WorldWideScience

Sample records for dental bonding

  1. [The application of universal adhesives in dental bonding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingmei; Lei, Wenlong; Yang, Hongye; Huang, Cui

    2016-03-01

    The bonding restoration has become an important clinical technique for the development of dental bonding technology. Because of its easy operation and the maximum preservation of tooth tissues, bonding repair is widely used in dental restoration. The recent multi-mode universal adhesives have brought new progress in dental bonding restoration. In this article the universal adhesives were reviewed according to its definition, development, improvement, application features and possible problems.

  2. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

  3. A direct bonded fixed partial dental prosthesis: A clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoue, Naomi; Tanaka, Takuo

    2015-01-01

    A direct bonded fixed partial dental prosthesis, with a composite resin denture tooth as a pontic, a tri-n-butylborane initiated adhesive resin, and screw posts for reinforcement, was still functioning after an observation period of 20 years. The prosthesis was found to be reliable for long-term clinical use when chemically and mechanically reinforced.

  4. Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding - The Role of Biomolecules, Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Bottino, Marco C

    2017-09-01

    To present an overview on the main agents (i.e., biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. According to studies retrieved for full text reading (2014-2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (i) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (ii) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (iii) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (iv) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol wet-bonding technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (v) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (vi) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physico-mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. Also, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.

  5. Characterization of Dentine to Assess Bond Strength of Dental Composites

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    Saad Liaqat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to develop alternating dentine adhesion models that could help in the evaluation of a self-bonding dental composite. For this purpose dentine from human and ivory was characterized chemically and microscopically before and after acid etching using Raman and SEM. Mechanical properties of dentine were determined using 3 point bend test. Composite bonding to dentine, with and without use of acid pre-treatment and/or the adhesive, were assessed using a shear bond test. Furthermore, micro gap formation after restoration of 3 mm diameter cavities in dentine was assessed by SEM. Initial hydroxyapatite level in ivory was half that in human dentine. Surface hydroxyapatites decreased by approximately half with every 23 s of acid etch. The human dentine strength (56 MPa was approximately double that of ivory, while the modulus was almost comparable to that of ivory. With adhesive use, average shear bond strengths were 30 and 26 MPa with and without acid etching. With no adhesive, average bond strength was 6 MPa for conventional composites. This, however, increased to 14 MPa with a commercial flowable “self–bonding” composite or upon addition of low levels of an acidic monomer to the experimental composite. The acidic monomer additionally reduced micro-gap formation with the experimental composite. Improved bonding and mechanical properties should reduce composite failures due to recurrent caries or fracture respectively.

  6. Repair bond strength of resin composite to bilayer dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments (ST) on the shear bond strength of resin composite to three bilayer dental ceramics made by CAD/CAM and two veneering ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different bilayer dental ceramics and two different veneering ceramics were used (Group A: IPS e.max CAD+IPS e.max Ceram; Group B: IPS e.max ZirCAD+IPS e.max Ceram, Group C: Vita Suprinity+Vita VM11; Group D: IPS e.max Ceram; Group E: Vita VM11). All groups were divided into eight subgroups according to the ST. Then, all test specimens were repaired with a nano hybrid resin composite. Half of the test specimens were subjected to thermocycling procedure and the other half was stored in distilled water at 37℃. Shear bond strength tests for all test specimens were carried out with a universal testing machine. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences among the tested surface treatments within the all tested fracture types (P.00125). CONCLUSION This study revealed that HF etching for glass ceramics and sandblasting for zirconia ceramics were adequate for repair of all ceramic restorations. The effect of ceramic type exposed on the fracture area was not significant on the repair bond strength of resin composites to different ceramic types. PMID:29713430

  7. Efficacy of microtensile versus microshear bond testing for evaluation of bond strength of dental adhesive systems to enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Zohairy, A.A.; Saber, M.H.; Abdalla, A.I.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the microtensile bond test (μTBS) and the microshear bond test (μSBS) in ranking four dental adhesives according to bond strength to enamel and identify the modes of failure involved. Materials and methods Forty-four caries-free human

  8. Bonding effectiveness to different chemically pre-treated dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokoshi, Masanao; Poitevin, André; De Munck, Jan; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different chemical pre-treatments on the bond durability to dental zirconia. Fully sintered IPS e.max ZirCAD (Ivoclar Vivadent) blocks were subjected to tribochemical silica sandblasting (CoJet, 3M ESPE). The zirconia samples were additionally pre-treated using one of four zirconia primers/adhesives (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, Kuraray Noritake; Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE; Z-PRIME Plus, Bisco). Finally, two identically pre-treated zirconia blocks were bonded together using composite cement (RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE). The specimens were trimmed at the interface to a cylindrical hourglass and stored in distilled water (7 days, 37 °C), after which they were randomly tested as is or subjected to mechanical ageing involving cyclic tensile stress (10 N, 10 Hz, 10,000 cycles). Subsequently, the micro-tensile bond strength was determined, and SEM fractographic analysis performed. Weibull analysis revealed the highest Weibull scale and shape parameters for the 'Clearfil Ceramic Primer/mechanical ageing' combination. Chemical pre-treatment of CoJet (3M ESPE) sandblasted zirconia using Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) and Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) revealed a significantly higher bond strength than when Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) and Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco) were used. After ageing, Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) revealed the most stable bond durability. Combined mechanical/chemical pre-treatment, the latter with either Clearfil Ceramic Primer (Kuraray Noritake) or Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent), resulted in the most durable bond to zirconia. As a standard procedure to durably bond zirconia to tooth tissue, the application of a combined 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate/silane ceramic primer to zirconia is clinically highly recommended.

  9. Effect of Curing Direction on Microtensile Bond Strength of Fifth and Sixth Generation Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nadaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Composite restorative materials and dental adhesives are usually cured with light sources. The light direction may influence the bond strength of dental adhesives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light direction on the microtensile bond strength of fifth and sixth generation dental adhesives.Materials and Methods: Prime & Bond NT and Clearfil SE bond were used with different light directions.Sixty human incisor teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=15. In groups A and C, Clearfil SE bond with light curing direction from buccal was used for bonding a composite resin to dentin. In groups B and D, Prime & Bond NT with light curing direction from composite was used. After thermocycling the specimens were subjected to tensile force until debonding occurred and values for microtensile bond strength were recorded. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.Results: The findings showed that the bond strength of Clearfil SE bond was significantly higher than that of Prime&Bond NT (P<0.001. There was no significant difference between light curing directions (P=0.132.Conclusion: Light curing direction did not have significant effect on the bond strength. Sixth generation adhesives was more successful than fifth generation in terms of bond strength to dentin.

  10. Post-bleaching application of an antioxidant on dentin bond strength of three dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that bond strength of resin to bleached dentin may be affected with the adhesive system. Reduced SBS to bleached dentin can be amended by the use of SA as an antioxidizing agent. However, the amount of reversed bond strength subsequent to applying antioxidant might be related to the kind of dental adhesive.

  11. Effect of moisture on dental enamel in the interaction of two orthodontic bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoz, André Pinheiro de Magalhães; de Oliveira, Derly Tescaro Narcizo; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Bertoz, Francisco Antonio; Santos, Eduardo César Almada

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the remaining adhesive interface after debonding orthodontic attachments bonded to bovine teeth with the use of hydrophilic and hydrophobic primers under different dental substrate moisture conditions. Twenty mandibular incisors were divided into four groups (n = 5). In Group I, bracket bonding was performed with Transbond MIP hydrophilic primer and Transbond XT adhesive paste applied to moist substrate, and in Group II a bonding system comprising Transbond XT hydrophobic primer and adhesive paste was applied to moist substrate. Brackets were bonded to the specimens in Groups III and IV using the same adhesive systems, but on dry dental enamel. The images were qualitatively assessed by SEM. The absence of moisture in etched enamel enabled better interaction between bonding materials and the adamantine structure. The hydrophobic primer achieved the worst micromechanical interlocking results when applied to a moist dental structure, whereas the hydrophilic system proved versatile, yielding acceptable results in moist conditions and excellent interaction in the absence of contamination. The authors assert that the best condition for the application of primers to dental enamel occurs in the absence of moisture.

  12. Bond strength of dental adhesive systems irradiated with ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibo da Cruz, Adriana; Goncalves, Luciano de Souza; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Correr-Sobrinho, Lorenco; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Boscolo, Frab Norberto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of different types of ionizing radiation on the bond strength of three different dentin adhesive systems. One hundred twenty specimens of 60 human teeth (protocol number: 032/2007) sectioned mesiodistally were divided into 3 groups according to the adhesives systems used: SB (Adper Single Bond Plus), CB (Clearfil SE Bond) and AP (Adper Prompt Self-Etch). The adhesives were applied on dentin and photo-activated using LED (Lec 1000, MMoptics, 1000 mW/cm2). Customized elastomer molds (0.5 mm thickness) with three orifices of 1.2 mm diameter were placed onto the bonding areas and filled with composite resin (Filtek Z-250), which was photo-activated for 20 s. Each group was subdivided into 4 subgroups for application of the different types of ionizing radiation: ultraviolet radiation (UV), diagnostic x-ray radiation (DX), therapeutic x-ray radiation (TX) and without irradiation (control group, CG). Microshear tests were carried out (Instron, model 4411), and afterwards the modes of failure were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscope and classified using 5 scores: adhesive failure, mixed failures with 3 significance levels, and cohesive failure. The results of the shear bond strength test were submitted to ANOVA with Tukey's test and Dunnett's test, and the data from the failure pattern evaluation were analyzed with the Mann Whitney test (p = 0.05). No change in bond strength of CB and AP was observed after application of the different radiation types, only SB showed increase in bond strength after UV (p = 0.0267) irradiation. The UV also changed the failure patterns of SB (p = 0.0001). The radio-induced changes did not cause degradation of the restorations, which means that they can be exposed to these types of ionizing radiation without weakening the bond strength.

  13. Development and evaluation of an interactive dental video game to teach dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Rafat S; Denehy, Gerald E; Cobb, Deborah S; Dawson, Deborah V; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Bergeron, Cathia

    2011-06-01

    Written and clinical tests compared the change in clinical knowledge and practical clinical skill of first-year dental students watching a clinical video recording of the three-step etch-and-rinse resin bonding system to those using an interactive dental video game teaching the same procedure. The research design was a randomized controlled trial with eighty first-year dental students enrolled in the preclinical operative dentistry course. Students' change in knowledge was measured through written examination using a pre-test and a post-test, as well as clinical tests in the form of a benchtop shear bond strength test. There was no statistically significant difference between teaching methods in regards to change in either knowledge or clinical skills, with one minor exception relating to the wetness of dentin following etching. Students expressed their preference for an interactive self-paced method of teaching.

  14. [Preliminary study of bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramic and veneering porcelains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-li; Gao, Mei-qin; Cheng, Yu-ye; Zhang, Fei-min

    2015-04-01

    In order to choose the best veneering porcelain for diatomite-based dental ceramic substrate, the bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramics and veneering porcelains was measured, and the microstructure and elements distribution of interface were analyzed. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diatomite-based dental ceramics was detected by dilatometry. Three veneering porcelain materials were selected with the best CTE matching including alumina veneering porcelain (group A), titanium porcelain veneering porcelain (group B), and E-max veneering porcelain (group C). Shear bonding strength was detected. SEM and EDS were used to observe the interface microstructure and element distribution. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. The CTE of diatomite-based dental ceramics at 25-500 degrees centigrade was 8.85×10-6K-1. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combined best with group C. Shear bonding strength between group A and C and group B and C both showed significant differences(P<0.05). SEM and EDS showed that the interface of group C sintered tightly and elements permeated on both sides of the interface. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combines better with E-max porcelain veneer.

  15. Anterior Cantilever Resin-Bonded Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourshed, Bilal; Samran, Abdulaziz; Alfagih, Amal; Samran, Ahalm; Abdulrab, Saleem; Kern, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    This review evaluated the survival rate of single retainer anterior resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs) to determine whether the choice of material affects their clinical outcome. An electronic search of the English peer-reviewed dental literature in PubMed was conducted to identify all publications reporting on cantilever RBFDPs until May 2016. Study information extraction and methodological quality assessments were accomplished by two reviewers independently. The searched keywords were as follows: "resin-bonded, single retainer, all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs), all-ceramic RBFDPs, cantilever resin, RBFDPs, cantilever resin-bonded bridge, two units cantilevered, two-unit cantilevered, metal-ceramic cantilever, and metal-ceramic." Furthermore, the ''Related Articles'' feature of PubMed was used to identify further references of interest within the primary search. The bibliographies of the obtained references were used to identify pertinent secondary references. Review articles were also used to identify relevant articles. After the application of exclusion criteria, the definitive list of articles was screened to extract the qualitative data, and the results were analyzed. Overall 2588 articles were dedicated at the first review phase; however, only 311 studies were left after the elimination of duplicates and unrelated studies. Seventeen studies passed the second review phase. Five studies were excluded because they were follow-up studies of the same study cohort. Twelve studies were finally selected. The use of cantilever RBFDPs showed promising results and high survival rates. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. The effect of orthodontic bonding materials on dental plaque accumulation and composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, H; Evans, R D; Wilson, M; Ready, D; Noar, J H; Pratten, J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation and composition of microcosm dental plaque on different orthodontic bonding materials using an in vitro model. Microcosm plaques were grown on discs of a range of bonding materials in a constant depth film fermentor. The biofilms were derived from human saliva and supplied with artificial saliva as a source of nutrients. The number of viable bacteria in the biofilms was determined and the streptococci present were identified to species level. The results showed that there was no significant difference in bacterial accumulation between different bonding materials, however, biofilms grown on materials which were fluoride releasing, did not contain Streptococcus mutans. This in vitro study has shown that the use of fluoride-releasing bonding materials may support the growth of supragingival plaque, which does not contain S. mutans.

  17. Effects of surface treatment on bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan [Department of Electrochemistry, Universität Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Roudsari, Sareh Esmaeily Sabet [Department of Optoelectonics, Universität Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari [School of Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahbar, Nima, E-mail: nrahbar@wpi.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study to understand the dominant mechanism in bond strength between dental resin agent and zirconia ceramic by investigating the effects of different surface treatments. Effects of two major mechanisms of chemical and micromechanical adhesion were evaluated on bond strength of zirconia to luting agent. Specimens of yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia blocks were fabricated. Seven groups of specimens with different surface treatment were prepared. 1) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion (SZ), 2) zirconia specimens after etching (ZH), 3) zirconia specimens after airborne particle abrasion and simultaneous etching (HSZ), 4) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of a Fluorapatite-Leucite glaze (GZ), 5) GZ specimens with additional acid etching (HGZ), 6) zirconia specimens coated with a layer of salt glaze (SGZ) and 7) SGZ specimens after etching with 2% HCl (HSGZ). Composite cylinders were bonded to airborne-particle-abraded surfaces of ZirkonZahn specimens with Panavia F2 resin luting agent. Failure modes were examined under 30 × magnification and the effect of surface treatments was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SZ and HSZ groups had the highest and GZ and SGZ groups had the lowest mean shear bond strengths among all groups. Mean shear bond strengths were significantly decreased by applying a glaze layer on zirconia surfaces in GZ and SGZ groups. However, bond strengths were improved after etching process. Airborne particle abrasion resulted in higher shear bond strengths compared to etching treatment. Modes of failure varied among different groups. Finally, it is concluded that micromechanical adhesion was a more effective mechanism than chemical adhesion and airborne particle abrasion significantly increased mean shear bond strengths compared with another surface treatments. - Highlights: • Understanding the dominant mechanism of bonding

  18. Adhesive Bonding to Computer-aided Design/ Computer-aided Manufacturing Esthetic Dental Materials: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Mohamed Moustafa; Alqahtani, H; Al-Mudahi, A; Murayshed, M S; Alrahlah, A; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2017-07-01

    To review the adhesive bonding to different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) esthetic restorative materials. The use of CAD/CAM esthetic restorative materials has gained popularity in recent years. Several CAD/ CAM esthetic restorative materials are commercially available. Adhesive bonding is a major determinant of success of CAD/ CAM restorations. Review result: An account of the currently available bonding strategies are discussed with their rationale in various CAD/ CAM materials. Different surface treatment methods as well as adhesion promoters can be used to achieve reliable bonding of CAD/CAM restorative materials. Selection of bonding strategy to such material is determined based on its composition. Further evidence is required to evaluate the effect of new surface treatment methods, such as nonthermal atmospheric plasma and self-etching ceramic primer on bonding to different dental ceramics. An understanding of the currently available bonding strategies to CA/CAM materials can help the clinician to select the most indicated system for each category of materials.

  19. Fracture and shear bond strength analyses of different dental veneering ceramics to zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Alexandre C.; Nascimento, Rubens M.; Souza, Julio C.M.; Henriques, Bruno B.; Carreiro, Adriana F.P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the interaction of different layering porcelains with zirconia via shear bond strength test and microscopy. Four different groups of dental veneering porcelains (VM9, Zirkonzanh, Ceramco, IPS) were fused onto forty zirconia-based cylindrical substrates (8 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height) (n = 10), according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Additionally, layered dental porcelain (D-sign, Ivoclar) was fired on ten Ni–Cr cylindrical substrates Shear bond strength tests of the veneering porcelain to zirconia or Ni–Cr were carried out at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. After the shear bond tests, the interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture type exhibited by the different systems was also assessed. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA at a significant level of p < .05. The shear bond strength values of the porcelain-to-NiCr interfaces (25.3 ± 7.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those recorded for the following porcelain-to-zirconia systems: Zirkonzanh (18.8 ± 1 MPa), Ceramco (18.2 ± 4.7 MPa), and IPS (16 ± 4.5 MPa). However, no significant differences were found in the shear bond strength values between the porcelain-to-NiCr and porcelain (VM9)-to-zirconia (23.2 ± 5.1 MPa) groups (p > .05). All-ceramic interfaces revealed mixed failure type, cohesive in the porcelain and adhesive at the interface. This study demonstrated that all-ceramic systems do not attain yet the same bond strength standards equivalent to metal–ceramic systems. Therefore, despite the esthetic appeal of all-ceramic restorations, the adhesion between the porcelain and zirconia framework is still an issue considering the long term success of the restoration. - Highlights: • This study assessed the shear bond strength of different porcelains to zirconia. • The porcelain Vita VM9 showed a high shear bond strength to zirconia. • The fracture surface of all-ceramic systems revealed

  20. Fracture and shear bond strength analyses of different dental veneering ceramics to zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Alexandre C. [School of Dentistry (DOD), Division of Prosthodontics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte -UFRN, 59056-000, Natal (Brazil); Nascimento, Rubens M. [Materials Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Souza, Julio C.M. [Centre for Mechanics and Materials Technologies - CT2M, Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEM), Universidade do Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058, Guimarães (Portugal); Henriques, Bruno B. [Materials Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Centre for Mechanics and Materials Technologies - CT2M, Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEM), Universidade do Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058, Guimarães (Portugal); Carreiro, Adriana F.P., E-mail: adrianadafonte@hotmail.com [School of Dentistry (DOD), Division of Prosthodontics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte -UFRN, 59056-000, Natal (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the interaction of different layering porcelains with zirconia via shear bond strength test and microscopy. Four different groups of dental veneering porcelains (VM9, Zirkonzanh, Ceramco, IPS) were fused onto forty zirconia-based cylindrical substrates (8 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height) (n = 10), according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Additionally, layered dental porcelain (D-sign, Ivoclar) was fired on ten Ni–Cr cylindrical substrates Shear bond strength tests of the veneering porcelain to zirconia or Ni–Cr were carried out at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. After the shear bond tests, the interfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture type exhibited by the different systems was also assessed. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA at a significant level of p < .05. The shear bond strength values of the porcelain-to-NiCr interfaces (25.3 ± 7.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those recorded for the following porcelain-to-zirconia systems: Zirkonzanh (18.8 ± 1 MPa), Ceramco (18.2 ± 4.7 MPa), and IPS (16 ± 4.5 MPa). However, no significant differences were found in the shear bond strength values between the porcelain-to-NiCr and porcelain (VM9)-to-zirconia (23.2 ± 5.1 MPa) groups (p > .05). All-ceramic interfaces revealed mixed failure type, cohesive in the porcelain and adhesive at the interface. This study demonstrated that all-ceramic systems do not attain yet the same bond strength standards equivalent to metal–ceramic systems. Therefore, despite the esthetic appeal of all-ceramic restorations, the adhesion between the porcelain and zirconia framework is still an issue considering the long term success of the restoration. - Highlights: • This study assessed the shear bond strength of different porcelains to zirconia. • The porcelain Vita VM9 showed a high shear bond strength to zirconia. • The fracture surface of all-ceramic systems revealed

  1. Effect of dental bleaching after bracket bonding and debonding using three different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianna de Oliveira Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets on dental in-home bleaching, taking into account three different adhesive systems. METHODS: Forty-four bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to the primer system used for orthodontic bracket bonding. Following the debonding of orthodontic brackets, the teeth were stored in staining solution for 96 hours. Then, teeth were whitened using 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks at a 6-hour-a-day regime. Standardized digital photographs were taken at the following intervals: T0 (initial; T1 (after debonding; T2 (after pigmentation; T3, T4 and T5 representing 1, 7, and 14 days of bleaching. Repeatability and stability tests were carried out to check the method accuracy. Images were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software considering (L*a*b*color coordinate values and a modified color difference total (Δ;E'. RESULTS: The results of this study (ANOVA and Tukey; p < 0.01 demonstrated that after 7 days of bleaching, experimental groups showed significantly less teeth whitening compared to the control group. However, there were no significant color differences between the groups after 14 days, according to values of lightness (L*. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the adhesive primer system applied, bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets alters the outcome of tooth whitening in the first 7 days of bleaching, however it has no influence on the whitening of the dental structure after 14 days of in-home dental bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide.

  2. Dental Hygiene and Orthodontics: Effect of Ultrasonic Instrumentation on Bonding Efficacy of Different Lingual Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribante, Andrea; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Collesano, Vittorio; Tovt, Gaia; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Gandini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is crucial for oral health. As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UI on shear bond strength (SBS) and on adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different lingual orthodontic brackets. 200 bovine incisors were divided into 10 groups. Four different lingual (STB, Ormco; TTR, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics; Idea, Leone; 2D, Forestadent) and vestibular control (Victory, 3M) brackets were bonded. UI was performed in half of specimens, whereas the other half did not receive any treatment. All groups were tested with a universal testing machine. SBS and ARI values were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed (significance: P = 0.05). TTR, Idea, and 2D lingual brackets significantly lowered SBS after UI, whereas for other braces no effect was recorded. Appliances with lower mesh area significantly reduced their adhesion capacity after UI. Moreover groups subjected to UI showed higher ARI scores than controls. UI lowered SBS of lingual appliances of small dimensions so particular care should be posed avoiding prolonged instrumentation around bracket base during plaque removal. Moreover, UI influenced also ARI scores.

  3. Evaluation of bonding strength of porcelain to some commercial nickel-base dental alloys and comparing their interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Asghari Salavat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: To replace the replacing of deleterious elements from the chemical composition of dental alloys. The added new elements should control through the oxide layer and the formation of Cr2O3 in porcelain-alloy interfaces for adequate bond strength.

  4. [Evaluation of shear bond strengths of self-etching and total-etching dental adhesives to enamel and dentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Liu, Jing-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Xue-Jun

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strengths of four dental adhesives in vitro. The facial surfaces of 20 human maxillary incisors were prepared to expose fresh enamel and randomly divided into four groups, in each group 5 teeth were bonded with one adhesives: group A (Clearfil Protect Bond, self-etching two steps), group B (Adper( Prompt, self-etching one step), group C (SwissTEC SL Bond, total-etching two steps), group D (Single Bond, total-etching two steps). Shear bond strengths were determined using an universal testing machine after being stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37 degrees C. The bond strengths to enamel and dentin were (25.33 +/- 2.84) and (26.07 +/- 5.56) MPa in group A, (17.08 +/- 5.13) and (17.93 +/- 4.70) MPa in group B, (33.14 +/- 6.05) and (41.92 +/- 6.25) MPa in group C, (22.51 +/- 6.25) and (21.45 +/- 7.34) MPa in group D. Group C showed the highest and group B the lowest shear bond strength to enamel and dentin among the four groups. The two-step self-etching adhesive showed comparable shear bond strength to some of the total-etching adhesives and higher shear bond strength than one-step self-etching adhesive.

  5. Effects of moisture conditions of dental enamel surface on bond strength of brackets bonded with moisture-insensitive primer adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiya; Ozoe, Rieko; Sanpei, Sugako; Shinkai, Koichi; Katoh, Yoshiroh; Shimooka, Shohachi

    2008-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of different degrees of water contamination on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to dental enamel with a moisture-insensitive primer (MIP) adhesive system and to compare the modes of bracket/adhesive failure. A total of 68 human premolars were divided into four groups by primers and enamel surface conditions (desiccated, blot dry, and overwet). In group I, the hydrophobic Transbond XT primer adhesive system was used under desiccated conditions for bonding the brackets; in group II, the hydrophilic Transbond MIP adhesive system was used under desiccated conditions; in group III, the hydrophilic Transbond MIP adhesive system was used under blot dry conditions; and in group IV, the hydrophilic Transbond MIP adhesive system was used under overwet conditions. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine, and the mode of bracket/adhesive failure was determined according to the adhesive remnant index. The mean shear bond strengths were not significantly different among groups I, II, and III, and were higher than the clinically required range of 6 to 8 MPa. The mean shear bond strength achieved in group IV was significantly lower than that achieved in groups I, II, and III, and also lower than the clinically required values. Bond failure occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface more frequently in group IV than in groups I and III. To achieve clinically sufficient bond strengths with the hydrophilic MIP adhesive system, excess water should be blotted from the water-contaminated enamel surface.

  6. An in vitro study to evaluate the effect of two ethanol-based and two acetone-based dental bonding agents on the bond strength of composite to enamel treated with 10% carbamide peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Basavaraj Benni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Carbamide peroxide bleaching has been implicated in adversely affecting the bond strength of composite to enamel. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol-based (Clearfil S 3 bond, Kuraray, Adper Single bond 2, 3M ESPE dental products and acetone-based (Prime and Bond NT, Dentsply, One Step, Bisco bonding agents on the shear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 extracted human noncarious permanent incisors were randomly divided into two groups (control and experimental. Experimental group specimens were subjected to a bleaching regimen with a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching system (Opalescence; Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, USA. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to the specimens using four bonding agents and shear bond strength was determined with universal testing machine. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the shear bond strength between control and experimental groups with both ethanol-based (Clearfil S 3 Bond and Adper Single Bond 2 and acetone-based bonding agent (Prime and Bond NT and One Step. Interpretation and Conclusion: The adverse effect of bleaching on bonding composite to enamel can be reduced or eliminated by using either ethanol- or acetone-based bonding agent. Clinical Significances: Immediate bonding following bleaching procedure can be done using ethanol- or acetone-based bonding agent without compromising bond strength.

  7. Evaluation of metal-ceramic bond characteristics of three dental Co-Cr alloys prepared with different fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongmei; Feng, Qing; Li, Ning; Xu, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metal-ceramic bond strength of dental Co-Cr alloys fabricated by casting (CAST), computer numerical control (CNC) milling, and selective laser melting (SLM). The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond characteristics of 3 dental Co-Cr alloys fabricated by casting, computer numerical control milling, and selective laser melting techniques using the 3-point bend test (International Organization for Standardization [ISO] standard 9693). Forty-five specimens (25×3×0.5 mm) made of dental Co-Cr alloys were prepared by CAST, CNC milling, and SLM techniques. The morphology of the oxidation surface of metal specimens was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After porcelain application, the interfacial characterization was evaluated by SEM equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis, and the metal-ceramic bond strength was assessed with the 3-point bend test. Failure type and elemental composition on the debonding interface were assessed by SEM/EDS. The bond strength was statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference test (α=.05). The oxidation surfaces of the CAST, CNC, and SLM groups were different. They were porous in the CAST group but compact and irregular in the CNC and SLM groups. The metal-ceramic interfaces of the SLM and CNC groups showed excellent combination compared with those of the CAST group. The bond strength was 37.7 ±6.5 MPa for CAST, 43.3 ±9.2 MPa for CNC, and 46.8 ±5.1 MPa for the SLM group. Statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups tested (P=.028). The debonding surfaces of all specimens exhibited cohesive failure mode. The oxidation surface morphologies and thicknesses of dental Co-Cr alloys are dependent on the different fabrication techniques used. The bond strength of all 3 groups exceed the minimum acceptable value of 25 MPa recommended by ISO 9693; hence, dental Co-Cr alloy

  8. Fifteen-year survival of anterior all-ceramic cantilever resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to report the long-term outcome of all-ceramic cantilever resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs). In 16 patients (mean age of 33.3±17.5years) 22 RBFDPs made from a glass-infiltrated alumina ceramic (In-Ceram) were inserted with a phosphate monomer containing luting agent after air-abrasion of the retainer wings. The abutment preparation included a shallow groove on the cingulum and a small proximal box. The restorations replacing 16 maxillary and 6 mandibular incisors were followed over a mean observation time of 188.7 months. No restoration debonded. Two RBFDPs fractured and were lost 48 and 214 months after insertion, respectively. The 10-year and 15-year survival rates were both 95.4% and dropped to 81.8% after 18 years. Anterior all-ceramic cantilever RBFDPs exhibited an excellent clinical longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Haiting; Gai, Xiuying; Wang, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the microstructure and mechanical properties of dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) dental alloy fabricated by SLM and to determine the correlation between its microstructure and mechanical properties and its porcelain bond strength. Five metal specimens and 10 metal ceramic specimens were fabricated to evaluate the mechanical properties of SLM Co-Cr dental alloy (SLM alloy) with a tensile test and its porcelain bond strength with a 3-point bending test. The relevant properties of the SLM alloy were compared with those of the currently used Co-Cr dental alloy fabricated with conventional cast technology (cast alloy). The Student t test was used to compare the results of the SLM alloy and the cast alloy (α=.05). The microstructure of the SLM alloy was analyzed with a metallographic microscope; the metal ceramic interface of the SLM porcelain bonded alloy was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and an electron probe microanalyzer. Both the mean (standard deviation) yield strength (884.37 ± 8.96 MPa) and tensile strength (1307.50 ±10.65 MPa) of the SLM alloy were notably higher than yield strength (568.10 ± 30.94 MPa) and tensile strength (758.73 ± 25.85 MPa) of the currently used cast alloy, and the differences were significant (P.05). Microstructure analysis suggested that the SLM alloy had a dense and obviously orientated microstructure, which led to excellent mechanical properties. Analysis from scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the electron probe microanalyzer indicated that the SLM alloy had an intermediate layer with elemental interpenetration between the alloy and the porcelain, which resulted in an improved bonding interface. Compared with the currently used cast alloy, SLM alloy possessed improved mechanical

  10. Survival of anterior cantilevered all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses made from zirconia ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Martin; Kern, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome of all-ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs) with a cantilevered single-retainer design made from zirconia ceramic. Forty-two anterior RBFDPs with a cantilevered single-retainer design were made from yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium oxide ceramic. RBFDPs were inserted using Panavia 21 TC as luting agent after air-abrasion of the ceramic bonding surface. During a mean observation time of 61.8 months two debondings occurred. Both RBFDPs were rebonded using Panavia 21 TC and are still in function. A caries lesion was detected at one abutment tooth during recall and was treated with a composite filling. Therefore, the overall six-year failure-free rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 91.1%. If only debonding was defined as failure the survival rate increased to 95.2%. Since all RBFDPs are still in function the overall survival rate was 100% after six years. Cantilevered zirconia ceramic RBFDPs showed promising results within the observation period. Single-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses made from zirconia ceramic show very good mid-term clinical survival rates. They should therefore be considered as a viable treatment alternative for the replacement of single missing anterior teeth especially as compared to an implant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shear bond strength and SEM morphology evaluation of different dental adhesives to enamel prepared with ER:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Patrícia T; Ferreira, João C; Oliveira, Sofia A; Azevedo, Alvaro F; Dias, Walter R; Melo, Paulo R

    2013-01-01

    Early observations of enamel surfaces prepared by erbium lasers motivated clinicians to use laser as an alternative to chemical etching. Evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) values of different dental adhesives on Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser prepared enamel and to evaluate possible etching patterns correlations between dental adhesives and SBS values. One hundred bovine incisors were randomly assigned to SBS tests on enamel (n = 15) and to enamel morphology analysis (n = 5) after Er:YAG laser preparation as follows: Group I - 37% phosphoric acid (PA)+ ExciTE(®); Group II - ExciTE(®); Group III - AdheSE(®) self-etching; Group IV - FuturaBond(®) no-rinse. NR; Group V - Xeno(®) V. Teeth were treated with the adhesive systems and subjected to thermal cycling. SBS were performed in a universal testing machine at 5 mm/min. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (P adhesive systems yielded significantly different SBSs. Acid etching significantly increased the adhesion in laser treated enamel. No differences in SBS values were obtained between AdheSE(®) and ExciTE(®) without condition with PA. FuturaBond(®) NR and Xeno(®) V showed similar SBS, which was lower in comparison to the others adhesives. No correlation between enamel surface morphology and SBS values was observed, except when PA was used.

  12. Effect of changes to the manufacturer application techniques 
on the shear bond strength of simplified dental adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasqueira, Ana Filipa; Arantes-Oliveira, Sofia; Portugal, Jaime

    2013-09-13

    The aim of this work was to assess the shear bond strength (SBS) between a composite resin and dentin, promoted by two dental adhesive systems (one-step self-etching adhesive Easy Bond [3M ESPE], and two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Scotchbond 1XT [3M ESPE]) with different application protocols (per manufacturer's instruction (control group); with one to four additional adhesive layers; or with an extra hydrophobic adhesive layer). Proximal enamel was removed from ninety caries-free human molars to obtain two dentin discs per tooth, which were randomly assigned to twelve experimental groups (n=15). After adhesion protocol, the composite resin (Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE]) was applied. Specimens were mounted in the Watanabe test device and shear bond test was performed in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls tests (PScotchbond 1XT per manufacturer's instructions (27.15±2.99 MPa). Easy Bond yielded higher SBS values than Scotchbond 1XT. There were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between the application protocols tested, except for the three and four layers groups, that presented higher SBS results compared to manufacturer's instruction groups (Padhesive layers when using Easy Bond and Scotchbond 1XT adhesives, since it improves SBS values without consuming much time.

