WorldWideScience

Sample records for dental association ada

  1. A Clinical Practice Update on the Latest AAOS/ADA Guideline (December 2012) on Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Dental Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedani Sh. DDS, MSc

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association (ADA), along with 10 other academic associations and societies recently (December 2012) published their mutual clinical practice guideline “Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures.” This evidence-based guideline ,detailed in 325 pages, has three recommendations and substitutes the previous AAOS guideline. The new published clinical guideline is a protocol to pre...

  2. American Dental Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADA Twitter ADA News Twitter ADA Facebook GKAS Facebook New Dentist Blog Press Room Press Room Home Contact News Releases Press Kits ADA Positions Advertise Media Kit Classifieds Digital Ads ADA News The ...

  3. American Dental Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Access member benefits and ADA policy ADA Store Purchase ADA products ADA Annual Meeting Attend ADA's premier ... font size Toggle Search Area Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Follow us on YouTube ...

  4. Association of G22A and A4223C ADA1 gene polymorphisms and ADA activity with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehabadi, Mahshid; Farimani, Marzieh; Tavilani, Heidar; Ghorbani, Marzieh; Poormonsefi, Faranak; Poorolajal, Jalal; Shafiei, Gholamreza; Ghasemkhani, Neda; Khodadadi, Iraj

    2016-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase-1 (ADA1) regulates the concentration of adenosine as the main modulator of oocyte maturation. There is compelling evidence for the association of ADA1 gene polymorphisms with many diseases but the importance of ADA1 polymorphisms in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not been studied before. This study investigates serum total ADA activity (tADA), ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities, and genotype and allele frequencies of G22A and A4223C polymorphisms in healthy and PCOS women. In this case-control study 200 PCOS patients and 200 healthy women were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and the PCR-RFLP technique was used to determine the G22A and A4223C variants. The genotype frequencies were calculated and the association between polymorphic genotypes and enzyme activities were determined. tADA activity was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared with the control group (27.76±6.0 vs. 39.63±7.48, respectively). PCOS patients also showed reduced activity of ADA1 and ADA2. PCOS was not associated with G22A polymorphism whereas AA, AC, and CC genotypes of A4223C polymorphism were found distributed differently between the control and the PCOS women where the C allele showed a strong protective role for PCOS (odds ratio=1.876, p=0.033). The present study for the first time showed that lower ADA activity may be involved in pathogenesis of PCOS by maintaining a higher concentration of adenosine affecting follicular growth. As a novel finding, we also showed great differences in genotype distribution and allele frequencies of A4223C polymorphism between groups indicating a protective role for C allele against PCOS. AbbreviationsADA: adenosine deaminase PCOS: polycystic ovary syndrome PCR-RFLP: polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism tADA: total adenosine deaminase.

  5. Under oath: content analysis of oaths administered in ADA-Accredited Dental Schools in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Aaron B; Peterson, Erin M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2009-06-01

    This study reviews and analyzes the content of dental school oaths taken by students in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico in 2006. Each oath was qualitatively reviewed to determine its consistency with each of the five principles set forth in the American Dental Association (ADA)'s Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct. Fifty-eight oaths were received from sixty-one of sixty-six schools in response to information requests regarding use of oaths and manner of administration. Of these, thirty-nine employ one oath, administered at either graduation or ceremonies marking transition to clinical training; twelve employ an oath at both occasions, with five repeating the same oath; and ten have no formal oaths. Eighteen oaths follow the wording of "The Dentist's Pledge," nine follow the "Oath to the Profession/Professional Pledge," three follow the Modern Hippocratic Oath, and twenty-eight are idiosyncratic. All five of the ADA principles (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity) are addressed in thirteen oaths, four principles in nine oaths, and three or fewer principles in thirty-six oaths. Eleven make reference to care for the underserved. As oath-taking is an opportunity to instill and reinforce to students dentistry's most important ethical obligations, recommendations are offered to make the content more meaningful and comprehensive.

  6. American Dental Education Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interest Groups ADEA Governance Documents and Publications ADEA Dental Faculty Code of Conduct ADEA Bylaws ADEAGies Foundation ... Benefits for Faculty ADEA Member Benefits for Allied Dental Programs ADEA Member Benefits for Dental Schools ADEA ...

  7. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Student Resources National Exam Student Advisor Resources Dental Hygiene Programs Scholarships and Grants Research Center Transforming Dental Hygiene Education Advocacy Practice Issues Direct Access Scope ...

  8. The American Dental Association Caries Classification System for clinical practice: a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A; Nový, Brian B; Zeller, Gregory G; Hale, Robert; Hart, Thomas C; Truelove, Edmond L

    2015-02-01

    The caries lesion, the most commonly observed sign of dental caries disease, is the cumulative result of an imbalance in the dynamic demineralization and remineralization process that causes a net mineral loss over time. A classification system to categorize the location, site of origin, extent, and when possible, activity level of caries lesions consistently over time is necessary to determine which clinical treatments and therapeutic interventions are appropriate to control and treat these lesions. In 2008, the American Dental Association (ADA) convened a group of experts to develop an easy-to-implement caries classification system. The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs subsequently compiled information from these discussions to create the ADA Caries Classification System (CCS) presented in this article. The ADA CCS offers clinicians the capability to capture the spectrum of caries disease presentations ranging from clinically unaffected (sound) tooth structure to noncavitated initial lesions to extensively cavitated advanced lesions. The ADA CCS supports a broad range of clinical management options necessary to treat both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions. The ADA CCS is available for implementation in clinical practice to evaluate its usability, reliability, and validity. Feedback from clinical practitioners and researchers will allow system improvement. Use of the ADA CCS will offer standardized data that can be used to improve the scientific rationale for the treatment of all stages of caries disease. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry: a critical resource for 21st century dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Jeske, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Through its website (http:// www.ada.org/prof/resources/ebd/index.asp), the American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry offers dental health professionals access to systematic reviews of oral health-related research findings, as well as Clinical Recommendations, which summarize large bodies of scientific evidence in the form of practice recommendations, e.g., the use of professionally-applied topical fluoride and pit-and-fissure sealants. Another feature of the site of great practical importance to the practicing dentist is the Critical Summary, which is a concise review of an individual systematic review's methodology and findings, as well as the importance and context of the outcomes, and the strengths and weaknesses of the systematic review and its implications for dental practice.

  11. A LISP-Ada connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Allan; Lavallee, David; Zoch, David

    1987-01-01

    The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using Ada for expert systems and the implementation of an expert-friendly interface which supports knowledge entry. In the Ford LISP-Ada Connection (FLAC) system LISP and Ada are used in ways which complement their respective capabilities. Future investigation will concentrate on the enhancement of the expert knowledge entry/debugging interface and on the issues associated with multitasking and real-time expert systems implementation in Ada.

  12. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia M. Serra-Negra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  13. Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Rafael Inácio Pompeu; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; Lima, Carolina Veloso; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether there is an association with the different levels of dental fluorosis and the presence of dental trauma amongst school children. A transversal study was conducted amongst school children from the age of 12. Dental examinations were conducted by 24 well trained and fully qualified dental surgeons. Data was collected from 36 randomly selected public schools amongst 89 schools in a municipality. The criteria used to diagnose dental fluorosis was based on the Dean's fluorosis Index and for diagnosing dental trauma we looked for clinical signs of crown fractures and dental avulsions. Multiple descriptive analysis, which was bivariate, was carried out. Amongst the 2,755 school children that took part in the study 1,089 (39.6%) were diagnosed with dental fluorosis and 106 (3.8%) had one tooth or more with dental trauma. We noted a high prevalence of dental fluorosis, independent of the level of severity, amongst individuals with one tooth or more who had dental trauma. This association was even more evident where there were severely high levels of fluorosis. We also noted that the presence of fluorosis was greater amongst those that actively paid more attention to discoloration on their teeth and who received treatment from a dental professional at their schools. Nevertheless dental fluorosis was associated with the presence of dental trauma, independent of its severity.

  14. Ada COCOMO and the Ada Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    language, the use of incremental development, and the use of the Ada process model capitalizing on the strengths of Ada to improve the efficiency of software...development. This paper presents the portions of the revised Ada COCOMO dealing with the effects of Ada and the Ada process model . The remainder of...this section of the paper discusses the objectives of Ada COCOMO. Section 2 describes the Ada Process Model and its overall effects on software

  15. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, A J; Andreasen, J O; Ebeleseder, K A;

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) of permanent teeth occur frequently in children and young adults. Crown fractures and luxations are the most commonly occurring of all dental injuries. Proper diagnosis, treatment planning and follow up are important for improving a favorable outcome. Guidelines...... should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers...

  16. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Carsley, Sarah; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2014-01-01

    To identify sociodemographic, dietary, and biological factors associated with families who do not receive dental care in early childhood and to identify risk factors associated with having cavities...

  17. A retrospective of America's second National Dental Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, Clifton O; Dummett, Lois D

    2003-01-01

    This article describes one hundred and fifty years of history concerning organized dentistry among African Americans. African Americans were welcomed in the National Negro Medical Association of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists (NMA) as early as 1895 and later created a dental professional group, the Interstate Dental Association, in the mid-Atlantic states. The "second" National Dental Association, a national-wide African American association was created in 1932. African Americans earned full membership in the American Dental Association in 1964. This article traces these developments against the background of changing American society and concludes by mentioning some of the recent accomplishments and collaborative relationships of the current NDA.

  18. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren, Barbro; Andreasen, Jens O; Flores, Marie Therese;

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition present special problems and the management is often different as compared with the permanent dentition. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group...

  19. Gastroesophageal Reflux is Not Associated with Dental Erosion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Yvette K.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dalal, Deepal H.; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Clark, Ann L.; Rechmann, Beate; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Dental erosion is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adults; in children, it is not clear if GER has a role in dental pathologic conditions. Dietary intake, oral hygiene, high bacterial load, and decreased salivary flow might contribute independently to GER development or dental erosion, but their potential involvement in dental erosion from GER is not understood. We investigated the prevalence of dental erosion among children with and without GER symptoms, and whether salivary flow rate or bacterial load contribute to location-specific dental erosion. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 59 children (ages 9–17 y) with symptoms of GER and 20 asymptomatic children (controls); all completed a questionnaire on dietary exposure. Permanent teeth were examined for erosion into dentin, erosion locations, and affected surfaces. The dentist was not aware of GER status, nor was the gastroenterologist aware of dental status. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and salivary bacterial load was calculated for total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Results Controlling for age, dietary intake, and oral hygiene, there was no association between GER symptoms and dental erosion, by tooth location or affected surface. Salivary flow did not correlate with GER symptoms or erosion. Erosion location and surface were independent of total bacteria and levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Conclusions Location-specific dental erosion is not associated with GER, salivary flow, or bacterial load. Prospective studies are required to determine the pathogenesis of GER-associated dental erosion and the relationship between dental caries to GER and dental erosion. PMID:21820389

  20. Factors associated with the satisfaction of millennial generation dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai C; O'Toole, Terry G; Arola, Patricia E; Kashner, T Michael; Chang, Barbara K

    2012-11-01

    Data from the 2010 Learners' Perceptions Survey (LPS) administered through the Office of Academic Affiliations, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) were analyzed to identify factors associated with dental residents' satisfaction with the VA as a clinical training environment. Satisfaction scores were linked to clinic workloads, dental procedure complexity levels, staffing patterns, and facility infrastructure data to explore conditions that may improve residents' satisfaction. Findings supported the construct validity of the LPS survey data and underscored the importance of maintaining optimal ratios of attending dentists, dental assistants, and administrative staff to residents so that each trainee will have opportunities to perform an adequate level of dental workload. As programs strive to improve the quality of graduate dental education, findings from this study are vital for setting curriculum design guidelines and for providing infrastructure support for dental resident education.

  1. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  2. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  3. Dental trauma associated with high impact sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report a case of tooth fracture during the sport practice and the treatment performed for the patient. A 17-year-old male patient was subjected to an endontic treatment followed by the reattachment of the fractured teeth. Teeth were endodontically treated by conventional method. After, the acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel was performed and a bonding agent was applied on the dental surface. The fragments were reattachment and bonded with minimum amount of composite resin since the teeth/fragment interface was small. The occlusal contacts were adjusted in the finish line of restorations with a diamond bur and the polishing was performed with aluminum oxide discs. Positive esthetical and periodontal outcomes with no complications in the endodontic treatment were observed on radiographic examinations after twelve months of follow up. The endodontic treatment associated with the reattachment of the fractured teeth by a bonding procedure was a conservative treatment for the patient. The use of mouthguards is important to prevent such dramatic events.

  4. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O; Day, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and group discussions. Experienced researchers and clinicians from various specialties were included in the task group. The guidelines represent the current best evidence and practice based on literature research and professionals' opinion. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations......Avulsion of permanent teeth is one of the most serious dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency management is very important for the prognosis. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature...

  5. Factors associated with dental care utilization in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawikarta, Denise; Chen, Yang; Carsley, Sarah; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2014-06-01

    To identify sociodemographic, dietary, and biological factors associated with families who do not receive dental care in early childhood and to identify risk factors associated with having cavities among children who receive early dental care. A cross-sectional study of healthy Canadian children seen for primary health care between September 2011 and January 2013 was conducted through the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with children who were not seen by a dentist in early childhood and to determine risk factors associated with having dental cavities among children who received early dental care. Of the 2505 children included in the analysis, cavities. Among healthy urban children seen by a primary care provider, those most susceptible to cavities were least likely to receive early dental care. These findings support the need for publicly funded universal early preventive dental care and underscore the importance for primary care physicians to promote dental care in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  7. Factors associated to endemic dental fluorosis in Brazilian rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2010-08-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  8. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil) carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors), as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and mutiple analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI). Results: 7280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1%) had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51/1.02–2.23), with tooth decay (3.08/2.08–4.56), that self-perceveid the need for dental treatment (3.96/2.48–6.34), whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47/1.04–2.10) and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76/3.90–8.49). Conclusions: The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status. PMID:26965074

  9. Dental pain and associated factors in Brazilian preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Silva Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of dental pain in Brazilian preschoolers, as well as its associated factors, considering a representative sample of that population group in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study that used the analytical data from national oral health survey (SB Brazil carried out in 2010. A representative sample of Brazilian preschoolers aged 5 years was considered. Interviews were carried out (answered by parents/tutors, as well as clinical examinations in children. Descriptive, bivariate and mutiple analyzes were performed, described in odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (OR/95%CI. Results: 7280 preschoolers were included. Of these, 1520 (21.1% had dental pain in the last 6 months. The chance of the occurrence of dental pain was higher among those who used dental services (1.51/1.02–2.23, with tooth decay (3.08/2.08–4.56, that self-perceveid the need for dental treatment (3.96/2.48–6.34, whose parents reported dissatisfaction by children with their teeth and mouth (1.47/1.04–2.10 and those who reported impact of oral problems on quality of life (5.76/3.90–8.49. Conclusions: The prevalence of dental pain among Brazilian preschool children was relatively high, being associated with the use of dental services and the normative and subjective oral health status.

  10. Paranoia.Ada: A diagnostic program to evaluate Ada floating-point arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjermstad, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Many essential software functions in the mission critical computer resource application domain depend on floating point arithmetic. Numerically intensive functions associated with the Space Station project, such as emphemeris generation or the implementation of Kalman filters, are likely to employ the floating point facilities of Ada. Paranoia.Ada appears to be a valuabe program to insure that Ada environments and their underlying hardware exhibit the precision and correctness required to satisfy mission computational requirements. As a diagnostic tool, Paranoia.Ada reveals many essential characteristics of an Ada floating point implementation. Equipped with such knowledge, programmers need not tremble before the complex task of floating point computation.

  11. Dental Calculus Is Associated with Death from Heart Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Söder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We studied whether the amount of dental calculus is associated with death from heart infarction in the dental infection—atherosclerosis paradigm. Materials. Participants were 1676 healthy young Swedes followed up from 1985 to 2011. At the beginning of the study all subjects underwent oral clinical examination including dental calculus registration scored with calculus index (CI. Outcome measure was cause of death classified according to WHO International Classification of Diseases. Unpaired t-test, Chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regressions were used. Results. Of the 1676 participants, 2.8% had died during follow-up. Women died at a mean age of 61.5 years and men at 61.7 years. The difference in the CI index score between the survivors versus deceased patients was significant by the year 2009 (P<0.01. In multiple regression analysis of the relationship between death from heart infarction as a dependent variable and CI as independent variable with controlling for age, gender, dental visits, dental plaque, periodontal pockets, education, income, socioeconomic status, and pack-years of smoking, CI score appeared to be associated with 2.3 times the odds ratio for cardiac death. Conclusions. The results confirmed our study hypothesis by showing that dental calculus indeed associated statistically with cardiac death due to infarction.

  12. Issues Associated with Developing a Dental Hygiene Baccalaureate Completion Program in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) and the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) supported the notion that the baccalaureate degree should be the entry-level degree for the dental hygiene profession. There was also clear evidence that there was a national shortage of baccalaureate-earned-minimum dental hygiene educators.…

  13. Issues Associated with Developing a Dental Hygiene Baccalaureate Completion Program in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) and the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) supported the notion that the baccalaureate degree should be the entry-level degree for the dental hygiene profession. There was also clear evidence that there was a national shortage of baccalaureate-earned-minimum dental hygiene educators.…

  14. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diangelis, Anthony J; Andreasen, Jens O; Ebeleseder, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    should assist dentists and patients in decision making and for providing the best care effectively and efficiently. The International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT) has developed a consensus statement after a review of the dental literature and group discussions. Experienced researchers...... and clinicians from various specialties were included in the group. In cases where the data did not appear conclusive, recommendations were based on the consensus opinion of the IADT board members. The guidelines represent the best current evidence based on literature search and professional opinion. The primary...

  15. An association between sella turcica bridging and dental transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Farella, Mauro; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine any association between tooth transposition and bridging of the sella turcica, given the evidence of common embryonic origins associated with these structures and a genetic basis underlying these two conditions. Clinical records of subjects demonstrating dental transposition and normal controls were collected from several hospital orthodontic departments and specialist orthodontic practices. All cases and controls were documented with good quality lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs). The study sample consisted of 21 Caucasian subjects (7 males and 14 females; mean age 14.5 years; SD 2.2 years), demonstrating either maxillary or mandibular dental transposition. The control group, matched for age and gender to the study sample, comprised 70 Caucasians (31 males and 39 females; mean age 13.8 years; SD 1.8 years) without dental anomalies randomly selected from subjects referred for orthodontic treatment within the same departments. The extent of sella turcica bridging was quantified from each profile radiograph using comparative measurement of length and diameter. Sella turcica bridging was found more frequently in subjects diagnosed with dental transposition than in the controls, with the difference being statistically significant [chi-square=7.4; degrees of freedom (df)=2; P=0.025; Fisher's exact test; P=0.042]. The increased frequency of complete and partial bridging of the sella turcica in subjects with dental transposition provides further evidence of a genetic basis to this condition. As calcification and bridging of this region can present during early childhood, it may act as a useful diagnostic predictor of susceptibility to local dental problems.

  16. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Tataounoff, Juliana; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional survey was to assess factors associated with non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma among adolescents in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. A total of 387 students from 12 to 15 years of age (mean = 14 SD = 0.9) were randomly selected. The study was carried out in two stages. Firstly, data were collected through dental examinations of permanent incisors. Secondly, a thorough interview was held with 85 adolescents who exhibited dental trauma in the dental examinations. The interview consisted of a detailed description of the incident and physical environment in which it occurred. Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test (P 3 mm (P = 0.007) and inadequate lip coverage (P = 0.013). Analysis of the event revealed that 22.3% of the cases of dental trauma occurred because of non-accidental collision. Non-accidental collision followed by injury occurred mainly at school (P concrete, tiled or ceramic floor (P = 0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between non-accidental collision and gender, age or mother's schooling. It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor.

  17. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  18. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  19. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were

  20. Dental injury during seizures associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R H; Higgins, S; Fuller, G N

    2009-01-01

    Patients can sustain injuries during seizures and the pattern and type of injury (eg, tongue biting) can be a useful silent witness in the diagnosis of seizures. In addition, the seizure type potentially influences the type of injury. Patients with dental injury were identified from the Gloucestershire Epilepsy Database (n = 1673). These patients' notes were reviewed and the following data collected: demographic data; seizure types and age of onset; injury; EEG; and MRI. 14 people had dental injuries: 10 incisors (seven had >1 incisor) and five other teeth. Eight had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), two other primary generalised epilepsy and four focal onset epilepsy. Compared with the rest of the database population (JME; n = 81) there was a highly significant association of dental injury with JME (pseizure onset. This pattern of injury should prompt consideration of this diagnosis. It is hoped that recognition of this can both facilitate earlier diagnosis and help educate patients to protect their teeth.

  1. [Association between malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance: study with Brazilian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Carolina Marques; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-12-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents reported worldwide, there are few studies that have investigated the association between normative malocclusion and self-rated dental and gingival appearance among adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify the association between normative malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance among Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with adolescents aged 15 to 19 years (n= 16,126) living in 250 towns of all five Brazilian regions. Dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance was the outcome. The main explanatory variable was malocclusion assessed by using the Dental Aesthetic Index - DAI. The other explanatory variables included were per capita family income, schooling delay, study conditions, sex, age, skin color, dental outcomes (untreated dental caries, missing teeth due dental caries, dental calculus, fluorosis, and dental pain) and use of dental services. Simple and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed. Dissatisfaction with dental appearance reached 11.4% (95%CI: 10.4-12.5) of the entire sample. All levels of malocclusion were associated with dissatisfaction with dental appearance. Adjusted multivariable analysis showed that dissatisfaction with dental appearance among individuals affected by severe or very severe malocclusion was respectively 40% and 80% higher than among those with normal occlusion. Malocclusion was associated with dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance. The results contribute to include self-rated dental appearance criteria in orthodontic treatment decision, mainly within the National Health System - SUS.

  2. [Dental spacing problems and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors.

  3. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  4. Collaboration between dental faculties and National Dental Associations (NDAs) within the World Dental Federation-European Regional Organization zone: an NDAs perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamalik, Nermin; Mersel, Alex; Cavalle, Edoardo; Margvelashvili, Vladimer

    2011-12-01

    Although improvements in certain oral health measures have been achieved, many global oral health matters and challenges exist. Collaborations and partnerships among various institutions are crucial in solving such problems. The main aim of the present study was to analyse the nature and extent of the partnership between dental faculties and National Dental Associations (NDAs). A questionnaire was developed, focusing on the relationship between NDAs and dental faculties within the World Dental Federation-European Regional Organization (FDI-ERO) zone with regard to major professional activities, such as dental education (both undergraduate and continuing education), workforce issues, improvement of national oral health, and science and knowledge transfer. The questionnaire was sent to all member NDAs within the ERO zone. The response rate was 21/41 (53.65%). The major activities in which NDAs were found to be involved were improvement of national oral health (100%), followed by continuing education activities (90%), whereas the activity which received least involvement was the development of an undergraduate dental curriculum (52%). The NDAs perceived their relationship with dental faculties to be quite satisfactory in the fields of continuing education, science and knowledge transfer, and the implementation of new technologies into daily dental practice. However, it was suggested that their relationship needed significant improvement with regard to the development of an undergraduate dental education curriculum, dental workforce issues and negotiations with the authorities regarding professional matters/issues. As the two important elements of organised dentistry, NDAs and dental faculties have a significant role to play in the improvement of oral health and in finding solutions to global oral health challenges; therefore, their collaboration and partnership are crucial for this purpose. On the basis of the perceptions of NDAs regarding their relationship with

  5. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  6. Association between Bone Mass and Dental Hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tas, J T; Elfrink, M E C; Vucic, S; Heppe, D H M; Veerkamp, J S J; Jaddoe, V W V; Rivadeneira, F; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Wolvius, E B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between the bone mass (bone mineral content [BMC]) and hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPMs)/molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in 6-y-old children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, starting from fetal life until adulthood in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria were used to score the intraoral photographs on the presence or absence of HSPMs and MIH. Bone mass was measured with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Intraoral photographs and DXA scans were available in 6,510 6-y-old children. Binary logistic regression models were used to study the association between the bone mass and HSPMs/MIH. In total, 5,586 children had their second primary molars assessed and a DXA scan made; 507 children were diagnosed with HSPM. Of 2,370 children with data on their permanent first molars, 203 were diagnosed with MIH. In the fully adjusted model, children with lower BMC (corrected for bone area) were more likely to have HSPMs (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.26 per 1-standard deviation decrease). A lower BMC (corrected for bone area) was not associated with MIH (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.20 per 1-standard deviation decrease). We observed a negative association between BMC (corrected for bone area) and HSPMs. No association was found between BMC (corrected for bone area) and MIH. Future research should focus on investigating the mechanism underlying the negative association between the bone mass and HSPMs. Our study, in a large population of 6-y-old children, adds the finding that BMC (corrected for bone size) is associated with HSPMs but not with MIH in childhood.

  7. Genetic variations associated with red hair color and fear of dental pain, anxiety regarding dental care and avoidance of dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Catherine J; Beacham, Abbie; Neace, William; Gregg, Ronald G; Liem, Edwin B; Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-07-01

    Red hair color is caused by variants of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. People with naturally red hair are resistant to subcutaneous local anesthetics and, therefore, may experience increased anxiety regarding dental care. The authors tested the hypothesis that having natural red hair color, a MC1R gene variant or both could predict a patient's experiencing dental care-related anxiety and dental care avoidance. The authors enrolled 144 participants (67 natural red-haired and 77 dark-haired) aged 18 to 41 years in a cross-sectional observational study. Participants completed validated survey instruments designed to measure general and dental care-specific anxiety, fear of dental pain and previous dental care avoidance. The authors genotyped participants' blood samples to detect variants associated with natural red hair color. Eighty-five participants had MC1R gene variants (65 of the 67 red-haired participants and 20 of the 77 dark-haired participants) (P fear of dental pain than did participants with no MC1R gene variants. They were more than twice as likely to avoid dental care as were the participants with no MC1R gene variants, even after the authors controlled for general trait anxiety and sex. Dental care-related anxiety, fear of dental pain and avoidance of dental care may be influenced by genetic variations. Dentists should evaluate all patients, but especially those with naturally red hair, for dental care-related anxiety and use appropriate modalities to manage the patients' anxiety.

  8. Overweight and dental caries: the association among German children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Ghalib; Alkilzy, Mohammed; Feng, You-Shan; Splieth, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iso-body mass index (iso-BMI) and both dental caries status and caries increment among German school children. Six hundred and ninety-four students (age range 9-12 years, mean 10.34 ± 0.56, 48% females) were recruited from the fifth grade of 18 primary schools. Weight, height, and oral health data number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) as well as parent/legal guardian questionnaire (measuring SES) were collected during school dental examination at baseline and after one and a half-year follow-up. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the international classification system for childhood overweight and obesity (iso-BMI). Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression models. Iso-BMI was significantly associated with dental caries prevalence and severity in the permanent dentition (P = 0.039). Low-normal weight children had a lower mean DMFT (0.56) than did overweight/obese children (0.70). In addition, a border-line significant association was found between overweight/obese children and caries increment (P = 0.055). Although iso-BMI was associated with dental caries prevalence and severity, the association between caries increment and iso-BMI did not reach a statistical significance. Overweight/obese children however acquired more additional carious lesions during the follow-up period than children with low-normal weight. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Interactive ADA Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    3. Masking Union with Ada Homograph Definition 46 Figure 5-4. Direct Environment Computation with Masking Unions 50 Figure 5-5. Full Ada Body Direct...as a homograph test in Ada) that determines if two ele- ments are "indistinguishable" according to some criteria, the following rules determine...membership in a masking union: A member of the dominant set is a member of the masking union if and only if it has no homograph in the dominant set. In other

  10. Ada Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Lady Lovelace , the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron. Ada was Charles Babbage’s programmer, Babbage being the inventor of the first mechanical...34 O-07 0 ARFOCERIGTAEOAUIAL LABS RIGHTPATTERSON AFB OH F/G 9/2 ADA TEST AND EVALUATION.(U) MAY BO A J SCARPELLI UNCLASSIFIED AFWAL-TR-BO-1024 NL E...llEllllEIlE III HA i28 5__ BIH~~ ~ 2 __I.,11 LZ AFAL-TR-80-1024 Ada TEST AND EVALUATION Alfred J. Scarpelli System Technology Branch Systen Avionics

  11. A new causal model of dental diseases associated with endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangsholt, M T

    1998-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease that is associated with dental diseases and treatment. The objective of this study was to summarize the epidemiological information about IE and reevaluate previous causal models in light of this evidence. The world biomedical literature was searched from 1930 to 1996 for descriptive and analytic epidemiological studies of IE. Multiple searching strategies were performed on 9 databases, including MEDLINE, CATLINE, and WORLDCAT. Results show that: 1) the incidence of IE varies between 0.70 to 6.8 per 100,000 person-years: 2) the incidence of IE increases 20 fold with advancing age: 3) over 50% of all IE cases are not associated with either an obvious procedural or infectious event 3 months prior to developing symptoms; 4) about 8% of all IE cases are associated with periodontal or dental disease without a dental procedure: 5) the time from the diagnosis of heart valve deformities to the development of IE approaches 20 years: 6) the median time from identifiable procedures to the onset of IE symptoms is about 2 to 4 weeks: 7) the risk of IE after a dental procedure is probably in the range of 1 per 3,000 to 5,000 procedures: and 8) over 80% of all IE cases are acquired in the community, and the bacteria are part of the host's endogenous flora. The synthesis of these data demonstrates that IE is a disorder with the epidemiological picture of a chronic disease such as cancer, instead of an acute infectious disease, with a long latent period and possibly several definable intermediates or stages. A new causal model is proposed that includes early bacteremias that may "prime" the endothelial surface of the heart valves over many years, and a late bacteremia over days to weeks that allows adherence and colonization of the valve, resulting in the characteristic fulminant infection.

  12. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  13. American Dental Association's Resources to Support Evidence-Based Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, K; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2009-09-01

    Time and access have often been cited as barriers to implementing Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD). This paper describes a new web-based resource launched by the American Dental Association to enable practitioners to incorporate evidence into treatment planning. The website offers a database of systematic reviews, critical summaries of systematic reviews, evidence-based clinical recommendations and links to external resources to enable practitioners to access evidence at the point of care. In addition the site offers an online space for clinicians to suggest clinical scenarios where evidence is lacking. This could potentially be a source of topics to drive future research. With the explosion in the use of information technology within a dental office, this web-site will serve as the one-stop resource for credible scientific information for practitioners.

  14. The association between dental arch dimensions and occurrence of Finnish dental consonant misarticulations in cleft lip/palate children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, J; Ranta, R; Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maxillary and mandibular dental arch width, length, and palatal height dimensions are associated with the occurrence of misarticulations (phonetic or phonologic errors) in the dental consonants /r/, /s/, and /1/ in different cleft types and sexes. The subjects were 263 (109 girls, 154 boys) 6-year-old Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n=79), deft lip/alveolus (CL(A), n=77), unilateral (UCLP, n=80), and bilateral (BCLP, n=27) cleft lip and palate. Dental plaster casts were measured by two authors using the technique of Moorrees, and auditive speech was analyzed with high reliability by two speech pathologists. The results showed that the occurrence of misarticulations increased and dental arch dimensions decreased with the severity of the cleft. Narrower and shorter maxillary arches as well as shallower palates were related to problems with the studied dental consonants. Mandibular arch dimensions were not related to the misarticulations. However, statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences in dental arch dimensions between subjects with and without misarticulations when they were compared separately for different cleft types. The etiology of clefting per se--isolated deft palate versus cleft lip with or without deft palate--did not seem to explain the associations between dental arch dimensions and the studied misarticulations.

  15. The Texas Dental Association and advocacy: a TDA president's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Frank K; Jeske, Arthur H

    2008-08-01

    The TDA can take pride in the joint efforts of its leadership, its grassroots members, and its elected representatives in the middle of the decade of the 1990's. When asked about his legacy for the leadership of our organization, Dr. Eggleston emphatically states, "You have to act. You have to do the right thing even when you have critics and detractors." More recently, during his campaign for ADA President-elect, he constantly stressed the importance of our relationship with each other. Our relationship, in Dr. Eggleston's words now and during his TDA presidency, "is more important than all issues put together". As this brief retrospective illustrates, the issues faced by dentists and the TDA are never trivial and are always tied to the legislative process. Political advocacy by our association is, therefore, our first priority now, no less so than it was in the mid-1990's. As described in the recent "TDA Report Card" on our legislative agenda for the 80th Texas Legislature, our challenges continue unabated, but these challenges are answered, and in many cases, successfully overcome as a result of our advocacy efforts. Our need for constant involvement in the legislative process is perhaps best summarized by advice given to Dr. Eggleston by Senator (and oral surgeon) David Sibley at the 1995 TDA Annual Session. Senator Sibley complimented TDA on its achievements during the 1995 Texas legislative session, and added "but you've got to keep your garden weeded."

  16. Code of ethics for dental researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for Dental Research, in 2009, adopted a code of ethics. The code applies to members of the association and is enforceable by sanction, with the stated requirement that members are expected to inform the association in cases where they believe misconduct has occurred. The IADR code goes beyond the Belmont and Helsinki statements by virtue of covering animal research. It also addresses issues of sponsorship of research and conflicts of interest, international collaborative research, duty of researchers to be informed about applicable norms, standards of publication (including plagiarism), and the obligation of "whistleblowing" for the sake of maintaining the integrity of the dental research enterprise as a whole. The code is organized, like the ADA code, into two sections. The IADR principles are stated, but not defined, and number 12, instead of the ADA's five. The second section consists of "best practices," which are specific statements of expected or interdicted activities. The short list of definitions is useful.

  17. Two Arabidopsis orthologs of the transcriptional coactivator ADA2 have distinct biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Amy T; Vlachonasios, Konstantinos E; Pavangadkar, Kanchan A; Rao, Sumana; Gordon, Hillary; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis; Kaldis, Athanasios; Thomashow, Michael F; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2009-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an example of covalent modification of chromatin structure that has the potential to regulate gene expression. Gcn5 is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that associates with the transcriptional coactivator Ada2. In Arabidopsis, two genes encode proteins that resemble yeast ADA2 and share approximately 45% amino acid sequence identity. We previously reported that plants harboring a T-DNA insertion in the ADA2b gene display a dwarf phenotype with developmental defects in several organs. Here we describe T-DNA insertion alleles in the ADA2a gene, which result in no dramatic growth or developmental phenotype. Both ADA2a and ADA2b are expressed in a variety of plant tissues; moreover, expression of ADA2a from a constitutive promoter fails to complement the ada2b-1 mutant phenotype, consistent with the hypothesis that the two proteins have distinct biochemical roles. To further probe the cellular roles of ADA2a and ADA2b, we studied the response of the transcriptional coactivator mutants to abiotic stress. Although ada2b seedlings display hypersensitivity to salt and abscisic acid and altered responses to low temperature stress, the responses of ada2a seedlings to abiotic stress generally parallel those of wildtype plants. Intriguingly, ada2a;ada2b double mutant plants display an intermediate, gcn5-like phenotype, suggesting that ADA2a and ADA2b each work independently with GCN5 to affect genome function in Arabidopsis.

  18. [Validity of self-perceived dental caries as a diagnostic test and associated factors in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Roberto, Luana Leal; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to analyze the validity of self-perceived dental caries and associated factors in a sample of 795 adults (35-44 years). The dependent variable was self-perceived dental caries, and the independent variables were combined in blocks. Three logistic models were performed: (1) all adults; (2) adults with a formal diagnosis of caries; and (3) adults without such caries. Self-perceived dental caries showed 77.7% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 65% accuracy, 52% positive predictive value, and 81% negative predictive value. In Model 1, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, formal diagnosis of caries, self-perceived need for treatment, toothache, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 2, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 3, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health. Self-perceived dental caries showed limited utility as a diagnostic method.

  19. Ada Implementation Guide. Software Engineering With Ada. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    international standard LADY-LOV 11/25/91 10240 Article on life of Ada Lovelace by Carol L. James and Duncan E. Morrill with note on the naming of the Ada ...A aa a- S I !/ A -- I Volume II I I! I Ii Ada Implementation GuideI Software Engineering With Ada I DTIC QUALn1T :1 1 ’. I April 1994 *ýS94-18856 JJ...A-13 A.1 Government Sources ...................................... A-1 A.1.1 Organizations .................................... A-2 Ada

  20. Benchmark Lisp And Ada Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gloria; Galant, David; Lim, Raymond; Stutz, John; Gibson, J.; Raghavan, B.; Cheesema, P.; Taylor, W.

