.21,P<0.01].结论 良好的膳食营养可以减少氟斑牙的发生或减轻其病损程度,为今后控制和消除地方性氟中毒的危害提供科学依据.%Objective To investigate the effect of dietary nutrition on dental fluorosis degrees of school children in endemic fluorosis areas. Methods Two hundred and eight children aged 8 to 12 years were chosen using cluster random sampling method from a village of municipal suburban and a town of autonomous region, both with a history of serious endemic fluorosis. Morning urinary fluoride was measured by fluoride ion electrode. The Tooth Surface Index of Dean was applied to measure

  17. Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: clinical and epidemiological experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty years ago, in 1932, skeletal fluorosis was discovered as an occupational disease in cryolite workers in Copenhagen, Denmark. Following the initial reports, new cases were identified in other industries, such as the production of aluminum and superphosphate fertilizer. In light cases of fluorosis, the bone changes are often associated with nonspecific joint and muscle pains, but the disease may be entirely asymptomatic. The fluoride-induced osteosclerosis seems to be reversible, but the long-term significance of fluoride accumulation in the body is not known. Family cases of dental fluorosis have been occurred in long-term residents near fluoride-emitting industries, and in hot areas with high, natural fluoride levels in the drinking water. Skeletal fluorosis has only played a minor role in the discussion concerning fluoridation of drinking water, however. Changing and increasing uses of fluorides have led to a renewed interest in this occupational disease.

  18. Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. I. Identification of risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldo, M; Borja-Aburto, V H; Ramírez, A L; Ponce, M; Rosas, M; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    In order to identify risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico, a biochemical and epidemiological study was carried out in 1992. Results from the analysis of fluoride sources showed that 61% of tap water samples had fluoride levels above the optimal level of 0.7-1.2 ppm. The levels were higher after boiling. In bottled water, fluoride levels ranged from 0.33 to 6.97 ppm. These sources are important since in SLP 82% of the children drink tap water, 31% also drink bottled water, 92% prepare their food with tap water, 44% boiled all the drinking water, and 91% used infant formula reconstituted with boiled water. The prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in children (11-13 years old) increased as the concentration of water fluoride increased. At levels of fluoride in water lower than 0.7 ppm a prevalence of 69% was found for total dental fluorosis, whereas at levels of fluoride in water higher than 2.0 ppm a prevalence of 98% was found. In the same children, fluoride levels in urine were quantifie