  13. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X F; Yoshida, K; Gu, N

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R a and R y values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane coupler

  14. Chemical adhesion rather than mechanical retention enhances resin bond durability of a dental glass-ceramic with leucite crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, X F [Department of Prosthodontics, The Stomatological Hospital Affiliated Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yoshida, K [Division of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8588 (Japan); Gu, N, E-mail: mengsoar@nju.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of chemical adhesion by a silane coupler and mechanical retention by hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching on the bond durability of resin to a dental glass ceramic with leucite crystallites. Half of the ceramic plates were etched with 4.8% HFA (HFA group) for 60 s, and the other half were not treated (NoHFA group). The scale of their surface roughness and rough area was measured by a 3D laser scanning microscope. These plates then received one of the following two bond procedures to form four bond test groups: HFA/cement, NoHFA/cement, HFA/silane/cement and NoHFA/silane/cement. The associated micro-shear bond strength and bond failure modes were tested after 0 and 30 000 thermal water bath cycles. Four different silane/cement systems (Monobond S/Variolink II, GC Ceramic Primer/Linkmax HV, Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Porcelain Liner M/SuperBond C and B) were used. The data for each silane/cement system were analyzed by three-way ANOVA. HFA treatment significantly increased the surface R{sub a} and R{sub y} values and the rough area of the ceramic plates compared with NoHFA treatment. After 30 000 thermal water bath cycles, the bond strength of all the test groups except the HFA/Linkmax HV group was significantly reduced, while the HFA/Linkmax HV group showed only adhesive interface failure. The other HFA/cement groups and all NoHFA/cement groups lost bond strength completely, and all NoHFA/silane/cement groups with chemical adhesion had significantly higher bond strength and more ceramic cohesive failures than the respective HFA/cement groups with mechanical retention. The result of the HFA/silane/cement groups with both chemical adhesion and mechanical retention revealed that HFA treatment could enhance the bond durability of resin/silanized glass ceramics, which might result from the increase of the chemical adhesion area on the ceramic rough surface and subsequently reduced degradation speed of the silane

  15. Comparative Evaluation of shear Bond Strength of universal Dental Adhesives -An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasheel, Arun; Niranjan, Nandini; Pamidi, Hemanthkumar; Suryakanth, Mayuri B

    2017-07-01

    Patient demand for tooth colored restorations and desire for minimally invasive restorations have made composites an indispensable part of the restorative process. An important factor affecting the intra-oral performance of composite restorations is bonding. Ninty six freshly extracted molar teeth were collected and occlusal 3mm is removed using a diamond disc to expose dentine. Following with samples were divided in to two main groups (self-etch & total etch). Each main group is again sub divided in to three groups each according to bonding agent used (Tetric N- Bond Universal, Single Bond Universal, Tetric N Bond Total etch in total etch group and Clear Fill SE in self etch group). Following which bonding protocol is followed according to manufacture instructions, a composite buildup of 2x3 mm is done on each specimen and then specimen were subjected to shear bond test under universal testing machine. All the readings were noted and subjected to statistical analysis using One way ANOVA and Tukey's posthoc test. It showed that there is no significant difference among the groups in both self-etch and total etch modes. It can be concluded that application of an etching step prior to Universal Adhesives significantly improves their dentine penetration pattern, although this does not affect their mean SBS. The bond strength values of the TBU regardless of application mode were comparable to SBU making them reliable for working under different clinical conditions. Key words: Dentine bonding agents, self-etch mode, total etch mode, shear bond strength.

  16. Effect of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding characterization between porcelain and metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H-H; Lin, M-C; Lee, T-H; Yang, H-W; Chen, F-L; Wu, S-C; Hsu, C-C

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding behaviour between porcelain and metal. A three-point bending test was used to measure the fracture load of alloy after porcelain firing. A scanning electron microscope, accompanied by an energy dispersion spectrometer, was used to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of the fracture surface. An X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and glow discharge spectrometer were used to identify the structure and cross-sectional chemical composition, respectively, of oxide layers on Ni-Cr alloys after heat treatment at 990 degrees C for 5 min. Results showed that the oxide layers formed on all Ni-Cr alloys contained mainly Cr2O3, NiO, and trace MoO3. The Ni-Cr alloy with a higher Cr content had a thicker oxide layer, as well as a weaker bonding behaviour of porcelain/metal interface. The presence of Al (as Al2O3) and Be (as BeO) on the oxide layer suppressed the growth of the oxide layer, leading to a better porcelain/metal bonding behaviour. However, the presence of a small amount of Ti (as TiO2) on the oxide layer did not have any influence on the bonding behaviour. The fracture propagated along the interface between the opaque porcelain and metal, and exhibited an adhesive type of fracture morphology.

  17. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Study design: Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al2O3-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al2O3-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pre-treated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or sandblasted alumina showed the most stable interfaces. CAL experimented spontaneous debonding in all tested groups. Key words:CAD/CAM ceramic, alumina, zirconia, resin cement, surface pre-treatment, sandblasting, silica-coating, chemical aging, bond degradation, microtensile bond strength. PMID:22322517

  18. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  19. Comparison of hydroxyapatite and dental enamel for testing shear bond strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imthiaz, Nishat; Georgiou, George; Moles, David R; Jones, Steven P

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using artificial hydroxyapatite as a future biomimetic laboratory substitute for human enamel in orthodontic bond strength testing by comparing the shear bond strengths and nature of failure of brackets bonded to samples of hydroxyapatite and enamel. One hundred and fifty hydroxyapatite discs were prepared by compression at 20 tons and fired in a furnace at 1300 degrees C. One hundred and five enamel samples were prepared from the buccal and palatal/lingual surfaces of healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to each sample and these were subjected to shear bond strength testing using a custom-made jig mounted in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The force value at bond failure was obtained, together with the nature of failure which was assessed using the Adhesive Remnant Index. The mean shear bond strength for the enamel samples was 16.62 MPa (95 per cent CI: 15.26, 17.98) and for the hydroxyapatite samples 20.83 MPa (95 per cent CI: 19.68, 21.98). The difference between the two samples was statistically significant (p enamel samples scored 2 or 3, while 49 per cent of the hydroxyapatite samples scored 0 or 1. Hydroxyapatite was an effective biomimetic substrate for bond strength testing with a mean shear bond strength value (20.83 MPa) at the upper end of the normal range attributed to enamel (15-20 MPa). Although the difference between the shear bond strengths for hydroxyapatite and enamel was statistically significant, hydroxyapatite could be used as an alternative to enamel for comparative laboratory studies until a closer alternative is found. This would eliminate the need for extracted teeth to be collected. However, it should be used with caution for quantitative studies where true bond strengths are to be investigated.

  20. The influence of silane evaporation procedures on microtensile bond strength between a dental ceramic and a resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of silane evaporation procedures on bond strength between a dental ceramic and a chemically activated resin cement. Materials and Methods: Eighteen blocks (6 mm Χ 14 mm Χ 14 mm of ceramic IPS Empress 2 were cemented (C and B to composite resin (InTen-S blocks using a chemical adhesive system (Lok. Six groups were analyzed, each with three blocks divided according to ceramic surface treatment: two control groups (no treatment, NT; 10% hydrofluoric acid plus silane Monobond-S dried at room temperature, HFS; the other four groups comprised different evaporation patterns (silane rinsed and dried at room temperature, SRT; silane rinsed in boiling water and dried as before, SBRT; silane rinsed with boiling water and heat dried at 50°C, SBH; silane dried at 50 ± 5°C, rinsed in boiling water and dried at room temperature, SHBRT. The cemented blocks were sectioned to obtain specimens for microtensile test 7 days after cementation and were stored in water for 30 days prior to testing. Fracture patterns were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Statistics and Results: All blocks of NT debonded during sectioning. One way ANOVA tests showed higher bond strengths for HFS than for the other groups. SBRT and SBH were statistically similar, with higher bond strengths than SRT and SHBRT. Failures were 100% adhesive in SRT and SHBRT. Cohesive failures within the "adhesive zone" were detected in HFS (30%, SBRT (24% and SBH (40%. Conclusion: Silane treatment enhanced bond strength in all conditions evaluated, showing best results with HF etching.

  1. Shear bond strength and SEM morphology evaluation of different dental adhesives to enamel prepared with ER:YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia T Pires

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Early observations of enamel surfaces prepared by erbium lasers motivated clinicians to use laser as an alternative to chemical etching. Aims: Evaluate shear bond strength (SBS values of different dental adhesives on Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG laser prepared enamel and to evaluate possible etching patterns correlations between dental adhesives and SBS values. Subjects and Methods: One hundred bovine incisors were randomly assigned to SBS tests on enamel (n = 15 and to enamel morphology analysis ( n = 5 after Er:YAG laser preparation as follows: Group I - 37% phosphoric acid (PA+ ExciTE® ; Group II - ExciTE® ; Group III - AdheSE® self-etching; Group IV - FuturaBond® no-rinse. NR; Group V - Xeno® V. Teeth were treated with the adhesive systems and subjected to thermal cycling. SBS were performed in a universal testing machine at 5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p < 0.05. For the morphology evaluation, specimens were immersed in Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and the etching pattern analyzed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Results: Mean bond strengths were Group I - 47.17 ± 1.61 MPa (type I etching pattern; Group II - 32.56 ± 1.64 MPa, Group III - 29.10 ± 1.34 MPa, Group IV - 23.32 ± 1.53 MPa (type III etching pattern; Group V - 24.43 MPa ± 1.55 (type II etching pattern. Conclusions: Different adhesive systems yielded significantly different SBSs. Acid etching significantly increased the adhesion in laser treated enamel. No differences in SBS values were obtained between AdheSE® and ExciTE® without condition with PA. FuturaBond® NR and Xeno® V showed similar SBS, which was lower in comparison to the others adhesives. No correlation between enamel surface morphology and SBS values was observed, except when PA was used.

  2. Standards of teeth preparations for anterior resin bonded all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Nawaf AL-Dwairi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if general dental practitioners (GDPs in private practice in Jordan follow universal guidelines for preparation of anterior teeth for resin bonded all-ceramic crowns (RBCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample (n=100 of laboratory models containing 208 tooth preparations for IPS Empress and In Ceram, featuring work from different GDPs, was obtained from 8 commercial dental laboratories. Aspects of preparations were quantified and compared with accepted criteria defined following a review of the literature and recommendations of the manufactures' guidelines. RESULTS: Subgingival margins on the buccal aspect were noticed in 36% of the preparations, 54% demonstrated overpreparation with a tendency to overprepare the teeth on the mesiodistal plane more than buccolingual plane. Twenty percent of samples presented a shoulder finish line while a chamfer margin design was noticed in 39%. Twenty-nine percent and 12% of samples had either a feathered or no clear margin design respectively. Incisal underpreparation was observed in 18% of dies of each type. Only 17% of all preparations were found to follow the recommended anatomical labial preparations while 29% of the RBC preparations were found to have the recommended axial convergence angle. In total, 43% of preparations were found to have the recommended depth of the finish line. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that relevant guidelines for RBC preparations were not being fully adhered to in private practice in Jordan.

  3. Effect of different oxidation treatments on the bonding strength of new dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-hye; Kim, Woong-Chul; Oh, Sae-Yoon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The influences of heat treatment and addition of a small amount of base metal (In, Sn, and Ir) for oxidation in Au-Pt-based alloy were investigated by electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Au-Pt-based alloys were prepared by argon-arc melting furnace and then they are heat treated. Oxidation on alloy was significantly affected by addition of base metal (In and Sn) and heat treatment. The bond strength of the alloys was not dependent on the changing heat treatment. These results indicated that the Sn and In could be effective as oxidation elements for porcelain bonding to gold alloys.

  4. [Differential study of the bonding characterization of dental porcelain to Ni-Cr alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Zhan, De-song; Wang, Yan-yan

    2008-10-01

    To study the bonding capability when Ni-Cr porcelain alloy was added with Ti, compound rare earth metals and removed the element of Be. Ni-Cr-Ti porcelain alloys manufactured by Institute of Metal Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences were tested. The test alloys were divided into three groups according to whether containing Be and compound rare earth metals or not. And HI BOND Ni-Cr base-metal alloy was chosen as control. The metal-ceramic specimens were prepared for shear test, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. The shear bond strength of the four groups were analyzed. No significant difference were observed among them (P > 0.05). No crackle was found and they were contacted tightly between the porcelain and metal. The composition and contents of the four groups' interfaces were closed. The shear bond strength of the self-made Ni-Cr-Ti porcelain alloys all can satisfy the clinical requirements. Experimental groups containing Ti, compound rare earth metals and removing the element of Be can be used as better recommendation for clinical practice.

  5. Comparative study of the dental substrate used in shear bond strength tests

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    Lopes Murilo Baena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength values obtained in human enamel and dentin with the values obtained in bovine teeth using two adhesive systems with different actions. Forty human tooth half-crowns and forty bovine tooth crowns were flattened to a minimum plain area of 5 mm in diameter. The samples were divided in four groups of 20 specimens each: 1 human enamel; 2 bovine enamel; 3 human dentin; 4 bovine dentin. The samples of each group were divided in 2 subgroups of 10 samples each, according to the adhesive system used: 1 Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP; and 2 Clearfil Liner Bond 2V (CLB2V applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Afterwards, restorations of Z100 composite with cylindrical shape (4 mm diameter x 5 mm height were made using a metallic mold to submit the samples to shear bond testing on an Instron universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%. In enamel, there was no statistical difference between bovine and human teeth for SBMP (7.36 MPa, human; 8.24 MPa, bovine, nor for CLB2V (10.01 MPa, human; 7.95, bovine. In dentin, SBMP showed a statistically lower mean on human dentin (7.01 MPa than on bovine dentin (11.74 MPa. For CLB2V, there was no statistical difference between human (7.43 MPa and bovine (9.27 MPa substrates.

  6. Effect of artificial aging and surface treatment on bond strengths to dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, J; Fernandes, S D; Pinto, A M; Oliveira, F A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this project was to study the influence of artificial aging and surface treatment on the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) between zirconia and a phosphate monomer-based self-adhesive cement. Thirty zirconia disks (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were randomly assigned to two aging regimens: AR, used as received, which served as a control, and AG, artificial aging to simulate low-temperature degradation. Subsequently, the disks of each aging regimen were assigned to three surface treatments: NT, no surface treatment; CO, surface silicatization with CoJet sand (3M ESPE); and ZP, zirconia surface treated with Z-Prime Plus (Bisco Inc). Thirty discs were made of Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) composite resin and luted to the zirconia discs using RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE). The specimens were sectioned with a diamond blade in X and Y directions to obtain bonded beams with a cross-section of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm. The beams were tested in tensile mode in a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min to measure μTBS. Selected beams were selected for fractographic analysis under the SEM. Statistical analysis was carried out with two-way analysis of variance and Dunnett T3 post hoc test at a significance level of 95%. The mean μTBS for the three AR subgroups (AR-NT, AR-CO, and AR-ZP) were significantly higher than those of the corresponding AG groups (p<0.0001). Both AR-CO and AR-ZP resulted in statistically significant higher mean bond strengths than the group AR-NT (p<0.006 and p<0.0001, respectively). Both AG-CO and AG-ZP resulted in statistically significant higher mean bond strengths than the group AG-NT (both at p<0.0001). Overall, AG decreased mean μTBS. Under the SEM, mixed failures showed residual cement attached to the zirconia side of the beams. CO resulted in a characteristic roughness of the zirconia surface. AR-ZP was the only group for which the amount of residual cement occupied at least 50% of the interface in mixed failures.

  7. Dental Cements for Luting and Bonding Restorations: Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Adriana P; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2017-10-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements combine easy application of conventional luting materials with improved mechanical properties and bonding capability of resin cements. The presence of functional acidic monomers, dual cure setting mechanism, and fillers capable of neutralizing the initial low pH of the cement are essential elements of the material and should be understood when selecting the ideal luting material for each clinical situation. This article addresses the most relevant aspects of self-adhesive resin cements and their potential impact on clinical performance. Although few clinical studies are available to establish solid clinical evidence, the information presented provides clinical guidance in the dynamic environment of material development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Push-out bond strengths of different dental cements used to cement glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Lorenzoni, Fábio César; Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Barbosa, Marcelo Ramos; Dos Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of glass fiber posts, irreversible vertical root fractures have become a rare occurrence; however, adhesive failure has become the primary failure mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with different luting agents on 3 segments of the root. Eighty human maxillary canines with similar root lengths were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10) according to the cement assessed (Rely X luting, Luting and Lining, Ketac Cem, Rely X ARC, Biscem, Duo-link, Rely X U100, and Variolink II). After standardized post space preparation, the root dentin was pretreated for dual-polymerizing resin cements and untreated for the other cements. The mixed luting cement paste was inserted into post spaces with a spiral file and applied to the post surface that was seated into the canal. After 7 days, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis into 1-mm-thick sections. The push-out test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until extrusion of the post occurred. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). ANOVA showed that the type of interaction between cement and root location significantly influenced the push-out strength (Pcements and glass ionomer cements showed significantly higher values compared to dual-polymerizing resin cements. In all root segments, dual-polymerizing resin cements provided significantly lower bond strength. Significant differences among root segments were found only for Duo-link cement. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical and adhesive properties of dental enamel after radiotherapy and bonding of metal and ceramic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; de Oliveira, Harley Francisco; Nelson Filho, Paulo; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2015-08-01

    The increasing success rates for cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and the frequent occurrence of tooth loss during treatment have led to an increased demand for orthodontic treatment after radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth enamel of irradiated teeth after the bonding and debonding of metal and ceramic brackets. Ten permanent molars were cut into enamel fragments measuring 1 mm(2) and divided into an irradiated group (total dose of 60 Gy) and a nonirradiated group. The fragments were subjected to microshear testing to evaluate whether radiotherapy altered the strength of the enamel. Furthermore, 90 prepared premolars were divided into 6 groups and subgroups (n = 15): group 1, nonirradiated and nonaged; group 2, nonirradiated and aged (thermal cycled); group 3, irradiated and aged; each group was divided into 2 subgroups: metallic and ceramic brackets. After thermal cycling and radiotherapy, the brackets were bonded onto the specimens with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). After 24 hours, the specimens were subjected to the shear tests. Images of the enamel surfaces were classified using the adhesive remnant index. The composite resin-enamel interface was also evaluated. Enamel fragments subjected to radiation had lower strength than did the nonirradiated samples (P enamel interface, resin tags were more extensive on irradiated tooth enamel. Radiation decreased tooth enamel strength, and the specimens treated with radiotherapy had higher frequencies of adhesive failure between the bracket and the composite resin as well as more extensive tags. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance and porcelain shear bond strength comparison between cast and hot pressed CoCrMo alloy for metal-ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, B; Soares, D; Silva, F S

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance and metal-porcelain bond strength of a CoCrMo dental alloy obtained by two routes, cast and hot pressing. CoCrMo alloy substrates were obtained by casting and hot pressing. Substrates' microstructure was examined by the means of Optical Microscopy (OM) and by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness tests were performed in a microhardness indenter. The electrochemical behavior of substrates was investigated through potentiodynamic tests in a saline solution (8g NaCl/L). Substrates were bonded to dental porcelain and metal-porcelain bond strength was assessed by the means of a shear test performed in a universal test machine (crosshead speed: 0.5 mm/min) until fracture. Fractured surfaces as well as undestroyed interface specimens were examined with Stereomicroscopy and SEM-EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The t-test (pmicrostructures whereas hot pressed specimens exhibited a typical globular microstructure with a second phase spread through the matrix. The hardness registered for hot pressed substrates was greater than that of cast specimens, 438±24HV/1 and 324±8HV/1, respectively. Hot pressed substrates showed better corrosion properties than cast ones, i.e. higher OCP; higher corrosion potential (E(corr)) and lower current densities (i(corr)). No significant difference was found (p<0.05) in metal-ceramic bond strength between cast (116.5±6.9 MPa) and hot pressed (114.2±11.9 MPa) substrates. The failure type analysis revealed an adhesive failure for all specimens. Hot pressed products arise as an alternative to cast products in dental prosthetics, as they impart enhanced mechanical and electrochemical properties to prostheses without compromising the metal-ceramic bond strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Niloofar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi; Sattari, Hasti

    2015-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P enamel only in Tetric N-Bond (P > 0.05). In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond.

  12. In vitro Evaluation of Effect of Dental Bleaching on the Shear Bond Strength of Sapphire Orthodontics Brackets Bonded with Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M Kadhom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of various types of bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of sapphire brackets bonded to human maxillary premolar teeth using resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and to determine the site of bond failure. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted maxillary human premolars were selected and assigned into three equal groups, ten teeth in each. The first group was the control (unbleached group; the second group comprised teeth bleached with hydrogen peroxide group (HP 37.5% (in-office bleaching while the third group included teeth bleached with carbamide peroxide group (CP 16% (at-home bleaching. The teeth in the experimental groups were bleached and stored in water one day then bonded with sapphire brackets using RMGIC with the control group and left another day. De-bonding was performed using Instron universal testing machine. To determine the site of bond failure, both the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were examined under magnifying lens (20X of a stereomicroscope. Results: Results showed statistically highly significant difference in the shear bond strengths between control group and both of bleaching groups being low in the control group. Score III was the predominant site of bond failure in all groups. Conclusions: RMGIC provides adequate bond strength when bonding the sapphire brackets to bleached enamel; this bonding was strong enough to resist both the mechanical and masticatory forces. Most of the adhesive remained on the brackets, so it reduced the time required for removal of the bonding material’s remnants during enamel finishing and polishing.

  13. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is applied for remineralization of early caries lesions or tooth sensitivity conditions and may affect subsequent resin bonding. This in vitro study investigated the effect of CPP-ACP on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human molar teeth were selected and randomly divided into three groups and six subgroups. Buccal or lingual surfaces of teeth were prepared to create a flat enamel surface. Adhesives used were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE One F. In three subgroups, before applying adhesives, enamel surfaces were treated with Tooth Mousse CPP-ACP for one hour, rinsed and stored in 37°C temperature with 100% humidity. This procedure was repeated for 5 days and then adhesives were applied and Tetric N-Ceram composite was adhered to the enamel. This procedure was also fulfilled for the other three subgroups without CPP-ACP treatment. After 24 hour water storage, samples were tested for shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance with P 0.05. In non-applied CPP-ACP subgroups, there were statistically significant differences among all subgroups. Tetric N-Bond had the highest and AdheSE One F had the lowest shear bond strength. Conclusion: CPP-ACP application reduces the shear bond strength of AdheSE and AdheSE One F to enamel but not Tetric N-Bond.

  14. Sol-gel dip coating of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia dental ceramic by aluminosilicate nanocomposite as a novel technique to improve the bonding of veneering porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Azamsadat; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza; Karami, Parisa; Rajabzadeh, Ghadir; Salehi, Sahar; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of silica and aluminosilicate nanocomposite coating of zirconia-based dental ceramic by a sol-gel dip-coating technique on the bond strength of veneering porcelain to the yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) in vitro. Thirty Y-TZP blocks (10 mm ×10 mm ×3 mm) were prepared and were assigned to four experimental groups (n=10/group): C, without any further surface treatment as the control group; S, sandblasted using 110 μm alumina powder; Si, silica sol dip coating + calcination; and Si/Al, aluminosilicate sol dip coating + calcination. After preparing Y-TZP samples, a 3 mm thick layer of the recommended porcelain was fired on the coated Y-TZP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the coating and the nature of the bonding between the coating and zirconia. To examine the zirconia-porcelain bond strength, a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) approach was chosen. FT-IR study showed the formation of silica and aluminosilicate materials. XRD pattern showed the formation of new phases consisting of Si, Al, and Zr in coated samples. SEM showed the formation of a uniform coating on Y-TZP samples. Maximum μTBS values were obtained in aluminosilicate samples, which were significantly increased compared to control and sandblasted groups (P=0.013 and Pcoating can be considered as a convenient, less expensive reliable method for improving the bond strength between dental Y-TZP ceramics and veneering porcelain.

  15. Influence of ageing on glass and resin bonding of dental glass-ceramic veneer adhesion to zirconia: A fracture mechanics analysis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Gee, C; Li, K C

    2018-04-26

    Adhesion plays a major role in the bonding of dental materials. In this study the adhesion of two glass-ceramic systems (IPS e.max and VITABLOCS) to a zirconia sintered substrate using a glass (for IPS e.max) and resin (VITABLOCS) before and after exposure to ageing for 14 days in distilled water at 37 °C are compared using two interfacial fracture mechanics tests, the 3 point bend Schwickerath (Kosyfaki and Swain, 2014; Schneider and Swain, 2015) and 4 point bend (Charalambides et al., 1989) approaches. Both tests result in stable crack extension from which the strain energy release rate (G, N/m or J/m 2 ) can be determined. In the case of the 3 PB test the Work of Fracture was also determined. In addition, the Schwickerath test enables determination of the critical stress for the onset of cracking to occur, which forms the basis of the ISO (ISO9693-2:2016) adhesion test for porcelain ceramic adhesion to zirconia. For the aged samples there was a significant reduction in the resin-bonded strengths (Schwickerath) and strain energy release rate (both 3 and 4 PB tests), which was not evident for the glass bonded specimens. Critical examination of the force-displacement curves showed that ageing of the resin resulted in a major change in the form of the curves, which may be interpreted in terms of a reduction in the critical stress to initiate cracking and also in the development of an R-curve. The extent of the reduction in strain energy release rate following ageing was greater for the Schwickerath test than the Charalambides test. The results are discussed in terms of; the basic mechanics of these two tests, the deterioration of the resin bonding following moisture exposure and the different dimensions of the specimens. These in-vitro results raise concerns regarding resin bonding to zirconia. The present study uses a novel approach to investigate the role of ageing or environmental degradation on the adhesive bonding of two dental ceramics to zirconia

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN TO DENTAL ENAMEL CONDITIONED WITH PHOSPHORIC ACID OR Nd: YAG LASER

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    EDUARDO Carlos de Paula

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been focused on a comparison between the shear bond strength of a composite resin attached to dental enamel surface, after a 35% phosphoric acid etching and after a Nd:YAG laser irradiation with 165.8 J/cm2 of energy density per pulse. After etching and attaching resin to these surfaces, the specimens were thermocycled and then underwent the shearing bond strength tests at a speed of 5 mm/min. The results achieved, after statistical analysis with Student's t-test, showed that the adhesion was significantly greater in the 35% phosphoric acid treated group than in the group treated with the Nd:YAG laser, thus demonstrating the need for developing new studies to reach the ideal parameters for an effective enamel surface conditioning as well as specific adhesives and composite resins when Nd:YAG laser is used

  17. Influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength of resin composite bonded to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-30

    The influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etch mode was investigated. A two-step self-etch adhesive and two universal adhesives were used to bond to enamel and dentin in self-etch mode. Initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using the adhesive in self-etch mode were determined. Fatigue testing was used with 20 Hz frequency and cycling periods of 50,000, 100,000 and 1,000,000 cycles, or until failure occurred. For each of the cycling periods, there was no significant difference in shear fatigue strength across the cycling periods for the individual adhesives. Differences in shear fatigue strength were found between the adhesives within the cycling periods. Regardless of the adhesive used in self-etch mode for bonding to enamel or dentin, shear fatigue strength was not influenced by the number of cycles used for shear fatigue strength testing.

  18. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  19. Influence of an oxygen-inhibited layer on enamel bonding of dental adhesive systems: surface free-energy perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Hirofumi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Oouchi, Hajime; Sai, Keiichi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The influence of an oxygen-inhibited layer (OIL) on the shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel and surface free-energy (SFE) of adhesive systems was investigated. The adhesive systems tested were Scotchbond Multipurpose (SM), Clearfil SE Bond (CS), and Scotchbond Universal (SU). Resin composite was bonded to bovine enamel surfaces to determine the SBS, with and without an OIL, of adhesives. The SFE of cured adhesives with and without an OIL were determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids. There were no significant differences in the mean SBS of SM and CS specimens with or without an OIL; however, the mean SBS of SU specimens with an OIL was significantly higher than that of SU specimens without an OIL. For all three systems, the mean total SFE (γS), polarity force (γSp), and hydrogen bonding force (γSh) values of cured adhesives with an OIL were significantly higher than those of cured adhesives without an OIL. The results of this study indicate that the presence of an OIL promotes higher SBS of a single-step self-etch adhesive system, but not of a three-step or a two-step self-etch primer system. The SFE values of cured adhesives with an OIL were significantly higher than those without an OIL. The SFE characteristics of the OIL of adhesives differed depending on the type of adhesive. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Influence of sodalite zeolite infiltration on the coefficient of thermal expansion and bond strength of all-ceramic dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid; Omar, Ros Anita; Yahya, Rosiyah

    2017-03-01

    In all-ceramic systems, a high incidence of veneer chip-off has been reported in clinical studies. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) behaviour is one of the factors that may increase residual stress in the interface and influence the veneer/core bond strength. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodalite zeolite-infiltration on the CTE behaviour and bond strength of different all-ceramic prostheses. The case-study groups were synthesized sodalite zeolite-infiltrated alumina (IA-SOD) and synthesized sodalite zeolite-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) (IZ-SOD), while the control groups were glass-infiltrated alumina (IA-glass) and glass-infiltrated ZTA (IZ-glass). Forty cylindrical-shaped samples measuring 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height were tested for CTE using a thermo-mechanical analyser machine, and forty disc-shaped ceramic samples measuring 12 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness were prepared using specially designed stainless steel split mould and veneered by cylinder-shaped (2 mm high × 2 mm diameter) low-fusing porcelain (Vita VM7). The veneer/core samples were sintered and tested for shear bond strength using a high precision universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscope, stereo microscope, atomic force microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural characteristics of samples at the fracture surface. The collected data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). IZ-SOD revealed highest CTE and shear bond strength values, while the IA-glass revealed the lowest values than the other groups. There was no significant difference in CTE and bond strength among IZ-SOD, IA-SOD and IZ-glass samples (p>0.05). The experimental SOD zeolite-infiltrated samples revealed higher CTE mismatch and bond strength along with a more favourable mode of failure than did the commercial glass-infiltrated samples. Sandblast technique is considered as effective

  1. Effects of surface treatments on bond strength of dental Ti-20Cr and Ti-10Zr alloys to porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hsi-Chen; Wu, Shih-Ching; Ho, Wen-Fu; Huang, Ling-Hsiu; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments, including sandblasting and grinding, on the bond strength between a low-fusing porcelain and c.p. Ti, Ti-20Cr and Ti-10Zr alloys. The surface treatments were divided into 2 groups. Grinding surface treatment was applied to the first group, which served as the control, and sandblasting was applied to the second group. After treatment, low-fusing porcelain (Titankeramik) was fired onto the surface of the specimens. A universal testing machine was used to perform a 3-point bending test. The metal-ceramic interfaces were subjected to scanning electron microscopic analysis. Of the sandblasted samples, the debonding test showed that Ti-20Cr alloy had the strongest (31.50 MPa) titanium-ceramic bond (p < 005), followed by c.p. Ti (29.4 MPa) and Ti-10Zr (24.3 MPa). Of the grinded samples, Ti-20Cr alloy showed 27.3 MPa titanium-ceramic bond (p < 005), followed by c.p. Ti (14.3 MPa) and Ti-10Zr (failure). The SEM micrographs of the metal surface after debonding showed residual porcelain retained on all samples. On the whole, sandblasting surface treatment appears to have had a more beneficial effect on the Ti-ceramic bond strength than grinding surface treatment. Furthermore, surface treatment of Ti-20Cr with either grinding or sandblasting resulted in adequate bond strength, which exceeded the lower limit value in the ISO 9693 standard (25 MPa).

  2. Influence of thermo-mechanical cycling on porcelain bonding to cobalt-chromium and titanium dental alloys fabricated by casting, milling, and selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanasova, Maja; Kocjan, Andraž; Kovač, Janez; Žužek, Borut; Jevnikar, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The aim has been to determine the effect of thermo-mechanical cycling on shear-bond-strength (SBS) of dental porcelain to Co-Cr and Ti-based alloys fabricated by casting, computer-numerical-controlled milling, and selective-laser-melting (SLM). Seven groups (n=22/group) of metal cylinders were fabricated by casting (Co-Cr and commercially pure-cpTi), milling (Co-Cr, cpTi, Ti-6Al-4V) or by SLM (Co-Cr and Ti-6Al-4V) and abraded with airborne-particles. The average surface roughness (R a ) was determined for each group. Dental porcelain was applied and each metal-ceramic combination was divided into two subgroups - stored in deionized water (24-h, 37°C), or subjected to both thermal (6000-cycles, between 5 and 60°C) and mechanical cycling (10 5 -cycles, 60N-load). SBS test-values and failure modes were recorded. Metal-ceramic interfaces were analyzed with a focused-ion-beam/scanning-electron-microscope (FIB/SEM) and energy-dispersive-spectroscopy (EDS). The elastic properties of the respective metal and ceramic materials were evaluated by instrumented-indentation-testing. The oxide thickness on intact Ti-based substrates was measured with Auger-electron-spectroscopy (AES). Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and t-tests (α=0.05). The SBS-means differed according to the metal-ceramic combination (p<0.0005) and to the fatigue conditions (p<0.0005). The failure modes and interface analyses suggest better porcelain adherence to Co-Cr than to Ti-based alloys. Values of R a were dependent on the metal substrate (p<0.0005). Ti-based substrates were not covered with thick oxide layers following digital fabrication. Ti-based alloys are more susceptible than Co-Cr to reduction of porcelain bond strength following thermo-mechanical cycling. The porcelain bond strength to Ti-based alloys is affected by the applied metal processing technology. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bonding efficacy of new self-etching, self-adhesive dual-curing resin cements to dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Paula; Fernandes, Virgílio Vilas; Torres, Carlos Rocha; Pagani, Clovis

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the union between two new self-etching self-adhesive resin cements and enamel using the microtensile bond strength test. Buccal enamel of 80 bovine teeth was submitted to finishing and polishing with metallographic paper to a refinement of #600, in order to obtain a 5-mm2 flat area. Blocks (2 x 4 x 4 mm) of laboratory composite resin were cemented to enamel according to different protocols: (1) untreated enamel + RelyX Unicem cement (RX group); (2) untreated enamel + Bifix SE cement (BF group); (3) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Single Bond + RelyX Unicem (RXA group); (4) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Solobond M + Bifix SE (BFA group). After 7 days of storage in distillated water at 37°C, the blocks were sectioned for obtaining microbar specimens with an adhesive area of 1 mm2 (n = 120). Specimens were submitted to the microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results (in MPa) were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Enamel pre-treatment with phosphoric acid and resin adhesive (27.9 and 30.3 for RXA and BFA groups) significantly improved (p ≤ 0.05) the adhesion of both cements to enamel compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel (9.9 and 6.0 for RX and BF). Enamel pre-treatment with acid etching and the application of resin adhesive significantly improved the bond efficacy of both luting agents compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel.