    1992-01-01

    Suite of nonparallel benchmark programs, ELAPSE, designed for three tests: comparing efficiency of computer processing via Lisp vs. Ada; comparing efficiencies of several computers processing via Lisp; or comparing several computers processing via Ada. Tests efficiency which computer executes routines in each language. Available for computer equipped with validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system.

  1. American Association of Dental Schools 1998-99 Annual Proceedings (March 6, 1998-March 10, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools include the president's annual report, president-elect's and executive director's addresses, a summary of proceedings, the revised constitution, a list of competencies for entry into the dental hygiene profession, association bylaws, member administrators,…

  2. Palladium-based dental alloys are associated with oral disease and palladium-induced immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.; Scheper, R.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Rustemeyer, T.; van Hoogstraten, I.M.W.; von Blomberg, M.E.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) based dental alloys have been associated with oral disease. Objectives This study was designed to explore possible associations between the presence of Au-based and Pd-based dental alloys, and oral lesions, systemic complaints, and specific in vivo and in vitr

  3. Here or There: Recent U.S. Immigrants' Medical and Dental Tourism and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sou Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Applying Andersen's health care utilization model, this paper shows the prevalence of immigrants' medical and dental tourism and associated factors. An analysis of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey data shows that about 17% of immigrants received medical care in a foreign country, whereas about one-third obtained dental care outside the United States. Latino immigrants have a higher prevalence of both types of tourism than their Asian counterparts. Race, level of education, and health insured status are commonly associated with medical and dental tourism. The findings contribute to the scarce literature on immigrants' health care utilization and medical and dental tourism.

  4. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dingsdag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049 than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004, Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5 relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3. Conclusion: Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies.

  5. The AdaBoost Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Lykov, A.; Muzychka, S.; Vaninsky, K.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a dynamical system which we call the AdaBoost flow. The flow is defined by a system of ODEs with control. We show that three algorithms of the AdaBoost family (i) the AdaBoost algorithm of Schapire and Freund (ii) the arc-gv algorithm of Breiman (iii) the confidence rated prediction of Schapire and Singer can be can be embedded in the AdaBoost flow. The nontrivial part of the AdaBoost flow equations coincides with the equations of dynamics of nonperiodic Toda system written in te...

  6. Association Between Dental Students' Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance: A Study at Six Dental Colleges in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Puranik, Manjunath P; Sowmya, K R

    2016-05-01

    Since the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in achieving academic excellence requires further research, the aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess EI and its associated factors and to determine any association between EI and academic performance among final-year dental students in Bengaluru, India. In 2015, 208 dental students from six dental colleges in Bengaluru were invited to participate in the study. Their demographic and lifestyle data were collected, and EI was assessed with the 30-item Emotional Quotient Self-Assessment Checklist developed by Sterrett. Academic performance was assessed using grades obtained in the final-year undergraduate examination. The response rate was 96% (N=200). Overall, 54.5% of the participants had high EI scores (≥120), although only 51 (25.5%) had a high EI score in all the domains (≥20). EI was significantly greater in females than males. Gender, sleep, meeting friends, physical exercise, recreational activities, and academic performance were significantly associated with EI and accounted for 42% variance in hierarchical regression analysis. EI was also positively associated with academic performance. Gender and healthy lifestyle habits were positively associated with EI, which in turn influenced these students' academic performance. These findings suggest a possible need for attention to developing dental students' EI.

  7. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: NYU Ada/ED, Version 19.7 V-001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-11

    ETs4~4 B37201A.ADA P SCz28 CTx7O ECal3 B37202A.ADA P SC.=44 CT263 ECaig B37202B. ADA P SCz ? CTz8 ECzl B37203A.ADA P SCz14I CTxl9 ECx6 aB3720IA-AB.ADA P...SCx27 CT=61 LT z12. 8 £7.49C52005C.ADA P SCz17 C7.37 LTx11.0 £Tx48 C52005D.ADA P SCz -53 CTz107 1.7.15.7 E7.76 C52005E.ADA P Scx39 C7.87 1.7.13.5 £7.52...SCa? C7.21 ECal B55AOlD-AB.ADk P SCx ? C7.13 M~al D55A01£-AB.ADA P SC.? CTwl7 ECal B55AOlF-AB.ADA P SCull CTx12 ECal B55A01G-AB.ADA P SCull C~zl6 ECal

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with dental anxiety among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Kiswahili version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to ... accomplish treatment planned to a patient, pharmaceutical, such as sedation, and ..... at the late stages of disease progression (Kikwilu et al. .... King, K. & Humphris, G. (2010) Evidence to confirm the cut-off for screening dental phobia using the.

  9. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  10. The circadian regulation of sleep: impact of a functional ADA-polymorphism and its association to working memory improvements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin F Reichert

    Full Text Available Sleep is regulated in a time-of-day dependent manner and profits working memory. However, the impact of the circadian timing system as well as contributions of specific sleep properties to this beneficial effect remains largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear to which extent inter-individual differences in sleep-wake regulation depend on circadian phase and modulate the association between sleep and working memory. Here, sleep electroencephalography (EEG was recorded during a 40-h multiple nap protocol, and working memory performance was assessed by the n-back task 10 times before and after each scheduled nap sleep episode. Twenty-four participants were genotyped regarding a functional polymorphism in adenosine deaminase (rs73598374, 12 G/A-, 12 G/G-allele carriers, previously associated with differences in sleep-wake regulation. Our results indicate that genotype-driven differences in sleep depend on circadian phase: heterozygous participants were awake longer and slept less at the end of the biological day, while they exhibited longer non rapid eye movement (NREM sleep and slow wave sleep concomitant with reduced power between 8-16 Hz at the end of the biological night. Slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta EEG activity covaried positively with overall working memory performance, independent of circadian phase and genotype. Moreover, REM sleep duration benefitted working memory particularly when occurring in the early morning hours and specifically in heterozygous individuals. Even though based on a small sample size and thus requiring replication, our results suggest genotype-dependent differences in circadian sleep regulation. They further indicate that REM sleep, being under strong circadian control, boosts working memory performance according to genotype in a time-of-day dependent manner. Finally, our data provide first evidence that slow wave sleep and NREM sleep delta activity, majorly regulated by sleep homeostatic mechanisms, is

  11. Multiple dental anomalies and aggressive periodontitis: a coincidence or an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A R; Patel, Swati Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) comprises a group of rare, often severe, rapidly progressive forms of periodontitis mostly characterized by an early age of clinical manifestation and a distinctive tendency for cases to aggregate in families. Abnormal dental morphology and position have been associated with severe periodontal diseases. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of multiple dental anomalies associated with AgP. This paper reports a case of unusual association of multiple dental anomalies to AgP. Clinical findings and history led to the diagnosis of localized AgP, and radiologically. It was associated with multiple dental anomalies, especially supernumerary roots. Thus, the present case represents a very interesting demonstration of AgP association with supernumerary roots and the nature of this association merits further investigations.

  12. Multiple dental anomalies and aggressive periodontitis: A coincidence or an association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis (AgP comprises a group of rare, often severe, rapidly progressive forms of periodontitis mostly characterized by an early age of clinical manifestation and a distinctive tendency for cases to aggregate in families. Abnormal dental morphology and position have been associated with severe periodontal diseases. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of multiple dental anomalies associated with AgP. This paper reports a case of unusual association of multiple dental anomalies to AgP. Clinical findings and history led to the diagnosis of localized AgP, and radiologically. It was associated with multiple dental anomalies, especially supernumerary roots. Thus, the present case represents a very interesting demonstration of AgP association with supernumerary roots and the nature of this association merits further investigations.

  13. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  14. ADA APA DENGAN MENOPAUSE ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryati Atamimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai konselor yang menaruh minat pada berbagai masalah perkawinan, kondisi psikologis isteri yang akan, sedang ataupun setelah mengalami menopause menempati prosentase yang cukup banyak memberikan kontribusi bagi timbulnya masalah dari keseluruhan masalah yang dihadapi . Rasa cemas, tidak berdaya, sedih, cemburu, marah, dan berbagai perasaan tidak nyaman muncul pada usia itu dan biasanya selalu disertai dengan berbagai keluhan fisik seperti rematik, jantung berdebar, lemas, pusing, bermasalah dengan tekanan darah, gula darah, kolesterol, asam urat dan lain-lain. Mengapa hal ini terjadi, ada apa dengan menopause?

  15. Multiple dental anomalies and aggressive periodontitis: A coincidence or an association?

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep A; Patel Swati

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) comprises a group of rare, often severe, rapidly progressive forms of periodontitis mostly characterized by an early age of clinical manifestation and a distinctive tendency for cases to aggregate in families. Abnormal dental morphology and position have been associated with severe periodontal diseases. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of multiple dental anomalies associated with AgP. This paper reports a case of unusual association of multiple dent...

  16. Health concerns of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental equipment water lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    There is an unsubstantiated concern as to the health relevance of HPC (heterotrophic plate count) bacteria in dental equipment waterlines. The American Dental Association (ADA) web site includes guidelines for controlling HPC populations and implies that HPC populations >500 CFU/mL as a "health" benchmark. The world-wide published literature including the United Nations fully examined this situation and concluded that HPC bacteria are not a health risk, but merely a general water quality parameter for all waters including dental water lines. This review provides documentation that the standard measurement of HPC bacteria in waters alone do not pose a health risk and the ADA already provides appropriate practices to minimize HPC bacteria in dental equipment water.

  17. Evaluation and association of serum iron and ferritin levels in children with dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Venkatesh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 90% of all types of anemia in the world. Although the prevalence has declined in recent years, it remains an important pediatric public health problem. Iron deficiency has also been associated with dental caries. It impairs salivary gland function causing reduced salivary secretion and buffering capacity leading to increased caries activity. Aim: The aim of the study is to explore an association between dental caries and serum levels of iron and ferritin in children aged 3–12 years. Subjectsand Methods: The study group included 120 children, hospitalized for uncomplicated medical problems. Blood reports were evaluated to determine serum iron and ferritin levels. Dental caries experience was assessed using deft index. Statistical Analysis Used: The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Out of 120 children, 38 children showed low serum iron levels of which 31 children had dental caries and nine out of 15 children in the high serum iron level group showed dental caries. High ferritin levels were seen in three children among which two children were caries-free and only one child had a low ferritin level who also had a positive deft score. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that there is an inverse association between serum iron levels and dental caries whereas there is no association between serum ferritin levels and dental caries.

  18. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  19. Ada for multi-microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, M.; Crespi-Reghizzi, S.; Natali, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of the Ada programming language in array processors. Topics considered include distributed data processing, examples of distributed systems, requirements for the programming language and tools, the suitability of Ada and Apse, strategies for developing distributed systems, the construction system, reliability and extensibility, and the MML programming language.

  20. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coric A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anka Coric,1 Adriana Banozic,2 Miro Klaric,3 Katarina Vukojevic,4 Livia Puljak5 1School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Health Center Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 4Department of Anatomy, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 5Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Abstract: An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS, Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS, Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001 and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001. Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05. There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings

  1. Reliability of specific finger dermatoglyphic patterns and their association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Pratibha; Sentamilselvi, G; Narayan, Vinod; Premkumar, Priya; Anuja, N; Sherlin, Herald; Abilasha, R

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries is generally agreed to be a complex problem with many indirect factors that may obscure the direct cause or causes. There is substantial evidence that heredity plays an important role in this disease. Dermatoglyphics is a study that can be used to indicate congenital abnormalities. This study sought to determine a correlation between the prevalence of dental caries and dermatoglyphic fingerprint patterns, and thus assess the reliability of such patterns for identifying a susceptibility to dental caries. The results showed that the association between people with dental caries and whorls in their fingerprints was 60.4% . The association between people without caries who had loops in their fingerprints was 55.7%. These associations had a statistical significance of P < 0.001.

  2. The AdaBoost Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Lykov, A; Vaninsky, K

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a dynamical system which we call the AdaBoost flow. The flow is defined by a system of ODEs with control. We show how by a suitable choice of control AdaBoost algorithm of Schapire and Freund and arc-gv algorithm of Breiman can be embedded in the AdaBoost flow. We also show how previously studied by Schapire and Singer confidence rated prediction can be obtained from our continuous time approach. We introduce a new continuous time algorithm which we call superBoost and describe its properties. The AdaBoost flow equations coincide with the equations of dynamics of the nonperiodic Toda system written in terms of spectral variables. This establishes a connection between two seemingly unrelated fields of boosting algorithms and classical integrable models. Finally we explain similarity of the AdaBoost flow with Perelman's ideas to control Ricci flow.

  3. A study of association between dental health status and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Results: In the study the prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease were 90%, 98% and 90.33% respectively. The antenatal cases with poor oral hygiene were 2.5 times more likely to have dental caries. OR 0.0138, 95% CI (0.0033 to 0.0570 Z statistic 5.908, P<0.0001.The antenatal cases with poor oral hygiene were 20 times more likely to have gingivitis (OR 0.0045, 95% CI (0.0006-0.0365 Z statistic 5.077, P<0.0001. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 521-523

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with dental anxiety among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sex, age, marital status and perceived oral health status did not show a ... accomplish treatment planned to a patient, pharmaceutical, such as sedation, and ..... health status believing that lack of pain means absence of dental problems and hence .... Cairney, J. (2014) Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their.

  5. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Sood; Arun V Subramaniam; Tulsi Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels) in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated usi...

  6. DENTAL WEAR CAUSED BY ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BRUXISM AND GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE: A REHABILITATION REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; BRANCO, Carolina Assaf; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra; Fernandes, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Carlos José

    2007-01-01

    Bruxism is a pathological activity of the stomatognathic system that involves tooth grinding and clenching during parafunctional jaw movements. Clinical signs of bruxism are mostly related to dental wear and muscular and joint discomforts, but a large number of etiological factors can be listed, as local, systemic, psychological and hereditary factors. The association between bruxism, feeding and smoking habits and digestive disorders may lead to serious consequences to dental and related str...

  7. Orofacial esthetics and dental anxiety: associations with oral and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Blomkvist, Klas; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2014-11-01

    Severe dental anxiety (DA) is associated with both oral health and psychosocial consequences in what has been described as a vicious circle of DA. The aim of this study was to investigate self-rated orofacial esthetics in patients with DA and its relationship to psychological and oral health. A consecutive sample of 152 adult patients who were referred or self-referred to a specialized dental anxiety clinic filled out the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) as well as measurements on DA, self-rated oral health and general anxiety and depression. Clinical measures of dental status were also obtained. Compared with the general population, patients with DA had lower ratings of satisfaction on all aspects of their orofacial esthetics, which included the teeth, gingiva, mouth and face, as well as a global orofacial assessment. Furthermore, the perception of the orofacial appearance was related both to dental status and self-rated oral health, as well as to general anxiety and depression. The level of dissatisfaction with the orofacial appearance was similar for both genders, but women reported more regular dental care and better dental status. The results of this study clearly show less satisfaction with dental and facial appearance in patients with DA, and that the self-rating of orofacial esthetics is related to both oral and psychological health. The OES can be used to assess orofacial esthetics in patients with DA.

  8. [Factors associated with oral health habits and use of dental services by adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoglio, Rosane Silvia; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Abegg, Claídes; Freddo, Silvia Letícia; Monteiro, Lisiane

    2009-03-01

    This was a cross-sectional study of 1,170 seventh-grade adolescents from the municipal public school system in Gravataí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, investigating the association between socio-demographic, psychosocial, and lifestyle factors and oral health habits and use of dental services. Data were analyzed by Cox regression, modified for cross-sectional studies. Females showed higher frequency of brushing, as did adolescents that reported not feeling alone or discriminated. Daily flossing was associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES), use of private dental services, parental understanding, and lack of feeling of loneliness. Frequency of annual dental visits was higher among individuals with higher SES. Preventive dental checkups were more frequent among individuals with higher SES, those who felt understood by their parents, and those who did not habitually eat candy. Oral health habits were associated with family SES and psychosocial factors except for frequency of annual dental visits. As for lifestyle, low candy consumption had a positive impact on reasons for use of dental appointments.

  9. Factors Associated with Dental Pain in Mexican Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Escoffié-Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify dental pain prevalence and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1,404 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years from public schools in the city of Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo, Mexico. Data were collected through a questionnaire that addressed sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, eating and dental hygiene habits, and behavior variables. The dependent variable was self-reported dental pain in the 12 months prior to the survey. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics and a binary logistical regression model. Results. Dental pain prevalence among the studied children was 49.9%. The variables associated in the final model (p<0.05 were younger mother’s age, higher socioeconomic level, absence of an automobile in the home, fried food, fruit intake, lower tooth brushing frequency, never having used mouthwash or not knowing about it, and parents/guardians with regular to high levels of knowledge about oral health and a regular or good/very good perception of their child’s oral health. Conclusions. One in two children in the study had experienced dental pain in the twelve months prior to the survey. The association of socioeconomic variables with dental pain suggested inequalities among the children in terms of oral health.

  10. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Salas, M M S; Nascimento, G G; Tarquinio, S B C; Faggion, C M; Peres, M A; Thomson, W M; Demarco, F F

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries is the main problem oral health and it is not well established in the literature if the enamel defects are a risk factor for its development. Studies have reported a potential association between developmental defects enamel (DDE) and dental caries occurrence. We investigated the association between DDE and caries in permanent dentition of children and teenagers. A systematic review was carried out using four databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct), which were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2014. Population-based studies assessing differences in dental caries experience according to the presence of enamel defects (and their types) were included. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the pooled effect, and meta-regression was carried out to identify heterogeneity sources. From the 2558 initially identified papers, nine studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria after checking the titles, abstracts, references, and complete reading. Seven of them were included in the meta-analysis with random model. A positive association between enamel defects and dental caries was identified; meta-analysis showed that individuals with DDE had higher pooled odds of having dental caries experience [OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.3; 3.54)]. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that adjustment for sociodemographic factors, countries' socioeconomic status, and bias (quality of studies) explained the high heterogeneity observed. A higher chance of dental caries should be expected among individuals with enamel defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of salivary triglycerides and cholesterol with dental caries in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Sharma, Akhliesh; Kaje, Keerthan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus can affect oral health. Altered levels of salivary lipids have been suggested as a risk for dental caries. There has been lack of research in this regard and in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To assess the salivary triglycerides and cholesterol levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlate them with their dental caries status. Thirty children aged 12-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy children were included in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each child and evaluated for salivary triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Dental caries status (DMFT) was recorded. Salivary cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (p ≤ 0.05). In comparison to controls, mean DMFT score was higher in the diabetic children. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant correlation with dental caries status in the study group (p = 0.035). In normal children, salivary cholesterol levels showed a significant association with dental caries. (p = 0.008). Both salivary cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant association with dental caries in these children. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  13. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  14. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2010-10-01

    To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 1418 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old) exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97); and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00). Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03) and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28) were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  15. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  16. Global Dental Research Productivity and Its Association With Human Development, Gross National Income, and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the associations between country level factors (such as human development, economic productivity, and political stability) and their dental research productivity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus search engine. Human Development Index (HDI), Gross National Income per capita (GNI), and Failed State Index measures were the independent variables. Outcomes were "Total number of publications (articles or articles in press) in the field of dentistry" and "Total number of publications in the field of dentistry per million population." Non-parametric tests were used to examine the association between the independent and outcome variables. During the year 2013, a total of 11,952 dental research articles were published across the world. The top 5 publishing countries were United States, Brazil, India, Japan, and United Kingdom. "Very High" HDI countries had significantly higher number of total dental research articles and dental research articles per million population when compared to the "High HDI," "Medium HDI," and "Low HDI" countries (p human development and economic development of a country are linearly correlated with dental research productivity. Dental research productivity also increases with increasing political stability of a country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with the use of dental health services in primary care in northeastern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, as in many other Latin American countries, the use of dental health services (UDHS has been scarcely studied, especially the one related with groups that are considered at risk in certain areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with UDHS in an at risk population in primary care. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study, involving students (T, pregnant women (PW, workers (W and older adults (OA (n=368. Variables such as the use of dental health services and factors such as geographical, economic, and organizational barriers were measured. Descriptive statistics, Chi Square test and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: 40.2% (95% CI 30.2-50.2 of the W group had a history of UDHS in primary care, 20% (95% CI 11.8-28.2 of the PW group had spent more than a year without visiting the dentist and 33% (95% CI 23.7-43.9 had been treated at a private dental care service. Level of schooling, occupation, federal support from "Programa Oportunidades" and access to dental care services (p<0.01 were factors associated with UDHS, independent of potential confounders. Conclusion: The health system should guarantee health care by offering comprehensive dental health services and removing organizational barriers to promote a more equitable access to dental care.

  18. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy.

  19. Paranoia.Ada: Sample output reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Paranoia.Ada is a program to diagnose floating point arithmetic in the context of the Ada programming language. The program evaluates the quality of a floating point arithmetic implementation with respect to the proposed IEEE Standards P754 and P854. Paranoia.Ada is derived from the original BASIC programming language version of Paranoia. The Paranoia.Ada replicates in Ada the test algorithms originally implemented in BASIC and adheres to the evaluation criteria established by W. M. Kahan. Paranoia.Ada incorporates a major structural redesign and employs applicable Ada architectural and stylistic features.

  20. Composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in Hamadan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Koolivand, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Yunesian, Massoud; Omrani, Gasemali

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the components, composition and production rate of dental solid waste and associated management practices in dental offices in Hamadan. A total of 28 offices, including ten general dentist offices, eight specialist dentist offices, five practical dentist offices and five denture maker offices were selected in a random way. Three samples from each selected type were taken and the waste was manually separated into 74 sub-fractions and each sub-fraction was weighed. The results showed that the total annual dental waste production in dental offices was 41947.43 kg. Domestic type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical and toxic waste constituted 71.15, 21.40, 7.26 and 0.18%, respectively of this amount. Only seven fractions including gypsum, latex gloves, nylon, dental impression material, used medicine ampoules, saliva-contaminated paper towels and saliva ejectors constituted about 80% of the waste. It was also indicated that there were no effective activity for waste minimization, separation, reuse and recycling in dental offices and the management of sharps, potentially infectious waste and other hazardous waste was poor.

  1. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  2. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Zeng, J; Thomson, W M; Peres, M A; Demarco, F F

    2014-05-01

    Despite improvement, dental caries is still the main public oral health problem worldwide and the major cause of pain, tooth loss and chewing difficulties in children and adolescents; and it impacts negatively on oral health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a multistage representative sample of 8-12-year-old Brazilian school children was carried out in order to investigate the association between enamel defects and dental caries. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics at home. Firth's bias reduced logistic regression models were undertaken to assess the association between the main exposure (enamel defects) and caries experience. The prevalence of any enamel defect was 64.0%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 35.0%, 29.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.4%, with mean DMFT of 0.6 (SD, 1.2). Dental caries experience was more common among children who had enamel hypoplasia in their posterior teeth (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.51) than among those with none. In anterior teeth, there was no association. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be an important risk factor for dental caries.

  3. Use of psychotropic drugs and associated dental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Giovanni; Manzon, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Patients with problems related to central nervous system dysfunctions are often treated with psychotropic drugs. These include antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, and drugs blocking specific receptors in the brain such as anticholinergics or beta-blockers. However, these medications have serious side effects affecting the oral health. In addition, many dental patients make use of psychoactive drugs, such as amphetamine, ecstasy, and cocaine. This article aims to review data on the psychotropic drugs being used in the last 30 years, their pharmacological profile, with special attention to the side effects related to the oral health. Oral diseases such as bruxism, orofacial dystonia, oromandibular dyskinesia, and rabbit syndrome are related to extrapyramidal effects of antipsychotic drugs because of their antagonist activity on the dopaminergic receptors. Drugs with anticholinergic and/or antiadrenergic effects such as tricyclic antidepressants may cause dry mouth and related complications such as candidiasis and other oral infections. Among mood stabilizers, lithium treatment induces a wide range of side effects on oral system including dry mouth, sialorrhea, infections, and ulceration of the oral cavity. Psychostimulants may instead provoke xerotomia, gingival enlargements, bruxism, dental erosion, mucosal ulceration, and oral/nasal lesions. This literature review supports the idea that the higher prevalence of oral diseases among patients with mental disorders may be attributed to the side effects of their medications mediated by complex interactions between different targeted receptors. Thus, dentists must be aware of the possible risks of these medications in order to take appropriate precautions in treating these patients.

  4. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-12-23

    Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the children. Structured questionnaire was used to interview children and/or parents to collect socio demographic variables. Clinical dental information obtained by experienced dentist using dental caries criteria set by World Health Organization. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were computed to investigate factors associated with dental caries. Of the 147 children, 82 (55.4%) were girls. Majority of the children (67.6%) cleaned their teeth using traditional method (small stick of wood made of a special type of plant). The proportion of children having dental caries was 32 (21.8%). Primary tooth decay accounted for 24 (75%) of dental caries. The proportion of missed teeth was 7 (4.8%). The overall proportion of toothache and dental plaque among school children were 40 (27.2%) and 99 (67.3%), respectively. Grade level of 1-4 (AOR = 3.9, CI = 1.49 -10.4), poor habit of tooth cleaning (AOR = 2.6, CI = 1.08 - 6.2), dental plaque (AOR = 5.3, CI = 1.6 - 17.7) and toothache (AOR = 6.3, CI = 2.4 - 15.4) were significantly associated with dental caries. Dental caries is a common public health problem in school children associated with poor oral hygiene, dietary and dental visit habits. Therefore, prevention measures such as health education on oral hygiene, dietary habits and importance of dental visit are obligatory for children.

  5. A report on NASA software engineering and Ada training requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn B.; Svabek, L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's software engineering and Ada skill base are assessed and information that may result in new models for software engineering, Ada training plans, and curricula are provided. A quantitative assessment which reflects the requirements for software engineering and Ada training across NASA is provided. A recommended implementation plan including a suggested curriculum with associated duration per course and suggested means of delivery is also provided. The distinction between education and training is made. Although it was directed to focus on NASA's need for the latter, the key relationships to software engineering education are also identified. A rationale and strategy for implementing a life cycle education and training program are detailed in support of improved software engineering practices and the transition to Ada.

  6. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M. M.; Maher, B. S.; Slayton, R. L.; Willing, M. C.; Reis, S. E.; Crout, R. J.; Weyant, R. J.; Levy, S. M.; Marazita, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10−8) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue. PMID:28348596

  7. Ada Implementation Guide. Software Engineering With Ada. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    teaching, the student is less likely to readily adopt new, more powerful ways of accomplishing old tasks 122 Depatn of the NaY I ! Trablng and Educaion and...Maturity Model3 (CMU/SEI-92-TR-25, ESC-TR-/92-0M5). Pittsburgh, PA : Carnegie-Mellon University, 1992. SBoehm. B.W. Software Engineering Economics...Pittsburgh, PA : Carnegie-Mellon University, 19-21 March 1991. £ Contrast: Ada 9X and C++, Schonberg, E. New York University, 1992 (Distributed by Ada IC on

  8. Increasing dependency of older people in nursing homes is associated with need for dental treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenthöfer A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Zenthöfer, Peter Rammelsberg, Tomas Cabrera, Alexander Jochen Hassel Department of Prosthodontics, Dental School, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: To determine relationships between the need for dental treatments of institutionalized elderly people and cognitive impairment and the general level of care needed. Two hundred and sixty-eight residents of long-term care facilities in Germany were included in this study. Age, sex, diseases, number of frequently taken drugs, and location of the long-term care facility of the participants were recorded. For each participant, the need for care was assessed by use of the Barthel index (BI. Cognitive impairment was evaluated by use of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE. To assess dental treatment needs, the revised oral assessment guide (ROAG was applied for different oral health conditions, which were rated “healthy” or “treatment needed”. Spearman correlations were performed to evaluate associations between BI and MMSE and dental treatment needs. Statistical analysis revealed significant associations of BI (P<0.001 and MMSE (P=0.015 with the ROAG score. Increasing dependency and decreasing cognitive ability worsen oral health and increase the need for dental treatment. Keywords: elderly, dependency, Barthel index, treatment needs, oral health

  9. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  10. [Characteristics associated with the use of dental services by the adult Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Matos, Divane Leite; de Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio

    2012-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the factors related to the use of dental services by Brazilian adults. Data were collected from 13,356 adults (35 to 44 years of age), participating in a nationwide epidemiological survey of oral health (SB-BRASIL 2003 Project). Data analysis was based on Poisson regression, which produced estimates of Prevalence Ratios as a measure of association. Data analysis showed that the use of dental services by adults was associated with: female gender, low education and income, living in the Northeastern and Southern regions and in small cities, complaints of toothache or gum pain, need for partial/total prosthesis, a greater amount of permanent teeth requiring treatment, demand for service due to some dental problems and evaluation of dental care received on a regular basis. These results showed that the population attended by the public service was socio-economically less privileged and had greater need for treatment. This situation reflects an historical abandonment of the adult population by the dental healthcare system in Brazil and poses a major challenge to the Unified Health Service, in light of its intended role to reduce inequalities and provide universal access to comprehensive care.

  11. Prevalence of enamel defects and association with dental caries in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massignan, C; Ximenes, M; da Silva Pereira, C; Dias, L; Bolan, M; Cardoso, M

    2016-12-01

    This was to evaluate the prevalence of the developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in primary teeth and its association with dental caries. A cross-sectional study with a randomised representative sample was carried out with 1101 children aged 2-5 years enrolled in public preschools (50% prevalence of DDE in primary teeth, a standard error of 3%, and a confidence level of 95%). Three calibrated dentists (K > 0.62) performed clinical examination. Data collected were: sex, age, DDE (Modified DDE Index) and dental caries (WHO). Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Among children, 565 (51.3%) were boys; mean age was 3.7 (±0.9 years). The prevalence of enamel defect was 39.1%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 25.3, 19.1 and 6.1%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 31.0%, with mean def-t 1.14 (±2.44). Primary teeth with enamel hypoplasia had three times the odds of having dental caries than those with absence of enamel defects (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.91, 5.01). The presence of enamel defects was moderate and associated with dental caries.

  12. Dental Erosion and its Associated Factors In 11-16-Year Old School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirthiga, M; Poornima, P; Praveen, R; Sakeena, B; Disha, P

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion currently stands as a great challenge for the clinician, regarding the diagnosis, identification of the etiological factors, prevention and execution of an adequate treatment. To evaluate the prevalence, severity, and associated factors on dental erosion in 11-16-years old. A cross sectional study was conducted among 2000 school children who were randomly selected. A questionnaire was given to the children that included personal demographic details and habit of consuming acidic foods and drinks. An index specific for dental erosion given by O Sullivan was used to assess every affected tooth. The values were subjected to chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be 1.4%. Females (1.6%) were slightly more affected than males (1.3%). Public school children (2.1%) were found to be affected a little more than private children (0.7%). Chi square test showed significant association between type of school and erosion prevalence (p = 0.015). Most commonly affected teeth were lateral incisor (59.72%). The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low when compared to various studies done all over the world.

  13. Factors associated with utilization of dental services in a long-term care facility: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Frank A; Amin, Summar; Salme, Marc; Tezal, Mine

    2017-03-01

    To describe factors associated with the utilization of dental services in a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Western New York. A descriptive cross-sectional study reviewed the dental and medical records of residents of an LTCF discharged between January 1, 2008 and December 30, 2012. Information on demographic and health variables at admission was extracted from electronic health records. Information on oral health variables was extracted from patient charts. A total of 2,516 residents were discharged between 2008 and 2012. From those, 259 (10.3%) utilized dental services at least once during their stay. Those who utilized dental services were significantly older at admission (78.5 vs. 82.0 years, p dental services. Dental services appear to be underutilized by residents of LTCF. Significant differences exist in demographic and health variables between residents who utilize these services compared to those who do not. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The prevalence of malocclusion and its association with dental caries among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vellappally, Sajith; Seby J Gardens; Al Kheraif, Abdul-Aziz Abdullah; Krishna, Madhusudan; Babu, Suresh; Hashem, Mohamed; Jacob, Vimal; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of malocclusion among 12-18-year-old disabled adolescents in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and to determine the association of malocclusion with dental caries. Methods This cross-sectional study included 243 children with various mental disabilities with or without physical infirmities. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the dentition status were recorded using the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys – Bas...

  15. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  16. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  17. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo The dental caries associated with risk factor during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    bajo, se vieron afectadas por caries dental en ambos trimestres.The gestational period is related to a great incidence of dental caries although the association between pregnancy and the caries's increase has not possible to determine scientifically yet. To determine the presence of dental caries and some associated risk factors during the first and the third trimester of pregnancy to detect the appearance of new carious lesions and the changes related to risk factors between both trimesters. A longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted from December, 2006 to February, 2008 in Florida municipality of Camagüey province. Study universe included 38 pregnants and sample included 21 interviewed and examined during both trimesters to determine the presence of caries y the risk factors, a poor oral hygiene, cardiogenic diet, a low salivary pH, occurrence of vomiting and a previous pregnancy. The necessary information was registered in a form designed to that end. At the first trimester the 80.95 % had dental caries with appearance of new lesions in 6 pregnants for the third trimester. The more frequent risk factors during the first trimester were the cariogenic diet in the 66.66 % and a poor oral hygiene in the 47.61 % of patients. None of the pregnants modified its diet during pregnancy; however, the poor oral hygiene only remained in the 14.28 %. The 52.38 % of the pregnants involved during the first trimester had a cariogenic diet and the 47.61 % had a previous pregnancy. There was involvement due to new caries during pregnancy. The more frequent risk factors were a cariogenic diet, a poor oral hygiene and a previous pregnancy. The pregnants not modified their diet but improved the oral hygiene during pregnancy and all of them with vomiting and a low salivary pH had dental caries in both trimesters.

  18. Association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Adriana R; Aznar, Fábio D C; Tinós, Adriana M F G; Yamashita, Joselene M; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Sales-Peres, Silvia H C

    2014-12-01

    The impact of oral conditions on quality of life in overweight/obesity needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dental caries activity, quality of life and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. This study was conducted at public schools in Brazil, on a sample of 202 adolescents, 12 years of age. For anthropometric evaluation, the body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used. In oral examinations, the Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth (DMFT), significant caries (SiC) and dental caries activity (DCA) indices were used (κ > 0.94). The Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) index was applied. The sample was divided into two groups: O (overweight/obese; n = 101) and N (normal weight; n = 101). For data analysis, chi-square, odds ratio (OR), Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation tests were used (P Obesity, dental caries and quality of life were not correlated. Adolescents with normal weight presented a low perception of the impact of oral conditions on quality of life; however, it seemed to affect psychological aspects in their daily performances. Providing adolescents with nutritional assistance may prevent obesity and dental caries, and improve their quality of life. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Clarifications, guidelines and questions about the dental bleaching "associated" with orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the best moment for carrying out or recommending dental bleaching to orthodontic patients, some explanations and orientations are given in order to answers the following questions: 1 Why orthodontic treatment completion is considered the best opportunity for carrying out the procedure? 2 Why dental bleaching should not be performed immediately before orthodontic treatment? 3 If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? 4 Why dental bleaching should not be performed during orthodontic treatment? 5 If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? This article highlights why it is essential to protect both the mucosa and the cervical region, regardless of the moment when dental bleaching is performed, whether associated with orthodontic treatment or not. The "how", "why" and "if" of whether or not it is convenient to perform dental bleaching before orthodontic treatment are still a matter of clinical suggestion, as it is a procedure that is under analysis, empirical knowledge waiting for scientific proof or disproof! Although tooth enamel has adamantine fluid flowing within it, providing a specific metabolism that is peculiar to its own and which could scientifically explain and base the option of carrying out teeth whitening before and during orthodontic treatment, we must still be very careful.

  20. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain.

  1. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: ROLM Ada Compiler, Version 4.42 V-002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-12

    EC =3 CB3003A-B.ADA P SC =64 CB3004A.ADA P SCz 52 BB3005A.ADA P SC= 4 EC z2 CB4001A..ADA P SC 60 C84002A.ADA P SCx 50 C34003A-AB.AOA P SC =35...a class B test is indicated by EC. The results for each test file were as follows: B22001A.TST PS SC : 26 EC s 8 B22001B.TST PS SCx 8 EC- 3...A29002F-B.ADA P -Sc z1Il A29002G-B.ADA P SC z88 A29002I-.B.ADA P SC = 63 A29002I-8B.ADA P SC= 95 A29002J-B.ADA P SC 81 D29002K-B.ADA P SCz 766 *B32103A

  2. Association between dental caries and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yasunori; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhang, Bo; Uehara, Yoshinari; Ogawa, Masahiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Ken; Kimura, Takeshi; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-04-01

    Oral infection contributes to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that dental caries may be associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) of cardiac origin, but not non-cardiac origin. We compared the age-adjusted incidence of OHCA (785,591 cases of OHCA: 55.4% of cardiac origin and 44.6% of non-cardiac origin) to the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries between 2005 and 2011 in the 47 prefectures of Japan. In both the total population and males over 65 years, the number of cases of dental caries was significantly associated with the number of OHCA of total and cardiac origin from 2005 to 2011, but not those of non-cardiac origin. In the total population, the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries was not significantly associated with the age-adjusted incidence of OHCA (total OHCA: r correlation coefficient=0.22, p=0.14; OHCA of cardiac origin: r=0.25, p=0.09; OHCA of non-cardiac origin: r=-0.002, p=0.99). Among male patients over 65 years, the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries was significantly associated with OHCA of total and cardiac origin, but not non-cardiac origin (total OHCA: r=0.47, p<0.001; OHCA of cardiac origin: r=0.37, p=0.01; OHCA of non-cardiac origin: r=0.28, p=0.054). While oral hygiene is important in all age groups, it may be particularly associated with OHCAs of cardiac origin in males over 65 years. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing and Managing Sport-Related Dental and Oral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E.; Piland, Scott G.; Caswell, Shane V.; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S.; Courson, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Background: Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Recommendations: Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals. PMID:27875057

  4. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):256-263.

  5. Association of brain cancer with dental x-rays and occupation in Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, J.S.; Brownson, R.C.; Morantz, R.A.; Chin, T.D. (Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Kansas Medical School, Kansas City (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This investigation of a brain cancer cluster in Missouri used two approaches to investigate associations with potential risk factors. In a case-control study in a rural town, we interviewed surrogates of cases and controls about potential risk factors. We found a statistically significant positive association of brain cancer with reported exposure to dental x-rays. Occupation was not associated with the cluster in the rural town. In a standardized proportional mortality study for the state of Missouri, we calculated the observed and expected proportion of brain cancers by occupation and industry in Missouri decedents. We found that motor vehicle manufacturers, beauty shop workers, managers and administrators, elementary school teachers, and hairdressers and cosmetologists had significantly elevated proportions of brain cancer. Brain tumors are inconsistently associated with occupation in the literature. Further study of brain cancer etiology with respect to dental x-ray exposures seems warranted.

  6. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions » Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people ... is Different About the Teeth of People With Down Syndrome? Delayed Eruption The teeth of people with Down ...

  7. The Utility of Ada for Army Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-10

    34 Ada " for Ada Lovelace (1815-1851), a mathematician who worked with Charles Babbage on his difference and analytic engines.9 Later in 1979, the HOLWG...OF ADA FOR ARMY MODELING BY COLONEL MICHAEL L. YOCOM DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for publie releases distribution is unlimited. 1% LF-, EC TE...TITLE (ad Subtitle) a. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Utility of Ada for Army Modeling Individual Study Project 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

  8. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  9. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and departmental…

  10. Teaching and Understanding the Concept of Critical Thinking Skills within Michigan Accredited Associate Degree Dental Hygiene Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beistle, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores dental hygiene faculty's perceptions regarding the issues surrounding the concept of critical thinking skills integration within Michigan accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs. The primary research goals are to determine faculty understanding of the concept of critical thinking, identify personal and…

  11. High educational attainment moderates the association between dental health-care supply and utilization in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Maike; Kunst, Anton E; Brockmann, Hilke

    2016-02-01

    In line with the theory of supplier-induced demand, an increased physician density often goes along with a higher utilization of medical services, including dental services. This study aimed to assess whether dentist density and self-employment are related to dental care use, and whether these relationships are moderated by patients' educational attainment. We used data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) from over 20,000 respondents, 50 + yr of age, in 13 countries. We conducted multilevel logistic regressions with probability and type of dental treatment on individual education, country-specific dentist density, and dentist remuneration, and their cross-level interaction. Patients with a high educational level were more likely to report a dentist visit (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.912-2.305) and to receive preventive care (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.697-2.043) than those with a low educational level (reference category). Cross-level interaction effects indicated that high dentist density decreases dental care utilization differences between patients with high (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999), medium (OR = 0.995, 95% CI: 0.991-0.999), and low education levels. This was also true for prevention use (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.992-0.999 for patients with a high education level, and OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-1.000 for patients with a medium education level). The findings suggest that although dentist density is positively associated with dental care utilization, patients have differing susceptibilities to dental care supply.

  12. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Simone Scandiuzzi; Filho, Francisco Jóse; Pinheiro, Ericka Tavares; Murrer, Rodrigo Dutra; de Jesus Soares, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to permanent anterior teeth in 9- to 14-year-old schoolchildren attending public schools in Anápolis, Brazil, and to investigate the association between the occurrence of these injuries and the size of incisal overjet and type of lip coverage. A cross-sectional survey and a two-stage cluster sampling technique were used. The sample size included 765 9- to 14-year-old schoolchildren. Data were collected through clinical examinations and interviews carried out by a trained, calibrated dentist. Oral examinations dealt with the type of traumatic dental injury (TDI), the treatment received, the size of incisal overjet and the type of lip coverage. The teeth examined were maxillary and mandibular incisors. A 16.5% prevalence of dental trauma was found. Boys experienced double the number of girls' injuries. The maxillary central incisors were the teeth most affected, totaling 84.8%. The most frequent type of injury found was enamel fracture (66%), followed by enamel-dentin fracture (27%) and enamel cracks (5%). Only 26% of traumatised teeth were restored. Children with an overjet size > 3 mm were 1.78 times (CI= 1.18 - 2.69) more likely to have a dental injury than children with an overjet size overjet size > 3 mm are 1.78 times more likely to have dental injuries. In addition, children with inadequate lip coverage are 2.18 times more likely to present traumatic dental injuries than children with adequate lip coverage.

  13. Association of burnout with stress, coping strategies and vocational satisfaction in Chilean clinical dental students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pérez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental students are particularly affected by stress, which can lead to ‘burnout syndrome’ by association with other psychological factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of perceived stress, coping strategies, and vocational satisfaction on the severity of burnout in Chilean dental students in the clinical years. Method: The study population was comprised of clinical dental students of five Chilean dental schools. The following variables were considered: age, gender, year of study, burnout, coping strategies, perceived stress, and vocational satisfaction. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures, correlation tests, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results: The final sample included 244 students. Three (1.23% students did not have burnout in any of its factors and 38 (15.57% had severe levels in all three factors. There was a statistically significant greater ‘emotional exhaustion’ in 4th year students. There was a statistically significant correlation of the three factors of burnout with ‘social withdrawal’ coping strategy, high levels of perceived stress, and low levels of present and future vocational satisfaction. Conclusion: Most students presented moderate and high levels of burnout. This situation is associated with dysfunctional coping strategies, high levels of perceived stress, and low levels of present and future vocational satisfaction.

  14. Association between Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Stress in Undergraduate Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddki, Norkhafizah; Sukerman, Noraini; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2017-01-01

    Background This study investigated the association of emotional intelligence (EI) and other factors with perceived stress (PS) in undergraduate dental students. Methods A total of 234 undergraduate dental students at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), in the academic year of 2009/2010, participated in this cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, the Assessing Emotions Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), were used to evaluate EI and PS, respectively. Results The mean EI score was 121.2 (SD 11.85). The scores were significantly higher in females than males, and in students who chose dentistry based on their own interest rather than in those who were motivated by others to study dentistry. The mean PSS-10 score was 21.2 (SD 5.08). Pearson correlation analysis indicated a significant inverse relationship between EI and PSS-10 scores (r = −0.337). Multi-variable regression analysis also indicated a significant negative linear association between EI and PSS-10 scores (b = −0.156, 95% CI: −0.207, −0.104). PSS-10 scores were significantly higher for students who were in the clinical years rather than the preclinical years. Conclusions This study of USM undergraduate dental students shows that a low EI, female sex, and being in the clinical years were significant predictors of PS.

  15. Water characteristics associated with the occurrence of Legionella pneumophila in dental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Stampi, S; De Luca, G; Fateh-Moghadam, P; Antonietta, M; Sabattini, B; Checchi, L

    2000-02-01

    This study evaluated the incidence of Legionella pneumophila in dental unit water samples and investigated how the occurrence of these bacteria may be related to some physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics of the water. The samples were taken from the incoming tap water, oral rinsing cup, air-water syringe, ultrasonic scaler, and the turbine of 23 dental units of private and public institutions. Apart from L. pneumophila (serogroup 1 and 3) isolated in 22 out of the 101 (21.8%) water samples tested, two other species were found: L. bozemanii and L. dumoffii. The highest densities and frequency of L. pneumophila were observed in the water coming into the units and in the dental units of public institutions. A negative association between L. pneumophila and 36 degrees C and 22 degrees C heterotrophic total plate counts and other gram-negative bacteria was found. An inverse association between the concentration of L. pneumophila and water temperature was also observed. The values of pH and total hardness did not show any significant difference in the L. pneumophila-positive and -negative dental unit waters. Finally, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and residual chlorine were found to correlate positively with L. pneumophila.

  16. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Plastow, Katrina

    2013-03-01

    We examined demographic and socioeconomic differences in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), its association with dental caries in children, and whether exposure to water fluoridation modifies this association. In a cross-sectional study, we used a stratified, clustered sampling design to obtain information on 16 508 children aged 5 to 16 years enrolled in Australian school dental services in 2002 to 2005. Dental staff assessed dental caries, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's residential history, sources of drinking water, toothbrushing frequency, socioeconomic status (SES), and SSB consumption. Children who brushed their teeth less often and were older, male, of low SES, from rural or remote areas consumed significantly more SSBs. Caries was significantly associated with greater SSB consumption after controlling for potential confounders. Finally, greater exposure to fluoridated water significantly reduced the association between children's SSB consumption and dental caries. Consumption of SSBs should be considered a major risk factor for dental caries. However, increased exposure to fluoridated public water helped ameliorate the association between SSB consumption and dental decay. These results reconfirm the benefits of community water fluoridation for oral health.

  17. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd in the dental undergraduate students. Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion. Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.

  18. An epidemiological study of dental agenesis in a primary health area in Spain: estimated prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallón-Walton, Victòria; Nieminen, Pekka; Arte, Sirpa; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of dental agenesis and its possible association with other developmental dental anomalies and systemic entities. Descriptive transversal study, for which 1518 clinical records, of patients visited by the Odontological Service of the Primary Health Centre of Cassà de la Selva (Girona-Spain) between December 2002 and February 2006 were reviewed. The data were recorded in relation to the oral and dental anomalies and the associated systemic entities, between the ones referred as concomitant in literature. Values of 9.48% (7.25% excluding the third molars) for dental agenesis and 0.39% for oligodontia were obtained. The presence of dental agenesis concomitant with some other forms of oral and dental anomalies was observed. Attention must be drawn to the fact that a greater number of concomitant systemic entities were observed in those patients that presented a severe phenotypical pattern of dental agenesis. The results of the present study do not differ from the ones reported in studies of similar characteristics among Occidental and Spanish populations. The relationship observed between certain systemic entities and developmental dental anomalies suggest a possible common genetic etiology.

  19. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Maupome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76. The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting.

  1. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Holt, Alanna; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Mantilla-Rodríguez, Andrés; Carlton, Brittany

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score) among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years) was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76). The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting.

  2. Cariogenic Potential of Sucrose Associated with Maltodextrin on Dental Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Gabriela; Arthur, Rodrigo A; Grando, Debora; Hashizume, Lina N

    2017-01-26

    Maltodextrin is a hydrolysate of cornstarch and has been widely used in the food industry associated with sucrose. The addition of starch can increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose; however, there are sparse data regarding the cariogenicity of sucrose associated with maltodextrin. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test in situ if maltodextrin could increase the cariogenic potential of sucrose. This was an in situ, randomized, crossover, split-mouth, and double-blind study. Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing bovine enamel blocks for 2 periods of 14 days. They dripped the following solutions on the enamel blocks 8 times per day: deionized distilled water (DDW), maltodextrin (M), sucrose + maltodextrin (S+M), or sucrose (S). At the end of each experimental period, biofilms were collected and analyzed for microbiological (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total microorganisms counts) and biochemical (calcium, inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides concentrations) compositions. The enamel demineralization was assessed by microhardness. Treatments S and S+M resulted in a lower inorganic composition and higher concentration of insoluble extracellular polysaccharides in the biofilms, and higher enamel mineral loss compared to DDW and M. It can be concluded that the cariogenic potential of sucrose is not changed when this carbohydrate is associated with maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent 13-17).

  3. ADA3 regulates normal and tumor mammary epithelial cell proliferation through c-MYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Nicolas I; Sharma, Gayatri; Zhao, Xiangshan; Mirza, Sameer; Srivastava, Shashank; Dave, Bhavana J; Aleskandarany, Mohammed; Rakha, Emad; Mohibi, Shakur; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2016-11-16

    We have established the critical role of ADA3 as a coactivator of estrogen receptor (ER), as well as its role in cell cycle progression. Furthermore, we showed that ADA3 is predominantly nuclear in mammary epithelium, and in ER+, but is cytoplasmic in ER- breast cancers, the latter correlating with poor survival. However, the role of nuclear ADA3 in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs), and in ER+ breast cancer cells, as well as the importance of ADA3 expression in relation to patient prognosis and survival in ER+ breast cancer have remained uncharacterized. We overexpressed ADA3 in hMECs or in ER+ breast cancer cells and assessed the effect on cell proliferation. The expression of ADA3 was analyzed then correlated with the expression of various prognostic markers, as well as survival of breast cancer patients. Overexpression of ADA3 in ER- hMECs as well as in ER+ breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell proliferation. These cells showed increased cyclin B and c-MYC, decreased p27 and increased SKP2 levels. This was accompanied by increased mRNA levels of early response genes c-FOS, EGR1, and c-MYC. Analysis of breast cancer tissue specimens showed a significant correlation of ADA3 nuclear expression with c-MYC expression. Furthermore, nuclear ADA3 and c-MYC expression together showed significant correlation with tumor grade, mitosis, pleomorphism, NPI, ER/PR status, Ki67 and p27 expression. Importantly, within ER+ cases, expression of nuclear ADA3 and c-MYC also significantly correlated with Ki67 and p27 expression. Univariate Kaplan Meier analysis of four groups in the whole, as well as the ER+ patients showed that c-MYC and ADA3 combinatorial phenotypes showed significantly different breast cancer specific survival with c-MYC-high and ADA3-Low subgroup had the worst outcome. Using multivariate analyses within the whole cohort and the ER+ subgroups, the significant association of ADA3 and c-MYC expression with patients' outcome was independent of tumor grade

  4. The association between celiac disease, dental enamel defects, and aphthous ulcers in a United States cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianfeng; Malahias, Ted; Brar, Pardeep; Minaya, Maria Teresa; Green, Peter H R

    2010-03-01

    European studies have demonstrated that dental enamel defects and oral aphthae are observed in celiac disease (CD). We investigated this association in a US population. Biopsy proven CD patients and controls were recruited from a private dental practice and from CD support meetings. History of aphthae was taken and dental examination was performed by a single dentist. Teeth were photographed and enamel defects graded according to the Aine classification. A second dentist reviewed all photographs. Among patients (n=67, mean age 34.8+/-21.6 y) compared with controls (n=69, mean age 28.1+/-15.7 y), there were significantly more enamel defects [51% vs. 30%, P=0.016, odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.8]. This was confined to children (87% vs. 33%, P=0.003, OR 13.3, 95% CI 3.0-58.6), but not adults (32% vs. 29%, P=0.76, OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-2.8). This was reflected in defects being observed in those with mixed dentition compared with those with permanent dentition (68.4% vs. 29.6%, Pdental enamel defects in childhood, most likely because of the onset of CD during enamel formation; no such association was found in adults. Our study also supports the association between CD and aphthous ulcer. All physicians should examine the mouth, including the teeth, which may provide an opportunity to diagnose CD. In addition, CD should be added to the differential diagnosis of dental enamel defects and aphthous ulcers.

  5. Dental wear caused by association between bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a rehabilitation report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Aparecida de Godoi Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruxism is a pathological activity of the stomatognathic system that involves tooth grinding and clenching during parafunctional jaw movements. Clinical signs of bruxism are mostly related to dental wear and muscular and joint discomforts, but a large number of etiological factors can be listed, as local, systemic, psychological and hereditary factors. The association between bruxism, feeding and smoking habits and digestive disorders may lead to serious consequences to dental and related structures, involving dental alterations (wear, fractures and cracks, periodontal signs (gingival recession and tooth mobility and muscle-joint sensivity, demanding a multidisciplinary treatment plan. This paper presents a case report in which bruxism associated with acid feeding, smoking habit and episodes of gastric reflow caused severe tooth wear and great muscular discomfort with daily headache episodes. From the diagnosis, a multidisciplinary treatment plan was established. The initial treatment approach consisted of medical follow up with counseling on diet and smoking habits and management of the gastric disorders. This was followed by the installation of an interocclusal acrylic device in centric relation of occlusion (CRO for reestablishment of the occlusal stability, vertical dimension of occlusion, anterior guides and return to normal muscle activity (90-day use approximately. After remission of initial symptoms, oral rehabilitation was implemented in CRO by means of full resin composite restorations and new interocclusal device for protection of restorations. Satisfactory esthetics, improved function and occlusal stability were obtained after oral rehabilitation. The patient has attended annual follow-ups for the past 2 years. The multidisciplinary treatment seems to be the key for a successful rehabilitation of severe cases of dental wear involving the association of different health disorders.

  6. Early dental implant failure in patient associated with oral bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhimaa Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral bisphosphonates are routinely prescribed to post menopausal women. These have shown to increase the risk of osteonecrosis. However, this action may be augmented by local factors. A case report is presented showing an early implant failure in a patient taking oral bisphosphonates. Two implants were placed in left maxillary incisor area. Central incisor was associated with a previous endodontic failure and extraction. Lateral incisor was avulsed 3 years back. After 4 weeks of an implant placement, necrotic bone was evident along with the failing implant in central incisor area. This case report emphasizes on the incidence and an increased risk of implant failure in patients taking oral bisphosphonates.

  7. The G22A Polymorphism of the ADA Gene and Susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, Joe A.; Liu, Xudong; Holden, Jeanette Jeltje Anne

    2008-01-01

    Inborn errors of purine metabolism have been implicated as a cause for some cases of autism. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the sera of some children with autism and reports of an association of the A allele of the ADA G22A (Asp8Asn) polymorphism in individuals with autism of…

  8. Methylmercury and elemental mercury differentially associate with blood pressure among dental professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury-associated effects on the cardiovascular system have been documented though discrepancies exist, and most studied populations experience elevated methylmercury exposures. No paper has investigated the impact of low-level elemental (inorganic) mercury exposure on cardiovascular risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the association between mercury exposure (methylmercury and elemental mercury) and blood pressure measures in a cohort of dental professionals that experience background exposures to both mercury forms. Dental professionals were recruited during the 2010 Michigan Dental Association Annual Convention. Mercury levels in hair and urine samples were analyzed as biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury exposure, respectively. Blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) was measured using an automated device. Distribution of mercury in hair (mean, range: 0.45, 0.02–5.18 μg/g) and urine (0.94, 0.03–5.54 μg/L) correspond well with the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Linear regression models revealed significant associations between diastolic blood pressure (adjusted for blood pressure medication use) and hair mercury (n = 262, p = 0.02). Urine mercury results opposed hair mercury in many ways. Notably, elemental mercury exposure was associated with a significant systolic blood pressure decrease (n = 262, p = 0.04) that was driven by the male population. Associations between blood pressure and two forms of mercury were found at exposure levels relevant to the general population, and associations varied according to type of mercury exposure and gender. PMID:22494934

  9. Risk behaviors related to eating disorders in adolescents and its association with dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Fagundes SOUTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The overvaluation of thinness as a standard of beauty has contributed to the development of eating disorders and has mainly affected adolescents and young adults. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with dental erosion in adolescents. Material and method This is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study. The sample consisted of 278 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, enrolled in a State School in Campinas - SP. Two questionnaires were used for the data collection on eating disorders: Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Attitudes Test -26. The presence of erosion was evaluated by calibrated examiners. Result The mean age of the sample was 14.8 years. The prevalence of mean risk for bulimia in the sample was 43.2% (95% CI: 37.3%-49.0% and the prevalence of adolescents with a probability of developing bulimia was 53.2% (95% CI: 47.4%-59.1%. Of the total, 11.9% (95% CI: 8.1%-15.7% showed results suggestive of anorexia. Among women, 66.9% were classified as probability developing bulimia, whereas in men the prevalence was 39.0%. As for dental erosion, only 1.1% of the sample presented erosion. Conclusion The study pointed to large number of adolescents with risk behaviors for eating disorders but no association was found with dental erosion due to low prevalence.

  10. MAXILLARY INCISOR TRAUMA IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II DIVISION 1 DENTAL MALOCCLUSION: ASSOCIATED FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Yaman DOSDOĞRU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the presence of maxillary incisor trauma (MIT with age, gender, dentition type, the degree of overjet (OJ, lip form, respiratory type and dental arch form in patients with Class II division 1 dental malocclusion. Subjects and Methods: 256 patients (mean age: 15.80 ± 2.2 were included in this study. The patients’ gender, dentition type, superior lip form, dental arch form and respiratory type were recorded. Participants were divided into four groups according to the severity of OJ: 3.5 mm dental arch form were not significantly associated the risk of MIT. OJ between 3.5 mm and 6 mm (with incompetent lip and short lips increased the risk of having maxillary incisor trauma in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  11. The association between dental health locus of control and sociodemographic factors among urban and rural people in Davangere, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranati Eswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Oral diseases have underlying socio-behavioral determinants. Oral health promotion programs aimed at behavior modification will be effective if the factors that motivate health behaviors are known. One of the constructs widely used to predict and analyze health behaviors is the health locus of control scale (HLOC. Aim: To determine the association between sociodemographic factors and dental HLOC among a selected sample of urban and rural people in Davangere district, Karnataka state, India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 300 people, 150 each from urban and rural area, aged 18 years and above. Sociodemographic data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Dental HLOC was assessed by a questionnaire prepared by the author in local language. The association between sociodemographic variables and dental HLOC was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Significantly more number of people in urban area had internal LOC when compared to rural people (P = 0.00. There was significant association between gender in rural areas (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001 and socioeconomic status (P < 0.001 with dental HLOC. There was no significant association between age, gender in urban areas and marital status with dental HLOC. Conclusions: Gender, education level and socioeconomic status were associated with dental HLOC beliefs. The findings can be useful in planning effective oral health promotion programs aimed at positive oral health behavior modification for people from varying sociodemographic backgrounds by modifying their health control beliefs.

  12. Is pain during pediatric dental sedation associated with children’s pre-operative characteristics? An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanna Guedes Amorim MENDONÇA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known about the factors associated with the pain of children in dental treatment under conscious sedation. Objective To investigate the association between preoperative characteristics and pain during pediatric dental treatment under sedation. Material and method This exploratory study was conducted with 27 children in restorative treatment under sedation. Information on age, sex and experience of the children with previous dental treatment was obtained through interviews with parents. Oral health status, determined from the presence of dental caries, was verified using the dmf-t index. Pain was assessed by analyzing videos of the dental treatments by two previously calibrated examiners, using the items “legs”, “activity” and “crying” of the observational scale “face, legs, activity, consolability and crying” (FLACC. Data were analyzed using bivariate tests. Result Most of the children (n=14, 51.8% had no pain during dental treatment under sedation. Among the other children, lower or moderate pain scores (median 1.1; minimum 0 to 3.8 were observed. The FLACC scores did not vary according to sex (P=0.38, previous experience with dental treatment (P=0.32 and history with local anesthesia (P=0.96. The FLACC scores did not correlate significantly with age (Spearman rho= -0.08, P=0.67 and dmf-t (Spearman rho= -0.04, P=0.84. Conclusion In this group of children, pain during dental treatment under sedation was of low frequency and intensity and did not associate with age, sex, oral condition and previous dental experience.

  13. JOVIAL/Ada Microprocessor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Technical Report Kernighan , B., and Mashey, J., "The UNIX Programing Environment", Computer 14:4, April 1981, pp. 12-24. Kildall, G., "A Unified Approach to...UCSD is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California) UNIX An operating system ( UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories) VAX A...version of UNIX . An eight-user system costs about $30,000. 19 JOVIAL/Ada Microprocessor Study Final Technical Report Another Z8000-based system is the

  14. Dental injury associated with anaesthesia: an 8-year database analysis of 592 claims from a major French insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Giraudon; Maurice, Guillaume de Saint; Biais, Matthieu; Benhamou, Dan; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine

    2017-08-21

    Introduction Dental injury is the most common incident associated with anaesthesia. Regarding recent recommendations on informed consent and changes in airway management practices, a large series of claims related to dental injury has not been recently described. The aim of this study was to analyse a recent database in order to describe the characteristics of dental injury in France. Methods A database that prospectively collected claims reported to Le Sou Médical-MACSF between January 2003 and December 2010, was analysed. 592 cases were reported. The following characteristics were analysed: number and type of teeth injured, mechanism of injury, anaesthetic procedure, risk factors and dental outcome after injury. Results Amongst the 1514 claims related to anaesthesia, 592 (39.2%) were classified as dental damage. Preoperative informed consent concerning possible perioperative dental injury was documented in only 34.8% of patients. Only one tooth was affected in 65.2% of patients, dental bridge injury in 12.8% of cases and damage to two or more teeth in 14% of patients. Incisors were involved in 50% of cases. Fracture was the most common type of injury (64.2%). Poor dentition was the most common risk factor (23.1%) followed by difficult intubation (15.4%). Both risks were combined in only 7.6% of cases. Tracheal intubation was the highest risk procedure (41.6%). Conclusion Dental injury remains the most common anaesthesia-related claim. Dental examination and documentation in patient medical files requires improvement and better informed consent on dental injury risk needs to be provided to patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Dental Caries and the Associated Factors Influencing It in Tribal, Suburban and Urban School Children of Tamil Nadu, India: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    J Baby John; Sharath Asokan; Aswanth KP; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Shanmugaavel, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups Design and methods Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from vario...

  16. A Comparison of Ada 83 and C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    developing large, complex, software systems with long lifetimes. Those interviewed for this study who are familiar with both Ada and C++ believe that Ada is...with those who are familiar with both languages, there was a clear preference for using Ada for large complex systems with long lifetimes. These...University, December 1990 Additions by Nelson H. Weiderman, June 1991. Chile Empresa Nacional de Aeronautica (ENAER), real-time avionics system, Data

  17. Clinical manifestations and dental management of dentinogenesis imperfecta associated with osteogenesis imperfecta: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukabbos, Halima; Al-Sineedi, Faisal

    2013-10-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) associated with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder that affects the connective tissues and results in dentine dysplasia. This case report discusses the systemic and dental manifestations of OI and DI in a 4-year-old child, with moderate presentation of both disorders, who was treated at King Fahd Military Medical Complex in Dhahran. Dental treatment included the use of strip and stainless-steel crowns under local anesthesia, as well as behavior modification techniques. Rigorous home care instructions, including reinforcement of the oral hygiene practice and avoidance of any episode that may lead to bone fracture, were discussed with the parents. The case was reevaluated at 3-month follow-up visits, wherein the medical and dental histories were updated, the child's growth was monitored, periodic clinical and radiographic examinations were performed, and the oral hygiene was evaluated via the debris index score and caries risk assessment. Further treatment of the permanent dentition may be needed in the future.

  18. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeri Maybodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children.Materials and Methods: The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls. The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI (=bodyweight/body height2 kg/m2 corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages.To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients.Results: The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08 and permanent dentitions (p=0.06.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  19. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and dental caries in a population-based sample of youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelishadi Roya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors begin from early life and track onto adulthood. Oral and dental diseases share some risk factors with CVD, therefore by finding a clear relation between dental diseases and cardiometabolic risk factors; we can then predict the potential risk of one based on the presence of the other. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of dental caries between two groups of age-matched adolescents with and without CVD risk factors. Methods In this case-control study, the decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS, based on the criteria of the World Health Organization, were compared in two groups of equal number (n = 61 in each group of population-based sample of adolescents with and without CVD risk factors who were matched for sex and age group. Results The study participants had a median age 13 y 5 mo, age range 11 y 7 mo to 16 y 1 mo, with male-to-female proportion of 49/51. We found significant difference between the mean values of DMFS, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, as well as serum lipid profile in the case and control groups. Significant correlations were documented for DMFS with TC (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, LDL-C (r = 0.55, p = 0.01 and TG (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 in the case group; with LDL-C (r = 0.47, p = 0.03 in the whole study participants and with TC in control s(r = 0.45, p = 0.04. Conclusions Given the significant associations between dental caries and CVD risk factors among adolescents, more attention should be paid to oral health, as one of the topics to be taken into account in primordial/primary prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.

  20. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Ma...

  1. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF DENTAL CARIES, GINGIVITIS, AND CALCULUS DEPOSITS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF SARGODHA DISTRICT, PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Muhammad Farooq; Farooq, Umer; Shabbir, Arham; Zofeen, Shumaila; Mujtaba, Hasan; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    According to a pathfinder survey conducted by World Health Organization, dental caries is the single most common chronic childhood disease in Pakistan. The update information regarding dental health of school children of Sargodha district is required to plan community caries prevention programs and for better understanding of existing situation, and may improve longevity, treatment, and care. This cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected schools of Sargodha district, stratified by gender selected. Two well-trained dentists examined the oral cavities of children for dental caries, gingivitis, and calculus deposits. The sample consisted of children aged between 3-12 years. The overall prevalence rate of gingivitis, calculus, and dental caries was found as 14.5%, 14.3%, and 45.9% respectively. A significant association was found between DMFT score (p children. More children living in urban area were detected with gingivitis (p dental caries than children residing in rural areas. Incidence of gingivitis (p dental caries in primary (p children who were not brushing their teeth. Experience of dental caries in primary teeth was found higher (p children who brushed occasionally. Study also showed that none of the children ever visited dentist for treatment. The results emphasize the need for initiation of awareness programs to achieve 0 DMFT/df scores.

  2. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered.

  3. Association between depressive symptoms and dental care-seeking behavior among elderly Brazilian people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ádima de Camargo ÁVILA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent among the elderly population (10%. These symptoms frequently appear when there is a loss of quality of life associated with social exclusion and the appearance of severe diseases. Feelings of sadness, discouragement, despondency and deception, and events such as the loss of close friends and family can also be related to these symptoms. The consequences of depressive symptoms include negative oral health outcomes, such as a decrease in the frequency of toothbrushing, greater prevalence of caries and higher probability of the appearance of periodontitis. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the association between the presence of depressive symptoms and problem-oriented oral healthcare behavior, as well as the absence of healthcare-seeking behavior. Material and method 872 elderly people living in two health districts in Porto Alegre were evaluated. They provided information on socioeconomic variables at an interview, and responded to the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and to a questionnaire assessing dental care-seeking behavior. In addition, an oral examination was performed. When analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance, the variables of male sex, less schooling, lower income, reduced number of teeth, presence of root remnants and presence of depressive symptoms were found to be independently associated with the outcome. Result There was a significant difference regarding dental care-seeking behavior in relation to elderly people presenting depressive symptoms and those in low socioeconomic strata having poor oral status. Conclusion It was concluded that these factors need to be taken into consideration when evaluating dental care-seeking behavior.

  4. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-06-01

    Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ(2)-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks.

  5. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  6. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694

  7. Analysis of the association between lactotransferrin (LTF gene polymorphism and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Foltran Azevedo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the association between lactotransferrin (LTF gene polymorphism (exon 2, A/G, Lys/Arg and dental caries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 110 individuals, 12 years old, was divided into: group 1, 48 individuals without caries experience (DMFT=0, and group 2, 62 subjects with caries experience (DMFT>1. DNA was obtained from a mouthwash with 3% glucose solution, followed by a scrapping of the oral mucosa. After DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP was performed to access the study polymorphism. The LTF A/G (Lys/Arg polymorphism had been previously reported as located in exon 1. RESULTS: Allele 1 of the study polymorphism was associated with low DMFT index and showed a protective effect against caries experience (OR=0.16, IC=0.03-0.76, p=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Lactotransferrin A/G (exon 2, Lys/Arg polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to dental caries in 12-year-old students.

  8. Association between velopharyngeal function and dental-consonant misarticulations in children with cleft lip/palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Laitinen, J; Paaso, M; Ranta, R

    2001-06-01

    We studied the association between velopharyngeal function and misarticulation of the dental consonants /r/, /s/ and /l/ in children with cleft lip/palate. We assessed 278 6-year-old Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children (115 girls, 163 boys) with isolated cleft palate (n= 81), cleft lip/alveolus (n= 82) or unilateral (n= 84) or bilateral (n= 31) cleft lip and palate. Auditory analysis of speech and velopharyngeal function, the presence of fistulae, previous velopharyngoplasty and speech therapy, as well as surgical technique and timing of primary palatal surgery were obtained from the hospital records. The misarticulations of the sounds /r/, /s/ and /l/ were evaluated in spontaneous speech by two experienced speech pathologists from the cleft team. Velopharyngeal function was categorised, on the basis of the effect on speech, into competent, marginal incompetent and obvious incompetent. Nasal grimace and distortions due to palatal fistulae were registered. The results indicated that velopharyngeal function was not significantly associated with misarticulation of any of the sounds /r/, /s/ and /l/ or their combinations in any cleft groups. The technique and timing of primary palatal surgery, the presence of fistulae and previous pharyngoplasty were not associated with misarticulations. On the basis of these results we conclude that dental-consonant misarticulations occur independently of velopharyngeal function, primary palatal surgical technique and timing of palatoplasty.

  9. Refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria and permanent atrial fibrillation associated with dental infection: Mere coincidence or something more to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Grzanka, Alicja; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Wyszyńska-Chłap, Magdalena; Lisowska, Grażyna; Kasperski, Jacek; Jarząb, Jerzy; Misiołek, Maciej; Kalarus, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    Controversy surrounds the role of dental infection/inflammation in the oral cavity in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and atrial fibrillation (AF), which is mainly due to scarce literature in this area. Therefore, this case report and review of literature illustrate a possible association between the acute-phase response (APR) and clinical conditions, such as CSU and dental infection/inflammation of oral cavity and AF.We describe a 36-year-old man with an 8-year history of difficult-to-treat, uncontrolled CSU, co-existent with dental infection/inflammatory processes of oral cavity and permanent atrial fibrillation (AF). In the presented case, the most likely triggering or aggravating/maintaining factor of the symptoms was the inflammation/dental infection of the oral cavity because of rapid reduction of the urticarial symptoms, drug doses, and serum CRP levels after the dental therapy. Dental treatment may have a beneficial effect on the systemic inflammatory response, reducing/normalizing the circulating levels of APR markers. APR activation appears to worsen CSU course, early identification and treatment of infectious/inflammatory foci in the oral cavity would form the mainstay of supportive therapy for CU probably through reduction of the systemic inflammatory burden. APR associated with infectious/inflammatory foci in the oral cavity could be taken into account as a predisposing agents to AF.

  10. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-02-25

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  11. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyoshi Kunitomo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  12. Dental health services utilization and associated factors in children 6 to 12 years old in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo; del Socorro, Herrera Miriam; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector

    2008-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the dental health services utilization among children ages 6 to 12 in León, Nicaragua. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1,400 schoolchildren. Using a questionnaire, we determined information related to utilization and independent variables in the previous year. Oral health needs were established by means of a dental examination. To identify the independent variables associated with dental health services utilization, two types of multivariate regression models were used, according to the measurement scale of the outcome variable: a) frequency of utilization as (0) none, (1) one, and (2) two or more, analyzed with the ordered logistic regression and b) the type of service utilized as (0) none, (1) preventive services, (2) curative services, and (3) both services, analyzed with the multinomial logistic regression. The proportion of children who received at least one dental service in the 12 months prior to the study was 27.7 percent. The variables associated with utilization in the two models were older age, female sex, more frequent toothbrushing, positive attitude of the mother toward the child's oral health, higher socioeconomic level, and higher oral health needs. Various predisposing, enabling, and oral health needs variables were associated with higher dental health services utilization. As in prior reports elsewhere, these results from Nicaragua confirmed that utilization inequalities exist between socioeconomic groups. The multinomial logistic regression model evidenced the association of different variables depending on the type of service used.