  4. Shear bond strength of brackets on restorative materials: Comparison on various dental restorative materials using the universal primer Monobond® Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Thomas; Elsner, Laura; Hirschfelder, Ursula; Hanke, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyze surfaces consisting of different restorative materials for shear bond strength (SBS) and failure patterns of metal and ceramic brackets. Bonding involved the use of a universal primer (Monobond® Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent). Six restorative materials were tested, including one composite resin (Clearfil Majesty™ Posterior, Kuraray Noritake Dental), one glass-ceramic material (IPS Empress® Esthetic, Ivoclar Vivadent), one oxide-ceramic material (CORiTEC Zr transpa Disc, imes-icore), two base-metal alloys (remanium® star, Dentaurum; Colado® CC, Ivoclar Vivadent), and one palladium-based alloy (Callisto® 75 Pd, Ivoclar Vivadent). Bovine incisors served as controls. Both metal and ceramic brackets (discovery®/discovery® pearl; Dentaurum) were bonded to the restorative surfaces after sandblasting and pretreatment with Monobond® Plus. A setup modified from DIN 13990-2 was used for SBS testing and adhesive remnant index (ARI)-based analysis of failure patterns. The metal brackets showed the highest mean SBS values on the glass-ceramic material (68.61 N/mm(2)) and the composite resin (67.58 N/mm(2)) and the lowest mean SBS on one of the base-metal alloys (Colado® CC; 14.01 N/mm(2)). The ceramic brackets showed the highest mean SBS on the glass-ceramic material (63.36 N/mm(2)) and the lowest mean SBS on the palladium-based alloy (38.48 N/mm(2)). Significant differences between the metal and ceramic brackets were observed in terms of both SBS values and ARI scores (p bracket types, fractures of the composite-resin and the glass-ceramic samples were observed upon debonding. Opaque restorative materials under metal brackets were found to involve undercuring of the adhesive. Monobond® Plus succeeded in generating high bond strengths of both bracket types on all restorative surfaces. Given our observations of cohesive fracture (including cases of surface avulsion) of the composite-resin and the glass-ceramic samples, we recommend

  5. Bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to enamel and dentin irradiated with a novel CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser for dental restorative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Bartolome, N; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO 2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used. In addition, Scotchbond Universal [ScotchbondSE] (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) and Peak SE self-etching primer with Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakSE] (Ultradent Products) were tested. Clearfil APX (Kuraray, New York, NY) was bonded to the samples. After 24 h, a single plane shear bond test was performed. Using the caries preventive setting on enamel resulted in increased shear bond strength for all bonding agents except for self-etch PeakSE. The highest overall bond strength was seen with PeakTE (41.29 ± 6.04 MPa). Etch-and-rinse systems achieved higher bond strength values to ablated enamel than the self-etch systems did. PeakTE showed the highest shear bond strength with 35.22 ± 4.40 MPa. OptiBondTE reached 93.8% of its control value. The self-etch system PeakSE presented significantly lower bond strength. The shear bond strength to dentin ranged between 19.15 ± 3.49 MPa for OptiBondTE and 43.94 ± 6.47 MPa for PeakSE. Etch-and-rinse systems had consistently higher bond strength to CO 2 9.3 µm laser-ablated enamel. Using the maximum recommended energy for dentin ablation, the self-etch system PeakSE reached the highest bond strength (43.9 ± 6.5 MPa).

  6. Influence of retainer design on two-unit cantilever resin-bonded glass fiber reinforced composite fixed dental prostheses: an in vitro and finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulemans, Filip; De Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Feilzer, Albert J

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of retainer design on the strength of two-unit cantilever resin-bonded glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed dental prostheses (FDP). Four retainer designs were tested: a proximal box, a step-box, a dual wing, and a step-box-wing. Of each design on 8 human mandibular molars, FRC-FDPs of a premolar size were produced. The FRC framework was made of resin impregnated unidirectional glass fibers (Estenia C&B EG Fiber, Kuraray) and veneered with hybrid resin composite (Estenia C&B, Kuraray). Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray) was used as resin luting cement. FRC-FDPs were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to evaluate the data. The four designs were analyzed with finite element analysis (FEA) to reveal the stress distribution within the tooth/restoration complex. Significantly lower fracture strengths were observed with inlay-retained FDPs (proximal box: 300 +/- 65 N; step-box: 309 +/- 37 N) compared to wing-retained FDPs (p optimal design for replacement of a single premolar by means of a two-unit cantilever FRC-FDPs.

  7. Adhesive dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, N.

    2005-01-01

    Two main classes of material are involved, the glass-ionomer cements and the composite resins. This investigation describes the way they are bonded to the tooth and highlights their differences. Glass ionomers develop a zone of interaction with the tooth as they age which ultimately gives an extremely strong bond, and results in excellent retention rates. By contrast, bonding of composite resins is more complicated and possibly less effective, though these materials have better wear resistance and better aesthetics than glass ionomers. Assessment of bond durability is difficult. This is because a dental restorative can fail by a number of mechanisms apart from de bonding: for example, through wear or fracture

  8. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  9. Influence of Nd:YAG laser on the bond strength of self-etching and conventional adhesive systems to dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimoto, A K; Cunha, L A; Yui, K C K; Huhtala, M F R L; Barcellos, D C; Prakki, A; Gonçalves, S E P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Nd:YAG laser on the shear bond strength to enamel and dentin of total and self-etch adhesives when the laser was applied over the adhesives, before they were photopolymerized, in an attempt to create a new bonding layer by dentin-adhesive melting. One-hundred twenty bovine incisors were ground to obtain flat surfaces. Specimens were divided into two substrate groups (n=60): substrate E (enamel) and substrate D (dentin). Each substrate group was subdivided into four groups (n=15), according to the surface treatment accomplished: X (Xeno III self-etching adhesive, control), XL (Xeno III + laser Nd:YAG irradiation at 140 mJ/10 Hz for 60 seconds + photopolymerization, experimental), S (acid etching + Single Bond conventional adhesive, Control), and SL (acid etching + Single Bond + laser Nd:YAG at 140 mJ/10 Hz for 60 seconds + photopolymerization, experimental). The bonding area was delimited with 3-mm-diameter adhesive tape for the bonding procedures. Cylinders of composite were fabricated on the bonding area using a Teflon matrix. The teeth were stored in water at 37°C/48 h and submitted to shear testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine. Results were analyzed with three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; substrate, adhesive, and treatment) and Tukey tests (α=0.05). ANOVA revealed significant differences for the substrate, adhesive system, and type of treatment: lased or unlased (penamel groups were X=20.2 ± 5.61, XL=23.6 ± 4.92, S=20.8 ± 4.55, SL=22.1 ± 5.14 and for the dentin groups were X=14.1 ± 7.51, XL=22.2 ± 6.45, S=11.2 ± 5.77, SL=15.9 ± 3.61. For dentin, Xeno III self-etch adhesive showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared with Single Bond total-etch adhesive; Nd:YAG laser irradiation showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared with control (unlased). Nd:YAG laser application prior to photopolymerization of adhesive systems

  10. Prototype of a new tip developed to be coupled to dental light-curing units for optimizing bonding of orthodontic brackets and accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Mota Júnior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: development of a new device to be coupled to light-curing units for bonding orthodontic brackets and accessories, and test its efficacy in an in vitro mechanical trial. The inner surface of the device is mirrored and is based on physical concepts of light refraction and reflection. The main advantage of such device is the reduced clinical time needed for bonding and the low possibility of contamination during the process. METHODS: One hundred and twenty specimens were used for testing the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with the device. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI was also determined. The sample was divided into 2 groups. In group 1 a halogen light-curing unit was used while in group 2 a led light-curing unit was used. Each group was then subdivided. In subgroups H1 and L1, a conventional light guide rod was used while in subgroups H2 and L2 bonding was performed with the mirrored device coupled to the tip of the guide light rod. RESULTS: The values obtained for the shear bond strength and the ARI in the subgroups were compared. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference for the shear strength (p > 0.05 and the ARI (p > 0.05 between the subgroups. CONCLUSION: The tests of mechanical trials and the ARI analysis showed that the new device fulfilled the requirements for bonding orthodontic accessories, and that the time for bonding was reduced to half, being necessary only one light exposure.

  11. [Effect of TiO2-SiO2-SnOx film with different firing temperatures on bond strength of low-fusing dental porcelain to pure titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zichuan; Zhang, Pei

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of TiO(2)-SiO(2)-SnOx nano-coatings with different firing temperatures on the bond strength of low-fusing dental porcelain to pure titanium. The surface of pure titanium was coated uniformly with TiO(2)-SiO(2)-SnOx nano-coatings by solution-gelatin (Sol-Gel) technology and then fired at 300 °C (group A) or 750 °C (group B) for 1 h. The specimens without any coatings were the control group (group C). There were 10 specimens in each group. Dental porcelain was sintered on the surface of titanium specimens. Surface roughness and contact angle of the coatings were also detected. The titanium-porcelain bond strength was investigated according to YY 0621-2008 standards using three-point flexure bond test. The phase composition of the TiO(2)-SiO(2)-SnOx nano-coatings was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD). The interface of titanium-porcelain and TiO(2)-SiO(2)-SnOx nano-coatings were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). No rutile phase was found in these specimens of group A and group B. The surface roughness of group A, B, C was (0.97 ± 0.06), (0.99 ± 0.03), (0.96 ± 0.07) µm, respectively. No significant difference was found among the three groups. Compared with that of group C (64.37° ± 3.01°), contact angles detected in group A (52.04° ± 3.15°) and group B (85.27° ± 4.17°) were significantly different (P porcelain in group A [(35.66 ± 2.65) MPa] was significantly increased compared with those in group B [(26.18 ± 2.22) MPa] and group C [(31.66 ± 3.52) MPa]. SEM photomicrographs of titanium-porcelain interface morphology of the specimens before porcelain sintering showed that TiO(2)-SiO(2)-SnOx nano-coatings in group A were compact and homogeneous with petty cracks and those in group B was loose and arranged disorderly. TiO(2)-SiO(2)-SnOx nano-coating fired at 300 °C is significantly effective in improving the titanium-porcelain bond strength.

  12. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles incorporation on antibacterial properties and shear bond strength of dental composite used in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sodagar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaque accumulation and bond failure are drawbacks of orthodontic treatment, which requires composite for bonding of brackets. As the antimicrobial properties of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs have been proven, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and mechanical properties of composite resins modified by the addition of TiO2 NPs. Methods: Orthodontics composite containing 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% NPs were prepared. 180 composite disks were prepared for elution test, disk agar diffusion test and biofilm inhibition test to collect the counts of microorganisms on three days, measure the inhibition diameter and quantify the viable counts of colonies consequently. For shear bond strength (SBS test, 48 intact bovine incisors were divided into four groups. Composites containing 0%, 1%, 5% and 10% NPs were used for bonding of bracket. The bracket/tooth SBS was measured by using an universal testing machine. Results: All concentration of TiO2 NPs had a significant effect on creation and extension of inhibition zone. For S. mutans and S. sanguinis, all concentration of TiO2 NPs caused reduction of the colony counts. Composite containing 10% TiO2 NPs had significant effect on reduction of colony counts for S. mutans and S. sanguinis in all three days. The highest mean shear bond strength belonged to the control group, while the lowest value was seen in 10% NPs composite. Conclusions: Incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into composite resins confer antibacterial properties to adhesives, while the mean shear bond of composite containing 1% and 5% NPs still in an acceptable range.

  13. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  14. Resistência ao cisalhamento de um selante associado a componentes de um sistema adesivo dental Shear bond strength of an enamel sealant using components of a dental adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Maria MUSSOLINO

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Cilindros de selante, padronizados, foram unidos ao esmalte das superfícies vestibulares de incisivos bovinos, após serem planificadas e condicionadas, com ácido fosfórico a 37%, durante 30 segundos. Foram utilizados 40 dentes, aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos, cujas coroas foram secionadas, de modo a obter-se duas porções, cervical e incisal. No Grupo I, após o condicionamento, aplicou-se o selante Fluroshield; no Grupo II, antes da aplicação do selante, uma camada do "primer" do Probond foi aplicada; no Grupo III, após o "primer", aplicou-se o adesivo do Probond; e no Grupo IV, somente o adesivo foi aplicado antes do selante. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água a 37°C, durante 36 horas, e então submetidos aos ensaios de cisalhamento. A análise estatística revelou significante diminuição na resistência ao cisalhamento, quando o "primer" foi aplicado previamente ao selante, enquanto a resistência ao cisalhamento do selante foi semelhante quando o adesivo do Probond foi aplicado, com ou sem o "primer". A resistência ao cisalhamento do selante ao esmalte é maior no terço incisal que no terço cervical da coroa.Standardized cylinders of sealants were bonded to the flattened labial enamel of bovine incisor teeth that had previously been subjected to 37% phosphoric acid gel for 30 seconds. A total of 40 teeth were tested, randomly divided in four groups of 10 teeth each. In Group I, the sealant Fluroshield was applied after etching; in Group II after etching, the "primer" of Probond was used before the sealant; in Group III after etching, the bond of Probond was used after the "primer"; and in Group IV only the bond was applied before the sealant. Specimens were stored in water at 37°C during 36 hours, before shear testing using a Universal Testing Machine. There was significant reduction in shear bond strength of the sealant when only the "primer" was used previously to the application of the sealant. There were no

  15. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoti Sehgal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated.

  16. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang T; Miller, Arthur; Orellana, Maria F

    2011-07-01

    (1) To quantitatively characterize human enamel porosity and surface area in vitro before and after etching for variable etching times; and (2) to evaluate shear bond strength after variable etching times. Specifically, our goal was to identify the presence of any correlation between enamel porosity and shear bond strength. Pore surface area, pore volume, and pore size of enamel from extracted human teeth were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption before and after etching for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with Transbond to the samples with variable etch times and were subsequently applied to a single-plane lap shear testing system. Pore volume and surface area increased after etching for 15 and 30 seconds. At 60 seconds, this increase was less pronounced. On the contrary, pore size appears to decrease after etching. No correlation was found between variable etching times and shear strength. Samples etched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds all demonstrated clinically viable shear strength values. The BET adsorption method could be a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of enamel characteristics. Our findings indicate that distinct quantitative changes in enamel pore architecture are evident after etching. Further testing with a larger sample size would have to be carried out for more definitive conclusions to be made.

  17. Estimation and comparison of tensile bond strengths at resin-dentin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Dental Journal ... Result: Etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond 2 Total Etch® yielded high bond strength ... The self etch systems though convenient to use, do not match the bond strengths of conventional total etch systems.

  18. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  19. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  20. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  1. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  2. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  3. Dental negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C S

    2000-02-01

    Medical and dental errors and negligence are again in the spotlight in recent news report. Dead because of doctor's bad handwriting Prescribing drug overdoses Germ-infested soap pumps--infections in hospitals This articles explains dental negligence including dental duty of care and the standard of care expected of dentists in relation to the Bolam principle.

  4. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  5. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  6. Shear Bond Strength of a Novel Porcelain Repair System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ceramic restorations are cemented with resin cements, removing ... causes physical alteration to increase the bonding of the resin to the ceramic ..... Static and fatigue mechanical behavior of three dental CAD/CAM ceramics.

  7. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  8. Dentin-bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New dental restorative materials have been developed to meet not only the functional demands, but esthetics as well, and in the last few years an enormous range of new materials has appeared for use in dentistry. Among them, several adhesive systems, and different operative techniques for each group materials. Therefore, is indispensable for the professional to know about the properties, characteristics, and association of these materials with the dental structures, in order to select and use them correctly. Should conventional self-etching adhesive systems be used? This question encouraged this literature review to be conducted, with the aim of comparing the conventional adhesive systems with the self-etching systems and to look for scientific data that would help professionals to choose which adhesive system to use. When compared to conventional systems, it was noted that the self-etching systems show less sensitivity to technique, especially as regards errors the operator could commit. The self-etching systems, particularly the 2-step type, have shown equivalent values of bond strength, marginal microleakage and performance, therefore, will be an option for direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth.

  9. Bond strength of compomers to dentin using acidic primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, W H; You, C; Powers, J M

    1999-10-01

    To determine the in vitro bond strengths of seven compomer/bonding agent restorative systems to human dentin. Seven compomer/bonding agents were bonded to human dentin, stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and debonded in tension. Bonding conditions were with and without phosphoric acid etching, with and without the use of combined primer/bonding agents, and under moist and wet bond interfaces. Without phosphoric acid etching, F2000/F2000 Compomer Primer/Adhesive and F2000/Single Bond Dental Adhesive System were less sensitive to dentin wetness. With moist dentin, bond strengths of Dyract/Prime & Bond 2.1, Dyract AP/Prime & Bond 2.1, Hytac/OSB light-curing, one-component bonding agent, F2000/Single Bond, and Freedom/STAE single component light-cured dentin/enamel adhesive system, were improved with phosphoric acid etching. Also, with moist dentin, the bond strength of F2000/F2000 Compomer Primer/Adhesive in the 3M Clicker dispensing system was higher without phosphoric acid etching, whereas bonds of Compoglass/Syntac Single-component were not affected by phosphoric acid etching. Bonding did not occur without primer/bonding agent, regardless of surface condition or use of phosphoric acid etching.

  10. Bonds Boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cathryn

    1989-01-01

    The combined effect of the "Serrano" decision and Proposition 13 left California school districts with aging, overcrowded facilities. Chico schools won a $18.5 million general obligation bond election for facilities construction. With $11 billion needed for new school construction, California will need to tap local sources. A sidebar…

  11. Relationship between thin-film bond strength as measured by a scratch test, and indentation hardness for bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Shusuke; Rawls, H Ralph; Hotta, Masato

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (pstrength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r(2)=0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infant dental care (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  13. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human t...

  14. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  15. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life......, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  16. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  17. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  18. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  19. Relationship between surface area for adhesion and tensile bond strength--evaluation of a micro-tensile bond test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, H; Shono, T; Sonoda, H; Takatsu, T; Ciucchi, B; Carvalho, R; Pashley, D H

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the bonded surface area of dentin and the tensile strength of adhesive materials. The enamel was removed from the occlusal surface of extracted human third molars, and the entire flat surface was covered with resin composite bonded to the dentin to form a flat resin composite crown. Twenty-four hours later, the bonded specimens were sectioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth into 10-20 thin sections whose upper part was composed of resin composite with the lower half being dentin. These small sections were trimmed using a high speed diamond bur into an hourglass shape with the narrowest portion at the bonded interface. Surface area was varied by altering the specimen thickness and width. Tensile bond strength was measured using custom-made grips in a universal testing machine. Tensile bond strength was inversely related to bonded surface area. At surface areas below 0.4 mm2, the tensile bond strengths were about 55 MPa for Clearfil Liner Bond 2 (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), 38 MPa for Scotchbond MP (3M Dental Products), and 20 MPa for Vitremer (3M Dental Products). At these small surface areas all of the bond failures were adhesive in nature. This new method permits measurement of high bond strengths without cohesive failure of dentin. It also permits multiple measurements to be made within a single tooth.

  20. Enamel Bond Strength of New Universal Adhesive Bonding Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D E; Meyers, E J; Guillory, V L; Vandewalle, K S

    2015-01-01

    Universal bonding agents have been introduced for use as self-etch or etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the dental substrate and clinician's preference. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to enamel using universal adhesives compared to a self-etch adhesive when applied in self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes over time. Extracted human third molars were used to create 120 enamel specimens. The specimens were ground flat and randomly divided into three groups: two universal adhesives and one self-etch adhesive. Each group was then subdivided, with half the specimens bonded in self-etch mode and half in etch-and-rinse mode. The adhesives were applied as per manufacturers' instructions, and composite was bonded using a standardized mold and cured incrementally. The groups were further divided into two subgroups with 10 specimens each. One subgroup was stored for 24 hours and the second for six months in 37°C distilled water and tested in shear. Failure mode was also determined for each specimen. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) found a significant difference between groups based on bonding agent (p0.05). Clearfil SE in etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes had more mixed fractures than either universal adhesive in either mode. Etching enamel significantly increased the SBS of composite to enamel. Clearfil SE had significantly greater bond strength to enamel than either universal adhesive, which were not significantly different from each other.

  1. Bonding to oxide ceramics—laboratory testing versus clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Despite a huge number of published laboratory bonding studies on dental oxide ceramics clinical long-term studies on resin bonded oxide ceramic restorations are rare. The purpose of this review is to present the best available clinical evidence for successful bonding of dental oxide ceramic restorations. Clinical trials with resin-bonded restorations that had no or only limited mechanical retention and were made from alumina or zirconia ceramic were identified using an electronic search in PubMed database. Overall 10 publications with clinical trials could be identified. Their clinical outcome was compared with that laboratory bond strength studies. Clinical data provide strong evidence that air-abrasion at a moderate pressure in combination with using phosphate monomer containing primers and/or luting resins provide long-term durable bonding to glass-infiltrated alumina and zirconia ceramic under the humid and stressful oral conditions. As simple and clinically reliable bonding methods to oxide ceramics exist, the rationale for development of alternative bonding methods might be reconsidered especially when these methods are more time consuming or require rather complicated and/or technique sensitive procedures. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current dental adhesives systems. A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Egle; Cumbo, Enzo; Cardoso, Rielson Jose A; Gallina, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry is based on the development of materials which establish an effective bond with the tooth tissues. In this context, adhesive systems have attracted considerable research interest in recent years. Successful adhesive bonding depends on the chemistry of the adhesive, on appropriate clinical handling of the material as well as on the knowledge of the morphological changes caused on dental tissue by different bonding procedures. This paper outlines the status of contemporary adhesive systems, with particular emphasis on chemical characteristics and mode of interaction of the adhesives with enamel and dentinal tissues. Dental adhesives are used for several clinical applications and they can be classified based on the clinical regimen in "etch-and-rinse adhesives" and "self-etch adhesives". Other important considerations concern the different anatomical characteristics of enamel and dentine which are involved in the bonding procedures that have also implications for the technique used as well as for the quality of the bond. Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems generally perform better on enamel than self-etching systems which may be more suitable for bonding to dentine. In order to avoid a possible loss of the restoration, secondary caries or pulp damage due to bacteria penetration or due to cytotoxicity effects of eluted adhesive components, careful consideration of several factors is essential in selecting the suitable bonding procedure and adhesive system for the individual patient situation.

  3. Dental erosion: understanding this pervasive condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Júnio S; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Araujo, Edson; Widmer, Nicolas

    2011-08-01

    Dental erosion is a contemporary disease, mostly because of the change of the eating patterns that currently exist in society. It is a "silent" and multifactorial disease, and is highly influenced by habits and lifestyles. The prevalence of dental erosion has considerably increased, with this condition currently standing as a great challenge for the clinician, regarding the diagnosis, identification of the etiological factors, prevention, and execution of an adequate treatment. This article presents a dental erosion review and a case report of a restorative treatment of dental erosion lesions using a combination of bonded ceramic overlays to reestablish vertical dimension and composite resin to restore the worn palatal and incisal surfaces of the anterior upper teeth. Adequate function and esthetics can be achieved with this approach. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clareamento Dental

    OpenAIRE

    Sossai, Najara; Universidade Paranaense - UNIPAR; Verdinelli, Ellen Carla; Universidade Paranaense - UNIPAR; Bassegio, Wagner; Universidade Paranaense - UNIPAR

    2011-01-01

    O clareamento dental já é utilizado há bastante tempo na Odontologia e atualmente é um dos tratamentos odontológicos mais solicitados para obtenção de um sorriso mais estético. Classificado em clareamento caseiro e/ou de consultório, ambas as técnicas são motivo de polêmica quanto aos seus benefícios, riscos, limitações e efeito clareador, bem como sobre qual é a melhor técnica existente para a promoção de um clareamento dental eficaz e seguro. Neste contexto, o presente estudo tem por objeti...

  5. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ... to find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring ...

  6. American Dental Education Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interest Groups ADEA Governance Documents and Publications ADEA Dental Faculty Code of Conduct ADEA Bylaws ADEAGies Foundation ... Benefits for Faculty ADEA Member Benefits for Allied Dental Programs ADEA Member Benefits for Dental Schools ADEA ...

  7. Various Effects of Sandblasting of Dental Restorative Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Nishigawa

    Full Text Available Sandblasting particles which remain on the surfaces of dental restorations are removed prior to cementation. It is probable that adhesive strength between luting material and sandblasting particle remnants might exceed that with restorative material. If that being the case, blasting particles adhere to sandblasted material surface could be instrumental to increasing adhesive strength like underlying bonding mechanism between luting material and silanized particles of tribochemical silica coating-treated surface. We hypothesize that ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces, which were pretreated with sandblasting, may affect adhesive strength of a resin luting material to dental restorative materials.We therefore observed adhesive strength of resin luting material to aluminum oxide was greater than those to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy beforehand. To measure the shear bond strengths of resin luting material to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, forty specimens of each restorative material were prepared. Bonding surfaces were polished with silicon abrasive paper and then treated with sandblasting. For each restorative material, 40 sandblasted specimens were equally divided into two groups: ultrasonic cleaning (USC group and non-ultrasonic cleaning (NUSC group. After resin luting material was polymerized on bonding surface, shear test was performed to evaluate effect of ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces pretreated with sandblasting on bond strength.For both zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, NUSC group showed significantly higher shear bond strength than USC group.Ultrasonic cleaning of dental restorations after sandblasting should be avoided to retain improved bonding between these materials.

  8. Dental Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  9. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the Orthobond composite under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded with Orthobond composite (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil under different enamel surface conditions. Methods: Ninety bovine mandibular permanent incisors were divided into six groups (n = 15. In Group 1 (control and Group 2 the bonding procedures were performed by using Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA and Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil composites,respectively, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. In the other groups brackets were bonded with Orthobond composite (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil as follows: Group 3 – dental surface conditioned with Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA; Group 4 – bonding procedure without application of Orthoprimer (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil; Group 5 - Eagle Bond applied on saliva/blood-contaminated dental surface; and Group 6 – use of homogenized Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil. After bonding the brackets, all the samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests by means of an Emic Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results obtained in mega Pascal (MPa were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA and then to the Tukey test. Results: The results in mega Pascal showed statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 (p= 0.041, 1 and 5 (p=0.000 and between 4 and 5 (p=0.016. The ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index scores showed evidence of a higher number of fractures at the bracket/composite interface. Conclusion: In all tested situations the Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil was shown to be apt for bracket bonding.

  10. Danish dental education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....

  11. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  12. Shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets: an in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Ali H

    2010-01-01

    Ali H HassanDepartment of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer relative to that of noncoated conventionally-bonded brackets at two different time intervals.Methods: Twenty-one subjects were selected for randomized split-mouth bonding of two types of brackets to the maxillary arch. Half of the teeth had precoated brackets b...

  13. Dental students--dental advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future.

  14. Dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhdar, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiography must comply with the same regulations with which conventional radiography complies. Radiation doses to individual patients are low but, because of the large number of patients X-rayed, the collective dose to the population is not negligible. Care in siting and regular maintenance of the equipment will reduce doses to both staff and patients. To produce X-ray films with a good image quality using a low radiation dose requires attention to film processing; this is often a neglected area. (Author)

  15. Dental erozyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; Yönel, N.; Çetiner, S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erozyon, plak içermeyen diş yüzeyleri üzerinde içsel ve dışsal asitlerin veya şelatların etkileriyle oluşan kimyasal bir aşınmadır. İçsel ve/veya dışsal kaynaklar nedensel faktörler olarak tanımlanırken tükürük ve pelikıl gibi biyolojik faktörler, yeme ve içme alışkanlıkları ve ağız hijyeni

  16. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    Undervisningsmateriale. A bond is a debt security, similar to an ”I Owe You document” (IOU). When you purchase a bond, you are lending money to a government, municipality, corporation, federal agency or other entity known as the issuer. In return for the loan, the issuer promises to pay you...... a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...... securities and foreign government bonds....

  17. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  18. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  19. Longevity of Self-etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives Compared to Etch-and-rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwa, Nader; Mohamed, Ahmed; Abou-Rabii, Iyad; Abu Zaghlan, Rawan; Steier, Liviu

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare longevity of Self-Etch Dentin Bonding Adhesives to Etch-and-Rinse Dentin Bonding Adhesives. The following databases were searched for PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library complemented by a manual search of the Journal of Adhesive Dentistry. The MESH keywords used were: "etch and rinse," "total etch," "self-etch," "dentin bonding agent," "bond durability," and "bond degradation." Included were in-vitro experimental studies performed on human dental tissues of sound tooth structure origin. The examined Self-Etch Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and One Step Self-Etch Bonds, while Etch-and-Rinse Bonds were of two subtypes; Two Steps and Three Steps. The included studies measured micro tensile bond strength (μTBs) to evaluate bond strength and possible longevity of both types of dental adhesives at different times. The selected studies depended on water storage as the aging technique. Statistical analysis was performed for outcome measurements compared at 24 h, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of water storage. After 24 hours (p-value = 0.051), 3 months (p-value = 0.756), 6 months (p-value=0.267), 12 months (p-value=0.785) of water storage self-etch adhesives showed lower μTBs when compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesives, but the comparisons were statistically insignificant. In this study, longevity of Dentin Bonds was related to the measured μTBs. Although Etch-and-Rinse bonds showed higher values at all times, the meta-analysis found no difference in longevity of the two types of bonds at the examined aging times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects of surface treatment and adhesive application on shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinghui; Wu, Buling; Sun, Fengyang

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of sandblasting and different orthodontic adhesives on shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel. Zirconia ceramic samples were designed and manufactured for 40 extracted human maxillary first premolars with CAD/CAM system. The samples were randomized into 4 groups for surface treatment with sandblasting and non-treated with adhesives of 3M Transbond XT or Jingjin dental enamel bonding resin. After 24 h of bonded fixation, the shear bond strengths were measured by universal mechanical testing machine and analyzed with factorial variance analysis. The shear bond strength was significantly higher in sandblasting group than in untreated group (Padhesives of Transbond XT and dental enamel bonding resin (P>0.05). The shear bond strength between zirconia and enamel is sufficient after sandblasting regardless of the application of either adhesive.

  1. Dilemmas in zirconia bonding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on the resin bond to zirconia ceramic. Modern esthetic dentistry has highly recognized zirconia, among other ceramic materials. Biocompatibility of zirconia, chemical and dimensional stability, excellent mechanical properties, all together could guarantee optimal therapeutical results in complex prosthodontic reconstruction. On the other hand, low thermal degradation, aging of zirconia as well as problematic bonding of zirconia framework to dental luting cements and tooth structures, opened the room for discussion concerning their clinical durability. The well known methods of mechanical and chemical bonding used on glass-ceramics are not applicable for use with zirconia. Therefore, under critical clinical situations, selection of the bonding mechanism should be focused on two important points: high initial bond strength value and long term bond strength between zirconia-resin interface. Also, this paper emphases the use of phosphate monomer luting cements on freshly air-abraded zirconia as the simplest and most effective way for zirconia cementation procedure today.

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopic study on the electronic structures of the dental gold alloys and their interaction with L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Koji; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Azuma, Junpei; Kamada, Masao; Tsujibayashi, Toru; Ichimiya, Masayoshi; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Sumimoto, Michinori

    2011-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of the dental gold alloys, type 1, type 3, and K14, and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. It is suggested that the new peak observed around 2 eV for the L-cysteine thin films on all the dental alloys may be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces, and the Cu-S bond, as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds, may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on the alloys.

  3. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and

  4. Electronic structure of the L-cysteine films on dental alloys studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K; Takahashi, K; Azuma, J; Kamada, M; Tsujibayashi, T; Ichimiya, M

    2013-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of the dental alloys, type 1, type 3, K14, and MC12 and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The electronic states of the MC12 dental alloy originate dominantly from Cu 3d states and Pd 4d states around the top of the valence bands, while the 4∼7-eV electronic structure of MC12 originates from the Ag 4d states. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. For the L-cysteine thin films, new peak or structure observed around 2 eV on all the dental alloys is suggested to be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces. The Cu-S bond as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on type 1, type 3 and K14. For MC12, the interaction with L-cysteine may be dominantly due to the Pd-S, Cu-S, and Ag-O bonds, while the contribution of the Ag-S bond is small.

  5. Joining Dental Ceramic Layers With Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, MA; Lloyd, IK; Haller, WK; Lawn, BR

    2011-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that glass-bonding of free-form veneer and core ceramic layers can produce robust interfaces, chemically durable and aesthetic in appearance and, above all, resistant to delamination. Methods Layers of independently produced porcelains (NobelRondo™ Press porcelain, Nobel BioCare AB and Sagkura Interaction porcelain, Elephant Dental) and matching alumina or zirconia core ceramics (Procera alumina, Nobel BioCare AB, BioZyram yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Cyrtina Dental) were joined with designed glasses, tailored to match thermal expansion coefficients of the components and free of toxic elements. Scanning electron microprobe analysis was used to characterize the chemistry of the joined interfaces, specifically to confirm interdiffusion of ions. Vickers indentations were used to drive controlled corner cracks into the glass interlayers to evaluate the toughness of the interfaces. Results The glass-bonded interfaces were found to have robust integrity relative to interfaces fused without glass, or those fused with a resin-based adhesive. Significance The structural integrity of the interfaces between porcelain veneers and alumina or zirconia cores is a critical factor in the longevity of all-ceramic dental crowns and fixed dental prostheses. PMID:21802131

  6. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  7. Dental Care in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Care in Scleroderma People living with scleroderma face unique challenges while trying to maintain their oral ... They are more likely to be affected by dental conditions such as small mouth, dry mouth, jaw ...

  8. American Dental Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CE providers and find CE courses. Commission on Dental Accreditation Explore CODA's role and find accredited schools and programs Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations Learn about the examinations used in licensing ...

  9. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes: Dental Tips For more copies contact: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Oral Health Information Clearinghouse ... damage the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place and may lead to painful chewing ...

  10. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now Autumn Giving: ‘Fall’ into the Future of Dental Hygiene Support the Institute for Oral Health! Give ... best for your patients! Learn More Sidebar Menu Dental Hygiene Programs Continuing Education Career Center Annual Conference ...