  13. Towards a rAAV-based gene therapy for ADA-SCID: from ADA deficiency to current and future treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Jared N; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-07-01

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency fosters a rare, devastating pediatric immune deficiency with concomitant opportunistic infections, metabolic anomalies and multiple organ system pathology. The standard of care for adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID) includes enzyme replacement therapy or bone marrow transplantation. Gene therapies for ADA-SCID over nearly two decades have exclusively involved retroviral vectors targeted to lymphocytes and hematopoetic progenitors. These groundbreaking gene therapies represent a revolution in clinical medicine, but come with several challenges, including the risk of insertional mutagenesis. An alternative gene therapy for ADA-SCID may utilize recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors in vivo, with numerous target tissues, to foster ectopic expression and secretion of adenosine deaminase. This review endeavors to describe ADA-SCID, the traditional treatments, previous retroviral gene therapies, and primarily, alternative recombinant adeno-associated virus-based strategies to remedy this potentially fatal genetic disease.

  14. A small evaluation suite for Ada compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Randy; Roy, Daniel M.

    1986-01-01

    After completing a small Ada pilot project (OCC simulator) for the Multi Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) at Goddard last year, the use of Ada to develop OCCs was recommended. To help MSOCC transition toward Ada, a suite of about 100 evaluation programs was developed which can be used to assess Ada compilers. These programs compare the overall quality of the compilation system, compare the relative efficiencies of the compilers and the environments in which they work, and compare the size and execution speed of generated machine code. Another goal of the benchmark software was to provide MSOCC system developers with rough timing estimates for the purpose of predicting performance of future systems written in Ada.

  15. Is there any association between facial type and mandibular dental arch form in subjects with normal occlusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Renato Paranhos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the association between the mandibular arch morphology and the facial type of Brazilian Caucasians with natural normal occlusion. For this, we used a sample comprised of lateral radiographs and respective dental casts of 51 individuals (21 male and 30 female, presenting at least 4 of the 6 Andrews’ keys to normal occlusion without previous orthodontic treatment. Angle’s first molar relationship was considered indispensable for the sample. The facial type was defined by two cephalometric measurements (SN.SGn and SN.GoGn. After scanning the models (3D and radiographs, the images were evaluated by 12 orthodontists. A modified Kappa test evaluated the agreement between examiners to classify the morphology of the dental arch. The chi-square test was used to verify the association between the facial type (dolichofacial, mesofacial, or brachyfacial and the dental arch morphology (square, oval, or tapered, using significance level of 5%. Casual and systematic errors (p > 0.05 showed no significant results and the Kappa test showed significant agreement among examiners for the dental arch form (0.55 with a p < 0.001, considered as ‘moderate’. The chi-square test indicated no significant association. The null hypothesis was accepted, as the facial type was not associated with dental arch morphology in individuals with normal occlusion.

  16. Prevalence of mesiodens in orthodontic patients with deciduous and mixed dentition and its association with other dental anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Tulio Silva; Lancia, Melissa; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mesiodens in deciduous and mixed dentitions and its association with other dental anomalies. Panoramic radiographs of 1,995 orthodontic patients were analyzed retrospectively, obtaining a final sample of 30 patients with mesiodens. The following aspects were analyzed: gender; number of mesiodens; proportion between erupted and non-erupted mesiodens; initial position of the supernumerary tooth; related complications; treatment plan accomplished; and associated dental anomalies. The frequency of dental anomalies in the sample was compared to reference values for the general population using the chi-square test, with a significance level set at 5%. The prevalence of mesiodens was 1.5% more common among males (1.5:1). Most of the mesiodens were non-erupted (75%) and in a vertical position, facing the oral cavity. Extraction of the mesiodens was the most common treatment. The main complications associated with mesiodens were: delayed eruption of permanent incisors (34.28%) and midline diastema (28.57%). From all the dental anomalies analyzed, only the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis was higher in comparison to the general population. There was a low prevalence of mesiodens (1.5%) in deciduous and mixed dentition and the condition was not associated with other dental anomalies, except for the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

  17. Prevalence of mesiodens in orthodontic patients with deciduous and mixed dentition and its association with other dental anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Silva Lara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of mesiodens in deciduous and mixed dentitions and its association with other dental anomalies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 1,995 orthodontic patients were analyzed retrospectively, obtaining a final sample of 30 patients with mesiodens. The following aspects were analyzed: gender ; number of mesiodens; proportion between erupted and non-erupted mesiodens; initial position of the supernumerary tooth; related complications; treatment plan accomplished; and associated dental anomalies. The frequency of dental anomalies in the sample was compared to reference values for the general population using the chi-square test (c², with a significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of mesiodens was 1.5% more common among males (1.5:1. Most of the mesiodens were non-erupted (75% and in a vertical position, facing the oral cavity. Extraction of the mesiodens was the most common treatment. The main complications associated with mesiodens were: delayed eruption of permanent incisors (34.28% and midline diastema (28.57%. From all the dental anomalies analyzed, only the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis was higher in comparison to the general population. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of mesiodens (1.5% in deciduous and mixed dentition and the condition was not associated with other dental anomalies, except for the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

  18. Traumatic dental injuries and their association with malocclusion in the primary dentition of Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Norton, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to establish the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition of Irish children and to investigate the relationship between dental trauma and non-nutritive sucking habits.

  19. The Association between Participation of Adolescents in Community Groups and Dental Caries in a Deprived Area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Teixeira Silva, Catarina; Rebelo Vieira, Janete Maria; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2015-01-01

    There is limited evidence concerning the role of social networks on the oral health of adolescents. This study assessed the association between the participation of adolescents in community groups and dental caries. A cross-sectional household-based study was carried out involving 200 subjects aged 15-19 years living in a deprived area in the state of Amazon, Brazil. Dental caries was assessed through dental examinations using the DMFT index conducted by a single examiner who was previously calibrated. Four dental caries outcomes were investigated, including caries experience (DMFT score), current caries (number of current decayed teeth), missing teeth due to caries, and the care index (ratio between number of filled teeth and DMFT score). Details of participation of adolescents in community groups, demographic and socioeconomic data and information on dental visiting were obtained through individual interviews. All caries measures were significantly higher in adolescents who did not participate in community groups compared to their counterparts. Multivariate Poisson regression showed that participation of adolescents in community groups was independently associated with all dental caries outcomes. After adjusting for confounders, participation in community groups was statistically associated with lower DMFT score (ratio of mean, RM: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.24-0.46), fewer decayed teeth (RM: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.11-0.47), fewer missing teeth (RM: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.17-0.47), and higher care index (RM: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29) than those who did not participate. Participation of adolescents in community activities was related to lower levels of dental caries.

  20. Dental malocclusion is associated with reduced systemic bone mineral density in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Sierpinska, Teresa; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Piotrowska-Jastrzebska, Janina; Golebiewska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    There is no published data about associations between the state of dentition and bone mass in adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of caries and dental malocclusion is associated with bone mass during growth. In 123 healthy Caucasian subjects (72 males, 51 females) aged 14-18 yr, DMFT figures (decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth) and presence of malocclusion, according to Angle classification, were determined. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding dental hygiene, physical activity level, and consumption of sweets. Anthropometry and pubertal stages were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD) was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the total body, head, and lumbar spine. No association was found between DMFT (mean+/-SD: 8.33+/-3.9) and BMD or Z-scores for BMD. Malocclusion was found in 49 subjects (39.8%) and was more prevalent in females than males. Malocclusion was associated with lower total BMD independently of body size (p=0.001; Z-scores: -0.21+/-0.27 vs +0.33+/-0.17; p=0.1) in males (but not females), producing odds ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.34%; p=0.02). Head BMD was also lower in the males with malocclusion than in those without (p=0.004). Neither caries nor the tooth loss appear to be associated with BMD during growth. Boys with malocclusion are at higher risk of reduced BMD. This suggests that inadequate bone mass accrual in males coexists with impaired growth of the masticatory system in childhood and adolescence, however, the causal pathway is unknown. Factors that produce malocclusion may also affect bone mass or size but further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the relationship.

  1. Availability of dental treatment is associated with satisfaction derived from Primary Health Care Services accessed by elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Blaya MARTINS

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This research evaluated whether having dental treatment available in the primary health care centers of the Brazilian Unified Health System was associated with greater satisfaction with the services accessed. The offering of dental care within the health service that elders usually access may improve their satisfaction with the services as a whole. Material and method In this cross-sectional study, 401 elders living in the districts of Lomba do Pinheiro and Partenon in Porto Alegre, Brazil were interviewed. Elders were selected using a cluster sampling design process from census tract drawings. Result Poisson Regression revealed that age and dental treatment supply were associated with outcome, and age, number of teeth, and the presence of dental treatment were associated with a higher prevalence of satisfaction with health services. Conclusion These results provide new contributions for health system qualification because this study demonstrated the importance of having dental treatment available to improve the satisfaction of older people with the Primary Health Care (PHC services accessed.

  2. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  3. Development of an Ada programming support environment database SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database) administration manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD) was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities which are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. SEAD data is organized into five major areas: information regarding education and training resources which are relevant to the life cycle of Ada-based software engineering projects such as those in the Space Station program; research publications relevant to NASA projects such as the Space Station Program and conferences relating to Ada technology; the latest progress reports on Ada projects completed or in progress both within NASA and throughout the free world; Ada compilers and other commercial products that support Ada software development; and reusable Ada components generated both within NASA and from elsewhere in the free world. This classified listing of reusable components shall include descriptions of tools, libraries, and other components of interest to NASA. Sources for the data include technical newletters and periodicals, conference proceedings, the Ada Information Clearinghouse, product vendors, and project sponsors and contractors.

  4. Maxillary canine transpositions in two brothers and one sister: associated dental anomalies and genetic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Juan J; Hattab, Faiez; Ríos, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    Transposition is an uncommon dental anomaly involving positional interchange of two teeth. The maxillary canine is the tooth more frequently transposed in man. Maxillary canine-first premolar appears to be the most common type of tooth transposition, followed by maxillary canine-lateral incisor transposition. Maxillary canine transpositions are frequently associated with other dental abnormalities such as agenesis and pegshaped incisors. This report describes the presence of transposed canines in one sister and two brothers. The female showed bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition with the left canine fully mesial to its neighboring first premolar, and the right canine blocked-out facially between the first and second premolar. One of the brothers showed full maxillary left canine-lateral incisor transposition. The other brother showed maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, with the left canine blocked-out facially between the first and second premolar. Findings from this case report and other previously published cases provide strong evidence that maxillary canine transpositions are a disturbance of tooth order and eruptive position resulting from genetic influences within a multifactorial inheritance model.

  5. BASIC CRITERIA OF IRANIAN COMMERCIAL TOOTHPASTES AND AN ADA APPROVED BRAND (CREST)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The effectiveness of fluorided toothpastes in reducing dental caries is well-documented, However not all fluorided toothpastes are equally effective. The objective of this study was to compare some essential criteria of six different toothpastes manufactured in Iran with one brand of ADA approved toothpaste (Crest). Methods. Six commercial toothpastes produced in Iran named as Paveh, Puneh, Nasim, Darugar, golpasand and saviz were compared with Crest in three subjects as fo...

  6. The association of depression and anxiety with dental caries and periodontal disease among Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Sabbah, Wael; Suominen, Anna L; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Knuuttila, Matti; Partonen, Timo; Nordblad, Anne; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G; Tsakos, Georgios

    2015-12-01

    To explore the association of depression and anxiety with two oral health outcomes, dental caries and periodontal disease and assess possible mediators for any of the associations. Secondary analysis of the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Depression was assessed with Beck's Depression Inventory and anxiety with Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Number of decayed teeth included carious lesions reaching dentine; periodontal disease was number of teeth with periodontal pockets of 4 mm or deeper. Third molars were excluded. The association of mental disorders and oral health was tested in regression models adjusted for confounders and potential mediators. Depression was associated with number of decayed teeth only among 35- to 54-year-olds. The association between anxiety and the number of decayed teeth was not statistically significant. Depression and periodontal pocketing were not significantly associated. Depression was significantly associated with number of decayed teeth only among participants aged 35-54 old and not with other age groups. Neither depression nor anxiety was significantly related to periodontal disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  8. Dental pain and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Goiânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Galvão Chaves Lemes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of dental pain and associated factors in 2-4-year-old children in Goiânia (GO. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using home interviews with parents or guardians and anthropometric measures. The sample consisted of 385 children from 2 to 4 years old. The variables analyzed were: dental pain sometime in their lives, and demographic, socioeconomic and health-related factors (health condition, diet, nutritional status and behavior. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were performed, based on a hierarchical model for risk assessment, considering the sample weights. RESULTS: Dental pain prevalence was 9.9% (95%CI 7.4 - 13.1. After adjustment for other variables, children whose mothers had low education level and those who regularly consumed artificial powder juice containing sugar were more likely to have dental pain (OR = 3.03 and 2.15, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that one in ten children had dental pain, and the prevalence was associated with low education level of the mother and the regular consumption of artificial powder juice.

  9. Oral health impact, dental caries experience, and associated factors in 12-15-year-old school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Amit; Badiyani, Bhumika; Kumar, Arunoday; Basak, Debashish; Ismail, Mohammed B

    2017-04-01

    Dental caries affects quality of life and has a negative impact on daily performance. The study was conducted to assess the impact of oral health and its associated factors in schoolchildren in the age group 12-15 years in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in schoolchildren in the age group 12-15 years. Sociodemographic and oral health related behaviors of schoolchildren were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Child oral impact on daily performance (OIDP) questionnaire was used to assess the oral impacts. Oral examination was performed to check the presence of caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index. A total of 690 schoolchildren participated in the survey. The mean age of the children was 13.58 years. The overall prevalence of dental caries was found to be 47.2%. The prevalence of one or more impact in the study population was 36.5%. The most prevalent impact was difficulty in eating and cleaning of teeth and the least prevalent impact were emotion and studying. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that the type of school that a child goes to, socioeconomic status, material used, dental visit, and dental caries were significantly associated with the Child-OIDP affected score. Oral health had a significant effect on the quality of life of schoolchildren. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be high. Effective policies need to be drafted for oral health promotion in this age group.

  10. Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Singh, Anukriti; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Shinde, Kushal; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-12-01

    Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem. India is among the numerous nations, where fluoride sullied groundwater is creating wellbeing issues. Safe drinking water in rural areas of India is predominantly rely on groundwater sources, which are exceptionally contaminated with fluoride. To investigate the association of temporomandibular joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations among people living in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. The study group consisted of 750 subjects who were born & brought up in Dad, Bokersal & Deotalab villages of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan. Temporomandibular joint & Dental fluorosis was assessed by performing type III clinical examination according to WHO guidelines (1997). For the assessment of skeletal manifestations, participants were asked to perform three diagnostic tests: (1)Touching the toes without bending the knees; (2) Touching the chest with the chin; (3) Stretching the arms sideways & folding the arms to touch the back of the head. Chi Square test & Multiple Logistic Regression were applied for statistical analysis. Among the 750 (462 males & 288 females) who participated in the study, 53% had moderate grade of dental fluorosis. The most prominent symptom suggesting Temporomandibular Joint Disorder was the clicking sound affecting 21.4% population.(p>0.001). TMJ Signs & Symptoms were prominent in the age group of 45-54 years & males were highly affected than females. Clinical examination of TMJ in Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis subjects showed a significant association with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Fluorosis.

  11. Associations between orbicularis oris thickness and skeletal and dental variables in mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís de Souza Barbosa

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association between orbicularis oris thickness and skeletal and dental variables in children with mixed dentition. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A convenience sample of 22 children, aged 7 to 12 years, with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusion and subdivisions were selected. The upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris thicknesses were measured using ultrasound (US by one calibrated examiner, at rest and in the contracted state. Cephalometric radiograph measurements of the hard and soft tissues were calculated by one trained examiner. The results were analyzed by the Pearson and Spearman coefficients. RESULT: The upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris in the contracted state showed a negative correlation with the distance between Ricketts' E-line and the labrale superius (E ┴ Ls. There were positive correlations between the lower face height and the distance between the AB plane and the labrale superius (AB-Ls and between the ANB angle and the distance between E ┴ Ls and Ricketts' E-line and the labrale inferius (E ┴ Li. The lower-incisor distance from the N-Pg plane correlated positively with the distance between AB-Ls and the distance between the E ┴ Ls and E ┴ Li. Overbite and interincisal angle were negatively correlated with the distance between the pogonion and the soft tissue pogonion and the distance between E ┴ Li, respectively. CONCLUSION: Skeletal and dental variables were associated with upper and lower lip position and pogonion thickness, while the upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris thicknesses in the contracted state were associated only with upper lip retrusion.

  12. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype.

  13. Improving the Medical Curriculum in Predoctoral Dental Education: Recommendations From the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Committee on Predoctoral Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew J; Bennett, Jeffrey D; DeLuke, Dean M; Evans, Erik W; Hudson, John W; Nattestad, Anders; Ness, Gregory M; Yeung, Allison

    2017-02-01

    Dental procedures are often performed on patients who present with some level of medical fragility. In many dental schools, the exercise of taking a medical history is all too often a transcription of information to the dental chart, with little emphasis on the presurgical risk assessment and the development of a treatment plan appropriate to the medical status of the dental patient. Changes in dentistry, driven by an increasingly medically complex population of dental patients, combined with treatment advances rooted in the biomedical sciences necessitate the adaptation of our dental education to include a stronger background in systemic health. Many predoctoral educators in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) have expressed concern about the medical preparedness of our dental students; therefore, the AAOMS and its Committee on Predoctoral Education and Training have provided recommendations for improving the medical curriculum in predoctoral dental education, including a strengthening of training in clinical medicine and biomedical sciences, with specific recommendations for improved training of our dental students and dental faculty. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Utilization of Dental Care Services among Factory Workers in Nava Nakorn Industrial Estate, Pathumthani Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaidee, Jeeratip; Ratanasiri, Amornrat; Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Soonthon, Surasak

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to find out the utilization prevalence of dental care services among factory workers over a period of one year and factors associated with utilization of dental care services. This was a cross-sectional analytic study. The study population was factory workers in Nava Nakorn Industrial Estate randomly sampled using Probability Proportion to Size Cluster Sampling Method. The tool was a questionnaire about utilization of dental care services. Among the sample group of 1,500 workers from 16 factories, almost 2/3 (63.9%) had never used any dental care services in the previous year while only 36.1% did. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that workplace, accommodation, tooth decay, toothache history, transportation, experience in using social security fund for dental care services, availability and accessibility of dental care services, brushing teeth regularly after meals, using dental care services regularly in a dental clinic, and agreement with the idea that a tooth extraction and medication by a dentist could reduce the risk of progression of disease, statistical significance (p-value factory workers who did not use dental care services during the last one year was 63.9 percent. This study identified three groups of factors associated with the utilization of dental care services as: 1) Predisposing factors, 2) Enabling factors, and 3) Need factors.

  15. Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group for Ada Artificial Intelligence Working Group, 1992 Summer Workshop Held in Seattle, Washington on June 24-27, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    become "data", to be loaded for each and every mission. Does this mean that "dynamic loading" a la Berkeley Unix or Unix V Rel. 4 should become part...34Generic Instantiations as Closures". ACM Ada Letters 10,1 (1990),122-130. Kernighan , Brian W., and Ritchie, Dennis. The C Programming Language

  16. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  17. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Western Digital STC-Ada Compiler, Version C1. Om V-004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-28

    C27001A.ADA P SC 2 10 C27002A-B.ADA P SC x 15 829001A.ADA PS SC a 126 EC 262 A29002A-B.ADA P SCz 74 A29002B-.B.ADA P SC a 69 A29002C-B. ADA P SC z 68...s 15 D32202Bm-B.ADA P SC a 21 SC 2 9 B32202C-D.ADA P SC.x 28 EC x:12 C32203A-B.ADA P SC a 15 *A32203i68.ADA P SC a 22 A32203C-B.ADA P SCx 18 A32203D...B.ADA P SC a 16 B33001A.ADA P SC a 27 SC a 10 833002A.ADA PS SC a 8 EC x 5 533003A.ADA P SCx 14 EC a 4 B33003B-AS.ADA P SC a 22 EC a 9 533003C-AB.ADA

  18. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  19. ADA and C++ Business Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    compilation times, execution times, and various measures of space requirements. The as- sessments in the comparative analysis were refined using a Delphi ...weighted scoring and tables of results, to the group as a whole. Then a Delphi technique similar to the FAA methodology was used to refine the evaluations...promoter of reusability, or injector of added quality, then our3collective judgements may be biased too much towards Ada. Of course the next Ada 9X team

  20. Ada (Trade Name) Bibliography. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    FISHER, DR. DAVID A.; WETHERALL, PHILIP R. DOCUMENT NUMBER: 3435 DOCUMENT DATE: 01/78 TYPE: TECHNICAL REPORT This report discusses the considerations...SPONOR ADA JT. PROG. OFF., ARLINGTON, VA 22209 - DATABASE PORTABILITY ISSUES IN THE KAPSE KOTLER , REED S. DOCUMENT NUMBER: 3590 TYPE: PAPER KERNEL ADA...N,., BABEL, PHILIPS ., U.S.A.F. ASD,WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB, OH 5653 -03 JOINT-SERVICE ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES € BABICH, WAYNEA., SOFTECHINC

  1. A W-Grammar Description for ADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Language Reference Manual. In MT opinion, the W- gramars fall short of this goal since they are less readable than BNF for determining Ada’s syntax, and...37 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . 39 V. Conclusion .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .* . . . . 40 Ada Constructs Not Covered in W- gramar B...library unit. The problem with the Language Reference Manual description is not that BNF is too antiquated for language definition, but that English

  2. Association between dental caries and obesity evaluated by air displacement plethysmography in 18-year-old adolescents in Pelotas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Fabiano de Castro; Fontanella, Vania Regina Camargo; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and obesity, evaluated by air displacement plethysmography, among 18-year-old adolescents from a birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. A random sample of 986 18-year-old adolescents was selected. The outcome variable was the occurrence of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 1) according to clinical examination by a trained and calibrated dentist. For the exposure variable (obesity), body fat percentage was measured using air displacement plethysmography and classified as normal weight (obesity (>P95). Sociodemographic and behavior variables were collected using a questionnaire. We performed multivariable Poisson regression analyses with robust variance to examine the association between dental caries and obesity. DMFT ranged from 0 to 19; mean (SD) was 2 (2.3), and median (P25-P75) was 1 (0-3). Body fat percentage ranged from 0.9 to 57.6%; mean (SD) percentage was 24.4% (11.6%), and median (P25-P75) was 25.1% (14.0-32.9%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.5% (95% CI 63.6-69.5%), being significantly higher in female adolescents with lower maternal education, lower education, and sugar intake more than once a day. There were no differences in the probability of dental caries among individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity in the unadjusted model (P = 0.846) or after adjustment for sociodemographic (P = 0.864) variables. Overweight and obesity were not associated with the occurrence of dental caries in 18-year-old adolescents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari; Agha Mohammad Suhail; Abdul Razzaq Malik; Mian Farrukh Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a...

  4. Factors associated with dental health care coverage in Mexico: Findings from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo; Vargas-Palacios, Armando

    2006-10-01

    To determine the level of dental health care coverage in people aged > or =18 years across the country, and to identify the factors associated with coverage. Using the instruments and sampling strategies developed by the World Health Organization for the World Health Survey, a cross-sectional national survey was carried out at the household and individual (adult) levels. Dental data were collected in 20 of Mexico's 32 states. The relationship between coverage and environmental and individual characteristics was examined through logistic regression models. Only 6098 of 24 159 individual respondents reported having oral problems during the preceding 12 months (accounting for 14 284 621 inhabitants of the country if weighted). Only 48% of respondents reporting problems were covered, although details of the appropriateness, timeliness and effectiveness of the intervention(s) were not assessed. The multivariate regression model showed that higher level of education, better socioeconomic status, having at least one chronic disease and having medical insurance were positively associated with better dental care coverage. Age and sex were also associated. Overall dental health care coverage could be improved, assuming that ideal coverage is 100%. Some equality of access issues are apparent because there are differences in coverage across populations in terms of wealth and social status. Identifying the factors associated with sparse coverage is a step in the right direction allowing policymakers to establish strategies aimed at increasing this coverage, focusing on more vulnerable groups and on individuals in greater need of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Shahla Kakoei; Bahareh Hosseini; Ali-Akbar Haghdoost; Mojgan Sanjari; Ahmad Gholamhosseinian; Afshar, Vahid F. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, I...

  6. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Poornima; Kaur, Suminder; Sodhi, Alka

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition), skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th ) studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3%) study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033) and in anemic children (Pfluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth) among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  7. Factors associated with self-reported use of dental health services among older Greek and Italian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Wright, Clive; Schofield, Margot; Calache, Hanny; Minichiello, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss utilization of dental health services by older Greek and Italian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Their study involved 374 Greek and 360 Italian adults who completed a questionnaire and received an oral examination. Nearly 41% of Greek and 45% of Italian respondents had used dental services in the previous year. As barriers to care, Greek participants most often cited waiting lists and waiting time in the office. Italian participants most often identified cost, length of waiting lists and language barriers. Multivariate analyses associated recent use of dental services with number of teeth, oral health knowledge, age and occupation before retirement for both groups, as well as living arrangements among Greek participants and perceived barriers among Italian participants. Findings highlight the need for oral health promotion programs targeted toward older adults from immigrant populations and reductions of the structural barriers that prevent these adults from seeking oral health care.

  8. Exploring the association of dental care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) - a prospective study of ageing people in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Klock, Kristin S; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2017-09-10

    To explore the association of dental health care utilization with oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) across time focusing ageing Norwegian and Swedish adults adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need related-factors as defined by Andersen's model. Data were based on Norwegian and Swedish 1942 birth-cohorts conducted in 2007 (age 65) and 2012 (age 70). In Norway, the response rates ranged from 54% to 58%. Corresponding figures in Sweden were from 72% to 73%. Self-administered questionnaires assessed OIDP, dental care utilization and predisposing, enabling and need related factors. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation was used to adjust for clustering in repeated data. Significant covariates of OIDP were satisfaction with dental services, dental care avoidance due to financial constraints, frightening experience with dental care during childhood and patient initiated dental visiting. Frequency and regularity of dental attendance were associated with OIDP in the Swedish cohort, only. In spite of country differences in the public co-financing of dental care, dental care utilization indicators were associated with OIDP across time in both cohorts. Encouraging regular and dentist initiated visiting patterns and strengthening beliefs in keeping own teeth could be useful in attempts to reduce poor oral health related quality of life in ageing people.

  9. Dental Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been broadly termed dental fluorosis. What is dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is a condition that causes ... less than 2 milligrams per liter. What causes dental fluorosis? Dental fluorosis is caused by taking in ...

  10. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  11. Genes expressed in dental enamel development are associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremias, Fabiano; Koruyucu, Mine; Küchler, Erika C; Bayram, Merve; Tuna, Elif B; Deeley, Kathleen; Pierri, Ricardo A; Souza, Juliana F; Fragelli, Camila M B; Paschoal, Marco A B; Gencay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Caminaga, Raquel M S; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2013-10-01

    Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06-1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e-012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98-56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH.

  12. Comparison of linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models for appraisal of risk factors associated with dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Batra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries among children has been described as a pandemic disease with a multifactorial nature. Various sociodemographic factors and oral hygiene practices are commonly tested for their influence on dental caries. In recent years, a recent statistical model that allows for covariate adjustment has been developed and is commonly referred zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB models. Aim: To compare the fit of the two models, the conventional linear regression (LR model and ZINB model to assess the risk factors associated with dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1138 12-year-old school children in Moradabad Town, Uttar Pradesh during months of February-August 2014. Selected participants were interviewed using a questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by recording decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT index. Statistical Analysis Used: To assess the risk factor associated with dental caries in children, two approaches have been applied - LR model and ZINB model. Results: The prevalence of caries-free subjects was 24.1%, and mean DMFT was 3.4 ± 1.8. In LR model, all the variables were statistically significant. Whereas in ZINB model, negative binomial part showed place of residence, father′s education level, tooth brushing frequency, and dental visit statistically significant implying that the degree of being caries-free (DMFT = 0 increases for group of children who are living in urban, whose father is university pass out, who brushes twice a day and if have ever visited a dentist. Conclusion: The current study report that the LR model is a poorly fitted model and may lead to spurious conclusions whereas ZINB model has shown better goodness of fit (Akaike information criterion values - LR: 3.94; ZINB: 2.39 and can be preferred if high variance and number of an excess of zeroes are present.

  13. Association of oral health behavior and the use of dental services with oral health literacy among adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Virtanen, Jorma I; Yazdani, Reza; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association of oral health behavior (OHB) and the use of dental services with oral health literacy (OHL) among Iranian adults. This was a cross-sectional population study of a random sample of 1031 adults aged 18-65 in Tehran, Iran. We collected data on tooth brushing frequency, the consumption of sugary snacks and beverages, and time since last dental visit. To measure OHL, we used a validated OHL adults' questionnaire (OHL-AQ). In addition to descriptive analysis, we used multiple logistic regression models to assess the association of OHB and the most recent dental visit with OHL while controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors. The participants' mean age was 36.3 (standard deviation 12.9), and 51% were women. Of the participants, 81.3% reported brushing their teeth daily (≥1/day), 37.6% consumed sugary snacks or beverages between meals less than once daily (<1/day), and 36.8% used dental services within the past 6 months. In the adjusted models, high OHL scores significantly correlated with daily (≥1/day) tooth brushing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-2.98), the consumption of sugary snacks or beverages (<1/day between meals) (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13-2.15) and the recent use of dental services (≤6 months) (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.15-2.21), respectively. OHL relates significantly to improved OHB and the use of dental services. Oral health promotion programs should, therefore, take into account improvements in adults' OHL, particularly in countries with developing health-care services.

  14. Dental fluorosis and its association with the use of fluoridated toothpaste among middle school students of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorosis can manifest as dental fluorosis (seen mostly in secondary dentition, skeletal fluorosis, and systemic fluorosis. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations, diet rich in fish and tea, indoor air-pollution, and use of fluoride toothpastes may contribute considerably to total exposure. Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated factors particularly fluoridated toothpastes, among middle school children of a resettlement colony in Delhi. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted among the middle school students (VI th -VIII th studying in three government schools of Sangam Vihar, South Delhi. Students were examined for dental fluorosis by experts. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data regarding age, source of drinking water, toothpaste used, etc. Height, weight, and hemoglobin were recorded. Two repeat visits were made. Out of 432 students enrolled in these schools, 413 students were examined. Statistics: Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used. Results: Dental fluorosis was prevalent in 121 (29.3% study subjects. It was significantly more in children of age 13 years or above, in those who used fluoridated toothpaste for dental cleaning (P=0.033 and in anemic children (P<0.001. However, there was no significant association of disease with gender (P=0.02, source of drinking water (P=0.417, and with BMI (P=0.826. Conclusion: As dental fluorosis is very common (in about one-fourth among the middle school children, in this resettlement colony of Delhi, various control measures e.g. discouraging the fluoridated toothpastes, educating parents about fluorosis, de-fluoridation of water in the high risk areas, etc may help to tackle this situation.

  15. Administrative trends in U.S. dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Martin M; Rodriguez, Angel; Chen, Rebecca Y; Fu, Earl; Liao, Shu-Yi; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the administrative trends in U.S. dental schools at the beginning and end of a thirteen-year period and to identify the predictive factors for those changes. Administrative trends were measured by the difference in the number of major administrative positions for 1997 and 2010 reported in American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and American Dental Association (ADA) publications. Secondary measures (program length, student enrollment, and tuition) were also gathered. The mean numbers of administrative positions per school significantly increased over the study period, while the mean number of clinical science departments per school significantly decreased. The change in the number of directors was positively correlated with the change in student enrollment, but inversely correlated with the change in number of vice/associate/assistant deans. The change in the number of clinical science departments was positively correlated with changes in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but inversely correlated with the change in in-state tuition. The number of all departments per U.S. dental school significantly decreased in this period. The schools that had consolidation of clinical science departments were less likely to have increases in student enrollment and out-of-state tuition, but more likely to have increases in in-state tuition.

  16. Patients with dental calculus have increased saliva and gingival crevicular fluid fetuin-A levels but no association with fetuin-A polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Demir, Turgut; Laloğlu, Esra; Sağlam, Ebru; Aksoy, Hülya; Yildirim, Abdulkadir; Akçay, Fatih

    2016-12-22

    Fetuin-A is a potent inhibitor of calcium-phosphate precipitation and of the calcification process, therefore it can also be related with dental calculus. Thus, we aimed to investigate a possible relationship between fetuin-A gene polymorphism and the presence of dental calculus. A possible relationship between serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of fetuin-A was also investigated. Fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were investigated in 103 patients with or without dental calculus. Additionally, serum, saliva and GCF fetuin-A levels of patients were compared according to dental calculus presence. A significant difference was not observed in the distribution of the fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms between patients with or without dental calculus. Saliva and GCF fetuin-A concentrations of patients with dental calculus were statistically higher than those without dental calculus (P=0.001, P=0.036 respectively). According to our results, fetuin-A c.742C > T and c.766C > G polymorphisms were not associated with presence of dental calculus. However, higher GCF and saliva fetuin-A levels were detected in patients with dental calculus than in patients without dental calculus, which may result from an adaptive mechanism to inhibit mineral precipitation and eventually calculus formation.

  17. The association between osteocalcin gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis among children exposed to fluoride in People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yue; Huang, Hui; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Zhu, Jingyuan; Zhu, Cairong; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-11-01

    Excessive fluoride intake has been shown to affect dentin and cementum mineralization throughout life. Some studies indicated that a HindIII polymorphism, of osteocalcin (OC) gene, was associated with bone metabolism-related diseases. Therefore, it is possible that the variation in OC genotypes will be associated with dental fluorosis (DF) status and/or serum caciotropic hormone level. A case-control study was conducted among children aged 8-12 years in Henan Province, PR China to investigate the association between dental fluorosis, serum calciotropic hormone level, and polymorphisms in the OC gene. HindIII polymorphism in OC gene was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP procedure. OC and calcitonin (CT) level in serum was detected using radioimmunoassay. No significant difference was observed for OC HindIII genotypes among the cases with dental fluorosis, the controls from endemic fluorosis area (EFA) and the controls from non-endemic fluorosis area (NEFA). A significant negative correlation was observed between serum calcium and OC level. No significant relationship was found between OC HindIII polymorphisms and the level of OC and CT. In conclusion, OC HindIII polymorphisms may not be a useful genetic marker for differential risk of dental fluorosis among children in PR China.

  18. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  19. Non-syndromic multiple odontogenic keratocysts associated with dental anomalies: A report of unusual case and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulabha A Narsapur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC, now known as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT, is the most common cystic lesion occurring in the maxillofacial region. Multiple occurrence of these cysts is less frequent and is usually associated with syndromes, the most common being the Gorlin Goltz syndrome or the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS. We hereby report an unusual case of multiple OKCs in a healthy adult, associated with other dental anomalies. Management approach consisted of enucleation with curettage of the smaller lesions and decortication of buccal cortex in the large lesion. The condition in the present case may be because of the multifocal nature of OKC rather than its association with any syndrome. Concomitant occurrence of multiple OKCs with other dental anomalies may be coincidental. Impacted teeth or missing teeth must be radiographed to rule out the lesions associated with them.

  20. Dental demineralization and caries in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Jackson, Leanne; Epstein, Joel B; Migliorati, Cesar A; Murphy, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) therapy is a standard treatment for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It is well documented that CCR causes profound acute and late toxicities. Xerostomia (the symptom of dry mouth) and hyposalivation (decreased salivary flow) are among the most common treatment side effects in this cohort of patients during and following treatment. They are the result of radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands. Patients with chronic hyposalivation are at risk for demineralization and dental cavitation (dental caries), often presenting as a severe form of rapidly developing decay that results in loss of dentition. Usual post-radiation oral care which includes the use of fluoride, may decrease, but does not eliminate dental caries associated with radiation-induced hyposalivation. The authors conducted a narrative literature review regarding dental caries in HNC population based on MEDLINE, PubMed, CLNAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1985 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, dental caries, dental decay, risk factor, physical symptom, physical sequellea, body image, quality of life, measurement, assessment, cost, prevention, and treatment. The authors also reviewed information from National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), American Dental Association (ADA), and other related healthcare professional association web sites. This literature review focuses on critical issues related to dental caries in patients with HNC: potential mechanisms and contributing factors, clinical assessment, physical sequellea, negative impact on body image and quality of life, potential preventative strategies, and recommendations for practice and research in this area.

  1. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Christiansen, M E C; Qvist, V

    2009-01-01

    Ekstrand KR, Christiansen MEC, Qvist V, Ismail A. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 00: 000-000. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SAbstract - Background: Caries on child......Ekstrand KR, Christiansen MEC, Qvist V, Ismail A. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 00: 000-000. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SAbstract - Background: Caries...... on children and adolescents in Denmark has declined significantly over the last 30 years. Our first analysis in 1999, however, disclosed huge inter-municipality disparities in mean DMFS values as well as in prevalence of caries on Danish children; that fluoride in the water supply and the length...... done on the 1999 sample, but now on a 2004 sample and then compare it with the results from 1999. A fourth aim was by means of an interview of CDOs to determine their interpretation of relevant conditions in the public dental health service in relation dental health outcome. Methods: A total of 204 (99...

  2. Transformation of ADA programs into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organick, E. I.; Lindstrom, G.; Smith, D. K.; Subrahmany; Carter, T.

    1982-03-01

    This report outlines the beginning steps taken in an integrated research effort toward the development of a methodology, and supporting systems, for transforming Ada programs, or program units, (directly) into corresponding VLSI systems. The time seems right to expect good results. The need is evident; special purpose systems should be realistic alternatives where simplicity, speed, reliability, and security ae dominant factors. Success in this research can lead to attractive options for embedded system applications. Ada programs can be regarded as ensembles of machines, one per program unit (module), which in turn may be mapped directly into corresponding VLSI structures on one or more chips with interconnecting (packet switched or other) communication nets. The research reported here is part of a five-year plan, the first year of which focuses on 'proving' the concepts through a realistic demonstration of methodology for a specific example Ada program (a silicon representation of part or all of the DoD Standard Internet Protocol, IP, initially expressed in Ada). Implicit in these objectives is the development of a set of hardware structuring paradigms (rewrite rules) whose application can ensure that transformation steps between levels of abstraction in the design process are well structured in order to preserve the integrity and, where possible, the clarity of the original Ada specification. Some paradigms, but of course not all, lead to highly efficient implementations.

  3. Is there an association between traumatic dental injury and social capital, binge drinking and socioeconomic indicators among schoolchildren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Neves de Paiva

    Full Text Available Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother's schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively.The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588. Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010, those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001 and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235-6.466, p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654-8.535, p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21-3.06, p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury.The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended.

  4. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  5. Expressed needs associated with orthodontic treatment in a private dental college, Mathura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary goal for most of the patients who seek orthodontic treatment is a discernible improvement in some aspect of their dento-facial appearance. Orthodontic therapy makes people look better and feel better about themselves and perhaps influences their ability for social interaction. Hence, this study was conducted to assess expressed needs and barriers associated with orthodontic treatment. Objectives: To know main motivational factor behind seeking orthodontic treatment and to correlate these factors with other variables such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: The study included 200 orthodontic patients between 12 and 25 years visiting a private dental college, Mathura during July 2014 to September 2014. Structured proforma consisting of closed ended questions was used for assessing social demographic characteristics, factors and the barriers, which were associated with orthodontic treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22. Results: This study comprised of 120 females. Self-confidence (48% was the main motivating for undergoing treatment among the subjects. Social interaction (44% was the most common area of improvement expected by the patients after orthodontic treatment. Financial constraints were the main barrier for seeking treatment found among 30% patients. Conclusion: Patients seek orthodontic treatment mainly to enhance facial esthetics, self-confidence and social acceptability. The mismatch of need and desire for treatment is a problem for orthodontists.

  6. Impacted Maxillary Canine Prevalence and Its Association with Other Dental Anomalies in a Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüayo-de-Pau, María del Rosario; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Aguilar-Ayala, Fernando Javier; Carrillo-Ávila, Bertha Arelly; Rejón-Peraza, Marina Eduviges

    2017-01-01

    Objective. We quantified the prevalence of impacted maxillary canines (IMC) and their association with other dental anomalies (DAs). Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was done with 860 patients 12 to 39 years of age. The prevalence of IMC was calculated and compared by sex. The sample was divided into a control group and an impaction group, and the prevalence was calculated in both for a series of anomalies: agenesis, supernumerary teeth, shape anomalies of the upper laterals (microdontia, peg and barrel shape, and talon cusp), fusion, gemination, other impacted teeth, transposition, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The prevalence values for both groups were compared (Pearson's χ2 test, p ≤ 0.05). Results. IMC were present in 6.04% of the sample with no difference by sex (p = 0.540). Other DAs occurred in 51.92% of the IMC group and in 20.17% of the controls (p < 0.05). Significant associations (p < 0.05) were identified between IMC and four other DAs: microdontia, barrel shape, other impacted teeth, and transposition. The prevalence of all anomalies was lower in the control group. Conclusion. IMC were seen in 6.04% of patients. Patients with this condition also had a higher prevalence of other DAs. These other anomalies should be used as risk indicators for early diagnosis. PMID:28326102

  7. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiana Piovesan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  8. Impacted Maxillary Canine Prevalence and Its Association with Other Dental Anomalies in a Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubén Herrera-Atoche

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We quantified the prevalence of impacted maxillary canines (IMC and their association with other dental anomalies (DAs. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was done with 860 patients 12 to 39 years of age. The prevalence of IMC was calculated and compared by sex. The sample was divided into a control group and an impaction group, and the prevalence was calculated in both for a series of anomalies: agenesis, supernumerary teeth, shape anomalies of the upper laterals (microdontia, peg and barrel shape, and talon cusp, fusion, gemination, other impacted teeth, transposition, and amelogenesis imperfecta. The prevalence values for both groups were compared (Pearson’s χ2 test, p≤0.05. Results. IMC were present in 6.04% of the sample with no difference by sex (p=0.540. Other DAs occurred in 51.92% of the IMC group and in 20.17% of the controls (p<0.05. Significant associations (p<0.05 were identified between IMC and four other DAs: microdontia, barrel shape, other impacted teeth, and transposition. The prevalence of all anomalies was lower in the control group. Conclusion. IMC were seen in 6.04% of patients. Patients with this condition also had a higher prevalence of other DAs. These other anomalies should be used as risk indicators for early diagnosis.

  9. Factors associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Leal Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with caries experience in the primary dentition of one- to five-year-old children with cerebral palsy. A total of 266 dental records were examined, and caries experience was measured by dmft. The following variables were also analyzed: gender, oral hygiene, history of gastroesophageal reflux, use of medications for gastroesophageal reflux, gingival status, sugar intake and reports of polyuria, excessive thirst and xerostomia. For analysis purposes, the individuals were categorized as those with and without caries experience and subcategorized into the following age groups: one year; two to three years; and four to five years. After bivariate analysis, variables with a p-value < 0.25 were selected for incorporation into the Poisson regression models. Considering the limitations of the protocol, the level of oral hygiene perceived on the first appointment was the only factor associated with caries experience among two-to-fiveyear-old children with cerebral palsy.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with traumatic dental injury among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Pelli Paiva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to determine the prevalence of trauma in the permanent dentition of 12-year-old schoolchildren and assess associations with demographic factors such as gender and socioeconomic status and overjet and lip coverage clinical factors. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using a representative sample of 638 students. Data were gathered by means of clinical examinations and self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was performed, followed by the use of the chi-square test and Poisson logistic regression model for the determination of significant associations. The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 34.9%. Falls constituted the main etiological factor (49.7%, and occurred in the home (48.2%. The results of the Poisson regression analysis revealed that accentuated overjet (> 5 mm remained associated with traumatic dental injury irrespective of the other variables [PR = 1.50 (95% CI: 1.41 to 1.61; p = 0.003]. Moreover, a statistically significant association was found between accentuated overjet and dental trauma. No significant associations were found between TDI and socioeconomic status. These findings highlight the need for prevention strategies and orthodontic correction at the onset of the permanent dentition.

  11. A database management capability for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Arvola; Danberg, SY; Fox, Stephen; Landers, Terry; Nori, Anil; Smith, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The data requirements of mission critical defense systems have been increasing dramatically. Command and control, intelligence, logistics, and even weapons systems are being required to integrate, process, and share ever increasing volumes of information. To meet this need, systems are now being specified that incorporate data base management subsystems for handling storage and retrieval of information. It is expected that a large number of the next generation of mission critical systems will contain embedded data base management systems. Since the use of Ada has been mandated for most of these systems, it is important to address the issues of providing data base management capabilities that can be closely coupled with Ada. A comprehensive distributed data base management project has been investigated. The key deliverables of this project are three closely related prototype systems implemented in Ada. These three systems are discussed.

  12. Association between infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loc G; Levy, Steven M; Spencer, A John

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between patterns of infant formula feeding and dental fluorosis and caries in a representative sample of Australian children. A population-based study gathered information on fluoride exposure in early childhood. Information on infant formula feeding and fluoridation status was used to group children: three groups in nonfluoridated areas (formula nonuser, user for ≤6 months, and user for 6+ months) and four groups in fluoridated areas (nonuser, user with nonfluoridated water, user with fluoridated water for ≤6 months, and user with fluoridated water for 6+ months). Children aged 8-13 years were examined for fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) Index. Primary tooth caries experience recorded at age 8-9 years was extracted from clinical records. Fluorosis cases were defined as having TF 1+ on maxillary incisors. Fluorosis prevalence and primary caries experience were compared across formula user groups in multivariable regression models adjusting for other factors. Total sample was 588 children. Children in fluoridated areas had higher prevalence of very mild to mild fluorosis, but lower caries experience than those in nonfluoridated areas. Among children in nonfluoridated areas, formula users for 6+ months had significantly higher prevalence of fluorosis compared with nonusers. There was no significant difference in fluorosis prevalence among the formula users in fluoridated areas. Among children in fluoridated areas, formula users with nontap water had higher caries experience. Infant formula use was associated with higher prevalence of fluorosis in nonfluoridated areas but not in fluoridated areas. Type of water used for reconstituting infant formula in fluoridated areas was associated with caries experience. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Program Office Guide to Ada. Edition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-17

    Storage Allocation 3-11 3.2.2.4 Rendezvous 3-11 3.3 ALTERNATIVES IN CUSTOM RUN-TIME SUPPORT 3-12 ENVIRONMENTS ( RSE ) 3.3.1 Unique RSE for Each...Tailoring Run-time Support Environments ( RSE ) The minimal Ada compilation system must include a Run- time Support Environment ( RSE ). The code generated by...a typical Ada compiler calls on the RSE to obtain the run-time system services necessary for execution. The RSE consists of primitive and system

  14. Object-Oriented Database Access from Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    programs’ sizes in Ada are larger than C’s. Strong type checking and the interface programs added overhead can probably explain this. 4.3 Problema ...Verdix Corporation. Verdix Ada Development System, 1991. BIB-2 Vita Lt Col Li Chou (ROCAF, Taiwan ) was born on 28 October 1957 in I-Lan, Taiwan ...Republic of China . He graduated from high school in I-Lan in June, 1975. He then entered the National Defense Medical Center from which he graduated in 1980

  15. Associated dental anomalies: case report Múltiplas anomalias dentárias associadas: caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain human dental anomalies frequently occur together, supporting the accumulated evidence of the shared genetic control of dental developmental disturbances. The present study reports a rare and interesting case of a 12-year-old girl with an association of multiple dental abnormalities, including agenesis, tooth malposition and delayed development. The etiology and treatment planning are discussed with reference to the literature. The clinical implications of genetically controlled patterns of dental anomalies are important in the establishment of early diagnosis and appropriate orthodontic intervention.Certas anomalias dentárias humanas freqüentemente ocorrem concomitantemente, contribuindo para validar as evidências do controle genético nos distúrbios de desenvolvimento. O presente estudo relata um caso raro e interessante de uma jovem de 12 anos de idade, com associação de anormalidades dentárias múltiplas, incluindo agenesia, ectopia e atraso no desenvolvimento dentário. A etiologia e tratamento planejados são discutidos com referência à literatura. As implicações clínicas do padrão de anomalias dentárias geneticamente controladas são importantes no estabelecimento do diagnóstico precoce e de adequada intervenção ortodôntica.

  16. School-Based Fluoride Mouth-Rinse Program Dissemination Associated With Decreasing Dental Caries Inequalities Between Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Taura, Katsuhiko; Kimoto, Kazunari; Ando, Yuichi; Aoyama, Hitoshi; Morita, Manabu; Ito, Kanade; Koyama, Shihoko; Hase, Akihiro; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-11-05

    Dental caries inequalities still severely burden individuals' and society's health, even in countries where fluoride toothpastes are widely used and the incidence of dental caries has been decreasing. School-based fluoride mouth-rinse (S-FMR) programs, a population strategy for dental caries prevention, might decrease dental caries inequalities. This study investigated the association between S-FMR and decreasing dental caries prevalence and caries-related inequalities in 12-year-olds by Japanese prefecture. We conducted an ecological study using multi-year prefecture-level aggregated data of children born between 1994 and 2000 in all 47 Japanese prefectures. Using two-level linear regression analyses (birth year nested within prefecture), the association between S-FMR utilization in each prefecture and 12-year-olds' decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT), which indicates dental caries experience in their permanent teeth, were examined. Variables that could explain DMFT inequalities between prefectures, such as dental caries experience at age 3 years, dentist density, and prefectural socioeconomic circumstances, were also considered. High S-FMR utilization was significantly associated with low DMFT at age 12 (coefficient -0.011; 95% confidence interval, -0.018 to -0.005). S-FMR utilization explained 25.2% of the DMFT variance between prefectures after considering other variables. Interaction between S-FMR and dental caries experience at age 3 years showed that S-FMR was significantly more effective in prefectures where the 3-year-olds had high levels of dental caries experience. S-FMR, administered to children of all socioeconomic statuses, was associated with lower DMFT. Utilization of S-FMR reduced dental caries inequalities via proportionate universalism.

  17. Occurrence of dental avulsion and associated injuries in patients with facial trauma over a 9-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Erica Cristina; Santos, Saulo Ellery; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2013-06-01

    This retrospective study aimed to assess the occurrence of dental avulsions in patients with facial trauma over a 9-year period. Data was collected from records of patients attended to at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Piracicaba Dental School-State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil. Two hundred three patients with 387 avulsed teeth were evaluated, the central incisors being the most common teeth involved (42 % of permanent and 61 % of primary teeth). Thirty-four percent of the cases occurred on weekends, mainly on Saturdays (20 %) and the distribution in relation to the time of year was similar with slight peaks in January. The most prevalent associated dentoalveolar injury was lateral luxation (26 %) and 19 % of the patients presented with an associated facial fracture. The most common sign presented was laceration (23 %), and the main symptoms found were pain (58 %). Associated general trauma was present in 139 patients (68 %), and the most prevalent was the upper limb (41 %). Special emphasis should be given not only to diagnosis and treatment of dental avulsion but for prevention, too. An understanding of the etiology, severity, and distribution of associated traumatic injuries can help for future studies and for an effective prevention of these injuries.

  18. Combinatorial depletion analysis to assemble the network architecture of the SAGA and ADA chromatin remodeling complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K; Sardiu, Mihaela E; Swanson, Selene K; Gilmore, Joshua M; Torok, Michael; Grant, Patrick A; Florens, Laurence; Workman, Jerry L; Washburn, Michael P

    2011-07-05

    Despite the availability of several large-scale proteomics studies aiming to identify protein interactions on a global scale, little is known about how proteins interact and are organized within macromolecular complexes. Here, we describe a technique that consists of a combination of biochemistry approaches, quantitative proteomics and computational methods using wild-type and deletion strains to investigate the organization of proteins within macromolecular protein complexes. We applied this technique to determine the organization of two well-studied complexes, Spt-Ada-Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase (SAGA) and ADA, for which no comprehensive high-resolution structures exist. This approach revealed that SAGA/ADA is composed of five distinct functional modules, which can persist separately. Furthermore, we identified a novel subunit of the ADA complex, termed Ahc2, and characterized Sgf29 as an ADA family protein present in all Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase complexes. Finally, we propose a model for the architecture of the SAGA and ADA complexes, which predicts novel functional associations within the SAGA complex and provides mechanistic insights into phenotypical observations in SAGA mutants.

  19. Clinical manifestations and dental management of dentinogenesis imperfecta associated with osteogenesis imperfecta: Case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abukabbos, Halima; Al-Sineedi, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    .... This case report discusses the systemic and dental manifestations of OI and DI in a 4-year-old child, with moderate presentation of both disorders, who was treated at King Fahd Military Medical Complex in Dhahran...

  20. Urinary levels of nickel and chromium associated with dental restoration by nickel-chromium based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Xia, Gang; Cao, Xin-Ming; Wang, Jue; Xu, Bi-Yao; Huang, Pu; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2013-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate if the dental restoration of nickel-chromium based alloy (Ni-Cr) leads to the enhanced excretions of Ni and Cr in urine. Seven hundred and ninety-five patients in a dental hospital had single or multiple Ni-Cr alloy restoration recently and 198 controls were recruited to collect information on dental restoration by questionnaire and clinical examination. Urinary concentrations of Ni and Cr from each subject were measure by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared to the control group, the urinary level of Ni was significantly higher in the patient group of dental restoration. Potential short- and long-term effects of Ni-Cr alloy restoration need to be investigated.

  1. Resistance to disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of elastomeric dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Pecorella, Sonia; Mammina, Caterina; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to resist disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of dental impressions obtained with two different elastomers: a polyether (Impregum) and an addition-polymerized silicone (Elite). Impressions were contaminated with a mixture of three biofilm-forming microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and disinfected immediately after contamination, or after microbial layers were allowed to develop during a six-hour storage. Two commercial disinfectants were tested: MD 520 containing 0.5% glutaraldehyde and Sterigum Powder without glutaraldehyde. Residual contamination was recovered by mechanical rinsing immediately after disinfection and after a six-hour storage of disinfected impressions, and assessed by colony counting. Both disinfectants tested were shown to be effective in reducing the microbial presence on the impression materials, achieving at least a 102 reduction of microbial counts compared to water rinsing. However, Sterigum was generally less effective on the Elite elastomer and could not grant disinfection on six-hour aged P. aeruginosa and C. albicans microbial layers. The results of this study suggest that the materials used for the impressions influence the efficacy of disinfection. Disinfectants should be tested according to conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice and the need for immediate disinfection of impressions should be clearly indicated by manufacturers.

  2. Dental students' and faculty members' concepts and emotions associated with a caries risk assessment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; Isyutina, Olga

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify concepts and emotions associated with using an established Caries Risk Assessment (CRA) and Caries Risk Management (CRM) program in a dental school. Five focus groups with students and faculty members were conducted. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were qualitatively analyzed for emotions, using Plutchik's wheel of emotions, and were inductively evaluated for concepts (stability coefficients, Scott's π, 0.65-0.71). A total of twenty-five students took part in three focus groups (D2, D3, and D4 separately), and fifteen faculty members participated in two groups. Few frequency differences existed across students and faculty in terms of emotions (278 in faculty members' discourse; 276 in students'). From these, 535 concepts were assembled in seven groups of semantically distinct concepts. Faculty members verbalized more numerous concepts than students (300 vs. 235). Skepticism about the effectiveness of the CRA/CRM program represented the most significant barrier to comprehensive student and faculty support. The findings also suggested that, in order to dispel misconceptions, clearer messages, simpler forms and systems, and better tailored foci of the program for diverse patient, student, and faculty subgroups are needed. Ultimately, buy-in from users depends on CRA forms and programs that are seen as relevant, useful, and simple, offering tangible outcomes for patients and clinicians.

  3. Dental Blogs, Podcasts, and Associated Social Media: Descriptive Mapping and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkers, Julia; Hicks, Diana; Rosenblum, Simone; Isett, Kimberley R; Elliott, Jacqueline

    2017-07-26

    Studies of social media in both medicine and dentistry have largely focused on the value of social media for marketing to and communicating with patients and for clinical education. There is limited evidence of how dental clinicians contribute to and use social media to disseminate and access information relevant to clinical care. The purpose of this study was to inventory and assess the entry, growth, sources, and content of clinically relevant social media in dentistry. We developed an inventory of blogs, podcasts, videos, and associated social media disseminating clinical information to dentists. We assessed hosts' media activity in terms of their combinations of modalities, entry and exit dates, frequency of posting, types of content posted, and size of audience. Our study showed that clinically relevant information is posted by dentists and hygienists on social media. Clinically relevant information was provided in 89 blogs and podcasts, and topic analysis showed motives for blogging by host type: 55% (49 hosts) were practicing dentists or hygienists, followed by consultants (27 hosts, 30%), media including publishers and discussion board hosts (8 hosts, 9%), and professional organizations and corporations. We demonstrated the participation of and potential for practicing dentists and hygienists to use social media to share clinical and other information with practicing colleagues. There is a clear audience for these social media sites, suggesting a changing mode of information diffusion in dentistry. This study was a first effort to fill the gap in understanding the nature and potential role of social media in clinical dentistry.

  4. Associations among dental caries experience, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure from drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer

    2010-01-01

    a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.

  5. Prevalence of mesiodens in orthodontic patients with deciduous and mixed dentition and its association with other dental anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Silva Lara; Melissa Lancia; Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho; Daniela Gamba Garib; Terumi Okada Ozawa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of mesiodens in deciduous and mixed dentitions and its association with other dental anomalies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Panoramic radiographs of 1,995 orthodontic patients were analyzed retrospectively, obtaining a final sample of 30 patients with mesiodens. The following aspects were analyzed: gender ; number of mesiodens; proportion between erupted and non-erupted mesiodens; initial position of the supernumerary tooth; related complications; treatment pl...

  6. Fear of Fatness Among Young Irish Adolescents : Association with Obesity, Reported Iron and Folate Intake, and Dental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Anne C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of fear of fatness (the desire to be thinner) and associated factors, including obesity, reported energy, iron and folate intakes. The difficulties in defining overweight among Irish children and an assessment of dietary and socio-economic factors related to dental caries and also reported in the group. METHODS: A one-year follow up study of 251 healthy schoolchildren at baseline (119 boys and 132 girls; mean age 11 years) attending 7 fee-paying (6 singl...

  7. Antibody testing and counseling of dental patients at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and associated clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, V A; Scholtes, G A

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred six dental patients were tested between 1985 and 1987 for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) when a review of their medical histories revealed a high risk for infection. Serologic results are correlated with soft tissue and osseous findings recorded during routine head and neck and radiographic examination. Counseling recommendations for use in association with testing are outlined. A more active role for the dentist as a preventive agent is advocated to combat the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  8. Association of dental and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. A retrospective case controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To assess the association of oral hygiene, dental caries, and periodontal status with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. Material and methods A retrospective case-control study on 81 patients treated for neoplasms with bone metastases. Twenty-nine patients with bone necrosis and 52 controls treated with bisphosphonates were compared using the Oral Hygiene Index, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs, and Residual Periodontal B...

  9. Ada Formal Methods in the STARS Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-03

    Ariel Semantics for nanoAVA ....... ........................ 56 5.3.1 Caliban Types ....................................... 56 5.3.2 Caliban ...Expressions ........ ........................... 57 5.3.3 Caliban Definitions ........ ............................ 58 5.3.4 Clio’s Metalanguage...59 5.3.5 A Summary of Ada-Ariel Semantics ........................ 60 5.3.6 A Caliban Encoding of an Ariel Semantics for

  10. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  11. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  12. LAS DOS TRÍADAS DEBEJARANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván González

    Full Text Available El artículo diseute "dos tríadas" que propone Bejarano para calificar a la teoría económica actual. La primera tríada tiene que ver con el realismo, la pertinencia y la relevancia de la teoría. Y la segunda tríada con sus dimensiones política, institucional y moral. El artículo centra la atención en esta segunda tríada, argumentando que la teoría no es apolítica, ainstitucional y amoral como afirma Bejarano. El examen crítico de la posición de Bejarano se sustenta en algunas de las tesis de: Walras, Marshall, Hicks, vickrey, Samuelson y Arrow.This article discusses the "two triads" that Bejarano has proposed in order to describe present economic theory. The first triad refers to the realism, pertinence and relevance of the theory. The second triad to its political, institutional and moral dimension. The article centers its attention on this second triad, arguing that the theory is not apolitical, uninstitutional and amoral as Bejarano states. The critical examination of Bejarano's proposition is supported on thesis of Walras, Marshall, Hicks, Vickrey, Samuelson and Arrow.

  13. ADA Integrated Environment I. System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    returned. UNCLASSIFIED SECt AITY CLASSIFICATION O r THiS PAGE ("On’ Dese ,9nA.,d)l ,_ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFO scOL’No RM 1. RqEPl~ORT, NUM1191N 2...keyboard interactive, and high-band-width graphics terminals. The standard Ada character set is specified; 5. establish and maintain (that is, enter

  14. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  16. Factors Associated with No Dental Treatment in Preschoolers with Toothache: A Cross-Sectional Study in Outpatient Public Emergency Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna C. M. Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many parents rely on emergency services to deal with their children’s dental problems, mostly pain and infection associated with dental caries. This cross-sectional study analyzed the factors associated with not doing an oral procedure in preschoolers with toothache attending public dental emergency services. Data were obtained from the clinical files of preschoolers treated at all nine dental emergency centers in Goiania, Brazil, in 2011. Data were children’s age and sex, involved teeth, oral procedures, radiography request, medications prescribed and referrals. A total of 531 files of children under 6 years old with toothache out of 1,108 examined were selected. Children’s mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.0 years (range 1–5 years and 51.6% were girls. No oral procedures were performed in 49.2% of cases; in the other 50.8%, most of the oral procedures reported were endodontic intervention and temporary restorations. Primary molars were involved in 48.4% of cases. With the exception of “sex”, the independent variables tested in the regression analysis significantly associated with non-performance of oral procedures: age (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5–0.8, radiography request (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.7–8.2, medication prescribed (OR 7.5; 95% CI 4.9–11.5 and patient referred to another service (OR 5.7; 3.0–10.9. Many children with toothache received no oral procedure for pain relief.

  17. 从2016ADA指南看妊娠合并糖尿病治疗理念的变更%Changes in the Concept of Pregnancy Associated with Diabetes Treatment Intraduced from the 2016 ADA Guideline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维纲

    2016-01-01

    妊娠糖尿病的发病在全球日益流行。2016年美国糖尿病学会(American Diabetes Association,ADA)的指南对妊娠合并糖尿病诊治策略作了更新,更强调孕前管理、孕前严格控糖,孕期自我血糖监测和控糖目标个体化,同时基于现有临床证据调整了对孕期降糖药物的推荐。以上策略的调整可帮助我们更合理地管理妊娠糖尿病,以改善母婴不良结局的发生。%The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in the world is a trend. 2016 ADA guideline makes an further update on the treatment of pregnancy complicated with diabetes. It takes more emphasis on management and strict control of sugar before pregnancy, and more emphasis on maternal blood glucose monitoring and control of sugar target individual. At the same time, it gives some recommendations for the treatment of hypoglycemic drugs based on the existing clinical evidence. The adjustment of the above strategy helps us to take better management on the gestational diabetes and make improvement on the incidence of maternal and infant adverse outcomes.

  18. Plausible Drug Targets in the Streptococcus mutans Quorum Sensing Pathways to Combat Dental Biofilms and Associated Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Rajesh, Shrinidhi; Princy, S Adline

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram positive facultative anaerobe, is one among the approximately seven hundred bacterial species to exist in human buccal cavity and cause dental caries. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent communication process that respond to the inter/intra-species signals and elicit responses to show behavioral changes in the bacteria to an aggressive forms. In accordance to this phenomenon, the S. mutans also harbors a Competing Stimulating Peptide (CSP)-mediated quorum sensing, ComCDE (Two-component regulatory system) to regulate several virulence-associated traits that includes the formation of the oral biofilm (dental plaque), genetic competence and acidogenicity. The QS-mediated response of S. mutans adherence on tooth surface (dental plaque) imparts antibiotic resistance to the bacterium and further progresses to lead a chronic state, known as periodontitis. In recent years, the oral streptococci, S. mutans are not only recognized for its cariogenic potential but also well known to worsen the infective endocarditis due to its inherent ability to colonize and form biofilm on heart valves. The review significantly appreciate the increasing complexity of the CSP-mediated quorum-sensing pathway with a special emphasis to identify the plausible drug targets within the system for the development of anti-quorum drugs to control biofilm formation and associated risks.

  19. Urinary levels of nickel and chromium associated with dental restoration by nickel-chromium based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen; Gang Xia; Xin-Ming Cao; Jue Wang; Bi-Yao Xu; Pu Huang; Yue Chen; Qing-Wu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate if the dental restoration of nickel-chromium based alloy (Ni-Cr) leads to the enhanced excretions of Ni and Cr in urine. Seven hundred and ninety-five patients in a dental hospital had single or multiple Ni-Cr alloy restoration recently and 198 controls were recruited to collect information on dental restoration by questionnaire and clinical examination. Urinary concentrations of Ni and Cr from each subject were measure by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Compared to the control group, the urinary level of Ni was significantly higher in the patient group of 〈 1 month of the restoration duration, among which higher Ni excretions were found in those with either a higher number of teeth replaced by dental alloys or a higher index of metal crown not covered with the porcelain. Urinary levels of Cr were significantly higher in the three patient groups of 〈1, 1 to 〈3 and 3 to 〈6 months, especially in those with a higher metal crown exposure index. Linear curve estimations showed better relationships between urinary Ni and Cr in patients within 6-month groups. Our data suggested significant increased excretions of urinary Ni and Cr after dental restoration. Potential short- and long-term effects of Ni-Cr alloy restoration need to be investigated.

  20. Are dentists enough aware of infectious risk associated with dental unit waterlines ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Amélie; Bousseau, Anne; Costa, Damien; Barbot, Vanessa; Imbert, Christine

    2013-07-10

    Environmental conditions in DU encourage biofilm development. This biofilm may represent a risk for patients and dental staff exposed to water and aerosols generated during dental cares, particularly for immunocompromised persons. A survey was conducted on the 175 dental surgeons of the department of Vienne (France) to investigate the motivations of dental practitioners to renew their DU, their awareness levels with respect to infectious risks related to water circulating within DU, and methods used for the maintenance of DU waterlines. These dentists were only partially aware of the need for maintaining DU waterlines. For this maintaining, chemical treatments and purges of pipes were carried out by 88% and 91.5% of dentists respectively ; chemical treatments were usually on a continous mode and dentists seemed to have complete confidence in their DU supplier regarding the choice and the use of chemical treatments. Flushes were performed only once per day in most cases (63%). This survey also highlighted that dentists were not enough aware of water related infectous risk, even though 68% estimated that the development of a biofilm within DU waterlines was an actual risk. Finally, very positively, dentists strongly indicated their wish to be more informed regarding all these risks. Although these results are based on a relatively small sample, corresponding to dentists of a French department, they clearly suggest that awareness of dental surgeons is still insufficient and must be performed to permit an effective prevention of infectious risk related to DU waterlines.

  1. 49 CFR 37.125 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. 37.125... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.125 ADA paratransit eligibility: Process. Each public entity required to provide complementary paratransit service...

  2. 49 CFR 37.123 - ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. 37.123... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Paratransit as a Complement to Fixed Route Service § 37.123 ADA paratransit eligibility: Standards. (a) Public entities required by § 37.121 of this subpart to...

  3. Knowledge, programming, and programming cultures: LISP, C, and Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The results of research 'Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems' are presented. The purpose of the research was to compare Ada to other programming languages. The report focuses on the programming languages Ada, C, and Lisp, the programming cultures that surround them, and the programming paradigms they support.

  4. Dental Blogs, Podcasts, and Associated Social Media: Descriptive Mapping and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Diana; Rosenblum, Simone; Isett, Kimberley R; Elliott, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies of social media in both medicine and dentistry have largely focused on the value of social media for marketing to and communicating with patients and for clinical education. There is limited evidence of how dental clinicians contribute to and use social media to disseminate and access information relevant to clinical care. Objective The purpose of this study was to inventory and assess the entry, growth, sources, and content of clinically relevant social media in dentistry. Methods We developed an inventory of blogs, podcasts, videos, and associated social media disseminating clinical information to dentists. We assessed hosts’ media activity in terms of their combinations of modalities, entry and exit dates, frequency of posting, types of content posted, and size of audience. Results Our study showed that clinically relevant information is posted by dentists and hygienists on social media. Clinically relevant information was provided in 89 blogs and podcasts, and topic analysis showed motives for blogging by host type: 55% (49 hosts) were practicing dentists or hygienists, followed by consultants (27 hosts, 30%), media including publishers and discussion board hosts (8 hosts, 9%), and professional organizations and corporations. Conclusions We demonstrated the participation of and potential for practicing dentists and hygienists to use social media to share clinical and other information with practicing colleagues. There is a clear audience for these social media sites, suggesting a changing mode of information diffusion in dentistry. This study was a first effort to fill the gap in understanding the nature and potential role of social media in clinical dentistry. PMID:28747291

  5. Endocrine disruptors and dental materials: health implications associated with their use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Antonio Jorge Molinário

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes international historical trends in the use of different types of materials in dental practice. The author describes the chemical properties of their ingredients and the potential and observed adverse effects in patients and dental technicians resulting from clinical or occupational exposure to various metals like beryllium, used to produce metal alloys. The growing use of various products (resin cements, ionomer cements, aesthetic restorative materials, resins, endodontal cements, and others based on the compound bisphenol-A, whose chemical structure is similar to that of estrogen. Considering the demographic and contemporary work force characteristics of those involved in dental practice in the Brazil, the study highlights the possible effect of the use of these materials in both male and female patients and all age strata, as well as in health professionals with occupational exposure to products containing bisphenol-A.

  6. Endocrine disruptors and dental materials: health implications associated with their use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jorge Molinário Coelho

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes international historical trends in the use of different types of materials in dental practice. The author describes the chemical properties of their ingredients and the potential and observed adverse effects in patients and dental technicians resulting from clinical or occupational exposure to various metals like beryllium, used to produce metal alloys. The growing use of various products (resin cements, ionomer cements, aesthetic restorative materials, resins, endodontal cements, and others based on the compound bisphenol-A, whose chemical structure is similar to that of estrogen. Considering the demographic and contemporary work force characteristics of those involved in dental practice in the Brazil, the study highlights the possible effect of the use of these materials in both male and female patients and all age strata, as well as in health professionals with occupational exposure to products containing bisphenol-A.

  7. Estudio de asociación entre enfermedades sistémicas y el fracaso de implantes dentales Study of association between systemic diseases and dental implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Domínguez

    2013-04-01

    , genero y el habito de fumar.Since the beginning of oral implant surgery it has been recommended to exclude or limit certain patients with health issues or smoking habits. The chronic non-communicable diseases are not considered an absolute contraindication to the use of oral implants, but the type of disease should be evaluated in detail, as a potential risk that could affect the process of osseointegration. There are certain systemic conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypothyroidism, as well as the habit of smoking, that affect the success, survival or failure of the implants. The purpose of the investigation is to determine whether there is an association between the failure of dental implants and systemic diseases in the population of patients undergoing dental implant surgery of San José de Santiago de Chile Hospital. We conducted a retrospective observational study and the variables studied were systemic diseases (osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes, and hypothyroidism and the criteria used to assess the health of implants were those of the International Congress of Oral Implantology of Pisa, where "failure" is the term used for implants requiring removal or that were already lost. These variables were recorded from the clinical record and during a clinical examination, in a data collection sheet. This allowed to describe variables and their distribution, and then to analyze the data to find statistically valid evidence. For this study we can conclude that the analysis of each of the variables such as systemic hypertension or ASA II, have an association with the failure of dental implants, but not osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes, age, nutritional status, gender and cigarette smoking.

  8. Dishabituation processes in height fear and dental fear: an indirect test of the non-associative model of fear acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, R; Waldie, K E; Craske, M G; Menzies, R G; McGee, R

    2000-09-01

    The fear dishabituation hypothesis described in the non-associative model of fear acquisition was tested in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Results were consistent with height fear and phobia dishabituation. That is, 're-emergence' of a fear of heights occurred between age 11 and 18 years among individuals who reported higher levels of non-specific stress at age 15. Interestingly, there was no evidence for dental fear dishabituation--a finding consistent with the non-associative model of fear acquisition. Strengths and weaknesses of the study were considered and the results discussed in relation to laboratory-based findings on (dis)habituation.