  11. Dental Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview and documents for Dental Office Category regulation (40 CFR Part 441); comprising pretreatment standards for discharges of dental amalgam pollutants, including mercury, into publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).

  12. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  13. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  14. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home Research Data & Statistics Share Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic disease ... adults, even though it is largely preventable. Although caries has significantly decreased for most Americans over the ...

  15. Bonding with Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the future bonding of the child and parent. Adoptive parents may be concerned about bonding with their ... general emotional support. And it's OK to ask family members and friends for help in the days — ...

  16. Effect of a New Surface Treatment Solution on the Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright owner...Solution on the Bond Strength of Composite to Enamel ABSTRACT Clean & Boost (Apex Dental Materials) is a novel surface treatment solution...designed to be used in place of phosphoric acid to increase the bond strength of self-etch adhesives to enamel and more effectively remove contaminants

  17. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  18. Stress Among Dental Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Alzahem (Abdullah)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Dental students are facing many stressors in dental education, causing many negative outcomes. The most common are the exams and the clinical requirements. We suggest exposing the dental students to patient care as early as possible in their curriculum. This can help to

  19. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  20. Marketing Dental Services | Tuominen | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Marketing Dental Services. R Tuominen. Abstract. No Abstract.

  1. Dental Radiographs Ordered by Dental Professionals: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Even in resource limited settings dental caries is still the regular indication for taking dental radiographs, and periapical views are the most frequent type of radiograph ordered. Maxillary central incisors and mandibular molars were types of teeth commonly x-rayed mainly due to the aesthetic importance of the ...

  2. Bioactive and inert dental glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2017-02-01

    The global market for dental materials is predicted to exceed 10 billion dollars by 2020. The main drivers for this growth are easing the workflow of dentists and increasing the comfort of patients. Therefore, remarkable research projects have been conducted and are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties or that can be processed using advanced technologies, such as CAD/CAM or 3D printing. Among these materials, zirconia, glass or polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and glass-ceramics (GCs) are of great importance. Dental glass-ceramics are highly attractive because they are easy to process and have outstanding esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth, and, in certain cases, these materials are bioactive. In this review article, we divide dental GCs into the following two groups: restorative and bioactive. Most restorative dental glass-ceramics (RDGCs) are inert and biocompatible and are used in the restoration and reconstruction of teeth. Bioactive dental glass-ceramics (BDGCs) display bone-bonding ability and stimulate positive biological reactions at the material/tissue interface. BDGCs are suggested for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, implant coating, bone regeneration and periodontal therapy. Throughout this paper, we elaborate on the history, processing, properties and applications of RDGCs and BDGCs. We also report on selected papers that address promising types of dental glass-ceramics. Finally, we include trends and guidance on relevant open issues and research possibilities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 619-639, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Phenylacetylene and H bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... all resembling H bonds. Non-linear H bonds due to secondary interactions. C-H stretching frequency shows blue shift. Heavy atom distances are longer than the sum of van der Waals radii. Formed a task group through IUPAC to come up with a modern definition of H bond. 15 international experts including Desiraju.

  4. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  5. Clinical Bonding of Resin Nano Ceramic Restorations to Zirconia Abutments : A Case Series within a Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepke, Ulf; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Cune, Marco S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: New dental materials are introduced and promoted in the field without extensive clinical testing. Using those materials in a clinical setting might result in unacceptable early failure rates. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to analyze bonding of a new dental restorative material

  6. All-ceramic crowns: bonding or cementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Peter

    2002-12-01

    Despite the wide variety of all-ceramic systems available today, the majority of dental practitioners hesitate to recommend and insert all-ceramic crowns. This article regards the nature of the ceramic materials, the principles of bonding and adhesion, and the clinical problems of the acid-etch technique for crowns. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and the influences of different factors on the strength of all-ceramic crowns are presented. Finally, the conclusion is drawn that conventional cementing of all-ceramic crowns is possible when the specific properties of the ceramics are taken into consideration.

  7. Dental education in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.

  8. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  9. Effect of Storage Time on Bond Strength and Nanoleakage Expression of Universal Adhesives Bonded to Dentin and Etched Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishi, P; André, C B; Ayres, Apa; Martins, A L; Giannini, M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate bond strength and nanoleakage expression of universal adhesives (UA) bonded to dentin and etched enamel. Extracted human third molars were sectioned and ground to obtain flat surfaces of dentin (n = 36) and enamel (n = 48). Dentin and etched enamel surfaces were bonded with one of two UAs, All-Bond Universal (ABU) or Scotchbond Universal (SBU); or a two-step self-etching adhesive, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB). A hydrophobic bonding resin, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Bond (ASMP Bond) was applied only on etched enamel. Following each bonding procedure, resin composite blocks were built up incrementally. The specimens were sectioned and subjected to microtensile bond strength (MTBS) testing after 24 hours or one year water storage, or immersed into ammoniacal silver nitrate solution after aging with 10,000 thermocycles and observed using scanning electron microscopy. The percentage distribution of silver particles at the adhesive/tooth interface was calculated using digital image-analysis software. The MTBS (CSEB = SBU > ABU, for dentin; and CSEB > ABU = SBU = ASMP Bond, for etched enamel) differed significantly between the adhesives after 24 hours. After one year, MTBS values were reduced significantly within the same adhesive for both substrates (analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc, padhesives for etched enamel. Silver particles could be detected within the adhesive/dentin interface of all specimens tested. Kruskal-Wallis mean ranks for nanoleakage in ABU, SBU, and CSEB were 16.9, 18.5 and 11, respectively (p>0.05). In the short term, MTBS values were material and dental-substrate dependent. After aging, a decrease in bonding effectiveness was observed in all materials, with nanoleakage at the adhesive/dentin interface. The bonding of the UAs was equal or inferior to that of the conventional restorative systems when applied to either substrate and after either storage period.

  10. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  11. 75 FR 33169 - Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    .... FDA-2008-N-0163] (formerly Docket No. 2001N-0067) RIN 0910-AG21 Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation of Special Controls for Dental Amalgam... the Federal Register of August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38686) which classified dental amalgam as a class II...

  12. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  13. Case based dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is quickly becoming integral to the standard of care in veterinary dentistry. This is not only because it is critical for proper patient care, but also because client expectations have increased. Furthermore, providing dental radiographs as a routine service can create significant practice income. This article details numerous conditions that are indications for dental radiographs. As you will see, dental radiographs are often critical for proper diagnosis and treatment. These conditions should not be viewed as unusual; they are present within all of our practices. When you choose not to radiograph these teeth, you leave behind painful pathology. Utilizing the knowledge gained from dental radiographs will both improve patient care and increase acceptance of treatment recommendations. Consequently, this leads to increased numbers of dental procedures performed at your practice.

  14. The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dental anaesthesia should not be underestimated. Eddie Oosthuizen .... dental surgeon has limited training in airway management. ... primary teeth to hours for extensive dental conservation .... options after the extraction of permanent teeth ...

  15. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  16. Dental radiology for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation

  17. Dental magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilgenfeld, Tim; Bendszus, Martin; Haehnel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Growing distribution and utilization of digital volume tomography (DVT) extend the spectrum of clinical dental imaging. Additional diagnostic value, however, comes along with an increasing amount of radiation. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging is a radiation free imaging technique. Furthermore, it offers a high soft tissue contrast. Morphological and numerical dental anomalies, differentiation of periapical lesions and exclusion of complications of dental diseases are field of applications for dental MRI. In addition, detection of caries and periodontal lesions and injury of inferior alveolar nerve are promising application areas in the future.

  18. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  19. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...

  20. Bonding strategies for MIH-affected enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Norbert; Bui Khac, Ngoc-Han Nana; Lücker, Susanne; Stachniss, Vitus; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate resin composite adhesion to dental hard tissues affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). 94 freshly extracted human molars and incisors (53 suffering MIH) were used. 68 teeth (35 with MIH) were used for μ-TBS tests in enamel and dentin, 26 (18 with MIH) for qualitative evaluation. Specimens were bonded with Clearfil SE Bond, Scotchbond Universal, and OptiBond FL. For MIH affected enamel, additional OptiBond FL groups with NaOCl and NaOCl+Icon were investigated. Beside fractographic analysis, also qualitative evaluations were performed using SEM at different magnifications as well as histological sectioning. Highest μ-TBS values were recorded with dentin specimens (ANOVA, mod. LSD, p0.05). Pre-test failures did not occur in dentin specimens. Sound enamel specimens exhibited significantly higher μ-TBS values than MIH enamel (p0.05), however, it caused less pre-test failures (pMIH enamel is the limiting factor in adhesion to MIH teeth. MIH-affected dentin may be bonded conventionally. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adhesive bone bonding prospects for lithium disilicate ceramic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila Thirugnanam, Sakthi Kumar

    Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) implants articulating mandible with temporal bone in humans have a very high failure rate. Metallic TMJ implants available in the medical market are not osseointegrated, but bond only by mechanical interlocking using screws which may fail, mandating a second surgery for removal. Stress concentration around fixture screws leads to aseptic loosening or fracture of the bone. It has been proposed that this problem can be overcome by using an all-ceramic TMJ implant bonded to bone with dental adhesives. Structural ceramics are promising materials with an excellent track record in the field of dentis.

  2. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  3. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  4. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  5. Bioinspired Catecholic Primers for Rigid and Ductile Dental Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eeseul; Ju, Sung Won; An, Larry; Ahn, Eungjin; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Kim, Byeong-Su; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2018-01-17

    In the construction of dental restorative polymer composite materials, surface priming on mineral fillers is essential to improve the mechanical performance of the composites. Here we present bioinspired catechol-functionalized primers for a tougher dental resin composite containing glass fillers. The catecholic primers with different polymerizable end groups were designed and then coated on glass surfaces using a simple drop-casting or dip-coating process. The surface binding ability and possible cross-linking (coupling or chemical bridging between the glass substrate and the dental resin) of the catecholic bifunctional primers were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements, and the knife shear bonding test and compared to a state-of-the-art silane-based coupling agent. Various mechanical tests including shrinkage and compression tests of the dental resin composites were also conducted. Compression tests of the composites containing the catecholic primed fillers exhibited enhanced mechanical properties, owing to the bidentate hydrogen bonding of catechol moieties to the oxide mineral surface. Furthermore, the superior biocompatibility of the primed surface was confirmed via cell attachment assay, thus providing applicability of catecholic primers for practical dental and biomedical applications.

  6. Tanzania Dental Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...

  7. Nigerian Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... needs of dental practitioners in Nigeria, Africa and international community interested in the dental practice in the developing world. The NDJ is published biannually and accepts reports of original research, review articles, clinical case reports and innovations in surgical techniques related to dentistry and allied subjects ...

  8. Acute dental pain II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Peter; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Rosen, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Acute dental pain most often occurs in relation to inflammatory conditions in the dental pulp or in the periradicular tissues surrounding a tooth, but it is not always easy to reach a diagnose and determine what treatment to perform. The anamnesis and the clinical examination provide valuable...

  9. Patients' satisfaction with dental care provided by public dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Tanzania, patient satisfaction with dental services has received only minor attention. Objective: To assess patients' satisfaction with public dental health services in Dar es Salaam. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Five public dental clinics randomly selected from a list of all the nine public dental ...

  10. Dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalence among 12 and 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fluoride is a double edged sword. The assessment of dental caries and fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas will facilitate in assessing the relation between fluoride concentrations in water with dental caries, dental fluorosis simultaneously. Aim: The objective of the following study is to assess the dental caries ...

  11. Awareness of dental implants among dental patients in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness of dental implant in Nigerian patients and their willingness to choose dental implant as a tooth replacement option. A survey was conducted among patients presenting for dental treatment in 3 teaching hospitals and private dental clinics in 3 urban cities of ...

  12. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Electronic structures of the L-cysteine film on dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: e7141@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Tsujibayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Osaka Dental University, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Takahashi, K.; Azuma, J. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Kakimoto, K. [Department of Geriatric Dentistry, Osaka Dental University, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Kamada, M. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The electronic structures of dental alloys and L-cysteine film were studied by PES. {yields} The density of states in the dental alloy originates from Au and Cu as constituents. {yields} The Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. {yields} The electronic structure of L-cysteine thin film is different from the thick film. {yields} The bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states are formed at the interface. - Abstract: Metal-organic interfaces have been attracting continuous attention in many fields including basic biosciences. The surface of dental alloys could be one of such interfaces since they are used in a circumstance full of organic compounds such as proteins and bacteria. In this work, electronic structures of Au-dominant dental alloys, which have Ag and Cu besides Au, and those of L-cysteine on the dental alloys have been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the density of states in the dental alloy originate from gold and copper as constituents, and the Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. It was also found that the electronic structure of the L-cysteine thin film on the dental alloy is different from that of the L-cysteine thick film. The result indicates the formation of the orbital bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states in the thin film on the dental alloy.

  14. Electronic structures of the L-cysteine film on dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Tsujibayashi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Azuma, J.; Kakimoto, K.; Kamada, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The electronic structures of dental alloys and L-cysteine film were studied by PES. → The density of states in the dental alloy originates from Au and Cu as constituents. → The Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. → The electronic structure of L-cysteine thin film is different from the thick film. → The bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states are formed at the interface. - Abstract: Metal-organic interfaces have been attracting continuous attention in many fields including basic biosciences. The surface of dental alloys could be one of such interfaces since they are used in a circumstance full of organic compounds such as proteins and bacteria. In this work, electronic structures of Au-dominant dental alloys, which have Ag and Cu besides Au, and those of L-cysteine on the dental alloys have been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the density of states in the dental alloy originate from gold and copper as constituents, and the Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. It was also found that the electronic structure of the L-cysteine thin film on the dental alloy is different from that of the L-cysteine thick film. The result indicates the formation of the orbital bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states in the thin film on the dental alloy.

  15. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... produce dental materials such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental... materials such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other... Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental Specialities, Formally Known as Customedix...

  16. Bond markets in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Mu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on government securities and corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to better institutions and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to smaller fiscal deficits, higher interest rate spreads, exchange rate volatility, and current and capital account openness. Corporate bond market capitalization is directly linked to economic size, the level of development of the economy and financial markets, better institutions, and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to higher interest rate spreads and current account openness. Policy implications follow.

  17. Handbook of wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V

    2011-01-01

    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  18. Diffusion bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of diffusion bonding at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the gold/gold or gold/indium joints made between metallized alumina ceramic parts in the vacuum switch tube and the crystal resonator programs. Fixtures which use the differential expansion of dissimilar metals are described and compared to one that uses hydraulic pressure to apply the necessary bonding force

  19. Dental Anomalies: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE, enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.

  20. Shear bond strength of resin composite bonded with two adhesives: Influence of Er: YAG laser irradiation distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Farzaneh; Birang, Reza; Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Hourmehr, Zahra; Kazemi, Shantia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental surfaces prepared with different Er:YAG laser distance may have different characteristics compared with those prepared with conventional instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation distance from enamel and dentin surfaces on the shear bond strength of composite with self-etch and etch and rinse bonding systems compared with conventional preparation method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred caries-free human third molars were randomly divided into twenty groups (n = 10). Ten groups were designated for enamel surface (E1-E10) and ten for dentin surface (D1-D10). Er: YAG laser (2940 nm) was used on the E1-E8 (240 mJ, 25 Hz) and D1-D8 (140 mJ, 30 Hz) groups at four different distances of 0.5 (standard), 2, 4 and 11 mm. Control groups (E9, E10, D9 and D10) were ground with medium grit diamond bur. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into two subgroups that were bonded with either Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond. Resin composite (Z100) was dispensed on prepared dentin and enamel. The shear bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by SPSS12 statistical software using three way analysis of variance, Tukey and independent t-test. P enamel and dentin substrates (P enamel surfaces (in both bonding agent subgroups) and on dentin surfaces (in the Single Bond subgroup). Conclusion: Laser irradiation decreases shear bond strength. Irradiation distance affects shear bond strength and increasing the distance would decrease the negative effects of laser irradiation. PMID:25540665

  1. Equine dental advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S K

    2001-08-01

    The reintroduction and development of safe motorized instruments, the increased availability of continuing education, and the understanding and implementation of appropriate procedures allow practitioners to provide better dental care. Veterinarians realize that sedation, analgesia, a full-mouth speculum, and proper instrumentation are necessary to provide these services. Continued instrument design, future research, and new treatment and prophylactic protocols should have a positive impact on the future of equine dental health. New and rediscovered procedures for equilibrating equine occlusion are allowing horses to masticate more efficiently, carry a bit more comfortably, and experience improved performance. The horse, the horse owner, and the veterinary profession all benefit from providing complete equine dental care.

  2. Dental biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    and cause gingival inflammation and breakdown of supporting periodontal fibers and bone and ultimately tooth loss, i.e., gingivitis, chronic or aggressive periodontitis, and around dental implants, peri-implantitis. Furthermore, bacteria from the dental biofilm may spread to other parts of the body......-fermenting bacteria causing demineralization of teeth, dental caries, which may further lead to inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and periapical region, i.e., pulpitis and periapical periodontitis. In supra- and subgingival biofilms, predominantly gram-negative, anaerobic proteolytic bacteria will colonize...

  3. Dental Trauma Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment for traumatic dental injuries are very complex owing to the multiple trauma entities represented by six luxation types and nine fracture types affecting both the primary and the permanent dentition. When it is further considered that fracture and luxation injuries are often...... problems in selecting proper treatment for some of these trauma types. To remedy this situation, an Internet-based knowledge base consisting of 4000 dental trauma cases with long-term follow up is now available to the public and the professions on the Internet using the address http://www.Dental...

  4. Optimization of dental implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  5. Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.

  6. Dental education in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, J M

    2003-01-01

    For a long time there has been a need to establish a dental school in Kuwait, due to the fact that the majority of dentists working in Kuwait are expatriates from various countries. An Amiri decree in 1996 made it possible, and the first dental students were admitted to the Kuwait University Faculty of Dentistry in 1998. The mission of the Faculty of Dentistry is 'to promote oral health in Kuwait through education, research and cooperation with other professional health care institutions as well as the community at large'. A 6.5-year dental curriculum was completed after 2 years of committee work and was accepted by the University Council in 2001. This curriculum incorporates current trends in medical and dental education, such as the evidence-based and community-based approaches, problem-solving methodology for outcome-based learning, and competency achieved through comprehensive patient care. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  8. Advances in dental imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J E

    2001-04-01

    The number of dental radiographs taken in the UK has steadily increased over the past 20 years--recently estimating around 18 million taken in the general dental services alone, and dental radiographs now account for nearly 25% of all medical radiographic exposures. Radiographs remain our most useful diagnostic aid. Their strength is in demonstrating hard tissue pathology, which makes radiographs particularly effective in the maxillofacial region. Although well accepted in this capacity, there remain a number of limitations and drawbacks to conventional radiographs which recent developments have begun to overcome. There have been improvements in the scope and capabilities of dental imaging equipment. There has also been a continuing effort to reduce radiation-induced harm by limiting our exposure to it. This has been possible both through the introduction of new methods and protocols for reducing individual radiation exposures and by the creation of guidelines for selecting radiographs more effectively and thereby reducing the total number of radiographs taken.

  9. Glossary of Dental Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more... Coffee and Doughnuts: A Disastrous Combo for Teeth? The sugars in doughnuts have been identified as ... More print this article enlarge text Glossary of Dental Terms Oral Health Defined Amalgam silver/mercury alloy ...

  10. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002213.htm Dental care - child To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Proper care of your child's teeth and gums includes brushing and rinsing daily. It ...

  11. Dental Exam for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks associated with tobacco, substance abuse and oral piercings. Why it's done Regular dental exams help protect ... sugary beverages Smoking Chewing tobacco Eating disorders Oral piercings Not wearing a mouthguard during contact sports The ...

  12. Nigerian Dental Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS The Nigerian Dental ... review articles, clinical case reports and innovations in surgical techniques ... figures and illustrations, including one copy stored in a 3.5” floppy should be sent to ...

  13. Dental Assisting Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the dental assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  14. Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Adhesive Oxides on the Metal-Ceramic Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Enghardt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the influence of selected base metals, which act as oxide formers, on the metal-ceramic bond of dental veneer systems. Using ion implantation techniques, ions of Al, In and Cu were introduced into near-surface layers of a noble metal alloy containing no base metals. A noble metal alloy with base metals added for oxide formation was used as a reference. Both alloys were coated with a low-temperature fusing dental ceramic. Specimens without ion implantation or with Al2O3 air abrasion were used as controls. The test procedures comprised the Schwickerath shear bond strength test (ISO 9693-1, profile height (surface roughness measurements (ISO 4287; ISO 4288; ISO 25178, scanning electron microscopy (SEM imaging, auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Ion implantation resulted in no increase in bond strength. The highest shear bond strengths were achieved after oxidation in air and air abrasion with Al2O3 (41.5 MPa and 47.8 MPa respectively. There was a positive correlation between shear bond strength and profile height. After air abrasion, a pronounced structuring of the surface occurred compared to ion implantation. The established concentration shifts in alloy and ceramic could be reproduced. However, their positive effects on shear bond strength were not confirmed. The mechanical bond appears to be of greater importance for metal-ceramic bonding.

  15. Panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Kircher, D.R.; Hart, F.W.; Ciavattoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for improving the handling rate of patients in panoramic dental radiography when tube head-camera assembly of a low silhouette panoramic dental X-ray machine is rotated for a scan in one direction only. This is effected by fast return of the tube head-camera assembly with its simultaneous elevation, thus facilitating the radiographed patient's exit from the machine and the entrance of another patient. Fast speed is about twice the scanning speed. (author)

  16. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  17. Interstellar hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the first extensive study of the existence and effects of interstellar hydrogen bonding. The reactions that occur on the surface of the interstellar dust grains are the dominant processes by which interstellar molecules are formed. Water molecules constitute about 70% of the interstellar ice. These water molecules serve as the platform for hydrogen bonding. High level quantum chemical simulations for the hydrogen bond interaction between 20 interstellar molecules (known and possible) and water are carried out using different ab-intio methods. It is evident that if the formation of these species is mainly governed by the ice phase reactions, there is a direct correlation between the binding energies of these complexes and the gas phase abundances of these interstellar molecules. Interstellar hydrogen bonding may cause lower gas abundance of the complex organic molecules (COMs) at the low temperature. From these results, ketenes whose less stable isomers that are more strongly bonded to the surface of the interstellar dust grains have been observed are proposed as suitable candidates for astronomical observations.

  18. Porous Titanium for Dental Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena J. Wally

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing amount of research has focused on the biological and mechanical behavior of highly porous structures of metallic biomaterials, as implant materials for dental implants. Particularly, pure titanium and its alloys are typically used due to their outstanding mechanical and biological properties. However, these materials have high stiffness (Young’s modulus in comparison to that of the host bone, which necessitates careful implant design to ensure appropriate distribution of stresses to the adjoining bone, to avoid stress-shielding or overloading, both of which lead to bone resorption. Additionally, many coating and roughening techniques are used to improve cell and bone-bonding to the implant surface. To date, several studies have revealed that porous geometry may be a promising alternative to bulk structures for dental implant applications. This review aims to summarize the evidence in the literature for the importance of porosity in the integration of dental implants with bone tissue and the different fabrication methods currently being investigated. In particular, additive manufacturing shows promise as a technique to control pore size and shape for optimum biological properties.

  19. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  20. Effect of storage time, thermocycling and resin coating on durability of dentin bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Along with development of different dental adhesives, concerns about hydrolytic deg-radation of the adhesive components have arisen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro influence of thermocycling, water storage and resin coating on the microshear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems to dentin. Methods:The superficial coronal dentin of eighty intact third molars were exposed and divided into 5 equal groups. Dental adhesives including Scotch Bond Multi Purpose (SBMP, Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Prompt L-Pop (PLP, and Prompt L-Pop plus Margin bond (PLPM were applied according to the manufacturers′ instructions on prepared surfaces in the study groups, respectively. Then composite cylinders were bonded and specimens were divided into two subgroups. One subgroup was stored in water for 24 hours. The second subgroup was subjected to 3000 thermocycle shocks and then was stored in 37°C water for 3 months. Finally, all teeth were subjected to the mi-croshear bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen similar to each subgroup was also prepared for SEM evaluation. Results:After one-day storage, the SBMP showed the highest bond strength followed by CSE, PLPM, SB and PLP. After three months storage, the highest bond strength was observed in SBMP followed by PLPM, CSE, SB, and PLP. Conclusion: SBMP showed the best bond strength while CSE represented acceptable bond durabil-ity. Resin coating on PLP improved bond strength and durability.

  1. Saliva and dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  2. Saliva and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Hannas, Angélicas Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  3. Managing dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Donald A; Jayanetti, Jay; Chu, Raymond; Staninec, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The clinical signs of dental erosion are initially subtle, yet often progress because the patient remains asymptomatic, unaware and uninformed. Erosion typically works synergistically with abrasion and attrition to cause loss of tooth structure, making diagnosis and management complex. The purpose of this article is to outline clinical examples of patients with dental erosion that highlight the strategy of early identification, patient education and conservative restorative management. Dental erosion is defined as the pathologic chronic loss of dental hard tissues as a result of the chemical influence of exogenous or endogenous acids without bacterial involvement. Like caries or periodontal disease, erosion has a multifactorial etiology and requires a thorough history and examination for diagnosis. It also requires patient understanding and compliance for improved outcomes. Erosion can affect the loss of tooth structure in isolation of other cofactors, but most often works in synergy with abrasion and attrition in the loss of tooth structure (Table 1). Although erosion is thought to be an underlying etiology of dentin sensitivity, erosion and loss of tooth structure often occurs with few symptoms. The purpose of this article is threefold: first, to outline existing barriers that may limit early management of dental erosion. Second, to review the clinical assessment required to establish a diagnosis of erosion. And third, to outline clinical examples that review options to restore lost tooth structure. The authors have included illustrations they hope will be used to improve patient understanding and motivation in the early management of dental erosion.

  4. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New Research AADSM Highlights Members More news... Dental Sleep Medicine: An area of dental practice that focuses on ... SomnoMed Silver Sponsors Copyright © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American Academy of Dental Sleep ...

  5. Dental patients' use of the Internet.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-19

    To determine the use of the Internet by patients attending a range of dental clinics to search for information regarding dental procedures, and also to investigate their interest in online dental consultations and \\'dental tourism\\'.

  6. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section...

  7. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, AD; Strafford, S; Posada-Estefan, O; Thomson, CL; Hussaein, SA; Edwards, TJ; Malinowski, M; Hondow, N; Metzger, NK; Brown, CTA; Routledge, MN; Brown, AP; Duggal, MS; Jha, A

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluat...

  8. Dental school finances: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, W H

    1986-05-01

    Total expenditures and revenues of 58 US dental school were derived from reports of the ADA Division of Educational Measurements. These financial data were studied by type of dental school (public, state-related private, and private) and by expenditure/revenue categories. Dental schools showed little diversity in expenditures: most were directed toward instruction; few were directed toward research or continuing education. Several distinctive patterns among the three types of dental schools in revenues were observed. Two configurations emerged: public and state-related private dental schools receive more than 75% of their revenues from government and tuition, and private dental schools, more than 50%.

  9. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  10. Continuing bonds and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Annika; Walter, Tony

    2017-08-01

    Where do people feel closest to those they have lost? This article explores how continuing bonds with a deceased person can be rooted in a particular place or places. Some conceptual resources are sketched, namely continuing bonds, place attachment, ancestral places, home, reminder theory, and loss of place. The authors use these concepts to analyze interview material with seven Swedes and five Britons who often thought warmly of the deceased as residing in a particular place and often performing characteristic actions. The destruction of such a place, by contrast, could create a troubling, haunting absence, complicating the deceased's absent-presence.

  11. Effect of Irradiation on the Shear Bond Strength of Self-adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-05

    Feb 5, 2016 ... changes in the crystalline structure of dental hard tissues. Keywords: Bond strength, irradiation, self-adhesive luting cement. Effect of Irradiation on the .... The metal ring was connected with the cross-head and loaded (speed 1 ...

  12. Bonding of Glass Ceramic and Indirect Composite to Non-aged and Aged Resin Composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Ozcan, Mutlu; Muis, Maarten; Kalk, Warner

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Since adhesion of the restorative materials to pre-polymerized or aged resin composites presents a challenge to the clinicians, existing restorations are often removed and remade prior to cementation of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). This study evaluated bond strength of non-aged and aged

  13. Effect of alloy type and surface conditioning on roughness and bond strength of metal brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nergiz, I.; Schmage, P.; Herrmann, W.; Ozcan, M.; Nergiz, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The effect of 5 different surface conditioning methods on bonding of metal brackets to cast dental alloys was examined. The surface conditioning methods were fine (30-µm) or rough (125-µm) diamond bur, sandblasting (50-µm or 110-µm aluminum oxide [Al2O3]), and silica coating (30-µm silica). Fifty

  14. Patient Satisfaction in Military Dental Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-07

    the variance in regards to overall satisfaction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dentistry, Patient Satisfaction, Military, Consumer Satisfaction, Dental... patient satisfaction in military dental treatment facilities. Dental health is extremely important for the military as dental assets are not always... customer satisfaction is an important component of military dental care. Quarterly patient satisfaction reports are generated for each dental treatment

  15. History of dental hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  16. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  17. Hand hygiene amongst dental professionals in a tertiary dental clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate hand washing attitude and practices among Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in a Nigerian Tertiary Dental Clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Dentists and Dental Students treating patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital was conducted between February ...

  18. Reasons for late seeking of dental care among dental patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for delayed reporting for oral care were negligence (53.5%); poor dental services or visited but not treated (19.4%); financial reasons (14.8%); and dental fear (12.3%). Seventy seven percent of respondents who had toothache due to advanced dental caries were aware that the aching tooth was decayed, of which, ...

  19. Diagnostic methods for dental caries used by private dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the preference profiles of various types of diagnostic tools and methods used by private dental practitioners in Ankara for detecting dental caries. Methods: Private dental practitioners, in five districts of Ankara, were provided with questionnaires comprising demographic ...

  20. Dental Education in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Dental education in the Netherlands is reviewed in terms of dental practice, overall development, structure and functioning of a typical school of dentistry, admissions, student finances, curriculum, certification, postgraduate education, and education for related professions. (MSE)

  1. Medical and Dental Patient Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A RadiationAnswers.org Ask the Experts Medical and Dental Patient Issues What's My Risk? The risks of ... developed by our topic editors for this category: Dental-Patient Issues Medical CT Reference Books and Articles ...

  2. Dental Care - Medicaid and Chip

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Dental health is an important part of peoples overall health. States are required to provide dental benefits to children covered by Medicaid and the Childrens Health...

  3. Dental modification in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Pia; Alexandersen, Verner

    2003-01-01

    Skeleton remains from Denmark, Greenland, Faeroe Islands, dental care, drillling in the past, tooth extraction......Skeleton remains from Denmark, Greenland, Faeroe Islands, dental care, drillling in the past, tooth extraction...

  4. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Health THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Kim, diagnosed in 1986 People with a chronic disease may neglect their general health and wellness, research shows. Dental care is no exception. A tendency to focus ...

  5. Dental plaque identification at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... a sticky substance that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where ...

  6. Radiation protection in dental practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides the dentist and dental support personnel with basic information on the safe use of x-rays in dental radiography. Included in this CODE are specific recommendations for eliminating unnecessary radiation exposure of both patients and staff

  7. Visualisation of dental images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin; Azuhar Ripin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Mohd Isa; Suriany Sarmid

    2005-01-01

    Since the invention and the discovery of x-rays, physicians, surgeons and life scientists have been using images to diagnose and subsequently treat diseases. X-ray is also widely used in many imaging techniques to better understand basics anatomy, physiology and biology as well as testing and analytical work in physical science. In dentistry, x-ray technique has been employed to get a panoramic view of the whole teeth of a particular patient. A panoramic dental radiograph is very useful in dentistry for diagnostic purpose, denture preparation, as well as for orthodontic. Image visualisation is an important aspect especially for the dentists to analyse and proceed with a particulate dental treatment. In this project panoramic dental image obtained by using a standard phantom is visualised by using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software. A panoramic dental x-ray machine, Cranex3, is used to get a panoramic radiograph, which is subsequently digitized, by using Vidar digitizer (Sierra Plus). The 2D digitized image is enhance and apply other visualising techniques such as surface rendering and volume rendering technique using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software as a first step in 3D visualisation. In this paper, visualising of panoramic dental radiograph by using IDL is discussed in brief. (Author)

  8. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  9. Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using different bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M A; Denehy, G E; Ratananakin, T

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using five different bonding agents: Amalgambond Plus, Optibond, Imperva Dual, All-Bond 2, and Clearfil Liner Bond. Flat dentin surfaces obtained by grinding the occlusal portion of 50 human third molars were used for this study. To contain the amalgam on the tooth surface, cylindrical plastic molds were placed on the dentin and secured with sticky wax. The bonding agents were then applied according to the manufacturers' instructions or light activated and Tytin amalgam was condensed into the plastic molds. The samples were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Analysis by one-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the five groups (P < 0.05). The bond strength of amalgam to dentin was significantly higher with Amalgambond Plus using the High-Performance Additive than with the other four bonding agents.

  10. Does dental caries affect dental development in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Elezi, Besiana; Kragt, Lea; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2018-01-01

    Although a link between dietary changes, caries, and dental development has been observed, the literature provides little insight about this relationship. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between dental caries and dental development in a clinical sample of Albanian children and adolescents. In total, 118 children and adolescents, born between 1995 and 2004 and aged 6–15 years, were included. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Filled Teeth (dft) index and dental caries in the permanent dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index. Dental development during the permanent dentition was determined using the Demirjian method. Linear and ordinal regression models were applied to analyze the associations of dental caries with dental age and developmental stages of each left mandibular tooth. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition, estimated as a median dft of 2.0 (90% range, 0.0–9.1), was significantly associated with lower dental age (β = -0.21; 90% CI: -0.29, -0.12) and with delayed development of the canine, both premolars, and the second molar. Untreated dental caries (dt) was associated with lower dental age (β = -0.19; 90% CI: -0.28, -0.10). Dental caries in the permanent dentition, estimated as a median DMFT of 1.0 (90% range, 0.0–8.0), was not significantly associated with dental age (β = 0.05; 90% CI: -0.04, 0.14). However, the DMFT was associated with the advanced stages of development of both premolars and the second molar. The untreated dental caries in the deciduous dentition delays the development of permanent teeth. PMID:29659350

  11. Convertible bond valuation focusing on Chinese convertible bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the methods of valuation of convertible bonds in Chinese market. Different from common convertible bonds in European market, considering the complicate features of Chinese convertible bond, this paper represents specific pricing approaches for pricing convertible bonds with different provisions along with the increment of complexity of these provisions. More specifically, this paper represents the decomposing method and binomial tree method for pricing both of Non-...