  9. Association between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-08-01

    Dental pain and tooth loss are global public health concerns. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of an entire country's populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a well characterized, nationally representative, population-based study.This study analyzed data of 3924, representing 21,836,566 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows: tooth loss of up to 8 teeth without dental pain, tooth loss of up to 8 teeth with dental pain, tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain, and tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates.Among the 3924 subjects, representing an estimated 21,836,566 adults, the prevalence of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth was 24.6% and the prevalence of dental pain was 35%. The tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group showed the highest level of impaired HRQOL in all 5 dimensions, and the tooth loss up to 8 teeth without dental pain group showed the lowest level. The proportion of both groups without dental pain decreased significantly from the younger age to older age group. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, the ORs (95% CI) of mobility, self-case, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression were 1.93 (1.32-2.84), 1.90 (1.25-2.90), 1.46 (0.88-2.43), 1.48 (0.88-2.49), and 1.46 (0.85-2.51) in tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group. Although the ORs of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain group did not significantly increase.Dental pain and tooth loss has a considerable impact of HRQOL in the Korean adult population. In our study, HRQOL is more closely associated with dental pain than with

  10. Association between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life: the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dental pain and tooth loss are global public health concerns. However, there have been no large cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of a representative sample of an entire country's populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between dental pain and tooth loss with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using a well characterized, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data of 3924, representing 21,836,566 adults from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows: tooth loss of up to 8 teeth without dental pain, tooth loss of up to 8 teeth with dental pain, tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain, and tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Among the 3924 subjects, representing an estimated 21,836,566 adults, the prevalence of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth was 24.6% and the prevalence of dental pain was 35%. The tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group showed the highest level of impaired HRQOL in all 5 dimensions, and the tooth loss up to 8 teeth without dental pain group showed the lowest level. The proportion of both groups without dental pain decreased significantly from the younger age to older age group. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, the ORs (95% CI) of mobility, self-case, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression were 1.93 (1.32–2.84), 1.90 (1.25–2.90), 1.46 (0.88–2.43), 1.48 (0.88–2.49), and 1.46 (0.85–2.51) in tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth with dental pain group. Although the ORs of tooth loss of 8 to 28 teeth without dental pain group did not significantly increase. Dental pain and tooth loss has a considerable impact of HRQOL in the Korean adult population. In our study, HRQOL is more closely associated with

  11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, P V; Patel, S V; Bhalani, K D; Shah, D; Shah, V S; Mehta, K G

    2012-06-01

    Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings.

  12. Report on Teaching Ada. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    write down any specific items they did not understano. They were told they would be quizzed on the material . The next week, they were told to hand in...t: zuL tree, p: in aula pile); |.x1A"£-u stack i ~ tree; ea pile; Althouqh the assignment was for the students to qive only the specifications for the...by the terminal handler. Each such node has a collection of items associated with it. -. * These items, and whatever promptino material goes along

  13. Study of the factors associated with dental caries in children who receive early dental care Estudo de fatores associados à cárie dental em crianças que recebem atendimento odontológico precoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Calixto FRAIZ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the factors associated with the development of dental caries in preschool children who receive regular dental care and follow-up. The research was carried out at the Baby Clinic, Londrina State University, and comprised two hundred preschool children, whose ages ranged from 24 to 48 months, as well as their mothers, who had already taken part in a dental program at the Baby Clinic during, at least, the previous twelve months. Regarding oral hygiene habits, there was no significant difference between the preschool children who presented with caries and those who did not present with caries. However, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the upper incisors was strongly associated with the presence of dental caries. Other factors associated with the presence of caries were: period of formal education of the father or of both parents equal or inferior to 8 years, high sugar consumption and bottle-feeding during sleep. In the studied population, the dietary pattern is still the main cause of carious lesions. In addition, the presence of visible bacterial plaque on the labial surface of the upper incisors must be considered as an important clinical sign, often associated with inadequate patterns of diet and oral hygiene.Esta pesquisa estudou os fatores associados com o desenvolvimento de cárie dentária em pré-escolares que recebem acompanhamento e intervenção odontológica. O estudo abrangeu 200 crianças, de 24 a 48 meses de idade, que participavam do programa da Bebê-Clínica (Universidade Estadual de Londrina havia pelo menos 12 meses. A comparação entre as crianças com cárie e sem cárie não apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes com relação aos hábitos de higiene bucal. No entanto, a presença de placa visível nos incisivos superiores esteve fortemente associada com a presença de cárie dentária. Outros fatores relacionados à presença de cárie foram a educação formal

  14. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Balancing the risks and benefits associated with cosmetic dentistry - a joint statement by UK specialist dental societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, A; Kelleher, M; Hemmings, K; Saunders, M; Hunter, M; Barclay, S; Ashley, M; Djemal, S; Bishop, K; Darbar, U; Briggs, P; Fearne, J

    2015-05-08

    Cosmetic dentistry has become increasingly popular, largely as a result of social trends and increased media coverage. This understandable desire for the alleged 'perfect smile' needs to be tempered with an appropriate awareness of the significant risks associated with invasive cosmetic procedures such as veneers and crowns. Patients need to be properly informed that elective removal of healthy enamel and dentine can result in pulpal injury and poorer periodontal health in the longer term, particularly if they are young. The duty of candour means that they ought to be informed that aggressive reduction of sound tooth tissue is not biologically neutral and results in structural weakening of their teeth. Less invasive procedures such as bleaching on its own or for example, combined with direct resin composite bonding, can satisfy many patient's demands, while still being kinder to teeth and having much better fall-back positions for their future requirements. It is the opinion of the British Endodontic Society, British Society for Restorative Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry UK, Dental Trauma UK, British Society of Prosthodontics and the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry that elective invasive cosmetic dental treatments can result in great benefit to patients, but that some aggressive treatments used to achieve them can produce significant morbidities in teeth which were previously healthy. This is a worrying and growing problem with many ethical, legal and biologic aspects, but many adverse outcomes for patients who request cosmetic dental improvements are preventable by using biologically safer initial approaches to treatment planning and its provision.

  16. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...... with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used...

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoei, Shahla; Hosseini, Bahareh; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Sanjari, Mojgan; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Afshar, Vahid F. N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, Iran, and included 260 subjects (128 patients with T2DM and 132 healthy controls). Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from all subjects and s-IgA levels were determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. The oral cavities and teeth of T2DM patients were evaluated for oral and dental manifestations. Results: Both diabetic and control subjects with higher concentrations of s-IgA had significantly higher numbers of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) and periodontal index (PDI) scores (P denture stomatitis (P ≤0.050). There were no significant differences between s-IgA concentrations and other oral or dental manifestations in either group. Conclusion: Individuals with a greater number of DMFT, a higher PDI score and oral candidiasis had significantly higher s-IgA levels. s-IgA levels were not significantly higher among diabetic patients in comparison to the control group. However, significantly higher s-IgA levels occurred with xerostomia and denture stomatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, s-IgA was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled diabetes compared to those with controlled diabetes. PMID:26629378

  18. Evaluation of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Diabetic Patients and Association with Oral and Dental Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Kakoei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral and dental manifestations in diabetic patients can arise due to numerous factors, including elevated salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA levels. This study aimed to evaluate s-IgA concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to investigate the association between s-IgA levels and oral and dental manifestations of T2DM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between October 2011 and September 2012 in Kerman, Iran, and included 260 subjects (128 patients with T2DM and 132 healthy controls. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected from all subjects and s-IgA levels were determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. The oral cavities and teeth of T2DM patients were evaluated for oral and dental manifestations. Results: Both diabetic and control subjects with higher concentrations of s-IgA had significantly higher numbers of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT and periodontal index (PDI scores (P <0.050. s-IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects with oral candidiasis (P <0.050. Among diabetic patients, significantly higher s-IgA levels were concomitant with xerostomia and denture stomatitis (P ≤0.050. There were no significant differences between s-IgA concentrations and other oral or dental manifestations in either group. Conclusion: Individuals with a greater number of DMFT, a higher PDI score and oral candidiasis had significantly higher s-IgA levels. s-IgA levels were not significantly higher among diabetic patients in comparison to the control group. However, significantly higher s-IgA levels occurred with xerostomia and denture stomatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, s-IgA was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled diabetes compared to those with controlled diabetes.

  19. Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Jardim, Lorena Amaral; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Quintão; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency χ2 test) and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7%) evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor). Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.

  20. Association of Emotional Labor, Self-efficacy, and Type A Personality with Burnout in Korean Dental Hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Da Yee; Lee, Hyun Ok; Chung, Won Gyun; Yoon, Jin Ha; Koh, Sang Baek; Back, Chi Yun; Hyun, Dae Sung; Chang, Sei Jin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout, and whether the levels of self-efficacy and type A personality characteristics increase the risk of burnout in a sample of Korean female dental hygienists. Participants were 807 female dental hygienists with experience in performing customer service for one year or more in dental clinics, dental hospitals, or general hospitals in Korea. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of emotional labor on burnout, and to elucidate the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. The results showed that "overload and conflict in customer service," "emotional disharmony and hurt," and "lack of a supportive and protective system in the organization" were positively associated with burnout. With reference to the relationship between personality traits and burnout, we found that personal traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality were significantly related to burnout, which confirmed the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. These results indicate that engaging in excessive and prolonged emotional work in customer service roles is more likely to increase burnout. Additionally, an insufficient organizational supportive and protective system toward the negative consequences of emotional labor was found to accelerate burnout. The present findings also revealed that personality traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality are also important in understanding the relationship between emotional labor and burnout. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  1. The association between WNT10A variants and dental development in patients with isolated oligodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Fennis, Willem; Creton, MA; Vucic, Strahinja; Cune, Marco; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; Wolvius, Eppo B; van den Boogaard, MJH; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the effect of WNT10A variants on dental development in patients with oligodontia. Forty-three (25 boys and 18 girls) individuals were eligible for this study. Stage of development for each present tooth was assessed using the Demirjian method. In case no correspon

  2. The association between WNT10A variants and dental development in patients with isolated oligodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhamo, Brunilda; Fennis, Willem; Créton, Marijn; Vucic, Strahinja; Cune, Marco; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; Wolvius, Eppo B; van den Boogaard, Marie-José; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the effect of WNT10A variants on dental development in patients with oligodontia. Forty-three (25 boys and 18 girls) individuals were eligible for this study. Stage of development for each present tooth was assessed using the Demirjian method. In case no correspon

  3. Characteristics and Associated Comorbidities of Pediatric Dental Patients Treated under General Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfiner, Alexandra; Myers, Aaron; Lumsden, Christie; Chussid, Steve; Yoon, Richard

    2017-09-22

    To describe characteristics and identify common comorbidities of children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia at Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian. Electronic medical records of all children that received dental treatment under general anesthesia through the Division of Pediatric Dentistry from 2012-2014 were reviewed. Data describing patient characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance carrier, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system), medical history, and justification for treatment were collected. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies, percentages and t-tests, were calculated. A total of 298 electronic medical records were reviewed, of which 50 records were excluded due to missing information. Of the 248 electronic medical records included, the average age was 5-years-old and 58% were male. The most common reason for dental treatment under general anesthesia was extent and severity of dental disease (53%), followed by significant medical history (47%) and behavior/pre-cooperative age (39%). Those who were ASA III or IV were older (6.6-years) (ppediatric specialty services at Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian.

  4. Association of Dental Practice as a Risk Factor in the Development of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Haghighi A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is an important cause of work disability. There is controversy over the relation between carpal tunnel syndrome and occupation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the time-span of practicing dentistry and the role of dominant hands in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.Materials and Method: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 40 dentists and dental students (15 women and 25 men undertook the electroneuro-diagnostic test in both hands by an electromyogram (EMG and they were also evaluated in terms of self- reported clinical symptoms.Results: 17.5% of participants were diagnosed to have decreased nerve conduction velocity while10% had reported clinical symptoms of CTS. Both dominant and non-dominant hands were involved. Within cases who were diagnosed as having median nerve neuropathy, 87.5% worked more than 20 hours per week. 57% had 17-23 years of dental practice experience and 14.2% of cases had10-16 years of practice in dentistry.Conclusion: The high rate of CTS symptoms, in both dominant and non-dominant hand among dental practitioners with more years of dental practice, indicates a prequisite for particular attention, then sufficient education on the major risk factors causing this problem. Early diagnosis of these symptoms may improve the future management of the disease.

  5. Ada (Trade Name) Bibliography. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    describes the characteristics that " such methologies should possess, Emphasis is given to the process by which software is developed for Ada applications...1. PP. 30-35. 01/82 This article is a proposal for an experiment to relate software metrics to software project observables , in particular to the...that arise in developing embedded software systems. The case studies are of two kinds: pedagogical and observational . The pedagogical case studies

  6. Ada for Embedded Systems: Issues and Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    appropriate order based on the task dependency hierarchy, which the ART maintains and adds to when tasks are created [ Reino 86]. The master-slave, parent...termination are needed [ Reino 86]. Tasks provide a considerable overhead in the runtime system because the status must be maintained for context...Practitioners Approach. McGraw-Hill International, 1982. [ Reino 86] Kurki-Suonio, R. An Operational Model for Ada Tasking. Technical Report 1/1986, Tampere

  7. Ada (Trade Name) Bibliography. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    MARIA : FREEMAN. PETER: WASSERMAN, ANTHONY I. DOCUMENT NUMBER: 5484 DOCUMENT DATE: 11/82 TYPE: TECHNICAL REPORT In Spring, 1982, a questionnaire was...VALIDATION AVAILABLE FROM: THE AUTHOR SPONSORS: U.S.A.F. ASD,WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB, OH AN ADA LANGUAGE PRIMER, PART I SAIB, SABINA H. DOCUMENT NUMBER: 6214...PRIMER, PART II SAIB, SABINA H. DOCUMENT NUMBER: 6215 TYPE: JOURNAL ARTICLE BYTE, VOL 9, ISSUE 6, 14 P. This article is the second of a two-part

  8. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were a...

  9. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and their association with socio-demographic risk factors among older persons in Delhi, India: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Goswami, Anil; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2013-05-01

    Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.

  11. Dental students--dental advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    Student advocacy and involvement in the political process is built into the structure of the American Student Dental Association (ASDA), especially in its Legislative Grassroots Network and an internal communication network among students to ensure political awareness. Students are concerned with such issues as a universally accepted, non-patient-based licensure process, mid-level providers, loan availability and tax deductibility, financial support for schools, and service early in one's professional career (giving forward rather than giving back). Through collaboration with the American Dental Education Association and with many state associations, students participate in lobbying, awareness campaigns, and behind the scenes as legislative aids. Although students share the same love for the profession that animates established practitioners, they are perceived by legislators as being different. Students are involved in the legislative process because it represents their future.

  12. DENTAL HOT-COLD SENSITIVITY AND TRAUMATIC DENTAL INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Traebert, Jefferson; Martins,Luiz Gustavo Teixeira; Traebert, Eliane Silva de Azevedo; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Although several studies have indicated negative impacts of traumatic dental injuries on children’s quality of life, virtually none of them have explored the possible association between them and the occurrence and dental hot-cold sensitivity. The aim of this study was to study the possible association of hot-cold dental sensitivity and history of traumatic dental injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving a representative sample of 11- to 14-year-old schoolchildre...

  13. [Association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene among preschoolers enrolled in the IMSS preventive dental program in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Segovia-Villanueva, América; Estrella-Rodríguez, Ramón; Maupomé, Gerardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Pérez-Nuñez, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Determine the association between socioeconomic status and oral hygiene in the primary dentition of preschool children. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 1,303 children attending 10 schools in Campeche, Mexico. Every child was clinically examined in a portable dental chair by one of four examiners. We used a questionnaire addressed to the mothers to collect data on socioeconomic and socio demographic variables--including attitudinal variables dealing with the perceived importance of oral health. Oral hygiene was assessed appraising the frequency of tooth brushing and the presence of dental plaque. Data analysis included non-parametric tests using STATA 8.2. Mean age was 4.36 +/- 0.79 years and 48.3% of children were girls. Of the study population, 17.8% (n = 232) were classified as having inadequate oral hygiene, 50.9% (n = 663) having moderate oral hygiene, and 31.3% (n = 408) having adequate oral hygiene. Children who were rated more frequently as having inadequate hygiene (p < 0.05) had mothers with a negative attitude toward oral health, were users only of public medical insurance (as opposed to users of private services), and had not used dental services in the year prior to the study. Finally, we observed a decrease in the adequacy of oral hygiene associated with a decrease in socioeconomic status. Our findings showed that oral hygiene was closely associated with socioeconomic status. This implies that if a reduction of oral health inequalities is to be achieved, the strategies and resources targeting these goals must take into account the existing differences between population groups with more or fewer social disadvantages.

  14. Association between oral health habits and dental caries among children in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, P-L; Suominen, A L; Yang, G S; Ri, Y S; Sipilä, K

    2016-05-26

    To evaluate the self-reported oral health habits and their association with the occurrence of dental caries among children in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after 6 years of activities under the auspices of the Children's Oral Health Promotion Programme (COHPP). The data were collected in September 2013 in two of the most central districts of Pyongyang City, DPRK. The sample consisted of 492 children aged 10 and 13 years who had participated in the COHPP for 6 years. The children filled in a self-completed, structured questionnaire on oral health habits and were examined clinically by a dentist. The differences in mean (SD) number of decayed primary (dt) and permanent teeth (DT) and their sum (dt + DT) subdivided according to genders, age groups, districts and self-reported oral health habits were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-test. The associations between self-reported oral health habits and the occurrence of dental caries were evaluated with chi-square test and logistic regression analyses. The school-aged children commonly reported healthy oral hygiene habits but sweet snacks were commonly used. The occurrence of dental caries associated statistically significantly with the frequency of sweet snacking (p=0.011) but not with the frequency of tooth brushing (p=0.725) or the use of water for thirst instead of sugary beverages (p=0.189). A more effective promotion of healthy dietary habits with innovative approaches and close collaboration with different social actors will be needed in future. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Patterns of breast and bottle feeding and their association with dental caries in 1- to 4-year-old South African children. 1. Dental caries prevalence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G J; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Fatti, L P; Richardson, B D; Sinwel, R E; Hargreaves, J A; Williams, S

    1993-12-01

    In order to study associations between breast and bottle feeding and dental caries a questionnaire on feeding habits was completed by trained interviewers for 1,263 children aged 1 to 4 years from five South African communities. Of these, 73 to 94 per cent had been breast fed for mean periods of 9 to 16 months. The types of infant feeding practised (breast, bottle or mixed) varied little within the groups although each group differed significantly from the others for the preferred feeding practice. Using responses to a dietary interview the children were subdivided into those breast fed for 12 months or longer (n = 546), those who had mixed breast and bottle feeding (n = 527) and those who were bottle fed only (n = 190). Caries prevalence increased with the age of the child, more in bottle fed than other groups. Within all feeding groups caries prevalence was lowest among white children and in social class I. The dmfs and dmft scores showed irregular patterns and were significantly influenced by feeding group and the interaction between race and social class.

  16. Is there any association between facial type and mandibular dental arch form in subjects with normal occlusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Renato Paranhos; Adilson Luiz Ramos; Eduardo de Novaes Benedicto; Liliana Àvila Maltagliati; Maurício de Almeida Cardoso; Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.17668 The aim of this study was investigate the association between the mandibular arch morphology and the facial type of Brazilian Caucasians with natural normal occlusion. For this, we used a sample comprised of lateral radiographs and respective dental casts of 51 individuals (21 male and 30 female), presenting at least 4 of the 6 Andrews’ keys to normal occlusion without previous orthodontic treatment. Angle’s first molar relationship wa...

  17. Oral Pyogenic Granuloma Associated With a Dental Implant Treated With an Er:YAG Laser: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Alper; Ugurlu, Faysal; Basel, Bilal; Sener, Cem B

    2015-12-01

    A pyogenic granuloma is a tumorlike proliferation that occurs slightly more often in females, frequently involving the gingiva in the maxillary region. Clinically, it presents as a sessile or pedunculated exophytic mass with a smooth or lobulated surface, which tends to bleed easily. Its color can range from pink to dark red. The most common treatment is surgical excision. This case report presents a pyogenic granuloma that formed around an implant 7 years after its insertion. Pyogenic granulomas associated with dental implants are extremely rare; this is the fourth reported case and the first case of pyogenic granuloma to be treated with an Er:YAG laser.

  18. Physical evaluation system to determine medical risk and indicated dental therapy modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, F M; Malamed, S F

    1979-08-01

    The physical evaluation system allows the practitioner to rapidly classify each patient according to medical risk and thus to provide dental treatment comfortably and safely. The evaluation system serves as a guide to the level of dental therapy, deisions of management, and modification of treatment for the medically compromised patient. Extensive use of the ADA physical status classification system in dentistry would allow meaningful studies of morbidity and mortality that are related to various management protocols and could conceivably have an impact on insurance schedules associated with psychosedation modalities and general anethesia on an out patient basis. A physical evaluation system cannot substitute for knowledge and good judgment. Recommended categories of physical status and modification of treatment should not be considered as absolutes, but as guides. Wheras the guidelines may appear to be inflexible, they should not be considered as such. Deviation from recommendations is often justified and is expected.

  19. Homozygosity for a novel adenosine deaminase (ADA) nonsense mutation (Q3>X) in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santisteban, I.; Arrendondo-Vega, F.X.; Kelly, S. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A Somali girl was diagnosed with ADA-deficient SCID at 7 mo; she responded well to PEG-ADA replacement and is now 3.3 yr old. ADA mRNA was undetectable (Northern) in her cultured T cells, but was present in T cells of her parents and two sibs. All PCR-amplified exon 1 genomic clones from the patient had a C>T transition at bp 7 relative to the start of translation, replacing Gln at codon 3 (AGA) with a termination codon (TGA, Q3>X). Patient cDNA (prepared by RT-PCR with a 5{prime} primer that covered codons 1-7) had a previously described polymorphism, K80>R, but was otherwise normal, indicating that no other coding mutations were present. A predicted new genomic BfaI restriction site was used to establish her homozygosity for Q3>X and to analyze genotypes of family members. We also analyzed the segregation of a variable Alu polyA-associated TAAA repeat (AluVpA) situated 5{prime} of the ADA gene. Three different AluVpA alleles were found, one of which was only present in the father and was not associated with his Q3>X allele. Because the father`s RBCs had only {approximately}15% of normal ADA activity, we analyzed his ADA cDNA. We found a G>A transition at bp 425 that substitutes Gln for Arg142, a solvent-accessible residue, and eliminates a BsmAI site in exon 5. ADA activity of the R142>Q in vitro translation product was 20-25% of wild type ADA translation product, suggesting that R142>Q is a new {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency mutation. As expected, Q3>X mRNA did not yield a detectable in vitro translation product. We conclude that the patient`s father is a compound heterozygote carrying the ADA Q3>X/R142>Q genotype. {open_quote}Partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency unassociated with immunodeficiency is relatively common in individuals of African descent. The present findings and previous observations suggest that {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency may have had an evolutionary advantage.

  20. Association of parental attitudes at mealtime and snack limits with the prevalence of untreated dental caries among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Danielle Veiga; Montes, Gisele Ristow; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2017-01-01

    Eating behavior of parents exerts an influence on eating practices among their children, including the consumption of cariogenic products. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the snack limits established by parents/caregivers and the prevalence of untreated dental caries (UDC) among their children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 686 children aged four and five years enrolled at public schools in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, and their parents/caregivers. The children were examined for dental caries and visible plaque. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian version of the Parent Mealtime Action Scale (PMAS). Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests and Poison regression analysis. The prevalence of UDC was 45.6%. The Snack Limits subscale of the PMAS was associated with a lower prevalence rate of UDC (PR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.72-0.96), independently of the other variables. UDC was also associated with a greater prevalence of visible plaque (PR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.08-1.54), a lower tooth brushing frequency (PR: 1.46; 95%CI: 1.22-1.77) and greater age of the child (PR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.08-1.59). Snack limits established by parents/caregivers were associated to a lower prevalence rate of UDC among preschool children.

  1. Temporal lobe epilepsy: its association with psychiatric impairment and appropriate dental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A H; Cummings, J L

    1989-09-01

    Temporal lobe seizures are manifested by aberrant experiences, automatic behavior, or both. In addition, approximately 40% of the patients who have had the disease for more than 15 years exhibit significant personality disorders, mood changes, or psychoses in the periods between seizures (interictal phase). Recognition that these characterologic manifestations are components of the underlying neurologic disorder allows for a more rational approach to the provision of dental care.

  2. HLA-Association in Patients with Intolerance to Mercury and Other Metals in Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Procházková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of selected 25 patients with serious intolerance to heavy metals used for dental restoration were examined for HLA antigens. A significant increase for HLA – B37, B47 and DR4 was found. The value of the relative risk is not significant after correction for the number of antigens tested and therefore further studies of more patients are needed.

  3. Dental Blogs, Podcasts, and Associated Social Media: Descriptive Mapping and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Melkers, Julia; Hicks, Diana; Rosenblum, Simone; Isett, Kimberley R; Elliott, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies of social media in both medicine and dentistry have largely focused on the value of social media for marketing to and communicating with patients and for clinical education. There is limited evidence of how dental clinicians contribute to and use social media to disseminate and access information relevant to clinical care. Objective The purpose of this study was to inventory and assess the entry, growth, sources, and content of clinically relevant social media in dentistry....

  4. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses.

  5. Genome-wide association study of dental caries in the Hispanic Communities Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean; Laurie, Cathy C; Marazita, Mary L; Sanders, Anne E; Offenbacher, Steven; Salazar, Christian R; Conomos, Matthew P; Thornton, Timothy; Jain, Deepti; Laurie, Cecelia A; Kerr, Kathleen F; Papanicolaou, George; Taylor, Kent; Kaste, Linda M; Beck, James D; Shaffer, John R

    2016-02-15

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease worldwide, and exhibits profound disparities in the USA with racial and ethnic minorities experiencing disproportionate disease burden. Though heritable, the specific genes influencing risk of dental caries remain largely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide association scans (GWASs) for dental caries in a population-based cohort of 12 000 Hispanic/Latino participants aged 18-74 years from the HCHS/SOL. Intra-oral examinations were used to generate two common indices of dental caries experience which were tested for association with 27.7 M genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms separately in the six ancestry groups. A mixed-models approach was used, which adjusted for age, sex, recruitment site, five principal components of ancestry and additional features of the sampling design. Meta-analyses were used to combine GWAS results across ancestry groups. Heritability estimates ranged from 20-53% in the six ancestry groups. The most significant association observed via meta-analysis for both phenotypes was in the region of the NAMPT gene (rs190395159; P-value = 6 × 10(-10)), which is involved in many biological processes including periodontal healing. Another significant association was observed for rs72626594 (P-value = 3 × 10(-8)) downstream of BMP7, a tooth development gene. Other associations were observed in genes lacking known or plausible roles in dental caries. In conclusion, this was the largest GWAS of dental caries, to date and was the first to target Hispanic/Latino populations. Understanding the factors influencing dental caries susceptibility may lead to improvements in prediction, prevention and disease management, which may ultimately reduce the disparities in oral health across racial, ethnic and socioeconomic strata.

  6. Improving Clinical Practice: What Dentists Need to Know about the Association between Dental Fear and a History of Sexual Violence Victimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Houman Hadad

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s) of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike. PMID:25663839

  7. Improving Clinical Practice: What Dentists Need to Know about the Association between Dental Fear and a History of Sexual Violence Victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Houman Hadad; Guggisberg, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s) of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike.

  8. Improving Clinical Practice: What Dentists Need to Know about the Association between Dental Fear and a History of Sexual Violence Victimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houman Hadad Larijani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal evidence suggests lack of dentist knowledge and uncertainty about how clinical practice can be improved when dealing with victims of sexual violence. This systematic review presents a synthesis of the available literature, which examined the association between dental fear and a history of sexual violence victimisation. All studies indicated, to various degrees, that dental fear is associated with a history of sexual violence victimisation. The analysis identified several common themes including a perception of lack of control, avoidance behaviours, experiences of flashbacks, feelings of embarrassment, difficulties with the physical proximity to the dentist, the sex of the dentist reminding patients of the perpetrator, being placed into a horizontal body position, the specific impact of fellatio, the smell of latex, experienced lack of knowledge of dental professionals leading to insensitive treatment as well as revictimisation experiences, and the occurrence of disproportionate dental problems among patients who had experienced event(s of sexual violence. All these themes are discussed in detail. Specific strategies are offered to assist dental practitioners in providing sensitive treatment for patients with a history of sexual violence. Additionally, several suggestions are made that may assist both researchers and dental practitioners alike.

  9. Saliva-promoted adhesion of Streptococcus mutans MT8148 associates with dental plaque and caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotoyodome, A; Kobayashi, H; Tokimitsu, I; Hase, T; Inoue, T; Matsukubo, T; Takaesu, Y

    2007-01-01

    Colonization of enamel surfaces by Streptococcus mutans is thought to be initiated by the attachment of bacteria to a saliva-derived conditioning film (acquired pellicle). However, the clinical relevance of the contribution of saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion in biofilm formation has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to correlate saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion with biofilm formation in humans. We correlated all measurements of salivary factors and dental plaque formation in 70 healthy subjects. Dental plaque development after thorough professional teeth cleaning correlated positively with S. mutans adhesion onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite pellets and the glycoprotein content of either parotid or whole saliva. Saliva-promoted S. mutans adhesion and glycoprotein content were also positively correlated with each other in parotid and whole saliva. By contrast, neither salivary mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus nor Candida correlated with biofilm formation. Parotid saliva-mediated S. mutans adhesion was significantly higher in 12 caries-experienced (CE) subjects than in 9 caries-inexperienced (CI) subjects. Salivary S. mutans adhesion was significantly less (p adhesion, modulated by salivary protein adsorption onto the enamel surface, as a possible correlate of susceptibility to dental plaque and caries. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Dental fluorosis associated with chronic ingestion of dentifrices – what health professionals should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Virginia Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two cases of dental fluorosis caused by inadvertent ingestion of fluoridated dentifrice. An eight-year-old child showed whitish spots and loss of dental enamel in first permanent molars and whitish spots without structure loss in permanent incisors and primary second molars, whereas a fourteen-year-old teenager showed whitish spots in all permanent teeth. In both cases, homologue teeth were affected similarly and mothers did not report on the use of fluoride supplements during pregnancy or children’s infancy. The water fluoridation of the city where they live is considered optimal. Both patients reported eating dentifrice frequently during tooth brushing and in other occasions. Mothers also stated that they did not receive instructions about oral hygiene or about the fact that chronic ingestion of dentifrice could contribute to the development of dental fluorosis. It is believed that the cooperative work between dentists and other health professionals is a way to prevent the occurrence of this condition.

  11. Dental Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Domb, Ivor

    1982-01-01

    Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...

  12. Discriminable meanings to the character of benign and malignant ascites brought by associated testing of VEGF、ADA and LDH%联合检测VEGF、ADA与LDH对良恶性腹水性质的鉴别意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪莉; 夏宣平; 邵美娟; 丁红香; 胡云良

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨腹水VEGF、ADA及LDH对腹水性质的鉴别价值.方法:对20例肝硬化腹水、13例结核性腹水、22例癌性腹水VEGF、ADA及LDH含量进行检测,并同时检测此55例患者血清ADA的含量.结果:癌性腹水组VEGF(642.07±404.90 pg/ml)明显高于肝硬化组(82.03±35.84 pg/ml)与结核组(84.96±35.66pg/ml)(P0.05).结核性腹水组腹水ADA/血清ADA(PADA/SADA)为1.94±0.79,明显高于肝硬化腹水组0.86±0.17(P<0.01)和癌性腹水组0.93±0.08(P<0.01);结核组ADA为25.68±4.73 U/L,明显高于肝硬化腹水组7.15±4.14 U/L(P<0.01)和癌性腹水组12.48±6.17 U/L(P<0.01).结核组与癌性组LDH分别为218.08±70.78 U/L和200.91±99.27U/L均明显高于肝硬化组60.75±35.27U/L(P<0.01).结论:腹水VEGF是良恶性腹水重要的鉴别诊断依据之一;腹水ADA及PADA/SADA对诊断结核性腹水有重要的临床参考价值;腹水LDH对于鉴别腹水为漏出液还是渗出液有一定价值.

  13. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of nickel allergy (sensitization) and the associations with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema were assessed in a cohort of 1,501 8th grade schoolchildren (aged 12-16 years) in Odense, Denmark. Nickel allergy was found in 8.6% and was clinically relevant in 69......% of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...

  14. Dental Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  15. The association of aggressive and chronic periodontitis with systemic manifestations and dental anomalies in a jordanian population: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasneh Jumana A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between dental anomalies and periodontitis has not been documented by earlier studies. Although psychological factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, very little information has so far been published about the association of anxiety and depression with aggressive periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis with certain systemic manifestations and dental anomalies. Methods A total of 262 patients (100 chronic periodontitis, 81 aggressive periodontitis and 81 controls, attending the Periodontology clinics at Jordan University of Science and Technology, Dental Teaching Centre were included. All subjects had a full periodontal and radiographic examination to assess the periodontal condition and to check for the presence of any of the following dental anomalies: dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, congenitally missing lateral incisors or peg-shaped lateral incisors. Participants were interrogated regarding the following: depressive mood, fatigue, weight loss, or loss of appetite; and their anxiety and depression status was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale. Results Patients with aggressive periodontitis reported more systemic symptoms (51% than the chronic periodontitis (36% and control (30% patients (p p Conclusion In this group of Jordanians, systemic symptoms were strongly associated with aggressive periodontitis, and dental anomalies were positively associated with both aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  16. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  17. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M. Shokry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women. A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2=22.6, p=0.000, continuous sleep until morning (χ2=19.2, p=0.001, nighttime sleep duration (χ2=20.2, p=0.000, and length of daytime naps (χ2=28.35, p=0.000. There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2=16.52, p=0.000 and increased nightmares (χ2=13.7, p=0.001. Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  18. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M.; El Wakeel, Eman E.; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2 = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ2 = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ2 = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ2 = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2 = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ2 = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672

  19. ada: An R Package for Stochastic Boosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Culp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Boosting is an iterative algorithm that combines simple classification rules with ‘mediocre’ performance in terms of misclassification error rate to produce a highly accurate classification rule. Stochastic gradient boosting provides an enhancement which incorporates a random mechanism at each boosting step showing an improvement in performance and speed in generating the ensemble. ada is an R package that implements three popular variants of boosting, together with a version of stochastic gradient boosting. In addition, useful plots for data analytic purposes are provided along with an extension to the multi-class case. The algorithms are illustrated with synthetic and real data sets.

  20. ada: An R Package for Stochastic Boosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Culp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Boosting is an iterative algorithm that combines simple classification rules with "mediocre" performance in terms of misclassification error rate to produce a highly accurate classification rule. Stochastic gradient boosting provides an enhancement which incorporates a random mechanism at each boosting step showing an improvement in performance and speed in generating the ensemble. ada is an R package that implements three popular variants of boosting, together with a version of stochastic gradient boosting. In addition, useful plots for data analytic purposes are provided along with an extension to the multi-class case. The algorithms are illustrated with synthetic and real data sets.

  1. Relationship Between Drinking Water Fluoride Levels, Dental Fluorosis, Dental Caries and Associated Risk Factors in 9-12 Years Old School Children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, M; Reddy, B Vishnuvardhan; Venkataramana, V; Gowrisankar, S; Reddy, B V Thimma; Chennupati, Sireesha

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between drinking water fluoride (F) levels, dental fluorosis and dental caries among 9-12 years old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal, Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 1500 school children aged 9-12 years, selected by stratified random sampling from different areas with different levels of naturally occurring F in drinking water. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT)/dmft index. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, Z-test, ANOVA test, and Chi-square test. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of fluorosis was 74.9%. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in children who consume water from bore wells. Caries prevalence in the study population was about 56.5%. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft scores were least in children with optimal F areas and highest in children with below optimal F areas. There was moderate prevalence of fluorosis in Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, and caries prevalence is high in areas below optimal F areas. How to cite the article: Shanthi M, Reddy BV, Venkataramana V, Gowrisankar S, Reddy BV, Chennupati S. Relationship between drinking water fluoride levels, dental fluorosis, dental caries and associated risk factors in 9-12 year old school children of Nelakondapally Mandal of Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):106-10.

  2. Software engineering and the role of Ada: Executive seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to introduce the basic terminology and concepts of software engineering and Ada. The life cycle model is reviewed. The application of the goals and principles of software engineering is applied. An introductory understanding of the features of the Ada language is gained. Topics addressed include: the software crises; the mandate of the Space Station Program; software life cycle model; software engineering; and Ada under the software engineering umbrella.

  3. An Adaptation of the ADA Language for Machine Generated Compilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Ada Augusta, Lady Lovelace , the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron, and Charles Babbage’s programmer.# 2UNIX is a Trademark/Service Mark of the Bell...AN ADAPTATION OF THE ADA LANGUAGE FOR MACHINE GENERATED COMPILE-ETC(U) JNLSIIO DEC AG M A ROGERS, L P MYERS 7k .A9 22NVLPSTRDASHOOLMONEREYCAF EE9...mmhhhhhhmhhhhlLEhhhhhmmh LEV EU NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC ~ELECTEf All 0 3 198 /12 )THESIS 7 ,AN *DAPTATION OF THE ADA

  4. Its Ada: An Intelligent Tutoring System for the ADA Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    TUTR, available through the Ada Repository at White Sands Missile Range in Alamagordo, New Mexico , is an application in computer- assisted instruction...same time as declaring it, we write: MYCAR :CARTYPE := ("Cl23XYZ","Ford Fiesta GL ",1986,840,30.0); We can also use record aggregates in assignments

  5. Prevalence of Dental Occlusal Patterns and Their Association with Obstractive Upper Airway Diseases in Primary School Children, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Sonbolestan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth, apart from their physiologic function, play an important role in general appearance of indivduals. Therefore any disorder in their growth and evolution, will cause psychologic, social and even economic problems for the person. This observational cross- sectional study aimed to investigate relationship between dental occlusal patterns and obstructive nasal-upper airway- diseases. Methods: This study was perfromed in schools of No.4 Education at district of Isfahan in educational year 1381-82 between 607 students (277 male, 330 female aged 9-12 years old. Results of accurate ENT and dentistry physical examination were registered and analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square and Mantel - Hanzel test. Results: With increasing age, The frequency of abnormal occlusal patterns increases (from 45.5% to 68.2% in males and 25.8% to 48.5% in females, p=0.015. The increasing in degree of palatal tonsilar hypertrophy was related to higher frequency of abnormal occlusal patterns (36.7% in +1 tonsilar hypertrophy, and 70% in +4 tonsilar hypertrophy, p=0.02. Also, history of frequent common colds, and history of previous nasal fractures were related with abnormal patterns [58.9% (p=0.032, and 83.4% (p= 0.043%, respectively].Five other parameters including sinusitis, hypertrophy of nasal turbinates, rhinitis, nasal polyposis and nasal septal deviation were not associated with abnormal occlusal patterns (p>0.1. Conclusion: Some of obstructive upper airwacy diseases are related with abnormal dental occlusal patterns. These parameters can be simply diagnosed, treated or prevented. Key words: dental occlusion, malocclusion, obstructive nasal disorders, nasal turbinates, adenoid, rhinitis, tonsillectomy, open mouth breathing

  6. Association between dental caries and age-specific body mass index in preschool children of an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association of dental caries and BMI-for-age in preschool children and whether BMI-for-age is similar or different between Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC and caries free children. Materials and Methods: Four hundred preschool children aged 30-70 months were entered into this study. The parameters examined in this study were weight, height, BMI-for-age and number of decayed, extracted and filled surfaces of deciduous teeth (defs. Based on dental caries, the subjects were also divided into S-ECC and caries-free groups. Then data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression and logistic regression tests. Results: The mean and SD of defs index was 8.37 ± 11.2. In the underweight, normal-weight, at risk of overweight and overweight groups, these values were 4.89 ± 10.8, 8.84 ± 11.8, 8.68 ± 10.6, and 10.39 ± 10.2, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed a statistically a significant direct association between BMI-for-age and defs index (P = 0.001 after adjusting for gender and age. The percentage of subjects who were caries free and S-ECC was 44.8% and 51.2%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was statistically a significant inverse association between BMI-for-age scores and the frequency of caries-free (P = 0.001 and a significant direct association with S-ECC children (P = 0.001. Conclusions : The findings of this study demonstrated that there was an association between higher defs scores and severe early childhood caries with overweightness.

  7. HPV16 E6-induced and E6AP-dependent inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator hADA3 in human cervical carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Ye, Feng; Lu, Weiguo; Hong, Die; Wan, Xiaoyun; Xie, Xing

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether there exists an additional pathway of E6 that is independent of direct P53 degradation and whether hADA3, a transcriptional coactivator, is involved in this process. We investigated the association between E6 and hADA3, as well as E6-associated protein (E6AP) and hADA3, in SiHa cells via RNA interference technique. Our results showed that the expression of hADA3 protein was significantly increased, cellular proliferation was decreased and apoptotic rate was increased in SiHa cells treated by E6 siRNA and E6AP siRNA respectively. Our results suggested that oncoprotein E6 inhibits hADA3 in cervical cancer cells and this process is E6AP-dependent.

  8. Preoperative analgesia for children and adolescents to reduce pain associated with dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled clinical trials of analgesics given before dental treatment versus placebo or no analgesics in children and adolescents up to 17 years of age. Children and adolescents having dental treatment under sedation (including nitrous oxide/oxygen) or general anaesthesia were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Standard Cochrane methodological approaches were used.ResultsFive trials involving 190 patients were included. None of the studies were at low risk of bias. Three trials involved dental treatment and two involved orthodontic treatment. Three of the included trials compared paracetamol with placebo. Meta-analysis of the two trials showed no evidence of a benefit in taking paracetamol preoperatively; (RR) for postoperative pain of 0.81 (95%CI; 0.53 to 1.22). Four trials compared ibuprofen with placebo. Pooled data from two studies showed a statistically significant mean difference in severity of postoperative pain of -13.44 (95%CI; -23.01 to -3.88) on a visual analogue scale (0 to 100), which indicated a probable benefit. Both trials were at high risk of bias and the quality of the evidence is low.ConclusionsFrom the available evidence, we cannot determine whether or not preoperative analgesics are of benefit in paediatric dentistry for procedures under local anaesthetic. There is probably a benefit in using preoperative analgesics prior to orthodontic separator placement. The quality of the evidence is low. Further randomised clinical trials should be completed with appropriate sample sizes and well defined outcome measures.

  9. [Association between ameloblastin gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yong-zhuo; Mu, Li-hong; Wang, Ying-xiong; An, Wei; Jiang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    To study the distribution of ameloblastin (AMBN) gene polymorphism in coal-fire caused fluorosis (CFCF) in Chongqing municipality and the relationship between AMBN gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to dental fluorosis. Under a case-control study, 100 children aged 8 - 12 and 30 adults with dental fluorosis were enrolled in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing from December 2010 to February 2011. Another 100 children aged 8 - 12 and 30 adults with non-dental fluorosis were chosen as internal control groups together with 50 children and 30 adults without dental fluorosis were selected as external control groups in the non-epidemic area of Yubei district. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood sample of these people. Genotype of AMBN gene 7 extron 538_540delGGA, 10 extron 657A > G and 13 extron 986C > T loci were detected using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The rates of 7 extron 538_540delGGA loci among case, internal and external control groups were as follows: GGA/GGA-/- 61.2% (74/121), 78.5% (102/130), 74.3% (52/70) ; GGA/-: 24.0% (29/121), 15.4% (20/130), 22.9% (16/70) ; -/-: 14.8% (18/121), 6.1% (8/130), 2.8% (2/70), the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 14.353 P 0.05). CC appeared as 81.0% (98/121), 90.0% (117/130), 87.1% (61/70) while CT as 19.0% (23/121), 10.0% (13/130), 12.9% (9/70), with difference not statistically significant (χ(2) = 4.319, P > 0.05). In comparing with the two control groups, the frequency of GGA/GGA was decreasing (χ(2) values were 8.957, 3.405, respectively, P fluorosis (OR values were 2.7, 5.9, respectively, P fluorosis (OR = 2.1, P T loci polymorphism in AMBN gene might serve as the susceptibility factors causing the coal-fired fluorosis.

  10. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  11. Understanding the Adoption of Ada: A Field Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    a name change. The name Ada comes from Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace , Charles Babbage’s colleague, and according to some, the first computer...Adoption of Ada : * 1 A Field Study Report A Gordon N. Smith Wesley M. Cohen William E. Hefley Daniel A. Levinthal. August 1989 E DTIC *ie jApproved f or...Puib1I release; -A’Djqtribution Unbmtod 0 (3 134 154 Technical Report 0 SEI-88-TR-28 ESD-TR-88-37 August 1989 Understanding the Adoption of Ada : A Field

  12. Associations between dental anxiety, sense of coherence, oral health-related quality of life and health behavior--a national Swedish cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Viktor; Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2015-09-02

    Dental anxiety (DA) is a common condition associated with avoidance of dental care and subsequent health-related and psychosocial outcomes, in what has been described as the vicious circle of DA. Also, recent studies have found an association between the psychosocial concept of sense of coherence (SOC) and DA. More studies are needed to verify the relationship between DA and SOC, especially using population-based samples. There is also a need for studies including factors related to the vicious circle of DA, such as oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), in order to further establish the correlates of DA in the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between DA and SOC, OHRQoL and health-related behaviour in the general Swedish population. The survey included a randomly selected sample of the adult Swedish population (N = 3500, age 19 - 96 years.). Data was collected by means of telephone interviews. Dental anxiety was measured with a single question. The SOC measure consisted of three questions conceptualising the dimensions of the SOC: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. The data collection also included the five-item version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-5), as a measure of OHRQoL, as well as questions on oral health-related behaviour and socioeconomic status. Statistical analyses were made with descriptive statistics and inference testing using Chi-square, t--test and logistic regression. High DA was associated with low OHRQoL, irregular dental care and smoking. There was a statistically significant relationship between the SOC and DA in the bivariate, but not in the multivariate, analyses. Dental anxiety was not associated with oral health-related behaviour or socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional national survey gives support to the significant associations between high dental anxiety, avoidance of dental care and health-related outcomes, which may further reinforce the

  13. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  14. Ada and the rapid development lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforrest, Lloyd; Gref, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    JPL is under contract, through NASA, with the US Army to develop a state-of-the-art Command Center System for the US European Command (USEUCOM). The Command Center System will receive, process, and integrate force status information from various sources and provide this integrated information to staff officers and decision makers in a format designed to enhance user comprehension and utility. The system is based on distributed workstation class microcomputers, VAX- and SUN-based data servers, and interfaces to existing military mainframe systems and communication networks. JPL is developing the Command Center System utilizing an incremental delivery methodology called the Rapid Development Methodology with adherence to government and industry standards including the UNIX operating system, X Windows, OSF/Motif, and the Ada programming language. Through a combination of software engineering techniques specific to the Ada programming language and the Rapid Development Approach, JPL was able to deliver capability to the military user incrementally, with comparable quality and improved economies of projects developed under more traditional software intensive system implementation methodologies.

  15. The ADAS inner solar system project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Pignata, Giuliano; Barbieri, Cesare; Bertini, Ivano; Calvani, Massimo; Claudi, Riccardo; Hahn, Gerhard; Magrin, Sara; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, Gerhard

    2002-11-01

    ADAS, the Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey, is a joint program between the Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory of Padova and the DLR Berlin, dedicated to the search of asteroids. The observations are made with a 67/92 cm Schmidt Telescope on Cima Ekar, near Asiago, in northern Italy. A 2K×2K CCD camera provided by the DLR is in use, mostly in Time Delay Integration mode. The camera has a field of 0.67 square degrees and can reach a limiting magnitude V ~ 21.0 in 3 minutes of exposure time. Specific search programs, in particular for objects permanently inside the orbit of the Earth (IEOs), have been started. A simulation of the performance of the IEO survey based on the model population from Bottke et al. shows that the discovery of a one-digit number of IEOs may be possible with the layout and equipment of the ADAS survey with a couple of years of operation.

  16. Transferring data objects: A focused Ada investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sue

    1988-01-01

    The use of the Ada language does not guarantee that data objects will be in the same form or have the same value after they have been stored or transferred to another system. There are too many possible variables in such things as the formats used and other protocol conditions. Differences may occur at many different levels of support. These include program level, object level, application level, and system level. A standard language is only one aspect of making a complex system completely homogeneous. Many components must be standardized and the various standards must be integrated. The principal issues in providing for interaction between systems are of exchanging files and data objects between systems which may not be compatible in terms of their host computer, operating system or other factors. A typical resolution of the problem of invalidating data involves at least a common external form, for data objects and for representing the relationships and attributes of data collections. Some of the issues dealing with the transfer of data are listed and consideration is given on how these issues may be handled in the Ada language.

  17. The association between prune belly syndrome and dental anomalies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso Maria Daniela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare condition produced by an early mesodermal defect that causes abdominal abnormalities. However, the literature indicates that disturbances related to ectodermal development may also be present. This is the first case report in the literature to suggest that dental abnormalities are part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of prune belly syndrome. Because the syndrome causes many serious medical problems, early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions are encouraged. Case presentation The authors report the clinical case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy with prune belly syndrome. In addition to the triad of abdominal muscle deficiency, abnormalities of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, and cryptorchidism, a geminated mandibular right central incisor, agenesis of a mandibular permanent left incisor, and congenitally missing primary teeth (namely, the mandibular right and left lateral incisors were noted. Conclusion This original case report about prune belly syndrome highlights the possibility that dental abnormalities are a part of the broad spectrum of clinical features of the syndrome. Therefore, an accurate intra-oral clinical examination and radiographic evaluation are required for patients with this syndrome in order to provide an early diagnosis of abnormalities involving the primary and permanent dentitions.

  18. Periodontal conditions associated with space maintainers following two different dental health education techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Fatih; Eronat, Nesrin; Candan, Umit; Boyacioğlu, Hayal

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of fixed and removable space maintainers on periodontal status of children and to compare the efficiency of verbal and written dental health education. 52 healthy children aged between 7-10 years who will be treated with fixed or removable appliances were divided into two subgroups to whom were given verbal and written dental education. Plaque index, bleeding index and mean pocket depth scores of the teeth were recorded at baseline and 3, 6 and 9 months after application. Plaque, bleeding index and mean pocket depth scores showed significant difference in the appliance groups in the follow-ups. Plaque index scores displayed a positive correlation with the duration of both appliances. The difference between pocket depth scores were found to be significant in the follow-ups in both appliance groups while it was insignificant between education groups and significant increase in bleeding index scores was observed in both appliance groups and education techniques given. It is concluded that both removable and fixed space maintainers can result in inflammation on periodontal tissues of the children.

  19. Exposure to ionizing radiation during dental X-rays is not associated with risk of developing meningioma: a meta-analysis based on seven case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    Full Text Available Many observational studies have found that exposure to dental X-rays is associated with the risk of development of meningioma. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies. Summary odds ratio (OR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to compute the risk of meningioma development according to heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to further explore the potential heterogeneity. Finally, publication bias was assessed.Seven case-control studies involving 6,174 patients and 19,459 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Neither exposure to dental X-rays nor performance of full-mouth panorex X-rays was associated with an increased risk of development of meningioma (overall: OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.70-1.32; dental X-rays: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89-1.25; panorex X-rays: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.76-1.34. However, exposure to bitewing X-rays was associated with a slightly increased risk of development of meningioma (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.28-2.34. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.Based on the currently limited data, there is no association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the heterogeneity among studies. Additional large, high-quality clinical trials are needed to evaluate the association between exposure to dental X-rays and the risk of development of meningioma.

  20. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar Hussain; Suhail, Agha Mohammad; Malik, Abdul Razzaq; Imran, Mian Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI), by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2]) was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis), while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis). Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037) associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis.

  1. Periodontal disease status and associated risk factors in patients attending a Dental Teaching Hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigators have identified an association of socio-demographic and medical factors with periodontal risk. This study observed status and association of periodontal disease and associated risk factors/indictors. Materials and Methods: All patients attending a dental teaching hospital were interviewed for socio-demographic and medical information through a structured questionnaire. Participants were examined for periodontal status using the community periodontal index (CPI, by a single examiner during September to November 2012. An association of age, gender, smoking habit, systemic conditions, and oral hygiene measures with periodontal status ([periodontitis CPI score ≥3]/nonperiodontitis [CPI score ≤2] was analyzed by applying Chi-square test and forward selection stepwise regression analysis. Results: One thousand nine hundred and eighteen patients were examined during the study period. The findings revealed that 63.5% of the subjects had CPI score ≤2 (nonperiodontitis, while 34.5% were found with CPI score ≥3 (periodontitis. Age, gender, occupation, smoking, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stress, medications, and oral hygiene habits of using tooth powder or tooth brushing were significantly (P ≤ 0.037 associated with periodontal status. Regression analysis showed a significant association of age, occupation, and smoking with periodontitis. Conclusion: This study observed prevalence of periodontitis in one-fourth of study sample. The study confirmed various socio-demographic risk factors/indictors associated with increased risk of periodontitis.

  2. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, G; Venza, N; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Fabi, F; Danesi, C; Cozza, P

    2017-03-11

    To analyze the prevalence and associations between dental anomalies detectable on panoramic radiographs in a sample of non-orthodontic growing subjects. For this cross-sectional study, digital panoramic radiographs of 5005 subjects were initially screened from a single radiographic center in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: subjects who were aged 8-12 years, Caucasian, and had good diagnostic quality radiographs. Syndromic subjects, those with craniofacial malformation, or orthodontic patients were excluded and this led to a sample of 4706 subjects [mean (SD) age = 9.6 (1.2) years, 2366 males and 2340 females]. Sample was subsequently divided into four subgroups (8, 9, 10, and 11-12 year-old groups). Two operators examined panoramic radiographs to observe the presence of common dental anomalies. The prevalence and associations between dental anomalies were also investigated. The overall prevalence of dental anomalies was 20.9%. Approximately, 17.9% showed only one anomaly, 2.7% two anomalies, while only 0.3% had more than two anomalies. The most frequent anomalies were the displacement of maxillary canine (7.5%), hypodontia (7.1%), impacted teeth (3.9%), tooth ankylosis (2.8%), and tooth transposition (1.4%). The lower right second premolar was the most frequent missing teeth; 3.7% had only one tooth agenesis, and 0.08% had six or more missing tooth (Oligodontia). Mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (0.66%). Two subjects had taurodontic tooth (0.04%). Tooth transpositions and displacement of maxillary canine were seen in 1.4 and 7.5%, retrospectively (approximately 69 and 58% were in the 8 and 9 year-old groups, retrospectively). Significant associations were detected between the different dental anomalies (P < .05). The results of our study revealed significant associations among different dental anomalies and provide further evidences to support common etiological factors.

  3. Factores de riesgo asociados con la caries dental en niños de círculos infantiles Risk factor associated to dental caries in children from nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodríguez Llanes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los factores de riesgo asociados con la caries dental constituyen una probabilidad medible y tienen valor predictivo en la prevención de esta enfermedad que la sitúa como la principal causa de pérdida dentaria. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal para determinar el comportamiento clínico epidemiológico de los factores de riesgo de la caries dental en niños de círculos infantiles del municipio Artemisa entre abril y diciembredel 2007, con la finalidad de identificar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con la caries dental y analizar el grado de riesgo en la muestra objeto de estudio. El universo de trabajo estuvo formado por 642 infantes pertenecientes a 6 círculos infantiles y la muestra se realizó por factibilidad, en la cual se seleccionaron 2 círculos infantiles para un total de 240 infantes, los cuales se agruparon atendiendo a la edad, sexo, prevalencia de caries dental y factores de riesgo mayormente asociados, así como el grado de riesgo. Se realizó un formulario que incluía el interrogatorio a padres y/o tutores y el examen bucal a los niños en las mismas instituciones, aplicando en cada caso el índice ceo-d. Entre los principales resultados se destaca, que el 80 % de los niños se encontraban libres de caries, que los factores de riesgo que más incidieron fueron la dieta cariogénica y la higiene bucal deficiente y que más del 80 % de la muestra posee un bajo riesgo a caries. Se concluye que la prevalencia de caries dental en estas instituciones es baja, a pesar de la influencia de factores de riesgo que condicionan la aparición de la enfermedad.Risk factors associated to dental caries are a measurable likelihood and also a predictive value in prevention of this condition, which is the major cause of teeth loss. We made a cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study to determine the clinicoepidemiologic behavior of risk factors of dental caries in children from

  4. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72% and male (59% children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%, the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%. However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  5. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content.

  6. The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Narasimhan, Malathi; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Aruna, Rita Mary; Kuruvilah, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Context: There are various regions in India that have high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. Many people residing in such places suffer from dental fluorosis (DF). Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of DF in children residing in Salem and also to find any correlation between DF and other related factors. Materials and Methods: One school from each block of Salem (total 21 blocks) was selected for the study. A single examiner had evaluated untreated caries, lesions, and DF (for permanent anterior teeth and molars) using the Dean's fluorosis index, in all children. Water fluoride level determination at each school was done using the Tamil Nadu Water Fluoridation and Drainage Board field kit. Other factors that may have contributed to DF were assessed using a questionnaire, which was provided to each student. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 11.5. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: DF was present in 56.9% of the children examined. It was mostly seen in 9 years old (72%) and male (59%) children. A positive correlation was found between the occurrence of DF and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content, consumption of borewell water (64%), the parts per million of fluoride in drinking water, consumption of black tea (59%). However, no correlation was found between DF, dental caries, consumption of milk, or consumption of foods cooked in aluminum vessels. Conclusion: There was a correlation between DF and factors such as male gender, bore well water consumption, black tea consumption and the duration of residence in a place with high water fluoride content. PMID:27307668

  7. 59 FR- Realty Action; Ada and Owyhee, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-03

    ...-332A-02; IDI-29516] Realty Action; Ada and Owyhee, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action--IDI-29516; Exchange of public and private lands in Ada and Owyhee.... Containing 640 acres, more or less, in Owyhee County. The purpose of this exchange is to dispose of...

  8. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at various highway facilities. To this end, the traffic management centers identify the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set that enables the maximum improvement of the traffic safety and mobility performance, and broadcast the optimal parameter set wirelessly to individual ADAS-equipped vehicles. After adopting the optimal parameter set, the ADAS-equipped drivers become active agents in the traffic stream that work collectively and consistently to prevent traffic conflicts, lower the intensity of traffic disturbances, and suppress the development of traffic oscillations into heavy traffic jams. Successful implementation of this objective requires the analysis capability of capturing the impact of the ADAS on driving behaviors, and measuring traffic safety and mobility performance under the influence of the ADAS. To address this challenge, this research proposes a synthetic methodology that incorporates the ADAS-affected driving behavior modeling and state-of-the-art microscopic traffic flow modeling into a virtually simulated environment. Building on such an environment, the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set is identified through an optimization programming framework to enable th

  9. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  10. Ada (Trademark) Tasking and Exceptions: A Formal Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    handlerjist exception- bandler -jead sequence...of-statements E14) exceptionjiandlerjlist -. exceptionji andler..head sequence..of..statements E15...Weatherly, Richard M., A Messale-Based Kernel to Support Ada Tasking, Proceedings of the IEEE Computer 06; Society 1984 Conference on Ada

  11. Service dogs, psychiatric hospitalization, and the ADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Russ S; Thomas, Kelly Jones; Leong, Stephanie L; Ragukonis, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A service dog is defined as "any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability." Some psychiatric patients may depend on a service dog for day-to-day functioning. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) established certain rights and responsibilities for individuals with disabilities and health care providers. Psychiatric hospitalization of a patient with a service dog may pose a problem and involves balancing the requirement to provide safe and appropriate psychiatric care with the rights of individuals with disabilities. This Open Forum examines issues that arise in such circumstances, reviews the literature, and provides a foundation for the development of policies and procedures.

  12. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baby John

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups. Design and methods. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal, Tiruchengode (suburban and Erode (urban, Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT, decayed and filled teeth (dft and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent’s education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. Results. The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001 between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001 in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018 in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents’ income. Conclusions. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents’ educational

  13. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik; von Platen-Hallermund, Frants; Sckerl, Halfdan; Carlsen, Anders; Larsen, M Joost; Poulsen, Sven

    2010-06-01

    To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlations, adjusting for gender and taxable family income as a proxy variable for socioeconomic status.   Fluoride concentration in drinking water varied considerably within the country from very low (Dental caries in both 5-year-olds and 15-year-olds decreased over the study period. An inverse relation between the risk of dental caries and fluoride concentration in drinking water was found in both primary and permanent teeth. The risk was reduced by approximately 20% already at the lowest level of fluoride exposure (0.125-0.25mg/l). At the highest level of fluoride exposure (>1 mg/l), a reduction of approximately 50% was found. Similar findings were found if analysis was limited to children residing in the same place during the entire study period. The study confirmed previous findings of an inverse relation between fluoride concentration in the drinking water and dental caries in children. This correlation was found in spite of the extensive use of fluoridated toothpaste and caries-preventive programs implemented by the municipal dental services in Denmark. Linking Danish health registers with environmental and administrative registers offers an opportunity for obtaining sample sizes large enough to identify health effect, which otherwise could not be identified. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. History of dental hygiene research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  15. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...

  16. Systemic disorders affecting dental pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a congenital dental developmental disorders, (b chromosomal anomalies, (c radiations, (d immune disorders, (e intoxications, (f neurological alterations, (g gastrointestinal diseases, (h osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i skin diseases, (j metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital general malformations. The associated dental pathology is described in each case.

  17. [The Bambuí Project: a population-based study of factors associated with regular utilization of dental services in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, D L; Lima-Costa, M F; Guerra, H L; Marcenes, W

    2001-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bambuí, Minas Gerais, to identify factors associated with regular use of dental services. Participants were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and previously validated questions. 999/1,221 (81.8%) randomly selected individuals aged > 18 years participated in the Bambuí dental survey. Of these, 654 out of 656 individuals who had at least one natural tooth and had visited a dentist during their lifetime participated in the study. Results adjusted by multiple logistic regression showed that regular use of dental services was significantly related to having > 8 and 4-7 years of schooling (OR = 9.90; 95% CI = 2.90-33.77 and OR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.11-13.51, respectively), having a preference for restorative treatment rather than extraction (OR = 4.91; 95% CI = 2.23-10.79), having no present need of dental treatment (OR = 4.87; 95% CI = 3.17-7.49), and belief that visiting the dentist prevents tooth decay and gum disease (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.13-2.65). The results show that regular use of dental services was related to factors distributed in the Andersen and Newman model (1973) explaining use of dentistry services.

  18. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in high school adolescents in Jeddah and the association of obesity association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema Jamil; Elkhodary, Heba Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight/obesity in children in Saudi Arabia is among the highest in the world. The prevalence of dental caries is also high in Saudi children. Studies on the relationship between caries and obesity in Saudi adolescents are lacking. To study the prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents, and determine any association between obesity and caries. An analytical cross-sectional study. Private and public schools in Jeddah. The study sample comprised high school children from public and private schools selected by multistage stratified random sampling. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) were measured for all children, who were then classified as underweight/normal, overweight, or obese according to their BMI values, and nonobese or obese according to their WC values. The presence of caries was assessed using the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors criteria. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and the association of obesity with the number of decayed permanent teeth. 801 high school children (48% boys, 49% from public schools) with a mean (SD) age of 16.5 (0.9) years. When the BMI classification was used, 24%, 16%, and 60% adolescents were obese, overweight, and underweight/normal, respectively. When the WC classification was used, 19% and 81% were obese and nonobese, respectively. Obesity was more prevalent in boys and in students attending private schools (P caries in the permanent dentition was not associated with BMI or WC. It was difficult to establish temporality in this cross-sectional study. Data on common risk factors were not adjusted for in the analyses.

  19. In Vitro Acid-Mediated Initial Dental Enamel Loss Is Associated with Genetic Variants Previously Linked to Caries Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Bayram, Merve; Seymen, Figen; Sencak, Regina C.; Lippert, Frank; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variation and expression in whole saliva are associated with caries experience suggesting that these genes may have a functional role in protecting against caries. To further explore these results, we tested ex vivo if variants in these genes are associated with subclinical dental enamel mineral loss. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 53 individuals. Enamel samples were analyzed for Knoop hardness of sound enamel, integrated mineral loss after subclinical carious lesion creation, and change in integrated mineral loss after remineralization. DNA samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare individuals above and below the mean sound enamel microhardness of the cohort with alpha of 0.05. The A allele of BTF3 rs6862039 appears to be associated with harder enamel at baseline (p = 0.09), enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.01), and enamel that more efficiently regain mineral and remineralize (p = 0.04). Similarly, the G allele of AQP5 marker rs3759129 and A allele of AQP5 marker rs296763 are associated with enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variations influence the initial subclinical stages of caries lesion formation in the subsurface of enamel. PMID:28275354

  20. In Vitro Acid-Mediated Initial Dental Enamel Loss Is Associated with Genetic Variants Previously Linked to Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Bayram, Merve; Seymen, Figen; Sencak, Regina C; Lippert, Frank; Modesto, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variation and expression in whole saliva are associated with caries experience suggesting that these genes may have a functional role in protecting against caries. To further explore these results, we tested ex vivo if variants in these genes are associated with subclinical dental enamel mineral loss. DNA and enamel samples were obtained from 53 individuals. Enamel samples were analyzed for Knoop hardness of sound enamel, integrated mineral loss after subclinical carious lesion creation, and change in integrated mineral loss after remineralization. DNA samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan chemistry. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare individuals above and below the mean sound enamel microhardness of the cohort with alpha of 0.05. The A allele of BTF3 rs6862039 appears to be associated with harder enamel at baseline (p = 0.09), enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.01), and enamel that more efficiently regain mineral and remineralize (p = 0.04). Similarly, the G allele of AQP5 marker rs3759129 and A allele of AQP5 marker rs296763 are associated with enamel more resistant to demineralization (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively). AQP5 and BTF3 genetic variations influence the initial subclinical stages of caries lesion formation in the subsurface of enamel.

  1. Dental health state utility values associated with tooth loss in two contrasting cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassani, M Z; Locker, D; Elmesallati, A A; Devlin, H; Mohammadi, T M; Hajizamani, A; Kay, E J

    2009-08-01

    The study aimed to assess the value placed on oral health states by measuring the utility of mouths in which teeth had been lost and to explore variations in utility values within and between two contrasting cultures, UK and Iran. One hundred and fifty eight patients, 84 from UK and 74 from Iran, were recruited from clinics at University-based faculties of dentistry. All had experienced tooth loss and had restored or unrestored dental spaces. They were presented with 19 different scenarios of mouths with missing teeth. Fourteen involved the loss of one tooth and five involved shortened dental arches (SDAs) with varying numbers of missing posterior teeth. Each written description was accompanied by a verbal explanation and digital pictures of mouth models. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized Visual Analogue Scale how they would value the health of their mouth if they had lost the tooth/teeth described and the resulting space was left unrestored. With a utility value of 0.0 representing the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 representing the best, the mouth with the upper central incisor missing attracted the lowest utility value in both samples (UK = 0.16; Iran = 0.06), while the one with a missing upper second molar the highest utility values (0.42, 0.39 respectively). In both countries the utility value increased as the tooth in the scenario moved from the anterior towards the posterior aspect of the mouth. There were significant differences in utility values between UK and Iranian samples for four scenarios all involving the loss of anterior teeth. These differences remained after controlling for gender, age and the state of the dentition. With respect to the SDA scenarios, a mouth with a SDA with only the second molar teeth missing in all quadrants attracted the highest utility values, while a mouth with an extreme SDA with both missing molar and premolar teeth in all quadrants attracted the lowest utility values. The study

  2. Challenges associated with the evaluation of a dental health promotion programme in a deprived urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G M; Duxbury, J T; Boothman, N J; Davies, R M

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a community trial to measure the clinical impact of a linked series of interventions on Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and general caries levels among five-year-old children. It exemplifies the problems of undertaking population based interventions in deprived communities. Two health districts (Primary Care Groups) were matched for dental disease levels and socio-demographic factors. One was randomly allocated to be the active intervention PCG, the other the comparison PCG. Children in the active PCG received a series of interventions to support positive dental health behaviour from the age of 8 to 32 months. Clinical examinations were undertaken on a cohort of 5-year-old children in both active and comparison PCGs. In the active PCG, children who attended designated clinics for their 8-month developmental checks and/or MMR inoculations at 12 to 15 months, were given gift bags, the first contained a trainer cup, the second fluoride toothpaste (1450 ppm F) and toothbrush. Parents were also given written, pictorial and verbal advice on oral care. Further supplies of toothpaste and brushes were posted to the children's homes at 20, 26 and 32 months. When five years of age children in the two PCGs were examined in school. Severity and prevalence of ECC and general caries. Levels of participation. Among participants in the active PCG the prevalence of ECC, general caries and extraction experience and mean dmft (20%: 54%: 3%: 2.2) were lower than in 'participants' in the comparison area (32%: 64%: 12%: 3.7). All differences were statistically significant. When all children (participants and non-participants) in the two PCGs were compared, the differences were much reduced (30%: 63%: 6%: 3.1 vs. 32%: 64%: 12%: 3.6). A higher proportion of children in the active PCG area (47%) were found not to have participated in the interventions, when compared to 21% in the comparison area. Disease levels in the non-participants in the active PCG were

  3. Dental caries and the associated factors influencing it in tribal, suburban and urban school children of Tamil Nadu, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J Baby; Asokan, Sharath; Aswanth, K P; Priya, P R Geetha; Shanmugaavel, A K

    2015-02-20

    The study was planned to assess the prevalence of dental caries among tribal, suburban and urban children of Tiruchengode and Erode of Tamil Nadu state, India. The objective of the study was to assess the association of dental caries with family background, dental service availability, transportation and knowledge on preventive dental measures among these three groups. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1028 school children in the age range of 9-12 years from various government schools located in Palamalai and Kolli Hills (tribal), Tiruchengode (suburban) and Erode (urban), Tamil Nadu, were included in the study. Decayed, filled, and missing teeth (DMFT), decayed and filled teeth (dft) and Significant Caries Index were recorded. A specially prepared questionnaire was used to record all the data regarding oral hygiene practices, socioeconomic background, dental treatment availability, parent's education level were used for the study. ANOVA t-test and post hoc test were used for comparing quantitative variables between the 3 subgroups. The tribal school children had 89.3% caries prevalence, where as it was 77% in suburban and 55% in urban school children. The mean DMFT score among tribal, suburban and urban school children were statistically significant different (P=0.001) between the three groups. There was a highly significant difference (P=0.001) in the mean DMFT score based on brushing frequency. There was a statistically significant difference (P=0.018) in the mean DMFT scores in the urban group based on the mothers education status. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DMFT scores based on the presence or absence of television in their house and the parents' income. Oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and access to dental care services played an important role in prevalence of dental caries. It was observed that the socioeconomic status, parents' educational status and mass media influenced the oral health of these children but

  4. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  5. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  6. Dental Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips ... offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > Data & Statistics > Find Data by Topic > Dental Sealants Dental Sealants ...

  7. Dental Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Dental Assistants PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Dental Assistants Do About this section Assistants prepare and ...

  8. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  9. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  10. Association of Traumatic Dental Injuries with Individual-, Sociodemographic- and School-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children’s sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother’s level of schooling, and the schools’ type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2–19.4; enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%. In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments.

  11. Asociación del Estreptococos mutans y lactobacilos con la caries dental en niños Association of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli with dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Pérez Quiñones

    2007-12-01

    lactobacilli, respectively, which showed a positive association between dental caries and these variables.

  12. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  13. Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, L; Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Broffitt, B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience of primary second molars. The study sample was 491 subjects who received dental examinations at both age 5 and 9 by the calibrated examiners. Four primary second molars (n = 1,892) were scored for the presence of enamel hypoplasia for each participant. Caries presence and number of decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) were determined at age 5 and 9. The relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience were assessed. Among primary second molars, 3.9% of children and 1.7% of primary second molars had enamel hypoplasia. At age 5, 36.8% of children with hypoplasia had caries, while 16.9% of children without enamel hypoplasia had caries. At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 52.6% for children with hypoplasia and 34.5% for children without hypoplasia, respectively. At the tooth level, for age 5, 28.1% of teeth with hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.40), and 7.6% of teeth without hypoplasia had caries (mean dfs = 0.11). At age 9, the corresponding numbers were 41.9% (mean dfs = 0.76) for teeth with hypoplasia and 18.3% (mean dfs = 0.34) for teeth without hypoplasia. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, teeth of subjects with enamel hypoplasia had a significantly higher risk for caries at age 5 and 9 after controlling for other risk factors. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries and should be considered in caries risk assessment.

  14. Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.