  12. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  13. The Primary Dental Care Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…

  14. Dental Hygiene Realpolitik Affecting Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Current conditions in dental hygiene influencing professional education are discussed. Workplace/practice issues include dental hygiene care as a component of dental practice, content, effects, and quality of care, hygienist supply and demand, and job satisfaction. Professional issues include the knowledge base, definitions of practice, and…

  15. 76 FR 14600 - Dental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... qualify for VHA dental treatment, including any claim for treatment of periodontal disease or calculus... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN28 Dental Conditions AGENCY: Department of... its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes...

  16. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  17. 77 FR 4469 - Dental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN28 Dental Conditions AGENCY: Department of... rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental... Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of...

  18. Dental therapists: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A; Friedman, Jay W; Kardos, Thomas B; Kardos, Rosemary L; Schwarz, Eli; Satur, Julie; Berg, Darren G; Nasruddin, Jaafar; Mumghamba, Elifuraha G; Davenport, Elizabeth S; Nagel, Ron

    2008-04-01

    In 1921, New Zealand began training school dental nurses, subsequently deploying them throughout the country in school-based clinics providing basic dental care for children. The concept of training dental nurses, later to be designated dental therapists, was adopted by other countries as a means of improving access to care, particularly for children. This paper profiles six countries that utilise dental therapists, with a description of the training that therapists receive in these countries, and the context in which they practice. Based on available demographic information, it also updates the number of dental therapists practising globally, as well as the countries in which they practice. In several countries, dental therapy is now being integrated with dental hygiene in training and practice to create a new type of professional complementary to a dentist. Increasingly, dental therapists are permitted to treat adults as well as children. The paper also describes the status of a current initiative to introduce dental therapy to the United States. It concludes by suggesting that dental therapists can become valued members of the dental team throughout the world, helping to improve access to care and reducing existing disparities in oral health.

  19. Stereoscopy in Dental Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Shumei; Verdonschot, Rinus G; Kreiborg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stereoscopy can play a meaningful role in dental education. The study used an anaglyph technique in which two images were presented separately to the left and right eyes (using red/cyan filters), which, combined in the brain, give enhanced depth...... perception. A positional judgment task was performed to assess whether the use of stereoscopy would enhance depth perception among dental students at Osaka University in Japan. Subsequently, the optimum angle was evaluated to obtain maximum ability to discriminate among complex anatomical structures. Finally...... practice, they did recognize its merits for education. These results suggest that using stereoscopic images in dental education can be quite valuable as stereoscopy greatly helped these students' understanding of the spatial relationships in complex anatomical structures....

  20. Risks from dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Tamara Goularte

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the risks and consequences of exposure to dental X-ray. The methodology used was the survey of bibliographic literature on this matter. First, we tried to understand the operation and characteristics of dental X-rays. Afterwards, we tried to know about the risks that this procedure offers to workers and patients. And concluded with the consequences of such exposure. The results showed that dental x-rays only offer risks in prolonged exposure, can affect the worker or patient to pathologies such as cancer or a life-time decreased due to the stochastic effect. Therefore, radiological protection standards must be respected and practised. (author)

  1. Dental implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, B

    2016-12-01

    A high number of patients have one or more missing tooth and it is estimated that one in four American subjects over the age of 74 have lost all their natural teeth. Many options exist to replace missing teeth but dental implants have become one of the most used biomaterial to replace one (or more) missing tooth over the last decades. Contemporary dental implants made with titanium have been proven safe and effective in large series of patients. This review considers the main historical facts concerned with dental implants and present the different critical factors that will ensure a good osseo-integration that will ensure a stable prosthesis anchorage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Dental formulations for the prevention of dental erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a therapeutic method for preventing and/or inhibiting dental erosion in a mammalian subject, and the provision of a dental care product for performing the method. The dental care product of the invention comprises a starch-degrading enzyme of E. C. 3.2.1.1, wherein said...... product comprises less than 1 wt.% ionic surfactant, and preferably is substantially free of endoprotease and/or lipase. The properties of the dental care product serve to prevent and/or inhibit dental erosion in a subject that typically results from repeated exposure of the patient's tooth surfaces...

  3. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  4. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  5. EFFECT OF SURFACE CONDTIONINGON BOND STRENGTH TO ENAMEL AND DENTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MOUSAVINASAB

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Compoglass is a trade mark of dental compomers and because of its partially resinus structure, surface conditioning of dental surfaces is needed for a better bonding process. In this study, the effect of enamel and dentin conditioning procedure on shear bond strength (SBS of compoglass to tooth surfaces was studied. Methods. four groups each one including 11 sound premolars were chosen and their surfaces were prepared as following groups: group1, unconitioned dentin; group 2, dentin conditioning with phosphoric acid 35%; group 3, dentin conditioning with polyacrylic acid 20% group 4, unconditioning enamel; group 5, enamel conditioning with phosphoric acid 35%; and group 6, enamel conditioning with polyacrylic acid 20%. Compoglass was bonded to prepared surfaces and after fixation of the samples in acrylic molds, all samples were tested under shear force of instron testing machine at a rate of 1 mm/min speed. Results. The mean SBS obtained in these 6 groups were 6.207, 8.057, 10.146, 25.939 and 11.827 mpa. the mode of fracture also studied using a streomicroscope. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the maximum SBS obtained in group 5 and the lowest SBS about 6.207 mpa obtained in group 1. Despite increase in SBS group 2 and 3, there was no statistical differncies between group 1, 2 and 3. Discussion. Based on results of this study, conditioning of enamel and dentin surface due to improve SBS is recommeneded.

  6. Syllabus of Dental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Rubberloid Van R Dental Prod. Surgident Lactona Corp. Alginates Coe Alginate Coe Labs o Jeltrate L.D. Caulk Kerr Alginate Kerr/Sybron Alginate S.S. White Co...Surgident- Alginate Lactona Corp. Unijel II Unitek Corp. O Combination Agar/a ig inate Colloid 80 U.S. Shiza Corp. Dentloid Denterials, Ltd...66061 (215) 277-3800 (913) 782-2200 Shofu Dental Corp. Lactona Corp. (subsidary of 4025 Bohannon Dr. Warner-Lambert Co.) Menlo Park, CA 94025 . Academy

  7. Dental Trauma Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg

    2012-01-01

    Diagnose and treatment of traumatic dental injuries is very complex due to the multiple trauma entities represented by 6 lunation types and 9 fracture types affecting both the primary and the permanent dentition. When it is further considered that fracture and lunation injuries are often combined...... problems in selecting proper treatment for some of these trauma types. To remedy this situation, an internet based knowledge base consisting of 4000 dental trauma cases with long term follow up is now available to the public and professionals, on the internet using the address www...

  8. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    century and most chemists appear to think of 'chemi- cal bond' as ..... These complexes, in their global min- ima, have ... taneously act as hydrogen bond donor and acceptor displaying ... also has a local minimum, which is linear and similar to.

  9. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  10. Perceived Dentist and Dental Hygienist Task Distribution After Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' Team Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Jan J.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether

  11. Perceived dentist and dental hygienist task distribution after dental and dental hygiene students' team intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Jan J; Krijnen, Wim P; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Schans, Cees P

    Attitudes of dental students regarding the provision of treatment tend to be dentist-centered; however, facilitating mixed student group formation could change such perceptions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived scope of practice of dental and dental hygiene students and whether

  12. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  13. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  14. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them.

  15. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds. (a... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA... of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the standard form of individual performance bond (Standard Form 25...

  17. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  18. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  19. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  20. Dental PACS development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is an image information technology system for the transmission and storage of medical images. In Korea the first full PACS was installed at Samsung Medical Center in 1994, but, the rate of distribution was very slow. The government's approval for the medical insurance reimbursement for full PACS examinations in November 1999 became the turning point. Thereafter the number of hospitals with full PACS has steeply increased. In September of this year, PACS was installed at 906 medical institutes, including most of university hospitals and general hospitals. The first full dental PACS was installed at Wonkwang University Dental Hospital in 2002. Now ten out of eleven university dental hospitals implemented full dental PACS. The current status and technological factors of dental PACS in Korean university dental hospitals and the future perspectives of dental PACS are described.

  1. Dental Hygiene Student Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynda J.; Fellows, Avis L.

    1981-01-01

    A study to determine differences between graduating and withdrawing students in the University of Minnesota Dental Hygiene program is discussed. The identification of differences may prove useful in the selection process for future classes through identification of students likely to complete their education. (MLW)

  2. Fatigue of dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Instruction in dental radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, W.J.M. van der; Kreulen, C.M.; Berkhout, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic use of oral radiology is an essential part of daily dental practice. Due to the potentially harmful nature of ionising radiation, the clinical use of oral radiology in the Netherlands is framed by clinical practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. Undergraduate students receive

  4. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more impressions made of your mouth and remaining teeth. These impressions are used to make the crown — your realistic-looking artificial tooth. The crown can't be placed until your jawbone is strong ... and your dental specialist can choose artificial teeth that are either ...

  5. Mouth and dental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baat, C.; van der Waal, I.; Jackson, S.H.D.; Jansen, P.A.F.; Mangoni, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This chapter contains sections titled: • Introduction • Periodontal disease • Dental caries • Odontogenic infections • Alveolar osteitis • Xerostomia and hyposalivation • Candidiasis • Angular cheilitis • Denture stomatitis • Burning mouth syndrome • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis • Recurrent

  6. Dental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Resource Center Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - myanma bhasa (Burmese) PDF Orange County North ... California Dental Association Karen (S’gaw Karen) Expand Section Betel Nut - English PDF Betel Nut - S’gaw Karen (Karen) ...

  7. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Resin Composite Bond Strength to Enamel and Dentin Using Different Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobaldo, J D; Catelan, A; Rodrigues-Filho, U; Marchi, G M; Lima, Danl; Aguiar, Fhb

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength of composite resin restorations in dental blocks with or without exposure to cigarette smoke. Eighty bovine dental blocks were divided into eight groups (n=10) according to the type of adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA [SBMP]; Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE [SB]; Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray Medical Inc, Okayama, Japan [CSEB]; Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE [SBU]) and exposure to smoke (no exposure; exposure for five days/20 cigarettes per day). The adhesive systems were applied to the tooth structure, and the blocks received a composite restoration made using a matrix of perforated pasta. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey test (αadhesive systems (padhesives, but no differences were noted in enamel.

  8. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  9. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  10. Exploring Dental Providers' Workflow in an Electronic Dental Record Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Kelsey M; Cooper, Ryan; Mahnke, Andrea N; Ye, Zhan; Acharya, Amit

    2016-01-01

    A workflow is defined as a predefined set of work steps and partial ordering of these steps in any environment to achieve the expected outcome. Few studies have investigated the workflow of providers in a dental office. It is important to understand the interaction of dental providers with the existing technologies at point of care to assess breakdown in the workflow which could contribute to better technology designs. The study objective was to assess electronic dental record (EDR) workflows using time and motion methodology in order to identify breakdowns and opportunities for process improvement. A time and motion methodology was used to study the human-computer interaction and workflow of dental providers with an EDR in four dental centers at a large healthcare organization. A data collection tool was developed to capture the workflow of dental providers and staff while they interacted with an EDR during initial, planned, and emergency patient visits, and at the front desk. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted on the observational data. Breakdowns in workflow were identified while posting charges, viewing radiographs, e-prescribing, and interacting with patient scheduler. EDR interaction time was significantly different between dentists and dental assistants (6:20 min vs. 10:57 min, p = 0.013) and between dentists and dental hygienists (6:20 min vs. 9:36 min, p = 0.003). On average, a dentist spent far less time than dental assistants and dental hygienists in data recording within the EDR.

  11. Radiographic Assessment of Dental Maturation in Children With Dental Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Aida Carolina; Pozo, Rodrigo Del; de Cedres, Lucila Blanco

    Dental agenesis is the most common developmental anomaly in humans, frequently associated with disorders in dental development and maturation. The purpose of this study is to determine radiographic variations in dental maturation in a group of Venezuelan children with dental agenesis. 1,188 panoramic radiographs, from healthy patients ages 5 to 12 years old were studied for agenesis of permanent teeth. Dental maturation was assessed by relative eruption and dental age according to Nolla, comparing children affected with dental agenesis to a stratified control group selected from the same population, excluding children with premature loss of primary teeth in the left quadrants and unclear radiographs. Descriptive analysis, and differences between means and medians (Student t test, Kruskall-Wallis p=0.05) were performed. Medians for Nolla stages were similar between groups, with delay in tooth formation in the agenesis group for second molars (p<0.05) and maxillary lateral incisors and second premolars. Dental age was significantly underestimated for both groups, -0.89 (±0.78) for the control group and -1.20 (±0.95) for the study group. Tooth eruption was similar between groups. Dental age was significantly delayed in Venezuelan children with dental agenesis, with variable significance for tooth formation of studied teeth.

  12. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a rotary... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a... dental cavity or a broken tooth. (b) Classification. Class I. ...

  15. Dental Care for Medicaid and CHIP Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Home › Medicaid › Benefits › Dental Care Dental Care Dental Care Related Resources Learn How to Report the ... services and opportunities and challenges to obtaining care. Dental Benefits for Children in Medicaid Medicaid covers dental ...

  16. Developing a flexible core Dental Public Health curriculum for predoctoral dental and dental hygiene schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina; Bhoopathi, Vinodh

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum for graduating dental and dental hygiene students must prepare them to contribute to the improvement or maintenance of health for individual patient's and the public's health. The objective is to describe the background for and the process used to develop a core Dental Public Health Curriculum for such students. The process used was to solicit and review existing dental public health curriculum in dental and dental hygiene schools; review curriculum for other health professionals; identify the themes needed to frame the curriculum; select usable materials and identify gaps in existing curricular materials; and develop appropriate curriculum materials that would embody the competencies developed for undergraduate dental and dental hygiene education. Twenty-three topics were identified as embodying the eight competencies. Based on these topics, six courses, Principles of Dental Public Health, Evidence-Based Dentistry, Ethics and Dental Public Health, Dental Public Health Policy and Advocacy, Oral Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and Oral Health Literacy and Dental Public Health, were prepared. Each course includes syllabus, PowerPoint presentations, student assignments and activities, instructor guide, and classroom discussion points. Depending on the hours available in the existing curriculum at the dental or hygiene school, lecture presentations and take home assignments/discussions may be used independently or in combination with presentations from other courses. In addition, individual discussions and activities may be used to integrate dental public health materials into other courses. A flexible curriculum is available at the AAPHD website to enable the incorporation of DPH topics into the curriculum. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  18. Advancing education in dental hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battrell, Ann; Lynch, Ann; Steinbach, Pam; Bessner, Sue; Snyder, Josh; Majeski, Jean

    2014-06-01

    The changing health care environment and societal imperatives indicate the need for transformative change within the dental hygiene profession to serve the emerging needs of the public. The American Dental Hygienists' Association is leading the way toward meaningful change. The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) has as its vision the integration of dental hygienists into the health care delivery system as essential primary care providers to expand access to oral health care. This article provides data on current dental hygiene education programs and those in development. Also included is a discussion regarding how the dental hygiene profession can better serve the health and wellness needs of society by transforming the way graduates are prepared for the future. ADHA's dental hygiene survey center data, policies and a futuristic analysis plus a review of the professional literature describe the current state of dental hygiene education and the profession. A discussion of societal, health care and educational trends that creates the imperative for transformation of the dental hygiene profession is provided. Ultimately, the purpose of advancing education in dental hygiene is to achieve better oral and overall health for more people. The profession's responsibility to the public includes evaluating its own ability to provide care and taking the steps necessary to ensure its maximum effectiveness. ADHA is leading this process for dental hygienists in diverse ways. It is imperative that the dental hygiene profession understands and embraces the changing health care environment. Through open dialog and the sharing of evidence the professional path will be determined along with forward movement for the benefit of society and the dental hygiene profession. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nano materials for Medical and Dental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yub Kwon, T.; Oh, D.S.; Narayanan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to this special issue. Nano science and nano technology concepts are applicable across all fields of science and a more widespread application of nano materials and nano technologies is imminent or already occurring in many areas, including health care. Today is scientists take those cutting-edge technologies and concepts and apply them to medicine and dentistry. They are finding a wide variety of ways to make medical and dental materials at the nano scale to take advantage of their enhanced physical and biological properties.The purpose of this special issue is to publish high-quality research papers as well as review articles addressing recent advances in the field of nano materials for medical and dental applications. A particular interest is given to papers exploring or discussing nano materials and nano technologies related to delivery system, bonding substitutes, and surface modification techniques applicable in these areas. For this special issue, several investigators were invited to contribute original research findings that can stimulate continuing efforts to understand the cutting-edge applications of nano materials in medicine and dentistry.

  20. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, A.D., E-mail: a.anastasiou@leeds.ac.uk [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Strafford, S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Posada-Estefan, O. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Thomson, C.L. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hussain, S.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cambridge Graphene Centre, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Edwards, T.J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Malinowski, M. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hondow, N. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Routledge, M.N. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, A.P. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Duggal, M.S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Jha, A. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  1. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, A.D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C.L.; Hussain, S.A.; Edwards, T.J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A.; Routledge, M.N.; Brown, A.P.; Duggal, M.S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  2. Development of hydrophilic dental wax without surfactant using a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Dental wax (DW), a low-melting and high-molecular-weight organic mixture, is widely used in dentistry for forming moulds of teeth. Hydrophilicity is an important property for DW, as a wet dental investment is used to surround the wax before wax burnout is performed. However, recent attempts to improve the hydrophilicity of DW using a surfactant have resulted in the reduced mechanical properties of the dental investment, leading to the failure of the dental restoration. This study applied a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) for DW surface treatment and investigated its effect on both DW hydrophilicity and the dental investment's mechanical properties. The results showed that the application of the AAPPJ significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the DW, and that the results were similar to that of cleaner-treated DW using commercially available products with surfactant. A surface chemical analysis indicated that the improvement of hydrophilicity was related to an increase in the number of oxygen-related bonds on the DW surface following the removal of carbon hydrate in both AAPPJ and cleaner-treated DW. However, cleaner treatment compromised the mechanical property of the dental investment when the dental investment was in contact with the treated DW, while the AAPPJ treatment did not. Therefore, the use of AAPPJ to treat DW is a promising method for accurate dental restoration, as it induces an improvement in hydrophilicity without harming the dental investment. (paper)

  3. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems How can diabetes affect my mouth? Too ... What if my mouth is sore after my dental work? A sore mouth is common after dental ...

  4. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article ... and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect your child's ...

  5. Milestones of dental history

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Mahant; S Vineet Agrawal; Sonali Kapoor; Isha Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Since ages, human beings suffer from the dental problems. With the journey as time elapsed the person treating the teeth changed (i.e., from barbers and monks to present dentists), equipment changed (i.e., from bow drills to airotor and laser handpieces), materials changed (i.e., from ground mastic alum/honey to tooth colored composite and ceramics). There has been drastic change in treatment planning from extraction to the conservation of teeth and from manual restoration to computerized res...

  6. Ergonomics in dental pratice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Quaresemin de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of ergonomics is critical so that you can get a suitable working environment for professional, it is safe, healthy and comfortable. The objective was to identify whether the dental students followed the principles of ergonomics during clinical visits, evaluating, through photographs, compliance with ergonomic principles applied in dental practice, and finally identify the most affected sites by RSI / WMSDs of students enrolled in the dental clinic of the Faculdade IMED. Snapshots were made and only considered the position of the student operator, the same taken by the researcher using the mobile device. For each clinical procedure were taken two photographs in hidden angles to the student operator so that it did not change its ergonomic position to be observed. After obtaining the photos, they were evaluated and classified in scores from 0 to 3 according to the adequacy of the work placement, and then inserted into Excel and later in a database (SPSS 15.0. The following work is a cross-sectional, observational study, they were conducted in dental clinics IMED college. Among the 66 respondents, 14 were male and 52 female. It was found that 57 (86,3% reported feeling pain somewhere in the body, being the most affected sites neck (36.4%, and consecutively lower back (30.3% and higher than the back (27.3%. The results of the 63 procedures performed by the photographic shots were classified as “inadequate” in 49 procedures, “partially adequate” in 12 and “impossible to evaluate” in 2 procedures. The research results have shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and do not follow the ergonomic principles, emphasizing the need for more attention to ergonomics of the students.

  7. Ethical checklist for dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchuse, D J; Rinchuse, D J; Deluzio, C

    1995-01-01

    A checklist for verification of unethical business practices, originally formulated by Drs. Blanchard and Peale, is adapted to dental practice. A scenario is used as a model to demonstrate the applicability of this instrument to dental practice. The instrument asks three questions in regards to an ethical dilemma: 1) Is it legal? 2) Is it fair? 3) How does it make you feel? The paper concludes the giving of gifts to general dentists by dental specialists for the referral of patients is unethical.

  8. Fatigue aging of adhesive bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLollis, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    A year long study has been made of the effect of fatigue on the bond between two epoxy encapsulant formulations and a fused alumina disc. The variables studied included isothermal aging at temperatures up to and including the cure temperature and cyclic thermal aging from +74 to -54 0 C. The encapsulants were glass microballoon filled epoxies differing only in curing agents. One was cured with an aromatic amine eutectic (Shell Curing Agent Z). The other was cured with diethanolamine. The Z cured encapsulant bond failed completely at the bond interface with little or no aging; infrared evidence indicated a soluble interlayer as a possible cause of failure. The diethanolamine cured encapsulant survived a year of isothermal aging with little or no evidence of bond degradation. Cyclic thermal aging resulted in gradual bond failure with time. An extrapolation of the cyclic aging data indicates that the stresses induced by thermal cycling would result in complete bond failure in about 1200 days

  9. What is a hydrogen bond?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is a hydrogen bond? Precise definition of a hydrogen bond is still elusive!1. Several criteria are listed usually for X-H•••Y, X and Y initially thought to be F, O and N only1. Structural: The X-Y bond length is less than the sum of their van der Waals radii. X-H•••Y is ...

  10. Composite interlayer for diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A ductile interlayer is described, which is useful for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of metallic articles; the interlayer consisting of a melting point depressant and a plurality of ductile lamellae which are free from carbides, aluminides and borides. The composition and fabrication of the lamellae, and the process for bonding the metallic articles, depend on the composition of the metals to be bonded, and are exemplified in the specification. (U.K.)

  11. Nonlinear finite element analyses: advances and challenges in dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, N; Ona, M; Suzuki, T; Igarashi, Y

    2008-07-01

    To discuss the development and current status of application of nonlinear finite element method (FEM) in dentistry. The literature was searched for original research articles with keywords such as nonlinear, finite element analysis, and tooth/dental/implant. References were selected manually or searched from the PUBMED and MEDLINE databases through November 2007. The nonlinear problems analyzed in FEM studies were reviewed and categorized into: (A) nonlinear simulations of the periodontal ligament (PDL), (B) plastic and viscoelastic behaviors of dental materials, (C) contact phenomena in tooth-to-tooth contact, (D) contact phenomena within prosthodontic structures, and (E) interfacial mechanics between the tooth and the restoration. The FEM in dentistry recently focused on simulation of realistic intra-oral conditions such as the nonlinear stress-strain relationship in the periodontal tissues and the contact phenomena in teeth, which could hardly be solved by the linear static model. The definition of contact area critically affects the reliability of the contact analyses, especially for implant-abutment complexes. To predict the failure risk of a bonded tooth-restoration interface, it is essential to assess the normal and shear stresses relative to the interface. The inclusion of viscoelasticity and plastic deformation to the program to account for the time-dependent, thermal sensitive, and largely deformable nature of dental materials would enhance its application. Further improvement of the nonlinear FEM solutions should be encouraged to widen the range of applications in dental and oral health science.

  12. Electromechanical impedance method to assess dental implant stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizi, Aydin; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Ochs, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    The stability of a dental implant is a prerequisite for supporting a load-bearing prosthesis and establishment of a functional bone–implant system. Reliable and noninvasive methods able to assess the bone interface of dental and orthopedic implants (osseointegration) are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. In this paper, we propose the electromechanical impedance method as a novel approach for the assessment of dental implant stability. Nobel Biocare ® implants with a size of 4.3 mm diameter ×13 mm length were placed inside bovine bones that were then immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation. The degradation simulated the inverse process of bone healing. The implant–bone systems were monitored by bonding a piezoceramic transducer (PZT) to the implants’ abutment and measuring the admittance of the PZT over time. It was found that the PZT’s admittance and the statistical features associated with its analysis are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and can be correlated to the loss of calcium measured by means of the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The present study shows promising results and may pave the road towards an innovative approach for the noninvasive monitoring of dental implant stability and integrity. (paper)

  13. Confronting shibboleths of dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Richard S

    2005-10-01

    Shibboleths are common expressions presented as indisputable truths. When used in educational discussions, they reflect "motherhood and apple pie" viewpoints and tend to bring debate to a halt. Use of shibboleths may precede a desired imposition of "locksteps" in educational programming and are easily perceived as paternalistic by recipients. Nine shibboleths are presented as common beliefs of dental faculty and administrators. Evidence contradicting the veracity of the "obvious truths" is offered. The traditional "splendid isolation" of dentistry contributes to parochialism and belief in false shibboleths. Sound principles of higher and health professions education, student learning, and dental practice apply to dental education as to all health disciplines. Student passivity in dental education is not the best preparation for proficiency in dental practice. The master teacher possesses a repertoire of methodologies specific to meeting defined educational objectives. Active learning experiences bear close resemblances to professional duties and responsibilities and internally motivate future doctors of dental medicine. The difficulty in achieving curricular change leads to curricular entrenchment. Dentistry and dental education should not trade their ethical high ground for the relatively low ethical standards of the business world. Principles of professional ethics should govern relationships between dentists, whether within the dental school workplace or in practice. Suggestions are made on how to confront shibboleths in dental school settings.

  14. Children's experiences of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Annie G; Rodd, Helen D; Porritt, Jenny M; Baker, Sarah R; Creswell, Cathy; Newton, Tim; Williams, Chris; Marshman, Zoe

    2017-03-01

    Dental anxiety is common among children. Although there is a wealth of research investigating childhood dental anxiety, little consideration has been given to the child's perspective. This qualitative study sought to explore with children their own experiences of dental anxiety using a cognitive behavioural therapy assessment model. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with dentally anxious children aged 11-16 years. The Five Areas model was used to inform the topic guide and analysis. Data were analysed using a framework approach. In total, 13 children were interviewed. Participants described their experiences of dental anxiety across multiple dimensions (situational factors and altered thoughts, feelings, physical symptoms, and behaviours). Participants placed considerable value on communication by dental professionals, with poor communication having a negative influence on dental anxiety and the dentist-patient relationship. This study confirms the Five Areas model as an applicable theoretical model for the assessment of childhood dental anxiety. Children provided insights about their own dental anxiety experiences that have not previously been described. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Medical emergencies in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, M H

    2009-06-01

    Serious medical emergencies are fortunately a rare occurrence in the dental practice environment; however, if an emergency situation is encountered a delay in treatment may result in potentially avoidable consequences. The risk of mortality or serious morbidity can be reduced by ensuring that basic emergency equipment and medications are in place, and that the dental team is appropriately trained in basic life support measures. This article aims to provide an overview of the basic emergency medications and equipment that should be present in dental practices, and to discuss specific responses to some of the more common adverse medical events that can present while providing dental treatment.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal dental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Most dental pain is caused by an organic problem such as dental caries, periodontitis, pulpitis, or trauma. Diagnosis and treatment of these symptoms are relatively straightforward. However, patients often also complain of abnormal dental pain that has a non-dental origin, whose diagnosis is challenging. Such abnormal dental pain can be categorized on the basis of its cause as referred pain, neuromodulatory pain, and neuropathic pain. When it is difficult to diagnose a patient's dental pain, ...

  17. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  18. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  19. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  20. Assessing the effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Augusto Ricardo; de Leão Withers, Eduardo Henrique; Grando, Karlos Giovani; Ambrosio, Aldrieli Regina; Shimizu, Roberto Hideo; Melo, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Tooth bleaching is, today, one of the most widespread cosmetic treatments in dental practice,  so it is important to determine whether it can interfere with orthodontic bonding or not. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Forty-five upper bicuspids were divided into three groups (n = 15). In the control Group (C), the brackets were bonded without previous bleaching treatment. Group 1 (G1) was treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent 24 h before bracket bonding. Group 2 was also bleached, and the brackets were bonded after 30 days. The shear bond strength of the brackets was measured using an EMIC machine, and the results were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups (P > 0.05), with Group C showing a mean bond strength of 9.72 ± 2.63 MPa, G1 of 8.09 ± 2.63 MPa, and G2 of 11.15 ± 4.42 MPa. It was possible to conclude that 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent does not affect the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded 24 h and 30 days after bleaching.

  1. Effects of endodontic tri-antibiotic paste on bond strengths of dentin adhesives to coronal dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mirzakoucheki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tri-antibiotic paste (TAP on microtensile bond strengths (MTBS of dental adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted molars had their occlusal surfaces flattened to expose dentin. They were divided into two groups, i.e., control group with no dentin treatment and experimental group with dentin treatment with TAP. After 10 days, specimens were bonded using self-etch (Filtek P90 adhesive or etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond Plus adhesives and restored with composite resin. Teeth were sectioned into beams, and the specimens were subjected to MTBS test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between dentin treatment and adhesive on MTBS to coronal dentin (p = 0.003. Despite a trend towards worse MTBS being noticed in the experimental groups, TAP application showed no significant effect on MTBS (p = 0.064. Conclusions The etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond Plus presented higher mean bond strengths than the self-etch adhesive Filtek P90, irrespective of the group. The superior bond performance for Adper Single Bond when compared to Filtek P90 adhesive was confirmed by a fewer number of adhesive failures. The influence of TAP in bond strength is insignificant.

  2. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.33...

  3. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a term...

  4. Mandatory Clinical Practice for Dental and Dental Hygiene Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Dental and dental hygiene faculty should maintain their clinical skills through regular practice, to improve their ability to relate to students through instruction, provide an additional source of income, and improve their image in the community. Institutional policies fostering and regulating faculty practice plans are suggested. (Author/MSE)

  5. Pattern of dental caries in Mulago Dental School clinic, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on dental caries among patients attending Mulago Hospital is scarce. Yet knowledge of the pattern of caries can be used to plan preventive and treatment interventions. This study describes the pattern of dental caries (in terms of age group, tooth and tooth surface and gender) among patients attending the ...

  6. The Swedish national dental insurance and dental health care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    1981-01-01

    Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described.......Sweden initiated a dental health care insurance in 1973. The health insurance is outlined, current problems and political issues are described. The benefits and limitations are described....

  7. Effect of layered manufacturing techniques, alloy powders, and layer thickness on metal-ceramic bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Orhun; Ozkomur, Ahmet; Ucar, Yurdanur

    2018-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and direct metal laser melting (DMLM) have become popular for fabricating the metal frameworks of metal-ceramic restorations. How the type of layered manufacturing device, layer thickness, and alloy powder may affect the bond strength of ceramic to metal substructure is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of dental porcelain to metal frameworks fabricated using different layered manufacturing techniques (DMLS and DMLM), Co-Cr alloy powders, and layer thicknesses and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between the bond strength and the number of ceramic remnants on the metal surface. A total of 75 bar-shaped metal specimens (n=15) were fabricated using either DMLS or DMLM. The powder alloys used were Keramit NP-S and EOS-Cobalt-Chrome SP-2 with layer thicknesses of 20 μm and 30 μm. After ceramic application, the metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated with a 3-point-bend test. Three-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honest significance difference test were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). De-bonding surface microstructure was observed with scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between ceramic remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The mean bond strength value of DMLS was significantly higher than that of DMLM. While no statistically significant difference was found between layer thicknesses, alloy powders closely affected bond strength. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest bond strength could be achieved with DMLS-Cobalt-Chrome SP2-20μm, and the lowest bond strength was observed in DMLS-Keramit NP-S-20μm (P≤.05). No correlation was found between porcelain remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The layered manufacturing device and the alloy powders evaluated in the current study closely affected the bond strength of dental porcelain to a metal framework

  8. Does 8-methacryloxyoctyl trimethoxy silane (8-MOTS) improve initial bond strength on lithium disilicate glass ceramic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo; Matsumoto, Takuya; Irie, Masao

    2017-03-01

    Dental ceramic surfaces are modified with silane coupling agents, such as γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (γ-MPTS), to improve bond strength. For bonding between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and resin cement, the objective was to investigate if 8-methacryloxyoctyl trimethoxy silane (8-MOTS) could yield a similar performance as the widely used γ-MPTS. One hundred and ten lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were randomly divided into 11 groups (n=10) according to pretreatment regime. All specimens were pretreated with a different solution composed of one or a combination of these agents: 10 or 20wt% silane coupling agent of γ-MPTS or 8-MOTS, followed by a hydrolysis solution of acetic acid or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP). Each pretreated surface was luted to a stainless steel rod of 3.6mm diameter and 2.0mm height with resin cement. Shear bond strength between ceramic and cement was measured after 24-h storage in 37°C distilled water. 8-MOTS produced the same bonding performance as γ-MPTS. Both silane coupling agents significantly increased the bond strength of resin cement, depending on their concentration. When activated by 10-MDP hydrolysis solution, 20wt% concentration produced the highest values (γ-MPTS: 24.9±5.1MPa; 8-MOTS: 24.6±7.4MPa). Hydrolysis with acetic acid produced lower bond strengths than with 10-MDP. Silane coupling pretreatment with 8-MOTS increased the initial bond strength between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and resin cement, rendering the same bonding effect as the conventional γ-MPTS. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring Dental Providers’ Workflow in an Electronic Dental Record Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Kelsey M; Cooper, Ryan; Mahnke, Andrea N.; Ye, Zhan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A workflow is defined as a predefined set of work steps and partial ordering of these steps in any environment to achieve the expected outcome. Few studies have investigated the workflow of providers in a dental office. It is important to understand the interaction of dental providers with the existing technologies at point of care to assess breakdown in the workflow which could contribute to better technology designs. Objective The study objective was to assess electronic dental record (EDR) workflows using time and motion methodology in order to identify breakdowns and opportunities for process improvement. Methods A time and motion methodology was used to study the human-computer interaction and workflow of dental providers with an EDR in four dental centers at a large healthcare organization. A data collection tool was developed to capture the workflow of dental providers and staff while they interacted with an EDR during initial, planned, and emergency patient visits, and at the front desk. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted on the observational data. Results Breakdowns in workflow were identified while posting charges, viewing radiographs, e-prescribing, and interacting with patient scheduler. EDR interaction time was significantly different between dentists and dental assistants (6:20 min vs. 10:57 min, p = 0.013) and between dentists and dental hygienists (6:20 min vs. 9:36 min, p = 0.003). Conclusions On average, a dentist spent far less time than dental assistants and dental hygienists in data recording within the EDR. PMID:27437058

  10. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  11. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  12. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization...

  13. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are

  14. A Novel Technique for the Connection of Ceramic and Titanium Implant Components Using Glass Solder Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mick

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both titanium and ceramic materials provide specific advantages in dental implant technology. However, some problems, like hypersensitivity reactions, corrosion and mechanical failure, have been reported. Therefore, the combining of both materials to take advantage of their pros, while eliminating their respective cons, would be desirable. Hence, we introduced a new technique to bond titanium and ceramic materials by means of a silica-based glass ceramic solder. Cylindrical compound samples (Ø10 mm × 56 mm made of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ, as well as titanium grade 5, were bonded by glass solder on their end faces. As a control, a two-component adhesive glue was utilized. The samples were investigated without further treatment, after 30 and 90 days of storage in distilled water at room temperature, and after aging. All samples were subjected to quasi-static four-point-bending tests. We found that the glass solder bonding provided significantly higher bending strength than adhesive glue bonding. In contrast to the glued samples, the bending strength of the soldered samples remained unaltered by the storage and aging treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses confirmed the presence of a stable solder-ceramic interface. Therefore, the glass solder technique represents a promising method for optimizing dental and orthopedic implant bondings.

  15. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  16. Fluoride release and recharge abilities of contemporary fluoride-containing restorative materials and dental adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Helvatzoglou-Antoniades, Maria; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release of five fluoride-releasing restorative materials and three dental adhesives, before and after NaF solution treatment. Five restorative materials (Fuji IX GP, GC Corp.; Ketac N100, 3M ESPE; Dyract Extra, Dentsply; Beautifil II, Shofu Inc.; Wave, SDI) and three dental adhesives (Stae, SDI; Fluorobond II - Shofu Inc.; Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply) were investigated before and after NaF solution treatment. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was to measure fluoride concentrations. During the 86-day period before NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP released the highest amount of fluoride among the restorative materials while Prime & Bond NT was the highest among the dental adhesives. After NaF solution treatment, Fuji IX GP again ranked the highest in fluoride release among the restorative materials while Fluorobond II ranked the highest among dental adhesives. It was concluded that the compositions and setting mechanisms of fluoride-containing dental materials influenced their fluoride release and recharge abilities.

  17. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  18. Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

  19. Dental technician of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, W.; Wismeijer, D.; Hanssen, S.; Tahmaseb, A.

    2015-01-01

    The new technologies in the field of dental science have not only changed the way in which dentists run their practice but have also dramatically changed the procedures carried out in dental laboratories. Mechanical engineering, incorporated CMM, laser milling, 3D printing and 3D design in a

  20. New dental applications with LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, A.; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  1. EAMJ Jan. Dental 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... Oral diseases qualify as a major public health concern owing to their high prevalence and incidence in all regions of the world (1). Dental caries and gingivitis are the two most common dental diseases affecting children worldwide. These two diseases are, to a large extent, the result of the presence of ...

  2. Drawing Links within Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines results of a practical drawing task given to a cohort of first year dental surgery students at Kings College Dental Institute, London. It compares and relates their success in drilling and removing caries and pulp tissue from a virtual tooth using the hapTEL virtual learning system, with each individuals' drawing skills.…

  3. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [The impact of dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the introduction of dental implants can only be understood when the historical context is clarified. In the past, the main treatment carried out by dentists consisted of filling or, in unfortunate cases, removal of painful teeth. Only since the introduction of dental implants did

  5. SOCIAL BONDING: REGULATION BY NEUROPEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.

  6. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, I; Elwenspoek, M C

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing shows that the bond strength is large enough for most applications of fluidic interconnects. The bond strength for 525 µm thick silicon, with glass tubes having an outer diameter of 6 mm and with a wall thickness of 2 mm, is more than 60 bars after annealing at a temperature of 800 °C

  7. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin

    2006-11-01

    Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.

  8. Effect of Nanofiller Addition to an Experimental Dentin Adhesive on Microtensile Bond Strength to Human Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Kasraei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of adding nanofiller particles to a dentin bonding agent on resin-dentin bond strength.Materials and Methods: Fifty-four human intact premolar teeth were divided in to 6 groups of nine. The teeth were ground on occlusal surfaces and polished with 320 and then 600 grit silicon carbide papers. An experimental bonding system based on acetone/alcoholsolvent was provided with filler contents of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 weight percent fumed silica nanofiller. After dentin surface etching, rinsing and blot drying, the experimentalbonding agents were applied to dentin surface. A composite resin was, then,bonded to the dentin on the bonding agent. The specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles and sectioned in stick form. After two week of storage in distilled water, resin-dentin microtensile bond strength of the specimens was measured. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and DunnettT3 tests.Results: Bond strength to dentin was significantly affected by the filler level. Minimum and maximum resin-microtensile bond strength was in the experimental bonding agent with no filler (5.88 MPa and with filler level of 1.0 weight percent (15.15 MPa, respectively,and decreased with the increase of filler content down to 8.95 MPa for the filler level of 10.0 weight percent.Conclusion: Filler content seems to be one of the important factors influencing the bond strength of dental adhesives. Maximum dentin bond strength was obtained with 1% silanized nanofiller silica added to experimental adhesive system.

  9. Tensile Bond Strength of Self Adhesive Resin Cement After Various Surface Treatment of Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Sahil; Mittal, Sanjeev; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    In self adhesive resin cements adhesion is achieved to dental surface without surface pre-treatment, and requires only single step application. This makes the luting procedure less technique-sensitive and decreases postoperative sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of self adhesive resin after surface treatment of enamel for bonding base metal alloy. On the labial surface of 64 central incisor rectangular base metal block of dimension 6 mm length, 5mm width and 1 mm height was cemented with RelyX U200 and Maxcem Elite self adhesive cements with and without surface treatment of enamel. Surface treatment of enamel was application of etchant, one step bonding agent and both. Tensile bond strength of specimen was measured with universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Least tensile bond strength (MPa) was in control group i.e. 1.33 (0.32) & 1.59 (0.299), Highest bond strength observed when enamel treated with both etchant and bonding agent i.e. 2.72 (0.43) & 2.97 (0.19) for Relyx U200 and Elite cement. When alone etchant and bonding agent were applied alone bond strength is 2.19 (0.18) & 2.24 (0.47) for Relyx U200, and 2.38 (0.27) 2.49 (0.16) for Max-cem elite. Mean bond strength was higher in case of Max-cem Elite as compared to RelyX U200 resin cement, although differences were non-significant (p > 0.05). Surface treatment of enamel increases the bond strength of self adhesive resin cement.

  10. Tensile Bond Strength of Self Adhesive Resin Cement After Various Surface Treatment of Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Sahil; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In self adhesive resin cements adhesion is achieved to dental surface without surface pre-treatment, and requires only single step application. This makes the luting procedure less technique-sensitive and decreases postoperative sensitivity. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of self adhesive resin after surface treatment of enamel for bonding base metal alloy. Materials and Methods On the labial surface of 64 central incisor rectangular base metal block of dimension 6 mm length, 5mm width and 1 mm height was cemented with RelyX U200 and Maxcem Elite self adhesive cements with and without surface treatment of enamel. Surface treatment of enamel was application of etchant, one step bonding agent and both. Tensile bond strength of specimen was measured with universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Results Least tensile bond strength (MPa) was in control group i.e. 1.33 (0.32) & 1.59 (0.299), Highest bond strength observed when enamel treated with both etchant and bonding agent i.e. 2.72 (0.43) & 2.97 (0.19) for Relyx U200 and Elite cement. When alone etchant and bonding agent were applied alone bond strength is 2.19 (0.18) & 2.24 (0.47) for Relyx U200, and 2.38 (0.27) 2.49 (0.16) for Max-cem elite. Mean bond strength was higher in case of Max-cem Elite as compared to RelyX U200 resin cement, although differences were non–significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Surface treatment of enamel increases the bond strength of self adhesive resin cement. PMID:26894165

  11. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Advanced Dental Students' Use, Knowledge, and Beliefs Regarding Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearston, Jenni A; Shah, Krina; Cheng, Eric; Moosvi, Rizvan; Park, Su Hyun; Patel, Naiya; Spielman, Andrew I; Weitzman, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Using cigarettes and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is associated with negative oral health outcomes, and dental health professionals are poised to help patients quit. The aim of this study was to determine dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students' use, knowledge, and beliefs about cigarettes and ATPs, including perceptions about their education in tobacco dependence treatment and counseling experience. All 1,783 students enrolled in the dental, dental hygiene, and postdoctoral dental programs at the New York University College of Dentistry were invited to participate in the survey in 2016. A total of 708 students at least partially completed the survey, for a response rate of 39.7%. In the results, 146 of the students (20.1%) reported ever using cigarettes, while 253 (35.7%) reported ever using any ATP. Regarding tobacco use intervention, the students reported they had not received enough training on ATPs, were neutral about cigarettes, and were somewhat confident and not so confident counseling a cigarette smoker or ATP user, respectively. By their fourth year, 77.8% of the dental students reported they had counseled someone to stop smoking cigarettes, but only 40.7% had counseled someone to stop using ATPs. Overall, all groups of students reported feeling more confident and had received more education on interventions for cigarettes than for ATPs (ptobacco and did not perceive they had received enough training on intervening with patients on use of cigarettes and ATPs. These findings call for a revised tobacco education curriculum for dental, dental hygiene, and advanced dental students, focused on building knowledge and confidence for promoting tobacco dependence treatment.

  12. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  14. Ergonomic design for dental offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, David J; Sanders, Martha J; Turcotte, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the dental office environment influences productivity and workflow for dental clinicians. Advances in technology, and with it the range of products needed to provide services, have led to sprawl in operatory setups and the potential for awkward postures for dental clinicians during the delivery of oral health services. Although ergonomics often addresses the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders for specific populations of workers, concepts of workflow and productivity are integral to improved practice in work environments. This article provides suggestions for improving workflow and productivity for dental clinicians. The article applies ergonomic principles to dental practice issues such as equipment and supply management, office design, and workflow management. Implications for improved ergonomic processes and future research are explored.

  15. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  16. Structure phenomena in the bond zone of explosively bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livne, Z.

    1979-12-01

    In the bond areas of couples of explosively bonded plates, there are often zones, generally designated as ''molten pockets'', which have undergone melting and solidification. The object of the present study was to investigate molten pockets, which have a decisive effect on bond quality. The experimental samples for the study were chosen in consideration of the mutual behaviour of the plates constituting the couples, according to their equilibrium phase diagrams. To facilitate the investigation, large plates were bonded under conditions that enabled to to obtain wavy bond zones that included relatively large molten pockets. To clarify the complex nature of molten pockets and their surroundings, a wide variety of methods were employed. It was found that the shape and composition of molten pockets largely depend upon the mechanism of formation of both the bond wave and the molten pockets. It was also found that the composition of molten pockets is not homogeneous, which is manifest in the modification of the composition of the pockets, the solidification morphology, the phases, which have been identified by X-ray diffraction, and the bond strenght and hardness. Moreover, the different solidification morphologies revealed by metallography were found to depend upon the types of plates bonded, the bonding conditions and the location of pockets in the wavy interface. For molten pockets, cooling rates of 10 4 to 10 5 (degC/sec) have been deduced from interdendritic spacing, and found to be in good agreement with calculations after a mathematical model. It seems that the fast cooling rates and the steep temperature gradients are at the origin of the particular solidification phenomena observed in molten pockets

  17. Contradictions in the treatment of traumatic dental injuries and ways to proceed in dental trauma research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Lauridsen, Eva; Andreasen, Frances Meriam

    2010-01-01

    dentition. Accepted treatment philosophy is dentin coverage (dental liner and/or dentin bonded restoration) to prevent bacteria penetration into the pulp. Today there is, apart from deep proximal fractures, no evidence that this treatment is necessary to protect the pulp. In case of luxation injuries......, the accepted treatment principles appear to be anatomically correct repositioning, stabilization with a splint and sometimes antibiotic coverage. In clinical studies, these principles could not be proven to optimize either periodontal or pulpal healing, the explanation possibly being that both reposition...... and application of splints in certain cases add extra damage to the pulp and periodontal ligament. In case of root fractures with dislocation, fast and optimal repositioning and rigid long-term splinting (i.e. 3 months) have been considered the principle of treatment. However, a recent clinical study has shown...

  18. General dental practitioner's views on dental general anaesthesia services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, A G; King, D; Milsom, K M; Blinkhom, A S; Tickle, M

    2007-06-01

    Policy has recently changed on provision of dental general anaesthetic services in England. The aim of this study was to investigate general dental practitioners' views about dental general anaesthetics, the reduction in its availability and the impact on care of children with toothache. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and clinical case scenarios. General dental practitioners providing NHS services in the North West of England. 93 general dental practitioners were interviewed and 91 answered a clinical case scenario about the care they would provide for a 7-year-old child with multiple decayed teeth presenting with toothache. Scenario responses showed variation; 8% would immediately refer for general anaesthesia, 25% would initially prescribe antibiotics, but the majority would attempt to either restore or extract the tooth causing pain. Interview responses also demonstrated variation in care, however most dentists agree general anaesthesia has a role for nervous children but only refer as a last resort. The responses indicated an increase in inequalities, and that access to services did not match population needs, leaving some children waiting in pain. Most general dental practitioners support moving dental general anaesthesia into hospitals but some believe that it has widened health inequalities and there is also a problem associated with variation in treatment provision. Additional general anaesthetic services in some areas with high levels of tooth decay are needed and evidence based guidelines about caring for children with toothache are required.

  19. Intergrated dental care in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, P.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis deals with integrated dental care in nursing homes. First, the dental treatment needs were ascertained of 432 residents in three Dutch nursing homes that offer integrated dental care. Dentist researchers intra-orally examined the residents and found that 72% required dental treatment.

  20. Involving Parents in Their Children's Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that parent education is vital to good dental hygiene for the whole family. Discusses what Head Start staffers can do to ensure that children's dental needs are being met, particularly in assisting parents with taking responsibility for children's dental hygiene. Covers dental care tips for parents, questions and answers about dental…

  1. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaglia, A; DE Dominicis, P; Arcuri, L; Gargari, M; Ottria, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory.

  2. 21 CFR 872.6390 - Dental floss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental floss. 872.6390 Section 872.6390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6390 Dental floss. (a) Identification. Dental floss is a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns or...

  4. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  5. [Maintenance care for dental implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, K

    1989-10-01

    Dental implant has tried at the early stage in 19th century recovering an oral function and esthetics. Technological revolutions in biochemical and new materials have developed on the remarkable change in the dental implants, nowadays we call the three generation therapy for dental implantology. There are many kinds of methods and techniques in dental implants, however a lot of troublesome complication on the process of surgical phase, construction of prothodontics and prognosis of maintenance care. In the proceedings of this symposium, I would like to propose you how to manage the maintenance care for various kind of dental implants through the methodology and case presentations. Tendenay and future for dental implants The current outlook of dental implant has increasing supply and demand not only dentists but also patients. According to Japanese Welfare Ministry's report in 1987, average missing teeth over sixty years old generations are approximately 42% in accordance with NIDR (U.S.A.) research. They are missed on ten over teeth in full 28th teeth dentitions owing to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Generally speaking, latent implant patients are occupied on the same possibility of needs for dental implants both Japan and U.S.A. Management of maintenance care The patients hardly recognized the importance of plaque control for the maintenance care in the intraoral condition after implantation. Dentists and dental staffs must be instruct patients for importance of plaque removal and control, because they already had forgotten the habit of teeth cleaning, especially in the edenturous conditions. 1) Concept of establishment in oral hygiene. Motivation and instruction for patients include very important factors in dental implants as well as in periodontal diseases. Patients who could not achieve on good oral hygiene levels obtained no good results in the long term observations. To establish good oral hygiene are how to control supra plaque surrounding tissues

  6. Cones for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1977-04-01

    Dental radiographic techniques are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of both the conventional plastic pointer cone and the open-ended cylinders or divergent cones favoured both by the ICRP (Protection against Ionizing Radiation from External Sources, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1973, ICRP Publication 15), and in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiation arising from Medical and Dental Use (1972, 3rd edition, London, HMSO) are discussed. The use of the word 'should' in these recommendations to signify a desirable requirement, not an essential one, is noted. This wording is currently of interest both nationally and internationally in relation to regulations, standards and notes for guidance. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has been reviewing the position, and has concluded that open-ended cones have disadvantages which may sometimes outweigh their advantages. Although open-ended cones are preferable under some circumstances, the recommendation that they should be used ought not to be followed without an understanding of the issues involved. The hazards associated with the use of interchangeable cones are considered. The NRPB now proposes that the requirement for the replacement of pointer cones (for both new and existing equipment) should be withdrawn.

  7. On dental caries and dental erosion in Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Helén

    2013-01-01

    All children in Sweden are entitled to regular, free dental care up to 20 years of age. While dental caries generally continues to decline, still there is a pronounced skewness in caries prevalence. Furthermore, the reported increase in dental erosion in young adults is cause for concern. The aim was to study the prevalence of dental caries and dental erosion in a cohort of Swedish 20 year-olds, with special reference to the influence of previous caries experience and lifestyle as well as parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. The study was prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional in design and based on registration of caries lesions, dental erosion, body adiposity status, saliva sampling, interviews, and questionnaires at 20 years of age. Data were available for the same cohort at 1, 3, 6 and 15 years of age. 499 subjects (74 percent of the original cohort) were included. Five individuals were subsequently excluded, leaving a final sample of 494. 74 percent of the subjects had initial and/or manifest caries lesions and/or restorations. The mean number of DimFS was 5.8 and the mean number of DmFS on occlusal surfaces of molars was 1.1. There was a strong relationship between caries activity at 3 and 6 years of age and approximal caries prevalence in premolars and molars at 20 years of age. Overweight/obese individuals had significantly higher caries prevalence than normal weight individuals. Parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors during infancy were related to approximal caries at age 20. Dental erosion was found in 75 percent of the individuals: 18 percent of these had extensive erosion. There was a significant association between caries and dental erosion. A relationship was found between dental erosion and lifestyle factors and overweight/obesity. There is a strong relationship between caries prevalence at age 20 and caries experience in early childhood. Young adults show a high prevalence of dental erosion, but the severity is

  8. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  9. Clinical use of dental classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Dental Classification system used by the uniformed services is supposed to predict the incidence of dental emergencies in the operational setting, at least on the unit level. Since most Sailors and Marines are deployed without close dental support, the sea services have adopted a policy of early treatment of class 3 dental conditions during recruit training. The other services are beginning to do the same. Recently, two factors have emerged that are affecting this early dental class 3 treatment. These factors must be considered when planning to provide early dental treatment. First, changing population and dentist provider demographics in the civilian sector are beginning to affect the class 3 treatment needs of incoming military recruits. Second, attrition from recruit training results in treatment provided to recruits who leave military service before finishing their training. Some view this as a waste of resources, others as a cost of doing business. As operational jointness increases, the three services must develop and use a single dental classification terminology, as well as unified standards and guidelines, both for better research in this area and for the readiness and well-being of our patients.

  10. Dental imaging characterization of micropigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.Y.; Choi, M.H.; Chang, J.H.; Jung, J.H.; Kim, M.E.; Lee, N.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Choi, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the micropig has been developed as human disease model. The dental and orofacial region of micropig is similar to that of humans, so it has been used for testing implant materials and techniques. The purpose of this study is on dental image at each age using radiography and computed tomography. Total twenty-two male micropigs, two or three animals of each 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months old, were given radiographic examinations. After general anesthesia, extra- and intra-oral radiographic technique and computed tomographic scans were performed to assess the dental characterization of micropigs. The total deciduous dental formula comprised 28 teeth and was depicted as Di 3/3, Dc 1/1, Dp 3/3. The total permanent dental formula comprised 44 teeth and was depicted as I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3. Hypodontia of the first premolars was common in the micropig. The permanent teeth erupted from 3 to 24 month after birth. The sequence of eruption of the permanent teeth was M1, P1, I3, C, M2, I1 + P3 + P4, P2, I2, M3. Dental imaging enables visualization of the unerupted teeth and gives more information about the development of the teeth. The growth pattern of the teeth obtained through radiographic and computed tomographic examination provides basic data in the micropig as animal model for dental research

  11. Low-dose Dental-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahleitner, A.; Imhof, H.; Homolka, P.; Fuerhauser, R.; Freudenthaler, J.; Watzek, G.

    2000-01-01

    Dental-CT is a relatively new, increasingly used investigation technique in dental radiology. Several authors have stated that the indication for Dental-CT has to be chosen on a strict basis, due to high dose values. This article describes the technique of performing dental-CT and calculates the effective dose based on published data and own measurements as well as the dose reduction potential to achieve an optimized protocol for Dental-CT investigations. (orig.) [de

  12. Current State of Dental Education: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.

  13. Dental prostheses mimic the natural enamel behavior under functional loading: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madfa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramic dental restorations are designed to repair functionality as well as esthetics of the failed teeth. However, these materials exhibited several performance deficiencies such as fracture, poor esthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores, and difficulty in accomplishing a strong ceramic–resin-based cement bond. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of these ceramic materials is of great interest in a wide range of disciplines. Consequently, spatial gradients in surface composition and structure can improve the mechanical integrity of ceramic dental restorations. Thus, this article reviews the current status of the functionally graded dental prostheses inspired by the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ structures and the linear gradation in Young's modulus of the DEJ, as a new material design approach, to improve the performance compared to traditional dental prostheses. This is a remarkable example of nature's ability to engineer functionally graded dental prostheses. The current article opens a new avenue for recent researches aimed at the further development of new ceramic dental restorations for improving their clinical durability.

  14. Fabricating High-Quality 3D-Printed Alloys for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM, especially selective laser melting (SLM, has been receiving particular attention because metallic functional structures with complicated configurations can be effectively fabricated using the technique. However, there still exist some future challenges for the fabrication of high-quality SLM products for dental applications. First, the surface quality of SLM products should be further improved by standardizing the laser process parameters or by appropriately post-treating the surface. Second, it should be guaranteed that dental SLM restorations have good dimensional accuracy and, in particular, a good marginal fit. Third, a definitive standard regarding building and scanning strategies, which affect the anisotropy, should be established to optimize the mechanical properties and fatigue resistance of SLM dental structures. Fourth, the SLM substructure’s bonding and support to veneering ceramic should be further studied to facilitate the use of esthetic dental restorations. Finally, the biocompatibility of SLM dental alloys should be carefully examined and improved to minimize the potential release of toxic metal ions from the alloys. Future research of SLM should focus on solving the above challenges, as well as on fabricating dental structures with “controlled” porosity.

  15. Effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihua; Song, Xiaomeng; Chen, Yaming; Zhu, Qingping; Zhang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether or not an erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser could improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Surface treatments can improve the bonding properties of dental ceramics. However, little is known about the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiated on zirconia ceramics. Specimens of zirconia ceramic pieces were made, and randomly divided into 11 groups according to surface treatments, including one control group (no treatment), one air abrasion group, and nine Er:YAG laser groups. The laser groups were subdivided by applying different energy intensities (100, 200, or 300 mJ) and irradiation times (5, 10, or 15 sec). After surface treatments, ceramic pieces had their surface morphology observed, and their surface roughness was measured. All specimens were bonded to resin cement. Shear bond strength was measured after the bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 h, and additionally aged by thermocycling. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for shear bond strength, and Dunnett's t test for surface roughness, with α=0.05. Er:YAG laser irradiation changed the morphological characteristics of zirconia ceramics. Higher energy intensities (200, 300 mJ) could roughen the ceramics, but also caused surface cracks. There were no significant differences in the bond strength between the control group and the laser groups treated with different energy intensities or irradiation times. Air abrasion with alumina particles induced highest surface roughness and shear bond strength. Er:YAG laser irradiation cannot improve the bonding property of zirconia ceramics to resin cement. Enhancing irradiation intensities and extending irradiation time have no benefit on the bond of the ceramics, and might cause material defect.

  16. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  17. Advances in dental public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R D

    2001-07-01

    Dental public health has been defined as 'the science and art of preventing oral diseases, promoting oral health and improving the quality of life through the organised efforts of society'. Dental practitioners most often have the oral health of individual patients as their primary focus but the aim of public health is to benefit populations. Early developments in dental public health were concerned largely with demonstrating levels of disease and with treatment services. With greater appreciation of the nature of oral health and disease, and of their determinants has come recognition of the need for wider public health action if the effects of prevention and oral health promotion are to be maximized.

  18. The Dental Trauma Internet Calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim Prediction tools are increasingly used to inform patients about the future dental health outcome. Advanced statistical methods are required to arrive at unbiased predictions based on follow-up studies. Material and Methods The Internet risk calculator at the Dental Trauma Guide...... provides prognoses for teeth with traumatic injuries based on the Copenhagen trauma database: http://www.dentaltraumaguide.org The database includes 2191 traumatized permanent teeth from 1282 patients that were treated at the dental trauma unit at the University Hospital in Copenhagen (Denmark...

  19. Bioinspired design of dental multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Wang, R; Thompson, V; Rekow, D; Soboyejo, W O

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the use of bioinspired functionally graded structures in the design of dental multi-layers that are more resistant to sub-surface crack nucleation. Unlike existing dental crown restorations that give rise to high stress concentration, the functionally graded layers (between crown materials and the joins that attach them to dentin) are shown to promote significant reductions in stress and improvements in the critical crack size. Special inspiration is drawn from the low stress concentrations associated with the graded distributions in the dentin-enamel-junction (DEJ). The implications of such functionally graded structures are also discussed for the design of dental restorations.

  20. Entrepreneurship in continuing dental education: a dental school perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberto, Vincent N

    2005-01-01

    The definition of continuing dental education is presented, along with its benefits to the profession. The preeminence of dental schools in providing lifelong learning opportunities and freedom from commercial involvement that existed even twenty years ago has changed. Less than a quarter of CE takes place in school, and the focus there is increasingly on material with deep scientific background and hands-on learning. The newest innovations and those with the greatest commercial potential are taught elsewhere. Proposed changes in the ADA CERP standards would take on a "purist" approach that could place dental schools at a severe disadvantage while allowing "for profit" institutes to flourish and thus further undermine the role dental schools can play in providing quality professional development experiences.

  1. Dental anxiety among patients visiting a University Dental Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. An audit of dental prescriptions between clinics and dental laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C A

    2011-08-12

    To discover the quality of written instructions from dentists to dental technicians and the nature of non-compliant prescriptions. An audit of laboratory prescription compliance was conducted within an NHS Trust Dental Teaching Hospital to determine the level of communication between dentists and dental technicians. One hundred and fifty prescriptions were audited from dental undergraduates and qualified dentists throughout the different departments. A total of two-thirds of prescriptions were considered non-compliant and failed to meet relevant ethical and legal guidelines. This problem was seen throughout all departments and at all professional levels. A breakdown in communication between dentists and technicians through the use of prescriptions is evident even within a close working environment.

  3. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  4. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    organization and has potential applications in the field of magnetism ... The concepts of crystal engineering ... 4. However, the utilization of hydrogen bond supramolecular syn- ... sembling the coordination networks by designing the ligands ...

  5. Hydrogen bonding in tight environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The single-molecule force spectroscopy of a prototypical class of hydrogen-bonded complexes is computationally investigated. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The force-extension (F-L) isotherms...... of the host-guest complexes are simulated using classical molecular dynamics and the MM3 force field, for which a refined set of hydrogen bond parameters was developed from MP2 ab initio computations. The F-L curves exhibit peaks that signal conformational changes during elongation, the most prominent...... of which is in the 60-180 pN range and corresponds to the force required to break the hydrogen bonds. These peaks in the F-L curves are shown to be sensitive to relatively small changes in the chemical structure of the host molecule. Thermodynamic insights into the supramolecular assembly were obtained...

  6. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey John; Sadana, Devendra Kumar

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  7. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and red...

  8. Dental Mold: A Novel Formulation to Treat Common Dental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Soma; Roy, Gopa; Mukherjee, Biswajit

    2009-01-01

    Oral administration of antibiotics to treat dental problems mostly yields slow actions due to slow onset and hepatic “first-pass.” Again, commonly used dental paints are generally washed out by saliva within few hours of application. To overcome the challenges, polymeric molds to be placed on an affected tooth (during carries and gum problems) were prepared and evaluated in vitro for sustained drug release for prolonged local action. Here, amoxicillin trihydrate and lidocaine hydrochloride we...

  9. Magnetic resonance tomography and dental radiology (Dental-MRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahleitner, A.; Wien Univ.; Solar, P.; Ertl, L.; Nasel, C.; Homolka, P.; Youssefzadeh, S.; Schick, S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the usefulness of Dental-MRT for imaging of anatomic and pathologic conditions of the mandible and maxilla. Methods: Seven healthy volunteers, 5 patients with pulpitis, 9 patients with dentigerous cysts, 5 patients after tooth transplantation and 12 patients with atrophic mandibles were evaluated. Studies of the jaws using axial T1- and T2-weighted gradient echo and spin echo sequences in 2D and 3D technique have been to performed. The acquired images were reconstructed with a standard dental software package on a workstation as panoramic and cross sectional views of the mandible or maxilla. Results: The entire maxilla and mandibula, teeth, dental pulp and the content of the mandibular canal were well depicted. Patients with inflammatory disease of the pulp chamber demonstrate bone marrow edema in the periapical region. Dentigerous cysts and their relation to the surrounding structures are clearly shown. After contrast media application marked enhancement of the dental pulp can be found. Conclusion: Dental-MRT provides a valuable tool for visualization and detection of dental diseases. (orig.) [de

  10. Dental responsibility loadings and the relative value of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, D N; Ju, X; Brennan, D S

    2017-09-01

    To estimate responsibility loadings for a comprehensive list of dental services, providing a standardized unit of clinical work effort. Dentists (n = 2500) randomly sampled from the Australian Dental Association membership (2011) were randomly assigned to one of 25 panels. Panels were surveyed by questionnaires eliciting responsibility loadings for eight common dental services (core items) and approximately 12 other items unique to that questionnaire. In total, loadings were elicited for 299 items listed in the Australian Dental Schedule 9th Edition. Data were weighted to reflect the age and sex distribution of the workforce. To assess reliability, regression models assessed differences in core item loadings by panel assignment. Estimated loadings were described by reporting the median and mean. Response rate was 37%. Panel composition did not vary by practitioner characteristics. Core item loadings did not vary by panel assignment. Oral surgery and endodontic service areas had the highest proportion (91%) of services with median loadings ≥1.5, followed by prosthodontics (78%), periodontics (76%), orthodontics (63%), restorative (62%) and diagnostic services (31%). Preventive services had median loadings ≤1.25. Dental responsibility loadings estimated by this study can be applied in the development of relative value scales. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with two different bonding agents under dry conditions and with saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Khanehmasjedi

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Application of Single Bond and Assure bonding agents resulted in adequate bond strength of brackets to tooth structures. Contamination with saliva significantly decreased the bond strength of Assure bonding agent compared with dry conditions.

  12. Proposal of new bonding technique 'Instantaneous Liquid Phase (ILP) Bonding'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Chang; Nakagawa, Hiroji; Matsuda, Fukuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    A new bonding technique named ''Instantaneous Liquid Phase (ILP) bonding'' suitable mainly for welding dissimilar materials was proposed by which instantaneous melting of one or two of the faying surfaces is utilized. The processes of ILP bonding are mainly consisted of three stages, namely the first stage forming thin liquid layer by rapid heating, the second stage joining both specimens by thin liquid layer, and the third stage cooling the specimens rapidly to avoid the formation of brittle layer. The welding temperatures of the specimens to be welded in ILP bonding are generally differentiated from each other. ILP bonding was applied for a variety of combinations of dissimilar materials of aluminum, aluminum alloys, titanium, titanium alloy, carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel, copper and tungsten, and for similar materials of stainless steel and nickel-base alloy. There were no microvoids in these welding joints, and the formation of brittle layer at the bonding interface was suppressed. The welded joints of Al + Ti, Cu + carbon steel and Cu + austenitic stainless steel showed the fracture in base metal having lower tensile strength. Further, the welded joints of Al + carbon steel, Al alloy + Ti, Al alloy + carbon steel or + austenitic stainless steel, Ti + carbon steel or + austenitic stainless steel showed better tensile properties in the comparison with diffusion welding. Furthermore, ILP bonding was available for welding same materials susceptible to hot cracking. Because of the existence of liquid layer, the welding pressure required was extremely low, and preparation of faying surface by simple tooling or polishing by no.80 emery paper was enough. The change in specimen length before and after welding was relatively little, only depending on the thickness of liquid layer. The welding time was very short, and thus high welding efficiency was obtained. (author)

  13. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  14. Biofilm and Dental Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Øilo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available All treatment involving the use of biomaterials in the body can affect the host in positive or negative ways. The microbiological environment in the oral cavity is affected by the composition and shape of the biomaterials used for oral restorations. This may impair the patients’ oral health and sometimes their general health as well. Many factors determine the composition of the microbiota and the formation of biofilm in relation to biomaterials such as, surface roughness, surface energy and chemical composition, This paper aims to give an overview of the scientific literature regarding the association between the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of dental biomaterials and oral biofilm formation, with emphasis on current research and future perspectives.

  15. CT in dental osseointegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, D.

    1992-01-01

    Computerised tomography (CT) plays a key role in the pre-surgical evaluation of the alveolar process for titanium dental implants. The successful replacement of lost teeth by tissue integrated tooth root implants is a major advance in clinical dentistry. The paper will discuss briefly the history of osseointegration and how CT is now involved in helping the edentulous patient. CT is considered as a quick and convenient method of obtaining excellent anatomical information about the maxilla. Conventional tomography is difficult to obtain and does not provide valuable cross-sectional images. Exact height and width calculations can be made as well as screening out patients with advanced bone resorption. 3 refs. 6 figs

  16. Influence of Etching Mode on Enamel Bond Durability of Universal Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Tsujimoto, A; Endo, H; Erickson, R L; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the enamel bond durability of three universal adhesives in different etching modes through fatigue testing. The three universal adhesives used were Scotchbond Universal, Prime&Bond Elect universal dental adhesive, and All-Bond Universal light-cured dental adhesive. A single-step self-etch adhesive, Clearfil S 3 Bond Plus was used as a control. The shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) to human enamel were evaluated in total-etch mode and self-etch mode. A stainless steel metal ring with an internal diameter of 2.4 mm was used to bond the resin composite to the flat-ground (4000-grit) tooth surfaces for determination of both SBS and SFS. For each enamel surface treatment, 15 specimens were prepared for SBS and 30 specimens for SFS. The staircase method for fatigue testing was then used to determine the SFS of the resin composite bonded to the enamel using 10-Hz frequencies for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe representative debonded specimen surfaces and the resin-enamel interfaces. A two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used for analysis of the SBS data, whereas a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for the SFS data. All adhesives in total-etch mode showed significantly higher SBS and SFS values than those in self-etch mode. Although All-Bond Universal in self-etch mode showed a significantly lower SBS value than the other adhesives, there was no significant difference in SFS values among the adhesives in this mode. All adhesives showed higher SFS:SBS ratios in total-etch mode than in self-etch mode. With regard to the adhesive systems used in this study, universal adhesives showed higher enamel bond strengths in total-etch mode. Although the influence of different etching modes on the enamel-bonding performance of universal adhesives was found to be dependent on the adhesive material, total-etch mode

  17. Dental therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeenat; Jain, Nilu; Jain, Gaurav K; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahuja, Alka; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of periodontal diseases as amenable to local antibiotherapy has resulted in a paradigmatic shift in treatment modalities of dental afflictions. Moreover the presence of antimicrobial resistance, surfacing of untoward reactions owing to systemic consumption of antibiotics has further advocated the use of local delivery of physiologically active substances into the periodontal pocket. While antimicrobials polymerized into acrylic strips, incorporated into biodegradable collagen and hollow permeable cellulose acetate fibers, multiparticulate systems, bio-absorbable dental materials, biodegradable gels/ointments, injectables, mucoadhesive microcapsules and nanospheres will be more amenable for direct placement into the periodontal pockets the lozenges, buccoadhesive tablets, discs or gels could be effectively used to mitigate the overall gingival inflammation. Whilst effecting controlled local delivery of a few milligram of an antibacterial agent within the gingival crevicular fluid for a longer period of time, maintaining therapeutic concentrations such delivery devices will circumvent all adverse effects to non- oral sites. Since the pioneering efforts of Goodson and Lindhe in 1989, delivery at gingival and subgingival sites has witnessed a considerable progress. The interest in locally active systems is evident from the patents being filed and granted. The present article shall dwell in reviewing the recent approaches being proffered in the field. Patents as by Shefer, et al. US patent, 6589562 dealing with multicomponent biodegradable bioadhesive controlled release system for oral care products, Lee, et al. 2001, US patent 6193994, encompassing a locally administrable, biodegradable and sustained-release pharmaceutical composition for periodontitis and process for preparation thereof and method of treating periodontal disease as suggested by Basara in 2004via US patent 6830757, shall be the types of intellectual property reviewed and presented in

  18. In vitro comparison of the tensile bond strength of denture adhesives on denture bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Doris R; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Hall, Dan B; Bahjri, Khaled

    2013-12-01

    With several denture adhesives available, it is important for dentists to make appropriate patient recommendations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of denture adhesives on denture base materials at time intervals of up to 24 hours. Fixodent, Super Poligrip, Effergrip, and SeaBond denture adhesives were tested with 3 denture base materials: 2 heat-polymerized (Lucitone 199 and SR Ivocap) and 1 visible-light-polymerized (shade-stable Eclipse). Artificial saliva with mucin was used as a control. Tensile bond strength was tested in accordance with American Dental Association specifications at 5 minutes, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after applying the adhesive. Maximum forces before failure were recorded in megapascals (MPa), and the data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). All 4 adhesives had greater tensile bond strength than the control. Fixodent, Super Poligrip, and SeaBond had higher tensile bond strength values than Effergrip. All adhesives had the greatest tensile bond strength at 5 minutes and the least at 24 hours. The 3 denture bases produced significantly different results with each adhesive (Padhesives had the greatest tensile bond strength, followed by Ivocap and Eclipse. All 4 adhesives had greater tensile bond strength than the control, and all 4 adhesives were strongest at the 5-minute interval. On all 3 types of denture bases, Effergrip produced significantly lower tensile bond strength, and Fixodent, Super Poligrip, and SeaBond produced significantly higher tensile bond strength. At 24 hours, the adhesive-base combinations with the highest tensile bond strength were Fixodent on Lucitone 199, Fixodent on Eclipse, Fixodent on Ivocap, and Super Poligrip on Ivocap. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental Fear and Delayed Dental Care in Appalachia-West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance

    2015-08-01

    The people of Appalachia-West Virginia are culturally unique and are known to have oral health disparities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental fear in relation to delayed dental care as a factor influencing oral health behaviors within this culture. A cross sectional study design was used. Participants were urgent care patients in a university dental clinic. The sample included 140 adults over age 18 years. The Dental Fear Survey was used to determine dental fear level. Self-report of delayed dental care was provided by the participants. The Dental Fear Survey was dichotomized at score 33, with higher scores indicating dental fear. The prevalence of dental fear was 47.1% (n=66). There was a significant association of dental fear and dental delay. The unadjusted odds ratio was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.17, 7.04; p=0.021). The adjusted odds ratio was 3.83 (95%CI: 1.14, 12.82; p=0.030), controlling for tobacco use, perceived oral health status, pain, and last dental visit. A difference in dental delay between men and women was not present in this sample. The only significant variable in delayed dental care was dental fear. In Appalachia-West Virginia, there remains a high level of dental fear, despite advances in dental care, techniques, and procedures. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  1. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  2. The Phenomenon of Dental Fear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle...... of dental fear (see fig. 1). The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists (see table 1 for examples). The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2......) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has...

  3. Blood Thinners and Dental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of contact after hours (i.e.: office or cell phone number, on-call pager), and failing that, you ... Eric Stoopler Featured in the Bulletin of Dental Education AAOM Board Member Featured in PennCurrent AAOM Featured ...

  4. Musculoskeletal dysfunction in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim A. Larbi and Dmitry Ye. Suyetenkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the comparative statistics of musculoskeletal system deseases depending on a type of dental method. The practical recommendations on prevention of diseases of joints, ligaments and spine were done.

  5. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  6. ARUSHA SCHOOL DENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. 1. Pain due to ... increased intake of sweets and sweet snacks, ... to restrain production, import and marketing of modern sweets ... STRATEGY .... water we drink and bathe In. They are always ready to heip us or ...

  7. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  8. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  9. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enam...

  10. LED Technology for Dental Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Soerensen, L. H.

    LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......LEDs have a large potential in many dental and oral applications. Areas such as photo polymerization, fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy, and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for LED based diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  11. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...

  12. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (ppeer teaching (ppeer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about intraprofessional care.

  13. Effect of provisional cements on shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Tak, Onjen; Secilmis, Asli; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three provisional cements and two cleaning techniques on the final bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers. The occlusal third of the crowns of forty molar teeth were sectioned and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Dentin surfaces were polished and specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Provisional restorations were fabricated and two provisional restorations were cemented onto each tooth. Restorations were fixed with one of three different provisional cements: eugenol-free provisional cement (Cavex), calcium hydroxide (Dycal), and light-cured provisional cement (Tempond Clear). Provisional restorations were removed with either a dental explorer and air-water spray, or a cleaning bur (Opticlean). In the control group, provisional restorations were not used on the surfaces of specimens. IPS Empress 2 ceramic discs were luted with a dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F). Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and Dunnett tests. Surfaces were examined by scanning electronic microscopy. Significant differences were found between the control group and both the light-cured provisional cement groups and the eugenol-free provisional cement-cleaning bur group (Pprovisional cement showed the lowest bond strength values. Selection of the provisional cement is an important factor in the ultimate bond strength of the final restoration. Calcium hydroxide provisional cement and cleaning with a dental explorer are advisable.

  14. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  15. [Social medicine and dental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünfeld, B

    1976-03-01

    Some socio-medical aspects of preventive and curative dental care. Preventive and early curative dental care is considered as an integral part of general health behavior in the individual. Different variables possibly determining such behavior are discussed. Demographic factors as age, sex, place of residence, as well as family and educational background, income and vocation seem to be of importance. A dental health delivery system free of charge to everyone in the age group 6-18, eventually up to 21 years has been available for several years in Norway. We assume that this has had a great impact upon the motivations for a positive atitude towards preventive care, particularly since economic barriers have been reduced simultaneously with shift in the popular value aspects of having good dental health status. Plans for a future incorporation of dental care into a total national health service, comprising the entire population, in order to make the delivery system feasible for everyone, will probably stimulate a still wider interest and motivation for preventive and early dental care.

  16. "Vibrational bonding": a new type of chemical bond is discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J; Macrae, Roderick M

    2015-01-01

    A long-sought but elusive new type of chemical bond, occurring on a minimum-free, purely repulsive potential energy surface, has recently been convincingly shown to be possible on the basis of high-level quantum-chemical calculations. This type of bond, termed a vibrational bond, forms because the total energy, including the dynamical energy of the nuclei, is lower than the total energy of the dissociated products, including their vibrational zero-point energy. For this to be the case, the ZPE of the product molecule must be very high, which is ensured by replacing a conventional hydrogen atom with its light isotope muonium (Mu, mass = 1/9 u) in the system Br-H-Br, a natural transition state in the reaction between Br and HBr. A paramagnetic species observed in the reaction Mu +Br2 has been proposed as a first experimental sighting of this species, but definitive identification remains challenging.

  17. Common Factors in International Bond Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and interpret the factors that jointly determine bond returns of different maturities in the US, Germany and Japan.We analyze both currency-hedged and unhedged bond returns.For currency-hedged bond returns, we find that five factors explain 96.5% of the variation of bond

  18. 7 CFR 1726.27 - Contractor's bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractor's bonds. 1726.27 Section 1726.27... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.27 Contractor's bonds. (a) RUS Form 168b, Contractor's Bond, shall be used when a contractor's bond is required by RUS Forms 200, 257...

  19. Oregon School Bond Manual. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The manual is intended to guide attorneys and officials of school districts in the issuance and sale of school district bonds. Purchasers of school district bonds rely on the recommendations of accredited bond attorneys who render opinions concerning the validity and legality of bond issues offered for sale. This manual is designed to assist in…

  20. Oregon School Bond Manual. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To help school districts comply with Oregon's school bond laws, this manual provides guidelines for school district attorneys and personnel in the issuance and sale of school bonds. The document describes the proper time sequence of the bonding procedure, including elections, school board authorizations, necessary certificates, bond registration…

  1. Dental pain and dental treatment of young children attending the general dental service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, K M; Tickle, M; Blinkhorn, A S

    2002-03-09

    The objective was to examine the relationship between dental pain (and its sequelae), and the extent of restorative care provided for primary molars, amongst children who regularly attend a general dental practitioner. A retrospective review of the clinical case notes of 677 children with caries who attended 50 general dental practitioners on a regular basis. Analyses were performed at the subject level. Logistic regression models were fitted for the dependent variables whether or not pain, a dental extraction for pain or sepsis and a course of antibiotics was recorded, after taking into account the proportion of carious teeth that were restored, the total number of carious teeth, the age caries was first recorded, gender and the clustering of the subjects within dental practices. Almost half of the children in the study (48%) were recorded as having at least one episode of pain. Total decay experience in the primary molars was a significant predictor of pain, extraction due to pain or sepsis and prescription of antibiotics. There was no significant association between the proportion of carious teeth restored and each of the three dependent variables. For those children who regularly attend their general dental practitioner and who have decay in their primary molars, dental pain is a common finding. Total decay experience in primary molars is the principal predictor of pain, extraction due to pain and the need for antibiotics, whilst the level of restorative care in the primary dentition is less important. In order to reduce the incidence of dental pain in young children, effective methods of preventing caries at the individual and public health levels need to be expanded.

  2. Organisational aspects of dental practices: do dental students think like patients or like general dental practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, R E; Brands, W G; Bronkhorst, E M; Welie, J V M; Truin, G J

    2013-02-01

    In view of transparency in health care, the widespread desire for more patient-centred care, and in an attempt to facilitate educational programmes that effectively respond to these changes, two research questions are formulated: (i) How do dental students rate the importance of various organisational aspects of dental practices compared with dental patients and general dental practitioners (GDPs), and what prescripts, defined as specific operational responsibilities of GDPs in these matters, do dental students propose? and (ii) In doing so, do students resemble patients or GDPs? In two survey studies, dental students (n = 198), patients (n = 3127) and GDPs (n = 303) were asked to rate by questionnaire the importance of 41 organisational aspects of a general dental practice and proposed specific operational responsibilities ('prescripts'). Seven of 41 aspects were rated as important by the majority of the students. Although in a different rank order, three aspects were predominantly selected by all three groups: continuing education, accessibility by telephone and Dutch-speaking GDP. For most aspects, significant differences were found between the prescripts proposed by students and those proposed by patients, and few differences were found between students and GDPs. The findings do not permit the general conclusion that the views of dental students resemble those of patients or GPDs. Looking at the overall rank order, the three respondent groups showed a great resemblance although significant differences were found for specific aspects. With regard to the proposed prescripts, students showed realistic views and the majority wants to participate in continuing education and work with protocols and guidelines. In this, they tend to resemble GDPs more than they resemble patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  4. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  5. Influence of Different Etching Modes on Bond Strength to Enamel using Universal Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Ana Cs; Bandeca, Matheus C; Pinheiro, Larissa M; Dos Santosh Almeida, Lauber J; Torres, Carlos Rg; Borges, Alvaro H; Pinto, Shelon Cs; Tonetto, Mateus R; De Jesus Tavarez, Rudys R; Firoozmand, Leily M

    2016-10-01

    The adhesive systems and the techniques currently used are designed to provide a more effective adhesion with reduction of the protocol application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of universal adhesive systems on enamel in different etching modes (self-etch and total etch). The mesial and distal halves of 52 bovine incisors, healthy, freshly extracted, were used and divided into seven experimental groups (n = 13). The enamel was treated in accordance with the following experimental conditions: FUE-Universal System - Futurabond U (VOCO) with etching; FUWE - Futurabond U (VOCO) without etching; SB-Total Etch System - Single Bond 2 (3M); SBUE-Universal System - Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) with etching; SBUWE - Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE) without etching; CLE-Self-etch System - Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) was applied with etching; CLWE - Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) without etching. The specimens were made using the composite spectrum TPH (Dentsply) and stored in distilled water (37 ± 1°C) for 1 month. The microshear test was performed using the universal testing machine EMIC DL 2000 with the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The bond strength values were analyzed using statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test) with Bonferroni correction. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (p adhesive interface revealed that most failures occurred between the interface composite resin and adhesive. The universal adhesive system used in dental enamel varies according to the trademark, and the previous enamel etching for universal systems and the self-etch both induced greater bond strength values. Selective enamel etching prior to the application of a universal adhesive system is a relevant strategy for better performance bonding.

  6. Resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Frank A; Horvath, Sebastian D; Guess, Petra C; Blatz, Markus B

    2014-01-01

    Resin bonding is essential for clinical longevity of indirect restorations. Especially in light of the increasing popularity of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated indirect restorations, there is a need to assess optimal bonding protocols for new ceramic/polymer materials and indirect composites. The aim of this article was to review and assess the current scientific evidence on the resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials. An electronic PubMed database search was conducted from 1966 to September 2013 for in vitro studies pertaining the resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials. The search revealed 198 titles. Full-text screening was carried out for 43 studies, yielding 18 relevant articles that complied with inclusion criteria. No relevant studies could be identified regarding new ceramic/polymer materials. Most common surface treatments are aluminum-oxide air-abrasion, silane treatment, and hydrofluoric acid-etching for indirect composite restoration. Self-adhesive cements achieve lower bond strengths in comparison with etch-and-rinse systems. Thermocycling has a greater impact on bonding behavior than water storage. Air-particle abrasion and additional silane treatment should be applied to enhance the resin bond to laboratory-processed composites. However, there is an urgent need for in vitro studies that evaluate the bond strength to new ceramic/polymer materials. This article reviews the available dental literature on resin bond of laboratory composites and gives scientifically based guidance for their successful placement. Furthermore, this review demonstrated that future research for new ceramic/polymer materials is required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development and Validation of a Constitutive Model for Dental Composites during the Curing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham Kolstad, Lauren

    Debonding is a critical failure of a dental composites used for dental restorations. Debonding of dental composites can be determined by comparing the shrinkage stress of to the debonding strength of the adhesive that bonds it to the tooth surface. It is difficult to measure shrinkage stress experimentally. In this study, finite element analysis is used to predict the stress in the composite during cure. A new constitutive law is presented that will allow composite developers to evaluate composite shrinkage stress at early stages in the material development. Shrinkage stress and shrinkage strain experimental data were gathered for three dental resins, Z250, Z350, and P90. Experimental data were used to develop a constitutive model for the Young's modulus as a function of time of the dental composite during cure. A Maxwell model, spring and dashpot in series, was used to simulate the composite. The compliance of the shrinkage stress device was also taken into account by including a spring in series with the Maxwell model. A coefficient of thermal expansion was also determined for internal loading of the composite by dividing shrinkage strain by time. Three FEA models are presented. A spring-disk model validates that the constitutive law is self-consistent. A quarter cuspal deflection model uses separate experimental data to verify that the constitutive law is valid. Finally, an axisymmetric tooth model is used to predict interfacial stresses in the composite. These stresses are compared to the debonding strength to check if the composite debonds. The new constitutive model accurately predicted cuspal deflection data. Predictions for interfacial bond stress in the tooth model compare favorably with debonding characteristics observed in practice for dental resins.

  8. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  9. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia M. Serra-Negra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  10. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  11. Effect of Luting Cements On the Bond Strength to Turkom-Cera All-Ceramic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al–Makramani, Bandar M. A.; Razak, Abdul A. A.; Abu–Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al–Sanabani, Fuad A.; Albakri, Fahad M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selection of the appropriate luting cement is a key factor for achieving a strong bond between prepared teeth and dental restorations. AIM: To evaluate the shear bond strength of Zinc phosphate cement Elite, glass ionomer cement Fuji I, resin-modified glass ionomer cement Fuji Plus and resin luting cement Panavia-F to Turkom-Cera all-ceramic material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Turkom-Cera was used to form discs 10mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness (n = 40). The ceramic discs were wet ground, air - particle abraded with 50 - μm aluminium oxide particles and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10). The luting cement was bonded to Turkom-Cera discs as per manufacturer instructions. The shear bond strengths were determined using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analysed using the tests One Way ANOVA, the nonparametric Kruskal - Wallis test and Mann - Whitney Post hoc test. RESULTS: The shear bond strength of the Elite, Fuji I, Fuji Plus and Panavia F groups were: 0.92 ± 0.42, 2.04 ± 0.78, 4.37 ± 1.18, and 16.42 ± 3.38 MPa, respectively. There was the statistically significant difference between the four luting cement tested (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: the phosphate-containing resin cement Panavia-F exhibited shear bond strength value significantly higher than all materials tested. PMID:29610618

  12. In vitro evaluation of microleakage under orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atash, Ramin; Fneiche, Ali; Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Balon-Perin, Alain; Orellana, Maria; Glineur, Régine

    2017-01-01

    Adhesives systems have a drawback when utilized for bonding orthodontic brackets: they shrink during photopolymerization creating microleakage. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of different orthodontic adhesives around brackets and enamel. Sixty noncarious mandibular premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly divided into six groups of adhesives used for bonding brackets to dental enamel: NeoBond ® Light Cure Adhesive Kit, Transbond™ Plus Self-Etching, Victory V-Slot APC PLUS ® + Transbond™ MIP, Rely-A-Bond ® Kit, Light Cure Orthodontic Adhesive Kit (OptiBond ® ), and Transbond™ MIP. Following bonding, all teeth underwent 2500 cycles of thermal cycling in baths ranging from 5°C to 55°C before being immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 h. All samples were examined under a binocular microscope to assess the degree of microleakage at the "bracket-adhesive" and "adhesive-enamel" interfaces in the gingival and occlusal regions of the bracket. A significant difference was found at the "occlusal bracket-adhesive" interface. The highest microleakage values were found in the occlusal region, although no significant. Microleakage was observed in all groups. Group 2 had the highest microleakage values whereas Group 6 had the lowest values.

  13. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the union between two CoCr-alloys and a dental ceramic Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento da união entre duas ligas a base de CoCr e uma cerâmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pretti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Based on the importance of the integrity of the metal/ceramic interface, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the metal-ceramic union of two Co-Cr alloys (Wirobond C, Bego; Remanium 2000, Dentaurum combined with Omega 900 ceramic (Vita Zahnfabrik. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eleven cylindrical matrixes were made for each alloy, and the metallic portion was obtained with the lost wax casting technique with standardized waxing of 4mm of height and of 4mm of diameter. The ceramic was applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations with the aid of a teflon matrix that allowed its dimension to be standardized in the same size as the metallic portion. The specimens were submitted to the shear bond test in an universal testing machine (EMIC, with the aid of a device developed for such intention, and constant speed of 0.5mm/min. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The mean resistance was 48.387MPa for Wirobond C alloy, with standard deviation of 17.718, and 55.956MPa for Remanium 2000, with standard deviation of 17.198. No statistically significant difference was observed between the shear strength of the two metal-ceramic alloys.INTRODUÇÃO: Baseados na importância da integridade da interface metal-cerâmica, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da união metal-cerâmica de duas ligas de Co-Cr (Wirobond C, Bego; Remanium 2000, Dentaurum combinadas com a cerâmica Omega 900 (Vita Zahnfabrik. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram confeccionados 11 corpos-de-prova cilíndricos para cada liga utilizada, sendo que a porção metálica foi obtida por fundição pela técnica da cera perdida, através de enceramentos padronizados com 4mm de altura por 4mm de diâmetro. A aplicação da cerâmica foi realizada segundo recomendações do fabricante, com auxílio de uma matriz de teflon que permitia sua padronização com as mesmas dimensões da porção metálica. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos

  14. Análise química e morfológica do esmalte dentário humano tratado com laser argônio durante a colagem ortodôntica Chemical and morphological analysis of the human dental enamel treated with argon laser during orthodontic bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Serra Guimarães

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: as principais utilizações do laser argônio na Ortodontia são a redução do tempo de polimerização durante a colagem ortodôntica e o aumento da resistência à cárie do esmalte dentário. OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações químicas e morfológicas do esmalte dentário humano tratado com laser argônio nos parâmetros da colagem ortodôntica. MÉTODOS: quinze primeiros pré-molares hígidos, extraídos por indicação ortodôntica, foram selecionados e seccionados no sentido do longo eixo em dois segmentos iguais. Uma metade de cada elemento dentário foi tratada e a outra permaneceu sem tratamento. Um total de 30 amostras foi analisado, criando o grupo laser (n = 15 e o grupo controle (n = 15. O tratamento foi feito com laser argônio com 250mW de potência por 5 segundos, com densidade de energia de 8J/cm². RESULTADOS: a análise de difração de raios X demonstrou duas fases em ambos os grupos, as fases apatita e monetita. A redução da fase monetita foi significativa após o tratamento com laser, sugerindo maior cristalinidade. A análise de Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva (EDS indicou aumento na razão cálcio-fósforo no grupo laser, compatível com a diminuição da fase monetita. A morfologia superficial do esmalte dentário apresentou-se mais lisa após o tratamento com laser argônio. CONCLUSÕES: o aumento de cristalinidade e a lisura superficial do esmalte no grupo laser são fatores sugestivos de aumento de resistência à cárie no esmalte dentário.INTRODUCTION: The main utilities of the argon laser in orthodontics are the high speed curing process in orthodontic bonding and the caries resistance promotion of the tooth enamel. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical and morphological changes in the tooth enamel treated with the argon laser in the orthodontic bonding parameters. METHODS: Fifteen sound human first premolars, removed for orthodontic

  15. An overview of dental radiology: a primer on dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manny, E.F.; Carlson, K.C.; McClean, P.M.; Rachlin, J.A.; Segal, P.

    1980-01-01

    To provide medical and scientific background on certain selected technologies generally considered to be of particular significance, the National Center for Health Care Technology (NCHCT) has commissioned a series of overview papers. This is one of several projects entered into jointly by the Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH) and NCHCT relating to the use of radiation for health care. Dental radiation protection has been a long-time interest of BRH. Both past and on-going efforts to minimize population radiation exposure from electronic products have included specific action programs directed at minimizing unnecessary radiation exposure to the population from dental radiology. Current efforts in quality assurance and referral criteria are two aspects of NCHCT's own assessment of this technology which are described within the larger picture presented in this overview. The issues considered in this document go beyond the radiation exposure aspects of dental x-ray procedures. To be responsive to the informational needs of NCHCT, the assessment includes various other factors that influence the practice of dental radiology. It is hoped this analysis will serve as the basis for planning and conducting future programs to improve the practice of dental radiology

  16. Pricing catastrophic bonds for earthquakes in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Brenda López

    2006-01-01

    After the occurrence of a natural disaster, the reconstruction can be financed with catastrophic bonds (CAT bonds) or reinsurance. For insurers, reinsurers and other corporations CAT bonds provide multi year protection without the credit risk present in reinsurance. For investors CAT bonds offer attractive returns and reduction of portfolio risk, since CAT bonds defaults are uncorrelated with defaults of other securities. As the study of natural catastrophe models plays an important role in t...

  17. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  18. FATHER, SOCIAL BOND AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIA DE CASTRO KORGI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On the cross-point of two of the most important and inseparable Freudian questions: What is a father?and, What a woman wants?, this paper begins a reflection about the women’s place in the Freudianarticulation of the relationship between the father and the social bond. In fact, the Freudian father, thanksto the law mediation which he is its agent, has as a function the regulation of the pleasure that participatesin the social bond, making this way possible the human community. On the other hand, the support ofthe human community is the bond among brothers, as well as Freud presents it in his foundational textof the Law. How to precise the women’s place in this arrangement? The reflection stands out this thatexceeds the Father’s Law and that Freud sets on women’s account, initially under the figure of heropposition to the culture.

  19. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  20. State-sponsored dental terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M

    2017-11-24

    Has the state's manipulation of the NHS dental contract systems deliberately, or accidentally, had corrupting effects on the behaviours of some members of the dental profession? If the answer is 'possibly' or 'probably', then obvious questions that follow include, 'was this done deliberately' and if so, 'why'? Could this have been done for largely altruistic reasons, or was it done to achieve government control for minimum cost? Might this have been undertaken for political, financial or ideological reasons - regardless of any adverse longer term consequences for some patients or for some dental professionals? Might it have been done to take greater control of the dental profession on the grounds that all professions are a conspiracy against the laity, as the mildly paranoid George Bernard Shaw once alleged? Is it possible that some of this manipulation might have been done to help to disempower yet another profession, allegedly to 'modernise it', but perhaps to enslave it for its own reasons? Was this just another example of some statist politicians wanting to interfere in all aspects of UK society, regardless of their lack of specific understanding, or any proven expertise, in many areas? Could the state's manipulation of contracts and processes be regarded as an abuse of power by a virtual monopoly, which has been used to control a largely altruistic profession by imposing corrupting NHS dental contract systems with the most recent one involving 'units of dental activity' (UDAs)? Perhaps it was really about some politicians wanting ever more power, control or money - their usual drivers - with the dental and medical professions accidentally becoming casualties?

  1. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  2. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  3. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  4. Anodized dental implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. Materials and Methods: A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. Results: The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. Conclusions: The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  5. THERMOVISION IN DENTAL ALLERGOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dencheva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we aimed to optimize the thermal imaging method for evaluation of skin patch test reactions in dental clinical allergology. A total of 30 patients without a history of allergic diseases were included in the study - 12 men and 18 women, age 21 - 32 years. Skin patch testing was performed with a set of 20 standardized allergens. The thermographic investigations were performed with the FlirT620 infrared camera with a temperature resolution of 0,06°C. Thermograms were analysed using the Flir Reporter Professional software 2013. The statistical analysis of the results revealed an average correlation between the clinical evaluation of the results according to the cheme of ICDRG and the thermal image diagnostic (rphi = 0.538, p = 0.001. Absolute matching of clinical and thermal image results was observed only for the negative ones. For the clinically positive skin patch results matching with thermal image method was observed in 60.7% of the cases. Optimization of thermal imaging as a method for evaluation of skin patch test results could serve as a safe, accurate and non-invasive method, especially to distinguish weak (+, doubtful and irritant reactions, although not standardized criteria to distinguish these reactions have been elaborated yet. Crucial factor for the accurate interpretation of results is the precise diagnosing performed by well-trained physicians in this area, with clinical relevance, to minimize the role of subjective factors.

  6. Bond Pricing with Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    We offer a new model for pricing bonds subject to default risk. The event of default is remodeled as the first time that a state variable that captures the solvency of the issue goes below a certain level. The payoff to the bond in case of default is a constant fraction of the value of a security with the same promised payoffs but without the risk of default. We show that our model is very tractable under different models of interest rate risk and of the interaction between default risk and i...

  7. Utilization of dental health services by Danish adolescents attending private or public dental health care systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bastholm, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were: 1) to describe the choice of dental care system among 16-year-olds, 2) to describe the utilization of dental services among 16-17-year-olds enrolled in either public or private dental care systems, and to compare the dental services provided by the alternative...

  8. The etiology of childhood dental fear: The role of dental and conditioning experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, M.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relative importance of invasive treatment experiences in the acquisition of dental fear in children. For this purpose, the complete dental history of 401 children (aged 5-10 years) was studied. The level of dental fear in these children was assessed using the Dental

  9. 78 FR 2647 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Blade-Form Endosseous Dental Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    .... FDA-2012-N-0677] Dental Devices; Reclassification of Blade-Form Endosseous Dental Implant AGENCY: Food...) is proposing to reclassify the blade- form endosseous dental implant, a preamendments class III... proposing to revise the classification of blade-form endosseous dental implants. DATES: Submit either...

  10. Deposition of Crystalline Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Y-TZP Ceramic: A Potential Solution to Enhance Bonding Characteristics of Y-TZP Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Azari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many advantages have been attributed to dental zirconia ceramics in terms of mechanical and physical properties; however, the bonding ability of this material to dental structure and/or veneering ceramics has always been a matter of concern. On the other hand, hydroxyapatite (HA shows excellent biocompatibility and good bonding ability to tooth structure, with mechanically unstable and brittle characteristics, that make it clinically unacceptable for use in high stress bearing areas. The main purpose of this study was to introduce two simple yet practical methods to deposit the crystalline HA nanoparticles on zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods: zirconia blocks were treated with HA via two different deposition methods namely thermal coating and air abrasion. Specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD.Results: In both groups, the deposition techniques used were successfully accomplished, while the substrate showed no structural change. However, thermal coating group showed a uniform deposition of crystalline HA but in air abrasion method, there were dispersed thin islands of HA.Conclusions: Thermal coating method has the potential to significantly alter the surface characteristics of zirconia. The simple yet practical nature of the proposed method may be able to shift the bonding paradigm of dental zirconia ceramics. This latter subject needs to be addressed in future investigations.Keywords: Zirconium Oxide; Hydroxyapatites; Dental Bonding; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; X-Ray Diffraction; Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission

  11. Dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance after treatment in a dental fear clinic: A follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartman, I.H.A.; de Jongh, A.; Makkes, P.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess treatment outcome in terms of dental anxiety reduction at a post-treatment assessment and dental anxiety reduction and dental attendance one year later. Furthermore, it was determined to what extent psychopathological characteristics were related to

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  13. Dental Care Every Day: A Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    DENTAL CARE EVERY DAY A Caregiver’s Guide U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Contents Getting Started ................................................................................ 2 Three ...

  14. Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digestive System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Celiac disease manifestations ... affecting any organ or body system. One manifestation—dental enamel defects—can help dentists and other health ...

  15. FastStats: Oral and Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Oral and Dental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... States, 2016, table 60 [PDF – 9.8 MB] Dental visits Percent of children aged 2-17 years ...

  16. A concise overview of dental implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdurrazaq Taiwo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of osseointegrated dental implants has resulted in several applications in diverse clinical settings. Hence, has contributed to the suitable replacement of missing teeth and the realization of an optimal facial appearance. This paper describes the benefits, applications, contraindications, and complications of dental implants in contemporary dental practice. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was undertaken in PUBMED without time restriction for appropriate English papers on dental implants based on a series of keywords in different combinations. Results: Fifty-eight acceptable, relevant articles were selected for review. The review identified the various components of dental implants, classification, and brands. It also looked at osseointegration and factors promoting and inimical to it. It also explored primary and secondary stability; and patients' selection for a dental implant. Complications of dental implants were also highlighted. Conclusion: With over 95% success rate, dental implants remain the gold standard for achieving aesthetic and functional oral rehabilitation.

  17. Chronic Cutaneous Draining Sinus of Dental Origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endodontics, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Abstract ... Keywords: Dental fistula, Localized drug delivery, Root canal treatment. Access this article ... combination of intra-canal irrigants was selected. Hypochlorite.

  18. Development of dental anxiety in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fernanda C.; Lima, Rodrigo A.; de Barros, Mauro V.G.

    2017-01-01

    's health-related behaviours. Additionally, the children's dental caries experience was clinically evaluated to obtain information about DMFT/dmft (decayed, filled and missing teeth) indices. Using the Dental Anxiety Question, children whose parents responded “yes” to the prompt “Is he/she very afraid...... used medication chronically had a 2.1 times greater likelihood of having high dental anxiety. Furthermore, children whose parents reported high dental anxiety had a 2.6 times greater likelihood of having high dental anxiety themselves. A one-unit increase in a child's dmft score increased the risk...... of high dental anxiety by 1.1 times at follow-up. Conclusion: After two years, the incidence of high dental anxiety was 15.0%. Poor oral health, unstable general health and parents with high dental anxiety were factors that were associated with this type of anxiety in schoolchildren. It is important...

  19. Research in a dental practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Oystein

    2004-09-01

    There is a shortage of research from dental practice. The aim of this article is to stimulate more interest in dental research. This is done by explaining the basic principles of doing research in a dental practice setting. Examples are taken from the author's own practice. Emphasis is placed on the following points: how to develop and research ideas; factors specific to dental practice; how articles and journals are rated; making a protocol for the study; examiners' reliability and statistical analysis.

  20. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村, 俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  1. Perception of Dental Professionals towards Biostatistics

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, Manu; Gupta, Mudit; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Biostatistics is becoming an integral part of dental sciences. Awareness regarding the subject is not thoroughly assessed in the field of dentistry. So the study was conducted to assess dental professionals' knowledge, attitude, and perception toward biostatistics at an academic dental institution. An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among all the faculty and postgraduate students of two dental colleges in Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh. The responses were assessed on 5-...

  2. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  3. Stress and burnout among Swiss dental residents

    OpenAIRE

    Divaris, Kimon; Lai, Caroline S; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Stress and burnout have been well-documented in graduate medical and undergraduate dental education, but studies among dental graduate students and residents are sparse. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perceived stressors and three dimensions of burnout among dental residents enrolled in the University of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty-six residents enrolled in five specialty programmes were administered the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES30) questionnaire and the Maslach...

  4. Reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porz, F.

    1982-10-01

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has been characterized. The oxidation behaviour in air up to 1500 0 C and 3000 h and the effects of static and cyclic oxidation on room-temperature strength have been studied. (orig./IHOE) [de

  5. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    unusual because it has a pair of non-bonding electrons. So we would classify it ... you would expect the boron to be electron rich with a formal oxidation state of ... Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008. [3].

  6. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  7. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  8. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  9. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  10. Equivalent Young's modulus of composite resin for simulation of stress during dental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Nak-Sam

    2017-02-01

    For shrinkage stress simulation in dental restoration, the elastic properties of composite resins should be acquired beforehand. This study proposes a formula to measure the equivalent Young's modulus of a composite resin through a calculation scheme of the shrinkage stress in dental restoration. Two types of composite resins remarkably different in the polymerization shrinkage strain were used for experimental verification: the methacrylate-type (Clearfil AP-X) and the silorane-type (Filtek P90). The linear shrinkage strains of the composite resins were gained through the bonded disk method. A formula to calculate the equivalent Young's moduli of composite resin was derived on the basis of the restored ring substrate. Equivalent Young's moduli were measured for the two types of composite resins through the formula. Those values were applied as input to a finite element analysis (FEA) for validation of the calculated shrinkage stress. Both of the measured moduli through the formula were appropriate for stress simulation of dental restoration in that the shrinkage stresses calculated by the FEA were in good agreement within 3.5% with the experimental values. The concept of equivalent Young's modulus so measured could be applied for stress simulation of 2D and 3D dental restoration. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dental Environmental Noise Evaluation and Health Risk Model Construction to Dental Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Kuen Wai; Wong, Hai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming

    2017-01-01

    Occupational noise is unavoidably produced from dental equipment, building facilities, and human voices in the dental environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise exposure on the dental professionals’ health condition. The psychoacoustics approach noise exposure assessment followed by the health risk assessment was carried on at the paediatric dentistry clinic and the dental laboratory in the Prince Philip Dental Hospital of Hong Kong. The A-weigh...

  12. Dental Workforce Availability and Dental Services Utilization in Appalachia: A Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Wiener, R. Constance

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is considerable variation in dental services utilization across Appalachian counties, and a plausible explanation is that individuals in some geographical areas do not utilize dental care due to dental workforce shortage. We conducted an ecological study on dental workforce availability and dental services utilization in Appalachia. Methods We derived county-level (n = 364) data on demographic, socio-economic characteristics and dental services utilization in Appalachia from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) using person-level data. We obtained county-level dental workforce availability and physician-to-population ratio estimates from Area Health Resource File, and linked them to the county-level BRFSS data. The dependent variable was the proportion using dental services within the last year in each county (ranging from 16.6% to 91.0%). We described the association between dental workforce availability and dental services utilization using ordinary least squares regression and spatial regression techniques. Spatial analyses consisted of bivariate Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Results Bivariate LISA showed that counties in the central and southern Appalachian regions had significant (p dental workforce availability, low percent dental services utilization). GWR revealed considerable local variations in the association between dental utilization and dental workforce availability. In the multivariate GWR models, 8.5% (t-statistics >1.96) and 13.45% (t-statistics >1.96) of counties showed positive and statistically significant relationships between the dental services utilization and workforce availability of dentists and dental hygienists, respectively. Conclusions Dental workforce availability was associated with dental services utilization in the Appalachian region; however, this association was not statistically significant in all counties. The findings suggest

  13. Dental Anomalies and Dental Age Assessment in Treated Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Khojastepour, L; Zareifar, S; Ebrahimi, M

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross sectional study was performed to evaluate dental ages and incidence of dental anomalies in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods and materials A total of 25 ALL patient who passed at least 2 years of chemotherapy and 25 healthy sex and age matched children were evaluated. Dental age as well as dental anomalies in shape, size, number, and structure was recorded based on their panoramic radiographies which were taken for dental purposes. Results ...

  14. Influence of different etching modes on bond strength and fatigue strength to dentin using universal adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Berry, Thomas P; Watanabe, Hedehiko; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the dentin bonding ability of three new universal adhesive systems under different etching modes using fatigue testing. Prime & Bond elect [PE] (DENTSPLY Caulk), Scotchbond Universal [SU] (3M ESPE), and All Bond Universal [AU] (Bisco) were used in this study. A conventional single-step self-etch adhesive, Clearfil Bond SE ONE [CS] (Kuraray Noritake Dental) was also included as a control. Shear bond strengths (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) to human dentin were obtained in the total-etch mode and self-etch modes. For each test condition, 15 specimens were prepared for the SBS and 30 specimens for SFS. SEM was used to examine representative de-bonded specimens, treated dentin surfaces and the resin/dentin interface for each test condition. Among the universal adhesives, PE in total-etch mode showed significantly higher SBS and SFS values than in self-etch mode. SU and AU did not show any significant difference in SBS and SFS between the total-etch mode and self-etch mode. However, the single-step self-etch adhesive CS showed significantly lower SBS and SFS values in the etch-and-rinse mode when compared to the self-etch mode. Examining the ratio of SFS/SBS, for PE and AU, the etch-and-rinse mode groups showed higher ratios than the self-etch mode groups. The influence of different etching modes on dentin bond quality of universal adhesives was dependent on the adhesive material. However, for the universal adhesives, using the total-etch mode did not have a negative impact on dentin bond quality. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Resende NOVAIS

    Full Text Available Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer. The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst and light-activation mode (base paste only. For degree of conversion (DC (n=5, a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

  16. Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology. Enugu, Nigeria ... HIV-infected individuals is also known to be achieved through the provision of ... to care for HIV-infected patients among this group of dental professionals ..... Table 7: Willingness to care versus training needs on care.

  17. First-Aid Algorithms in Dental Avulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…

  18. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  19. Utilization of dental care: An Indian outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Brar, Prabhleen; Singh, Gurminder; Sofat, Anjali; Kakar, Heena

    2013-01-01

    Oral health has a significant impact on the quality of life, appearance, and self-esteem of the people. Preventive dental visits help in the early detection and treatment of oral diseases. Dental care utilization can be defined as the percentage of the population who access dental services over a specified period of time. There are reports that dental patients only visit the dentist when in pain and never bother to return for follow-up in most cases. To improve oral health outcomes an adequate knowledge of the way the individuals use health services and the factors predictive of this behavior is essential. The interest in developing models explaining the utilization of dental services has increased; issues like dental anxiety, price, income, the distance a person had to travel to get care, and preference for preservation of teeth are treated as barriers in regular dental care. Published materials which pertain to the use of dental services by Indian population have been reviewed and analyzed in depth in the present study. Dental surgeons and dental health workers have to play an adequate role in facilitating public enlightenment that people may appreciate the need for regular dental care and make adequate and proper use of the available dental care facilities. PMID:24082719

  20. Dental anxiety: Investigative and management techniques often ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Information on the pattern of dental anxiety management in Nigeria is currently not available. Aim: The study was designed to determine the awareness and frequency of application of dental anxiety assessment questionnaires as well as the current pattern in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria.

  1. Systemic Assessment of Patients Undergoing Dental Implant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Procedure‑related and patient‑related factors influence the prognosis of dental implants to a major extent. Hence, we aimed to evaluate and analyze various systemic factors in patients receiving dental implants. Materials and Methods: Fifty‑one patients were included in the study, in which a total of 110 dental ...

  2. Dental erosion: prevalence, incidence, and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.J.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion is one of the most common dental diseases and it is a growing problem. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence of dental erosion. For these studies different cross sections of the population are investigated. Large differences were found between countries,

  3. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  4. Improving osseointegration of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Meirelles, Luiz

    2010-03-01

    In the beginning of implantology, the procedures adopted for treating patients were performed in two surgical phases with an interval of 3-6 months. Nowadays, it is possible to insert and load a dental implant in the same surgical procedure. This change is due to several factors, such as improvement of surgical technique, modifications of the implant design, increased quality of implant manufacturing, development of the surgical instruments' quality, careful patient screening and adequate treatment of the implant surface. The clinical results show that adequate treatment of surfaces is crucial for reducing healing time and treating at-risk patients. The surface properties of dental implants can be significantly improved at the manufacturing stage, affecting cells' activity during the healing phase that will ultimately determine the host tissue response, a fundamental requirement for clinical success. This review focuses on different types of dental implant surfaces and the influence of surface characteristics on osseointegration.

  5. Dental worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  6. Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Weir, Michael D; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Nancy J; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chow, Laurence C; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and a quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) were synthesized. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) primer and adhesive served as control. DMADDM was incorporated into primer and adhesive at 5% by mass. NACP was incorporated into adhesive at filler mass fractions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to test the antibacterial bonding agents. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases from the cured adhesive samples were measured vs. filler level and solution pH of 7, 5.5 and 4. Adding 5% DMADDM and 10-40% NACP into bonding agent, and water-aging for 28 days, did not affect dentin bond strength, compared to SBMP control at 1 day (p>0.1). Adding DMADDM into bonding agent substantially decreased the biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production. Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci were greatly reduced for bonding agents containing DMADDM. Increasing NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive increased the Ca and P ion release by an order of magnitude. Decreasing solution pH from 7 to 4 increased the ion release from adhesive by 6-10 folds. Bonding agents containing antibacterial DMADDM and remineralizer NACP were formulated to have Ca and P ion release, which increased with NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive. NACP adhesive was "smart" and dramatically increased the ion release at cariogenic pH 4, when these ions would be most-needed to inhibit caries. Therefore, bonding agent containing DMADDM and NACP may be promising to inhibit

  7. Creation of a scholars program in dental leadership (SPDL) for dental and dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, Russell S; Green, Thomas G; Polverini, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    There is a great need for leaders in the dental profession. As technological advances make our world smaller and our lives faster and more complex, we as a profession face challenges and opportunities that are evolving. Many of the changes in the scope and mode of practice will require new and different approaches. Meeting these challenges will require changes in how we as dental professionals do business; interact with our patients, other stakeholders, and health care providers; and educate our future colleagues. The purposeful incorporation of leadership education into dental and dental hygiene curricula represents an important departure from existing paradigms-but will help prepare our students to address these challenges. This article provides an overview of the development of a Scholars Program in Dental Leadership (SPDL) at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Our aim for the program is to create a learning environment that fosters leadership development, so that students are prepared and motivated to assume leadership positions in the profession and their communities.

  8. Low-dose dental CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustemeyer, P.; Eich, H.T.; John-Mikolajewski, V.; Mueller, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The intention of this study was to reduce patient dose during dental CT in the planning for osseointegrated implants. Methods and Materials: Dental CTs were performed with a spiral CT (Somatom Plus 4, Siemens) and a dental software package. Use of the usual dental CT technique (120 kVp; 165 mA, 1 s rotation time, 165 mAs; pitch factor 1) was compared with a new protocol (120 kVp; 50 mA; 0.7 s rotation time; 35 mAs; pitch factor 2) which delivered the best image quality at the lowest possible radiation dose, as tested in a preceding study. Image quality was analysed using a human anatomic head preparation. Four radiologists analysed the images independently. A Wilcoxon rank pair-test was used for statistic evaluation. The doses to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the salivary glands, and the eye lens were determined in a tissue-equivalent phantom (Alderson-Rando Phantom) with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters at the appropriate locations. Results: By mAs reduction from 165 to 35 and using a pitch factor of 2, the radiation dose could be reduced by a factor of nine (max.) (e.g., the bone marrow dose could be reduced from 23.6 mSv to 2.9 mSv, eye lens from 0.5 mSv to 0.3 mSv, thyroid gland from 2.5 mSv to 0.5 mSv, parotid glands from 2.3 mSv to 0.4 mSv). The dose reduction did not lead to an actual loss of image quality or diagnostic information. Conclusion: A considerable dose reduction without loss of diagnostic information is achievable in dental CT. Dosereducing examination protocols like the one presented may further expand the use of preoperative dental CT. (orig.) [de

  9. The effect of dentine surface preparation and reduced application time of adhesive on bonding strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, A F M Almas; Fukuyama, Mai; Kakuda, Shinichi; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Sano, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of surface preparation and the application time of adhesives on the resin-dentine bond strengths with universal adhesives. Sixty molars were cut to exposed mid-coronal dentine and divided into 12 groups (n=5) based on three factors; (1) adhesive: G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Okayama, Japan) and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); (2) smear layer preparation: SiC paper ground dentine or bur-cut dentine; (3) application time: shortened time or as manufacturer's instruction. Fifteen resin-dentine sticks per group were processed for microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) according to non-trimming technique (1mm(2)) after storage in distilled water (37 °C) for 24h. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 tests (α=0.05). Fractured surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Another 12 teeth were prepared and cut into slices for SEM examination of bonded interfaces. μTBS were higher when bonded to SiC-ground dentine according to manufacturer's instruction. Bonding to bur-cut dentine resulted in significantly lower μTBS (padhesive resin interface. This was more pronounced when adhesives were bonded with a reduced application time and on bur cut dentine. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised on bur cut dentine and when applied with a reduced application time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Scotchbond Multipurpose and maleic acid as alternative methods of bonding orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M E; Bishara, S E; Damon, P; Jakobsen, J R

    1997-05-01

    Damage to the enamel surface during bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets is a clinical concern. Alternative bonding methods that minimize enamel surface damage while maintaining a clinically useful bond strength is an aim of current research. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on bond strength and bracket failure location of two adhesives (System 1+ and Scotchbond Multipurpose, 3M Dental Products Division) and two enamel conditioners (37% phosphoric acid and 10% maleic acid). Forty-eight freshly extracted human premolars were pumiced and divided into four groups of 12 teeth, and metal orthodontic brackets were attached to the enamel surface by one of four protocols: (1) System 1+ and phosphoric acid, (2) Scotchbond and phosphoric acid, (3) System 1+ and maleic acid, and (4) Scotchbond and maleic acid. After bracket attachment, the teeth were mounted in phenolic rings and stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. A Zwick universal testing machine (Zwick GmbH & Co.) was used to determine shear bond strengths. The residual adhesive on the enamel surface was evaluated with the Adhesive Remnant Index. The analysis of variance was used to compare the four groups. Significance was predetermined at p adhesives on the enamel surfaces, revealed significant differences among the four groups (mean 2 = 0.005). A Duncan multiple range test revealed the difference occurred between the phosphoric acid and maleic acid groups, with maleic acid having bond failures at the enamel-adhesive interface. In conclusion, the use of Scotchbond Multipurpose and/or maleic acid does not significantly effect bond strength, however, the use of maleic acid resulted in an unfavorable bond failure location.

  11. Influence of degradation conditions on dentin bonding durability of three universal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Keiichi; Shimamura, Yutaka; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Imai, Arisa; Endo, Hajime; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine dentin bonding durability of universal adhesives using shear bond strength (SBS) tests under various degradation conditions. G-Premio Bond (GP, GC), Scotchbond Universal (SU, 3M ESPE) and All Bond Universal (AB, Bisco) were compared with conventional two-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond (SE, Kuraray Noritake Dental). Bonded specimens were divided into three groups of ten, and SBSs with bovine dentin were determined after the following treatments: 1) Storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24h followed by 3000, 10,000, 20,000 or 30,000 thermal cycles (TC group), 2) Storage in distilled water at 37°C for 3 months, 6 months or 1year (water storage, WS group) and 3) Storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24h (control). SE bonded specimens showed significantly higher SBSs than universal adhesives, regardless of TC or storage periods, although AB specimens showed significantly increased SBSs after 30,000 thermal cycles. In comparisons of universal adhesives under control and degradation conditions, SBS was only reduced in SU after 1year of WS. Following exposure of various adhesive systems to degradation conditions of thermal cycling and long term storage, SBS values of adhesive systems varied primarily with degradation period. Although universal adhesives have lower SBSs than the two-step self-etch adhesive SE, the present data indicate that the dentin bonding durability of universal adhesives in self-etch mode is sufficient for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uranium determination in dental ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, I.; Gamboa, I.; Espinosa, G.; Moreno, A.

    1984-01-01

    There are many reports of high uranium concentration in dental ceramics, so they require to be controlled. The SSNTD is an optional method to determine the uranium concentration. In this work the analysis of several commercial dental ceramics used regularly in Mexico by dentists is presented. The chemical and electrochemical processes are used and the optimal conditions for high sensitivity are determined. CR-39 (allyl diglycol polycarbonate) was used as detector. The preliminary results show some materials with high uranium concentrations. Next step will be the analysis of equivalent dose and the effects in the public health. (author)

  13. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Biryukova, T.; Sukhinina, A.; Vdovin, Yu

    2010-11-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 - 645 nm and 340 - 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy.

  14. Radiological protection in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Intended to be complementary to the more comprehensive document, ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), the purpose of this booklet is to give dentists some basic information on the safe use of X-rays. Contents: why protection from X-rays; responsibility for radiation protection; protection during a dental examination; ensuring a safe installation; sources of further information. Appendices: maximum permissible doses; useful addresses; summary of relevant recommendations from the Code of Practice; notes on film processing.

  15. Radiation protection in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozani, F.; Parnianpour, H.

    1976-08-01

    In considering the special provisions required in dental radiography, investigations were conducted in Iran. Radiation dose levels in dental radiography were found to be high. Patient exposure from intraoral radiographic examination was calculated, using 50kV X-ray. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were fastened to the nasion, eyes, lip, philtrum, thyroid, gonads and to the right and left of the supra-orbital, infra-orbital temporomandibular joints of live patients. The highest exposure value was for the lower lip. Recommendations concerning educational training and protection of staff and patients were included

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05. In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives.

  17. Strength of Bond Covenants and Bond Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine bond covenants of 29 New Zealand bond issues between 2001 and 2007.Results from the study indicate that protection provided for bondholders is weak and limited.On average, only 2-3 types of covenants are embedded with the issues and only 27% of thesecovenants provide full protection to the bondholders. However, bondholders are not compensated for taking the additional risk. We propose an alternative assessment framework that directly assesses the level of protection offered to bondholders. We calculate thecovenant quality score for the issues and classify them into four levels of protection: very high protection, moderate, low and very low. Recent legislative changes will go some way towards improving investor protection and confidence, but the effect is yet to be seen. This proposed scoring framework can be used by potential investors to complement the traditional credit ratings when making their investment decisions.

  18. Effects of early dental office visits on dental caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Heather; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-10-01

    We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005-2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n=11,394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81, 0.95; IRR=0.75; 95% CI=0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years.

  19. Diagnostic Methods for Dental Caries Used by Private Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... methods used for diagnosis and treatment of dental caries can exhibit considerable differences. Oral health markedly contributes to the maintenance of general health and ..... may be attributed to the deterioration of eye function with the advanced ... meticulous visual examination of a dry tooth and the lack.

  20. The National Institute of Dental Research Clinical Dental Staff Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program in one of the National Institutes of Health offers clinical training fellowships as a means of training potential dental school faculty by providing both unique clinical skills and high-quality research experience. The program was developed in response to a perceived need for change in academic dentistry. (MSE)

  1. Oral Health, Dental Insurance and Dental Service use in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Preety; Chen, Gang; Harris, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This study uses data from the 2004-2006 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health and a simultaneous equation framework to investigate the interrelationships between dental health, private dental insurance and the use of dental services. The results show that insurance participation is influenced by social and demographic factors, health and health behaviours. In turn, these factors affect the use of dental services, both directly and through insurance participation. Our findings confirm that affordability is a major barrier to visiting the dentist for oral health maintenance and treatment. Our results suggest that having supplementary insurance is associated with some 56 percentage points higher probability of seeing the dentist in the general population. For those who did not have private insurance cover, we predict that conditional on them facing the same insurance conditions, on average, having insurance would increase their visits to the dentist by 43 percentage points. The uninsured in the survey have lower income, worse oral health and lower rates of preventive and treatment visits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Do we need primer for orthodontic bonding? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhra, Sarabjit Singh; Littlewood, Simon J; Houghton, Nadine; Luther, Friedy; Prabhu, Jagadish; Munyombwe, Theresa; Wood, Simon R

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of APC™II Victory Series™ (3M Unitek) brackets in direct orthodontic bonding with and without the use of primer. A single-operator, two-centre prospective, non-inferiority randomized controlled clinical trial. The Orthodontic departments at the Leeds Dental Institute and St Luke's Hospital, Bradford, UK. Ethical approval was granted by Leeds (East) Research Ethics Committee on 18th of December 2009 (Reference 09/H1306/102). The protocol was not published prior to trial commencement. Ninety-two patients requiring orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were randomly allocated to the control (bonded with primer) or test groups (bonded without primer). Patients were randomly allocated to either the control or experimental group. This was performed by preparing opaque numbered sealed envelopes in advance using a random numbers table generated by a computer by an independent third party . Once the envelopes were opened, blinding of the operator and the patient was no longer possible due to the nature of the intervention. Patients were approached for inclusion in the trial if they qualified for NHS orthodontic treatment requiring fixed appliances and had no previous orthodontic treatment. Number of bracket failures, time to bond-up appliances, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) when bracket failure occurred, over a 12-month period Failure rate with primer was 11.1 per cent and without primer was 15.8 per cent. Bonding without primer was shown statistically to be non-inferior to bonding with primer odds ratio 0.95-2.25 (P = 0.08). Mean difference in bond-up time per bracket was 0.068 minutes (4 seconds), which was not statistically significant (P = 0.402). There was a statistically significant difference in the Adhesive Remnant Index - ARI 0 with primer 49.4 per cent, no primer 76.5 per cent, (P failure rate of 2% to be clinically significant. When bonding with APC™II Victory Series™ brackets without primer was shown

  3. Comparison Of Bond Strength Of Orthodontic Molar Tubes Using Different Enamel Etching Techniques And Their Effect On Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd el Rahman, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In fixed orthodontic treatment, brackets and tubes are used for transferring orthodontic forces to the teeth. Those attachments were welded to cemented bands. Fifty years ago, direct bonding of brackets and other attachments has become a common technique in fixed orthodontic treatment. Orthodontists used to band teeth, especially molars and second premolars, to avoid the need for re bonding accessories in these regions of heavy masticatory forces. However, it is a known fact that direct bonding saves chair time as it does not require prior band selection and fitting, has the ability to maintain good oral hygiene, improve esthetics and make easier attachment to crowded and partially erupted teeth. Moreover, when the banding procedure is not performed with utmost care it can damage periodontal and/or dental tissues. Molar tubes bonding decreases the chance of decalcification caused by leakage beneath the bands. Since molar teeth are subjected to higher masticatory impact, especially lower molars, it would be convenient to devise methods capable of increasing the efficiency of their traditional bonding. These methods may include variation in bond able molar tube material, design, bonding materials and etching techniques. For achieving successful bonding, the bonding agent must penetrate the enamel surface; have easy clinical use, dimensional stability and enough bond strength. Different etching techniques were introduced in literature to increase the bond strength which includes: conventional acid etching, sandblasting and laser etching techniques. The process of conventional acid etching technique was invented In (1955) as the surface of enamel has great potential for bonding by micromechanical retention, to form ‘the mechanical lock‘. The primary effect of enamel etching is to increase the surface area. However, this roughens the enamel microscopically and results in a greater surface area on which to bond. By dissolving minerals in enamel, etchants remove the

  4. Dental lesions and restorative treatment in molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiu Irina-Maria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article review specific clinical issues of the molar teeth, as well as the therapeutic approach of their pathology. The dental pathology we face in the group of molars is related to: dental caries, dental trauma (crown and crown-root fractures, dental wear phenomena. The therapeutic approach of the molar teeth is represented by: restoration of the loss of hard dental tissues; endodontic treatments of pulpal and periapical complications; surgical treatment. The restorative treatments in molars are: direct restorations, with or without supplementary anchorage for obturations; inlay, onlay; prosthetic crown.

  5. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and...

  6. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  7. Dental hygiene work in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J

    2008-08-01

    Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.

  8. The virtual dental home: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R

    2017-09-01

    The Virtual Dental Home is a concept of the Pacific Center for Special Care of the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. It is designed to improve access to dental care for underserved populations, specifically children and institutionalized adults. This article describes the development and implementation of the Virtual Dental Home, subsequently critiquing the concept. The criteria for a dental home are not met by the program. It is the equivalent of a traditional public oral health prevention and screening program, with the additional dimension of allowing dental hygienists and assistants to place interim glass ionomer restorations in dental cavities. The critique questions the need to insert a "cloud" dentist into the process. The routine utilization of radiographs is also challenged. The VDH not only lacks the attributes of a dental home, it has not been shown to be as efficient and effective as traditional programs staffed by dental hygienists and dental therapists. The article concludes by describing how programs utilizing dental therapists could address the deficiencies of the Virtual Dental Home, effectively improving access to oral health care for underserved populations. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Dental Age Difference in Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Puneet; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Han; Townsend, Janice A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in dental development are associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD medications. This retrospective chart review evaluated the dental age of 128 patients between 6 and 16 years of age using the Demirjian method from the following two groups a) children with ADHD b) unaffected children. The ADHD group was further stratified into four groups according to the medication type. The impact of ADHD on dental age difference (the difference between dental age and chronologic age) was analyzed using T-test and the association between medication type and dental age difference was analyzed through one way ANOVA. The mean difference between estimated dental age and chronologic age (dental age difference) for all subjects was 0.80 years. There was no significant dental age difference in subjects with ADHD and the control group (0.78±1.28vs. 0.84 ±1.09 years respectively; P=0.75) and there was no significant difference in dental age difference and type of medication (P=0.84). No significant difference was found between children with ADHD and unaffected children with respect to dental age difference. No significant differences were found in dental age difference in the four medication groups.

  10. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats

  11. The adhesive bonding of beryllium structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton-Batten, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Where service conditions permit, adhesive bonding is a highly recommendable, reliable means of joining beryllium structural parts. Several important programs have successfully used adhesive bonding for joining structural and non-structural beryllium components. Adhesive bonding minimizes stress concentrations associated with other joining techniques and considerably improves fatigue resistance. In addition, no degradation of base metal properties occur. In many instances, structural joints can be fabricated more cheaply by adhesive bonding or in combination with adhesive bonding than by any other method used alone. An evaluation program on structural adhesive bonding of beryllium sheet components is described. A suitable surface pretreatment for beryllium adherends prior to bonding is given. Tensile shear strength and fatigue properties of FM 1000 and FM 123-5 adhesive bonded joints are reviewed and compared with data obtained from riveted joints of similar geometry. (author)

  12. Manufacturing study of beryllium bonded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hirai, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Oda, Y.; Shimizu, K.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing study has been conducted on Be-bonded structures employed in the first-wall panel of the blanket system for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating process has been used to bond the three materials. First, Cu-alloy and SS materials are bonded diffusively. Then, Be tiles are bonded to the pre-bonded structure under 20 MPa and at 560 degree C. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-Alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Using the above bonding techniques, a partial mockup of a blanket first-wall panel with 16 Be tiles (with 50 mm in size) has been successfully manufactured. (author)

  13. Recent trends in dental visits and private dental insurance, 1989 and 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Thomas P; Brown, L Jackson

    2003-05-01

    This article describes recent trends in dental visits and private dental insurance in the United States. This study is based on the analyses of data regarding dental visits and private dental insurance among the population 2 years of age or older from the 1989 and 1999 National Health Interview Surveys. Overall, the percentage of the population with a dental visit rose from 57.2 percent in 1989 to 64.1 percent in 1999, while the percentage with private dental insurance fell from 40.5 percent to 35.2 percent. Although a higher percentage of people with private dental insurance reported having a dental visit than did those without private dental insurance in both years, the increase from 1989 to 1999 in the percentage of those with a visit was larger among the uninsured. If this trend persists, a smaller portion of practicing dentist's clientele will be insured. This may affect demand for services, as well as front office operations.

  14. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  15. Taxonomy for competency-based dental curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Neira, Roberto J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a classification of dental competencies. Interest in dental competencies has grown consistently during the last three decades. However, the dental education literature suggests that the term "competency" is understood and used differently by dental schools around the world. The taxonomic classification of dental competencies we propose follows a systematic approach starting at the highest level of complexity, i.e., the professional profile the teaching institution envisions for its graduates, and following in a decreasing degree of complexity to competency function, task, step, movement, and moment. This taxonomy has proved to be useful for more than thirty years in the Dental School of the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia. Graduates of this school are successful practitioners, teachers, and researchers in Peru and other countries. The classification proposed here should clarify terms, facilitate curriculum design and learning assessment, stimulate further discussion on the matter, and facilitate communication among the dental education establishment.

  16. Dental stories for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Ian W; Nelson, Travis M; Sheller, Barbara; McKinney, Christy M; Scott, JoAnna M

    2016-07-01

    To investigate caregivers' preference regarding dental stories to prepare children with autism for dental visits. Caregivers of children with autism were allowed use of dental stories available via different media (paper, tablet computer, computer) and image types (comics or drawings, photographs, video). Caregivers completed pre- and postintervention surveys. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine associations between predictive factors and preferences. Forty initial and 16 follow-up surveys were completed. Subjects were primarily male (85%). Mean child age was 6.7 years. Nine (64%) caregivers found the dental story useful for themselves and their child. Two (14%) caregivers found the aid only helpful for themselves. Preferred media type was associated with language understanding (p = .038) and home media preference (p = .002). Practitioners should consider using dental stories to help prepare families and children for dental visits. Individual preferences for dental stories vary; using prior history can aid in selection. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Lingual orthodontics for children and adolescents: improvement of the indirect bonding protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Demineralization of the dental enamel is a finding associated with fixed orthodontic treatment. When an indirect bonding procedure is used in children and adolescents the area beneath the bracket base may be affected. Aim To evaluate if the addition of an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin, to a conventional indirect bonding protocol, can reduce the incidence of demineralization beneath the bracket base. Methods 40 patients under 18 years of age were treated with completely customized lingual appliances. Two different bonding protocols were used either with or without the application of an additional layer of hydrophilic resin. Demineralization beneath the bracket base, after de-bonding, was evaluated by standardized intra-oral photographs. Results The addition of an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin helps to reduce the number of demineralized areas beneath the bracket bases significantly (three times less). The severity of the few remaining defects were minor and without any clinical consequence. Conclusion When bonding a completely customized lingual appliance in children and adolescents, an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin should be added to the teeth. PMID:24025345

  18. Salivary contamination during bonding procedures with a one-bottle adhesive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, U B; Finger, W J; Stean, H

    1998-09-01

    The effect of salivary contamination of enamel and dentin on bonding efficacy of an experimental one-bottle resin adhesive was investigated. The adhesive was a light-curing urethane dimethacrylate/hydroxyethyl methacrylate/4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride mixture dissolved in acetone. Evaluation parameters were shear bond strength and marginal gap width in a dental cavity. Apart from a control group without contamination (group 1), etched enamel and dentin were (2) contaminated with saliva and air dried; (3) contaminated, rinsed, and blot dried; (4) coated with adhesive, contaminated, rinsed, and blot dried; (5) coated with adhesive, light cured, contaminated, rinsed, and air dried; or (6) treated as in group 5, with additional adhesive application after air drying. There was no negative effect in groups 3 and 4, compared with control. Air drying after salivary contamination (group 2) resulted in low shear bond strengths and wide marginal gaps. Contamination of the cured adhesive layer (groups 5 and 6) had no adverse effect on enamel shear bond strengths, but resulted in 50% reduced dentin shear bond strengths and wide marginal gaps. The one-bottle adhesive system is relatively insensitive to salivary contamination, provided that the contamination occurs prior to light curing of the adhesive and is carefully rinsed and blot dried. Salivary contact after adhesive curing must be avoided.

  19. Aspects of bonding between resin luting cements and glass ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Burrow, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    The bonding interface of glass ceramics and resin luting cements plays an important role in the long-term durability of ceramic restorations. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the various factors involved with the bond between glass ceramics and resin luting cements. An electronic Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was conducted to obtain laboratory studies on resin-ceramic bonding published in English and Chinese between 1972 and 2012. Eighty-three articles were included in this review. Various factors that have a possible impact on the bond between glass ceramics and resin cements were discussed, including ceramic type, ceramic crystal structure, resin luting cements, light curing, surface treatments, and laboratory test methodology. Resin-ceramic bonding has been improved substantially in the past few years. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching followed by silanizaiton has become the most widely accepted surface treatment for glass ceramics. However, further studies need to be undertaken to improve surface preparations without HF because of its toxicity. Laboratory test methods are also required to better simulate the actual oral environment for more clinically compatible testing. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disparities in unmet dental need and dental care received by pregnant women in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, A Isabel; Adams, Amy B; Cheng, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To examine prenatal dental care needs, utilization and oral health counseling among Maryland women who delivered a live infant during 2001-2003 and identify the factors associated with having a dental visit and having an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System is an ongoing population based surveillance system that collects information of women's attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to model dental visits and unmet dental need using predictor variables for Maryland 2001-2003 births. Less than half of all women reported having a dental visit and receiving oral health advice during pregnancy. Twenty-five percent of women reported a need for dental care, of which 33 % did not receive dental care despite their perceived need. Multivariate modeling revealed that racial minorities, women who were not married and those with annual income dental visit. Women who were not married, had low annual income, were older than 40 years of age, had an unintended pregnancy and received prenatal care later than desired were most likely to have an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Despite reported needs and existing recommendations to include oral health as a component of prenatal care, less than half of pregnant women have a dental visit during their pregnancy. One-third of women with a dental problem did not have a dental visit highlighting the unmet need for dental care during pregnancy.