  15. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordeus Isabela A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic dental injury (TDI could have physical and psychosocial consequences for children. Thus, it is important to measure the impact of TDI on the quality of life of children (QoL. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between treated/untreated TDI and the impact on the quality of life of 11-to-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1612 male and female schoolchildren aged 11 to 14 years attending public and private elementary schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the children. Three calibrated examiners used the Andreasen classification for the diagnosis of TDI. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14 - Impact Short Form (ISF:16, composed of 16 items and self-administered by all children. Other oral conditions (dental caries and malocclusion and the Social Vulnerability Index were determined and used as controlling variables. Results Two hundred nineteen children were diagnosed with untreated TDI and 64 were diagnosed with treated TDI. There were no statistically significant associations between untreated or treated TDI and overall CPQ11-14 (Fisher = 0.368 and Fisher = 0.610, respectively. Children with an untreated TDI were 1.4-fold (95% CI = 1.1-2.1 more likely to report impact on the item "avoided smiling/laughing" than those without TDI, whereas children with a treated TDI were twofold (95% CI = 1.1-3.5 more likely to report impact on the item "other children asked questions" than those without TDI. Conclusions Neither treated nor untreated TDI was associated with oral symptoms, functional limitations or emotional wellbeing. However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being

  16. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010.METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075, and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index. The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated.RESULTS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%, mild (4.4%, moderate (2.6%, and severe (0.5%. No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  17. Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Goiânia, Goiás.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, Daniela Nobre; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of dental fluorosis, to investigate its association with individual and contextual variables among 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to determine whether there were changes in the prevalence of this condition from 2003 to 2010. This cross-sectional study used data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Goiás, in 2010 (n = 2,075), and secondary data from the files of the local health authority. Clinical data were collected through oral examinations in public and private schools. The dependent variable was the presence of dental fluorosis, assessed using the Dean Index. The independent individual variables were sociodemographic characteristics (the child's gender and race, and the mother's level of schooling) and those related to clinical conditions (caries experience, evaluated using Decayed, Missing, and Filled teeth index; and presence of periodontal calculus and/or bleeding, evaluated using Community Periodontal Index). The contextual variables were linked to the school (type and existence of toothbrushing program) and its geographic location in the city's health districts. The Rao-Scott test was performed, and the percentage difference between the prevalences in the period from 2003 to 2010 was calculated. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 2010 was 18.7%, being distributed as very mild (11.2%), mild (4.4%), moderate (2.6%), and severe (0.5%). No significant association was found between prevalence of dental fluorosis and the investigated variables. The prevalence of fluorosis increased 230% from 2003 to 2010, and such difference was significant. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was low, predominantly of the very mild degree, has increased over a 7-year period, and was not associated with the individual or contextual factors studied.

  18. QUEST/Ada (Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada): The development of a prgram analysis environment for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of research and development efforts are described for Task one, Phase two of a general project entitled The Development of a Program Analysis Environment for Ada. The scope of this task includes the design and development of a prototype system for testing Ada software modules at the unit level. The system is called Query Utility Environment for Software Testing of Ada (QUEST/Ada). The prototype for condition coverage provides a platform that implements expert system interaction with program testing. The expert system can modify data in the instrument source code in order to achieve coverage goals. Given this initial prototype, it is possible to evaluate the rule base in order to develop improved rules for test case generation. The goals of Phase two are the following: (1) to continue to develop and improve the current user interface to support the other goals of this research effort (i.e., those related to improved testing efficiency and increased code reliable); (2) to develop and empirically evaluate a succession of alternative rule bases for the test case generator such that the expert system achieves coverage in a more efficient manner; and (3) to extend the concepts of the current test environment to address the issues of Ada concurrency.

  19. Ada 9X Project Report, A Study of Implementation-Dependent Pragmas and Attributes in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    line. The link option files may be entered into the XD ACS library and modified without the need for pro - gram recompilation. The use of ACS option...to the declarative part of a machine code procedure. The pro - gram must make use of the system package MACHINECODE for this purpose. Implicit code is...Appendix F) Rational M1 750a Version 2.0.122 R1000, D 10 9 1 1750a host Mikros MKS 1750/S0, bare machine Validation Summary Report, Appendix B (Ada RM

  20. [An analysis of the prevalence of isolated dental anomalies and of those associated with hereditary syndromes: a model for evaluating the genetic control of the dentition characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, T

    1993-06-01

    Tooth ontogenesis, morphogenesis, and eruption are under a multifactorial (genetic, epigenetic, environmental) control. The aim of this study has been a genetic appraisal of tooth developmental characteristics by means of the prevalence and patterns of association of tooth anomalies in a large sample of hereditary syndromes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A sample of 169 hereditary syndromes exhibiting tooth abnormalities was collected from the literature: original articles were controlled in order to achieve uniformity of judgement about the definition of the dental defects. Tooth anomalies were classified according to anatomoclinical criteria: number (hypodontia/hyperdontia), shape, position, structure (enamel/dentin/cementum), size (micro-/macrodontism), eruption (precocious/delayed including unerupted teeth). Prevalence data were calculated for: 1) modes of syndrome inheritance; 2) syndromes exhibiting a single dental anomaly vs. syndromes exhibiting associated tooth abnormalities; 3) different types of tooth abnormalities; 4) isolated and associated tooth abnormalities.

  1. Latvian PR people are world class / Ada Parr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parr, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Suhtekorraldusfirma Porter Novelli rahvusvahelise partnerluse juht suhtekorralduse osatähtsuse kasvust ettevõtete äritegevuses, suhtekorraldusturu olukorrast ja teenuste kvaliteedi tasemest Baltimaades. Vt. samas: Ada Parr recommends

  2. On some key features of Ada : Language and programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrum, R. P.; Hoyer, W.; Dießl, G.

    1986-08-01

    The present paper focuses upon those aspects of the Ada language whose purpose is to support the discipline of software engineering. It illustrates the use of Ada features for various forms of abstraction, separate compilation, exception handling and tasking and highlights the importance of separating the definition of a module interface from its implementation. It demonstrates the use of the package concept to realize information hiding, data encapsulation and abstract data types. Some key aspects of Ada numerics are dealt with briefly. The paper continues by providing an overview of the Ada programming environments, their history and their relationship to the CAIS interface. Finally, the special importance of the interactive debugger within such an environment is presented.

  3. Latvian PR people are world class / Ada Parr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parr, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Suhtekorraldusfirma Porter Novelli rahvusvahelise partnerluse juht suhtekorralduse osatähtsuse kasvust ettevõtete äritegevuses, suhtekorraldusturu olukorrast ja teenuste kvaliteedi tasemest Baltimaades. Vt. samas: Ada Parr recommends

  4. The Comparison Flow of Four Impression Compounds (Green Stick with ADA Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mir Mohammad Rezaei

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Low- fusing compound (type 1 is used for border molding and impressions. Flow and reproducibility of surface detail are two important characteristics of these materials. There are no valid data available comparing domestic and imported brands.Purpose: The Purpose of this study was to evaluate these two properties of four different products including Kerr (Kerr Manufacture MI 98174-2600, Harvard (Hoffman Harvard Dental GMb H Germany; Kymia (Kymia dental company 713 Iran; and Pishro (Pishro72534 Iran.Materials and Methods: All procedures were followed according to ADA and BSStandard.Total number of 48 samples were divided into 8 groups (6 in each group.Twenty disks were fabricated for impression tests. The specimen dimensions were 40 mm (diameter and 6mm (thickness. Standard test blocks were used to test the specimens.Results: The Willcoxon test showed significant difference in flow rate between materials tested with the best result for Kerr (P<0.05. Kerr flow was 85% and under 5% at 45°C and 37°C, respectively. There were great deviations from standards value at 45°C. For the rest of the samples at 37°C; except Kymia the flow rate for 3 materials (Kerr; Harvard Pishrowere almost acceptable. The impression test results revealed that only Kerr was able torecord the details at 45°C.Conclusion: Kerr flow is exactly what ADA standards specify. But the flow rate for three materials exhibit a great distance from these standards. In impression test only Kerr was able to record the details

  5. Survey of Ada (Trademark)-Based PDLs (Program Design Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Jane Stoughton Tel: 602-721-0500 PDL Identification: Byron Organization: Intermetrics, Inc. 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 Contact: Barbara...827-9519 Organization: BTO Technical Operations 6365 East Tanque Verde Suite 200 Tucson, AZ 85717 PDL Identification: Bell Ada PDL Contact: Mary Jane ...a Related Syntax for an Ada POL," Mayda Software Engineering. iii) Nancy May Linden, "CASPOMAT - an Automated Teller System," and tool input and

  6. Considerations for the design of Ada reusable packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nise, Norman S.; Giffin, Chuck

    1986-01-01

    Two important considerations that precede the design of Ada reusable packages (commonality and programming standards) are discuessed. First, the importance of designing packages to yield widespread commonality is expressed. A means of measuring the degree of applicability of packages both within and across applications areas is presented. Design consideration that will improve commonality are also discussed. Second, considerations for the development of programming standards are set forth. These considerations will lead to standards that will improve the reusability of Ada packages.

  7. Evaluation of Ada as a Communications Programming Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-31

    drastically, altered or circumvented to provide a communicatin system with sufficient resources to operate at a required level of performance. 3.3.1.2...Command (CORADCO4) and standard Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 system * software. Plans include the hosting of Ada/ED on the VAX 11/780 at the... Corporation , Bedford, MA, August, 1978. b. /LOGl79a/ LOGICON, "Formal Specification of GUARD Trusted Software (Draft)," ARPA-78C032303, September, 1979

  8. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  9. Las drogas diseñadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Alvarado Vargas

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez cobra más fuerza la clasificación de las drogas que las divide en psictrópicos y estupefacientes y en Costa Rica se ha añadido la sustancia inhalable. Se hace una ligera definición sobre lo que es una droga y la diferencia con las sustancias indispensables para el organismo como son el agua, el oxígeno y los alimentos las cuales son necesarias para el mismo. En el mundo cada vez es mayor el número de estas sustancias fiscalizadas, y que es considerada una acción delictiva en determinadas ocasiones. Convenios internacionales que deben ser ratificados por las naciones exige que se especifique previamente el objeto material del Delito. Las Drogas Diseñadas son aquellas que por algún cambio realizado en un laboratorio sobre su molécula, tienen los efectos muchas veces superiores a la droga madre, pero que por no estar en la lista de drogas fiscalizadas en el momento de aparición de la misma, va permitiendo que, mientras se agrega a la lista de las mencionadas drogas fiscalizadas, estos actos queden impunes con gran daño por la Salud Pública y del individuo durante mucho tiempo. Costa Rica no escapa de esta realidad por lo que el "narcotraficante" siempre irá adelante con nuevas drogas diseñadas causando grandes estragos, mientras las mismas poco a poco se van incluyendo en la lista de sustancias fiscalizadas. Se hace mención sobre posibles soluciones, entre ellas está incluir en las listas de los convenios internacionales, decretos y reglamentos, nueva terminología que incluya las posibles variaciones de las moléculas de las sustancias fiscalizadas.Every time takes greater force the clasification of drugs, which are divided in psichotropics and stupefacients, and in Costa Rica a new classification has been added: inhalable sustances. A light definition of what a drug is and the difference between the indispensable sustances for the organism like the water, oxigen and food which are necesary for life.Every time the number

  10. Comparison of dermatoglyphic traits and dental anomalies associated with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate patients with normal healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatoglyphics are considered as a window of congenital abnormalities and is known to be one of the best available diagnostic tools in genetic disorders. Objective: The present study was conducted to observe and compare the differences in the dermatoglyphic patterns between cleft lip/palate (CL/P and normal healthy children and evaluate their associated dental findings. Setting: This is a cross-sectional prevalence study in which dermatoglyphic patterns and dental anomalies of 90 (CL/P and normal healthy children aged 0-15 years were recorded under standard conditions of seating and lighting. Materials and Methods: Dermatoglyphic traits were recorded using ink stamp pad method. Dental findings were recorded through clinical and radiographic examination. Results: The most frequently seen dermatoglyphic trait in the study and control group was loops followed by whorls and arches. A highly significant (P < 0.001 difference between loops in the study and control group and statistically significant difference in the whorls (P = 0.001 were found using Student′s t-test. The comparison of dental anomalies was accomplished using Chi-square test and hypodontia (50% was seen maximum in cleft patients. Conclusion: Any deviation in dermatoglyphics features indicates a genetic etiology.

  11. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  12. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  13. Ada Dual-Use Summary: Ada Dual-Use Workshop Held in Vienna, Virginia on October 19-20, 1993. Ada Dual-Use Committee Briefing, November 8, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-29

    the maintnance cost with the development cost = I believe Ada will prove more cost -effective. The stndard accoutting practie established by the...1993- Our Current Strategy 7I Build engineered products, high reuse and low support costs . 71 Joint ventures for Ada products o Strategies: Ada...DISA and the Serviccs). 3. Current marketing efforts should be expanded to increase Ada awareness and appeal to commercial firms (Office ot Primary

  14. SYSTEMIC DISORDERS AFFECTING DENTAL PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic R. Milan; Andjelic S. Gordana; Knezevic M. Milena

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a) congenital dental developmental disorders, (b) chromosomal anomalies, (c) radiations, (d) immune disorders, (e) intoxications, (f) neurological alterations, (g) gastrointestinal diseases, (h) osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i) skin diseases, (j) metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k) craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital g...

  15. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  16. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  17. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Muoio, Maria Rosaria; Westermann, Claudia; Nienhaus, Albert; Arnese, Antonio; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Crispino, Vincenzo; Coppola, Nicola; De Rosa, Alfredo

    2017-03-04

    To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Italian dental students exposed to the same occupational risks as dental health care personnel and to evaluate potential risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate and postgraduate students. After clinical evaluation, students were given a tuberculin skin test; in those found positive, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) was conducted. Of the 281 students enrolled, 10 were only TST positive; 8 were TST or/and IGRA positive. We found that participants testing positive at TST and/or IGRA, a group in which the risk of false LTBI positives is minimal, were older and had been studying longer. Although the prevalence of LTBI among dental students in our study was low, a risk of acquiring a work-related infection exists even in a country with a low incidence of TB. Thus, dental students should be screened to catch LTBI early on.

  18. Dental caries risk indicators in early childhood and their association with caries polarization in adolescence: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemaitiene, Migle; Grigalauskiene, Ruta; Andruskeviciene, Vilija; Matulaitiene, Zivile Kristina; Zubiene, Jurate; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle

    Based on the hypothesis that biological and social risks accumulate during life, it is important to identify possible dental caries risk indicators from the life course of early childhood and assess...

  19. Managing xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction: executive summary of a report from the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemons, Jacqueline M; Al-Hashimi, Ibtisam; Marek, Cindy L

    2014-08-01

    Xerostomia, also known as "dry mouth," is a common but frequently overlooked condition that is typically associated with salivary gland hypofunction, which is the objective measurement of reduced salivary flow. Patients with dry mouth exhibit symptoms of variable severity that are commonly attributed to medication use, chronic disease and medical treatment, such as radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Chronic xerostomia significantly increases the risk of experiencing dental caries, demineralization, tooth sensitivity, candidiasis and other oral diseases that may affect quality of life negatively. This article presents a multidisciplinary approach to the clinical management of xerostomia, consistent with the findings of published systematic reviews on this key clinical issue. Initial evaluation of patients with dry mouth should include a detailed health history to facilitate early detection and identify underlying causes. Comprehensive evaluation, diagnostic testing and periodic assessment of salivary flow, followed by corrective actions, may help prevent significant oral disease. A systematic approach to xerostomia management can facilitate interdisciplinary patient care, including collaboration with physicians regarding systemic conditions and medication use. Comprehensive management of xerostomia and hyposalivation should emphasize patient education and lifestyle modifications. It also should focus on various palliative and preventive measures, including pharmacological treatment with salivary stimulants, topical fluoride interventions and the use of sugar-free chewing gum to relieve dry-mouth symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.

  20. The effect of lysophosphatidic acid and Rho-associated kinase patterning on adhesion of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R; Shao, M-Y; Yang, H; Cheng, L; Wang, F-M; Zhou, X-D; Hu, T

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and the Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway on adhesion of dental pulp cells (DPCs). Human DPCs were cultured ex vivo. After treatment of LPA and Y-27632, a specific ROCK inhibitor, changes in focal contacts (FCs) were examined by immunofluorescent staining. Activation of FCs proteins was examined by measuring tyrosine 397 phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin using immunoblotting. The data were analysed by Student's t-test. The immunofluorescent staining indicated LPA stimulation induced larger focal adhesion in the cell periphery, compared with the control. Inhibition of ROCK by Y-27632 decreased the formation of FCs markedly, even in the LPA-stimulated cells. LPA also increased the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin at 30min (P<0.05) and FAK at 5 and 30min (P<0.05). Furthermore, p-paxillin levels declined immediately after Y-27632 treatment and remained low at 5, 30, 60min. Y-27632 also suppressed the effects of LPA on p-paxillin and p-FAK at 5 and 30min (P<0.05). LPA activated Rho and then subsequently activated ROCK, suggesting that LPA influences the FCs of DPCs by modulating tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin via the Rho/ROCK pathway. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction and its association with malocclusion in children and adolescents: an epidemiologic study related to specified stages of dental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilander, Birgit; Rubio, Guillermo; Pena, Lucia; de Mayorga, Clara

    2002-04-01

    A sample of 4724 children (2353 girls and 2371 boys) (5-17 years old) were grouped not only by chronological age but also by stage of dental development (deciduous, early mixed, late mixed, and permanent dentition). The registrations included functional occlusion (anterior and lateral sliding, interferences), dental wear, mandibular mobility (maximal opening, deflection), and temporomandibular joint and muscular pain recorded by palpation. Headache was the only symptom of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) reported by the children. The results showed that one or more clinical signs were recorded in 25% of the subjects, most of them being mild in character. The prevalences increased during the developmental stages. Girls were in general more affected than boys. Significant associations were found between different signs, and TMD was associated with posterior crossbite, anterior open bite, Angle Class III malocclusion, and extreme maxillary overjet.

  2. A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge involving a case of dysphagia in association with cervical osteophytosis and a dental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Dable, Rajani A; Wasnik, Pradnya B.; Sunilkumar L Nagmode; Mukkaram Faridi Ali

    2013-01-01

    Herein, presenting a case of a 42-year-old female with the chief complaint of dysphagia. The problem was assumed to be of dental origin, due to the onset of dental pain followed by dysphagia. A cervical radiograph revealed the presence of osteophytic lipping which proved to be the cause of dysphagia. Confusing and overlapping disease entities showing similar symptoms need thorough investigation. Dysphagia related to cervical spondylosis may have a direct connection with the person′s occupatio...

  3. Remolding Diversified Objects in Ada95: Toward A-Object Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ada provides full capacities of supporting object-orientation,but the diversified objects patterned in Ada are so intricate that Ada95's aim would be demolished. In order to complement the disfigurement that Ada does lack for a pr istine notion of class, this paper presents a remolded object pattern known as A -object, an Ada-based class description language A-ObjAda aiming at support f or A-object pattern and the related approach for key algorithms and implementation . In consequent, A-ObjAda hereby promotes Ada with highlighted object-orientati on , which not only effectively exploits the capacities in Ada95, but also rational ly hides befuddling concepts from Ada95.

  4. Factors associated with the risk of caries development after comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Tin Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study has shown that SM count and CRA score were associated with new caries development in ECC children who needed to be treated under general anesthesia. The modified Cariogram used in this study is another significant tool for predicting new carries development in this particular population.

  5. 口腔牙菌斑与呼吸机相关性肺炎的关系%Relationship of dental plaque and ventilator associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟良; 王凌伟; 吴伟元; 陶维华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of dental plaque and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.Methods A total of 30 patients with VAP who were admitted into the intensive care unit of hospital were selected.Dental plaques and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF)samples from patients were cultured,the bacteria from the BALF and dental plaques were identified and homology analysis was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.Results Aerobic bacteria were cultured from 22 dental plaques of 30 patients,including 1 5 patients with equal to or greater than 2 kinds of bacteria;aerobic bacteria were cultured from 1 7 BALF samples.The proportion of gram-negative bacteria was higher than that of gram-positive bacteria isolating from both the dental plaques and BALF samples.Bacteria from 10 BALF samples showed highly homologous with those of dental plaques samples.Conclusion Dental plaques are closely related to VAP and may serve as important reservoir for respiratory pathogens in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.%目的:探讨机械通气患者口腔牙菌斑与呼吸机相关性肺炎(VAP)的关系。方法选择我院重症监护病房行机械通气后并发 VAP 的30例患者,同时取其口腔牙菌斑和肺泡灌洗液进行培养,并进行细菌鉴定和同源性分析。结果30例患者中有22例的牙菌斑能培养出需氧细菌,其中15例的牙菌斑培养出的需氧菌≥2种;17例患者的肺泡灌洗液能培养出需氧细菌。牙菌斑和肺泡灌洗液培养出的革兰阴性菌的比例均高于革兰阳性菌。17个肺泡灌洗液样本中有10个和自身牙菌斑所培养出来的细菌具有高度同源性。结论口腔牙菌斑与 VAP 的发生密切相关,可能是机械通气患者呼吸道病原体的一个重要来源。

  6. AdaNET phase 0 support for the AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) management system prototype. Catalog of available reusable software components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The Ada Software Repository is a public-domain collection of Ada software and information. The Ada Software Repository is one of several repositories located on the SIMTEL20 Defense Data Network host computer at White Sands Missile Range, and available to any host computer on the network since 26 November 1984. This repository provides a free source for Ada programs and information. The Ada Software Repository is divided into several subdirectories. These directories are organized by topic, and their names and a brief overview of their topics are contained. The Ada Software Repository on SIMTEL20 serves two basic roles: to promote the exchange and use (reusability) of Ada programs and tools (including components) and to promote Ada education.

  7. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  8. Composite morphology of the bone and associated support-tissue interfaces to osseointegrated dental implants: TEM and HVEM analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steflik, D E; Corpe, R S; Lake, F T; Sisk, A L; Parr, G R; Hanes, P J; Buttle, K

    1997-01-01

    Correlated transmission electron and high-voltage electron microscopic analyses examined the undecalcified bone and associated support tissues of 60 endosseous titanium blade and titanium and ceramic root-form implants in dogs. The implants supported fixed partial dentures for up to 2 years. Data obtained from this investigation suggest that a range of tissues, both mineralized and unmineralized, support osseointegrated dental implants. This study examined the tissues apposing not just isolated aspects of the implant surface, but the entire length of the implant, and found that mineralized and unmineralized tissues existed concurrently. Much of the implant surface was apposed by mandibular bone, and both root-form and blade implants osseointegrated. The densely mineralized collagen fibril matrix was often separated from the implant by only a 20-nm to 50-nm electron-dense, ruthenium-positive deposit. High-voltage electron microscope stereology demonstrated that cellular processes extended directly to the implant from underlying osteocytes. In the same implants, areas containing an unmineralized collagen matrix interposed between the bone and implant surface were observed. In this region osteoblasts interacted with this matrix, and Howship's lacunae, containing vascular elements and osteoclasts, were also observed. The remodeling activities appear to be a homeostasis of catabolic activity (osteoclasts) and metabolic activity (osteoblasts). The apex of the implant was often apposed by a fibrofatty stroma. The support tissue response appears to be the result of the interrelations of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in association with vascular elements. Therefore, the support tissue response to osseointegrated implants is a dynamic activity that involves the healthy interaction of these cells and tissues along the entire length of the implant.

  9. Dental students' and lecturers' perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Juan Sebastian; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Shitsuka, Caleb; Wen, Chao Lung; Haddad, Ana Estela

    2015-01-01

    It aimed to explore the degree of difficulty of caries-detection-associated-topics perceived by dental students and lecturers as pedagogical step in the development of learning objects for e-learning. A convenience sample comprising ninety-eight subjects from different academic levels (undergraduate/graduate students and pediatric dentistry lecturers) participated. Two spreadsheets (isolated/relative) were created considering key topics in the caries detection process. The isolated evaluation intended to explore each topic in an isolated way, while the relative intended to classify, comparatively, the participants' perceived difficulty per topic. Afterwards, data were analyzed. All values on spreadsheets were combined obtaining the subject's final perception. Associations between the subjects' degree of the perceived difficulty and academic level were estimated. ANOVA was used to determine differences regarding the perception among evaluated topics in distinct groups. Caries histopathology and detection of proximal carious lesions were the topics perceived as the most difficult in the process of caries detection by both students and lecturers. Differentiation between an extrinsic pigmentation and a brown-spot (caries lesion) as well as differential diagnosis between caries and enamel developmental defects or non-carious lesions were considered as more difficult by undergraduates in comparison to graduates/lecturers (regression-coefficient=14.54; Standard Error=3.34; PTopics as histopathology and detection of proximal caries lesions were identified as the most difficult despite the academic level. However, some topics are differently perceived according to the group. These results are useful for developing pedagogical material, based on the students real learning needs/expectations.

  10. Nickel sensitization in adolescents and association with ear piercing, use of dental braces and hand eczema. The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study on Atopic Diseases and Dermatitis (TOACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Lauritsen, Jens Martin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    % of cases. Nickel allergy was found most frequently in girls and the association with ear piercing was confirmed. Application of dental braces (oral nickel exposure) prior to ear piercing (cutaneous nickel exposure) was associated with a significantly reduced prevalence of nickel allergy. In adolescents...... a significant association was found between hand eczema and nickel allergy. A follow-up study of this population is planned in order to assess the course and development of contact dermatitis, hand eczema and atopic diseases in adulthood and after choice of occupation....

  11. TO ESTIMATE SERUM ADA LEVELS IN BCG VACCINATED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Babu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both adults and children, especially in developing countries. For prevention of childhood tuberculosis, BCG vaccination is advocated. Protection is attained 4 - 6 weeks after BCG vaccination a nd is mainly due to cell mediated immunity. After BCG vaccination almost 12 to 15% of neonates do not develop scar but have positive cell mediated immune response. ADA estimation is simple and inexpensive method to assess the cell mediated immunity. OBJECT IVE: To estimate serum ADA levels in children with and without BCG scar, after receiving BCG vaccination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital for a period of 2 years. Babies in post natal ward and infants up to the age of 12 weeks attending well baby clinic for BCG vaccination were included in the study. Serum ADA lev els were estimated before BCG vaccination and 12 - 14 weeks after the vaccination. ADA levels were estimated by colorimetric method. Presence or absence of BCG scar was noted at 12 - 14 weeks of age. RESULTS: A total of 75 babies followed up, of which only 60 babies noted to have scar and in rest 15 babies there was no scar noticed. Twenty unvaccinated babies at 12 weeks of age were included as controls. The Mean ADA levels are significantly elevated after BCG vaccination (34 . 12 ± 3 . 28 U/L in comparison to le vels before vaccination (12 . 55± 2 . 64 U/L with p value 0. 06. CONCLUSION: After BCG vaccination, there is increase in serum ADA levels indicating adequ ate immunity. Increase in ADA levels in children without scar after BCG vaccination may indicate the probability of adequate immunity.

  12. Analysis of the association between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and dental caries in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X P; Li, Z Q; Zhou, J Y; Yu, Z H; Zhang, J M; Guo, M L

    2015-09-28

    Environmental influences on the development and progression of dental caries are well known; however, there is little evidence of a genetic component imparting susceptibility to dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor TaqI locus and dental caries susceptibility in a Chinese population. This case-control study was conducted with a case group (264 patients with dental caries from northwestern China) and a control group (219 individuals without dental caries or systemic disease from the same area). DNA was extracted from the peripheral venous blood of the study participants; the distribution of TaqI locus genotypes and allele frequencies was determined via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Chi-square test. The frequency of the Tt genotype in the case group (14.0%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%), as determined using the genotype TT as the reference. The risk of dental caries was increased 3.8-fold in individuals with the heterozygous Tt genotype compared to that in the individuals with the TT genotype. The proportion of the 't' allele in the case group (7.0%) and the control group (2.1%) was observed to be significantly different [P = 0.0003; OR = 3.592, confidence interval 95% (1.790-7.208)]. Our results therefore suggested that the allele 't' might be a genetic factor determining dental caries susceptibility in individuals from the northwest of China.

  13. Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Blomqvist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.

  14. Dental fear and satisfaction with dental services in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Enkling, Norbert; Wolf, Christian A; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Dental satisfaction is associated with continuity of dental care, compliance with dentist advice, and positive health outcomes. It is expected that people with higher dental fear might have less dental satisfaction because of more negative dental experiences. The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction and reasons for satisfaction with dental practitioners in Switzerland and variations by dental fear. A national sample of 1,129 Swiss residents aged 15-74 (mean = 43.2 years) completed a personal interview at their home with questions assessing dental fear, dental service use, general satisfaction with their dentist, and reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Overall, 47.9 percent of participants responded that they were satisfied with their dentist and 47.6 percent that they were very satisfied. Satisfaction differed significantly by gender, language spoken, region of residence, and educational attainment. Greater dental fear was significantly associated with greater dissatisfaction with the dentist. The percentage of people who were very satisfied with the dentist ranged from 56.0 percent among people with no fear to 30.5 percent for participants with "quite a lot" of fear but was higher (44.4 percent) for people who stated that they were "very much" afraid of the dentist. The most common reasons attributed for satisfaction with dentists were interpersonal characteristics of the dentist and staff. People with "quite a lot" of fear were found to endorse these sentiments least. Although higher dental fear was associated with more dissatisfaction with the dentist, the level of satisfaction among fearful individuals in Switzerland is still high. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Association between dental prosthesis need, nutritional status and quality of life of elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Rajath; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena;

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of prosthesis need on nutritional status and oral health-related quality of life (OHrQoL) in elderly and to check the disparity between prosthesis need and prosthesis want in the Indian elderly. METHODS: A total of 946 geriatric participants reporting to a geriatric medicine...... need (r = -0.460). Participants with some prosthesis need had significantly lower MNA and GOHAI scores as compared to those with no prosthesis need. Though prosthesis need was high (79.7 %), demand was low (39.3 %). CONCLUSION: Prosthesis need affects nutritional status and OHrQoL in elderly...... clinic were recruited in the study. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA), geriatric oral health assessment (GOHAI) indices, prosthesis need according to WHO criteria, and prosthesis want was recorded along with age, gender, socioeconomic status and posterior occluding pair. RESULTS: Significant associations...

  16. Review of the Complications Associated with Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Guide to the Dental Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lena; Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Akintoye, Sunday O

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Focus on risk factors, improved diagnostic methods and effective management strategies have made it possible to successfully treat OPC. However, the 5-year survival rate has not improved for several years due to multiple treatment complications, tissue morbidity, loss of function and diminished quality of life. Survivors are faced with complications like oral mucositis, hyposalivation, osteoradionecrosis; tissue fibrosis, morbidity from jaw resection; disfigurement and loss of function that further diminish quality of life. The aim of this review is to highlight major complications associated with treatment of OPC via a literature search and review of available options for identification and management of these complications. Data Sources Relevant publications on oral complications of OPC therapy were thoroughly reviewed from the literature published between the years 1988 and 2012. Material and Method We evaluated reported incidence, prevalence and risk factors for oral complications of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for OPC. The authors conducted electronic search using English language databases namely PubMed Plus, Medline (Pre-Medline and Medline), Cochrane Database of systematic reviews (evidence-based medicine), Dentistry & Oral sciences source, AccessScience, Embase, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews Multifile, Google Scholar, ISI Journal Citation Reports, Ovid Multi-Database. Conclusion We identified the most common complications associated with the treatment of oral cancers. Based on the information gathered, there is evidence that survival of OPC extends beyond eradication of the diseased tissue. Understanding the potential treatment complications and utilizing available resources to prevent and minimize them are important. Caring for OPC survivors should be a multidisciplinary team approach involving the dentist, oncologist, internist and social worker to improve the currently

  17. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (pcaries (pcaries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156

  18. The association between dental health and nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Takeshi; Chubachi, Shotaro; Matsuzaki, Tatsu; Nakajima, Takahiro; Satoh, Minako; Iwami, Eri; Yoshida, Kyouko; Katakura, Akira; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2016-04-06

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontitis are chronic inflammatory systemic diseases with common risk factors (smoking and aging). In COPD, poor periodontal health could result in inadequate nutrition, potentially causing loss of muscle volume. The purpose of this case-control study was to examine our hypothesis that COPD patients have poorer periodontal health and poorer nutritional status than non-COPD patients. Periodontal status was assessed using bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD), and plaque-control ratio (PCR). Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index, lean body mass, and serum albumin levels. The COPD group (n= 60) had fewer remaining teeth, greater BOP, greater PD, and lower serum albumin levels compared with smokers without COPD (n= 41) and nonsmokers (n= 35;p30% of remaining teeth with a PD ≥ 4 mm (RR, 4.82;p= 0.011). A significant negative correlation existed between the number of teeth with a PD ≥ 4 mm and serum albumin level (r(2)= 0.127;p= 0.013). We demonstrated that poor periodontal health was associated with hypoalbuminemia, suggesting poor nutritional status and inflammation in COPD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Dental and skeletal effects of combined headgear used alone or in association with rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Meri Benitez Farret

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of combined headgear used alone or in association with rapid maxillary expansion, as the first step for Class II malocclusion treatment.Methods:The sample comprised 61 patients divided into three groups: Group 1, combined headgear (CH; Group 2, CH + rapid maxillary expansion (CH + RME; and Group 3, control (CG. In Group 1, patients were treated with combined headgear until Class I molar relationship was achieved. In Group 2, the protocol for headgear was the same; however, patients were previously subject to rapid maxillary expansion.Results:Results showed distal displacement of maxillary molars for both experimental groups (p < 0.001, with distal tipping only in Group 1 (CH (p < 0.001. There was restriction of forward maxillary growth in Group 2 (CH + RME (p < 0.05 and clockwise rotation of the maxilla in Group 1 (CH (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, it is possible to suggest that treatment with both protocols was efficient; however, results were more significant for Group 2 (CH + RME with less side effects.

  20. Dental Hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  1. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J; Elkhodary, Heba M; Merdad, Leena A; Farsi, Najat M A; Alaki, Sumer M; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Bakhaidar, Haneen A; Alolayyan, Mohammed A

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child's caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results: Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p less than 0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p less than 0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC.

  2. Analysis of Generalization Ability for Different AdaBoost Variants Based on Classification and Regression Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a machine learning method, AdaBoost is widely applied to data classification and object detection because of its robustness and efficiency. AdaBoost constructs a global and optimal combination of weak classifiers based on a sample reweighting. It is known that this kind of combination improves the classification performance tremendously. As the popularity of AdaBoost increases, many variants have been proposed to improve the performance of AdaBoost. Then, a lot of comparison and review studies for AdaBoost variants have also been published. Some researchers compared different AdaBoost variants by experiments in their own fields, and others reviewed various AdaBoost variants by basically introducing these algorithms. However, there is a lack of mathematical analysis of the generalization abilities for different AdaBoost variants. In this paper, we analyze the generalization abilities of six AdaBoost variants in terms of classification margins. The six compared variants are Real AdaBoost, Gentle AdaBoost, Modest AdaBoost, Parameterized AdaBoost, Margin-pruning Boost, and Penalized AdaBoost. Finally, we use experiments to verify our analyses.

  3. Dental loss among ambulatory patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Izuora

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Dental loss is common in patients with diabetes and is associated with older age, diabetic retinopathy and not flossing. In order to reduce dental loss among patients with diabetes, regular flossing should be emphasized as an important component of dental care.

  4. A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge involving a case of dysphagia in association with cervical osteophytosis and a dental pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani A Dable

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, presenting a case of a 42-year-old female with the chief complaint of dysphagia. The problem was assumed to be of dental origin, due to the onset of dental pain followed by dysphagia. A cervical radiograph revealed the presence of osteophytic lipping which proved to be the cause of dysphagia. Confusing and overlapping disease entities showing similar symptoms need thorough investigation. Dysphagia related to cervical spondylosis may have a direct connection with the person′s occupation. Dentistry is considered a potentially hazardous occupation with regard to musculoskeletal disorders. However, additional studies are required to understand the occupational hazards faced by dentists.

  5. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  6. What patients think of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, T

    2000-07-08

    In 1998, research on 'What the general public wants from the general dental service' was carried out by the Centre for Dental Services Studies (CDSS) at the University of York and was commissioned by the British Dental Association (BDA). The research culminated in the report: 'User Priorities for General Dental Services'. This article outlines the main message from the research and contains the researcher's personal observations.

  7. An Ada run-time control architecture for telerobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, J.; Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and Ada language implementation of a process-level run-time control subystem for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot system. The concept of run-time control in a combined robot-teleoperation environment is examined and the telerobot system at JPL is described. An Ada language implementation of the JPL Telerobot Run-Time Controller (RTC) is described by highlighting the functional behavior of the subsystem, defining the internal modules, and providing a functional flow time sequence of internal module activity.

  8. The association between psychological stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis among medical and dental student cohorts in an educational setup in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaleswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aphthous stomatitis is very common, affecting about 20-60% of the normal individuals to some degree. Although its etiology is not well-understood, it is multifactorial, and stress could be one possible triggering factor. Aims: The aim was to assess the prevalence of aphthous stomatitis and its association with psychological stress in both medical and dental graduate students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 275 medical and dental student cohorts of an educational setup in India. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, information regarding psychological stress, and 1-year period prevalence of aphthous stomatitis was collected. Data analysis was done with SPSS software version 20 (Chicago Inc., IL, USA. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test and comparison between mean stress scores and aphthous stomatitis was done with ANOVA and binary logistic regression was done. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of aphthous stomatitis in the study population was 78.1% and males were more commonly affected than females. Among the student cohorts, final year MBBS and final year BDS students were highly affected than others, which is statistically significant. Conclusions: Stress increases the risk of aphthous stomatitis. Stress management strategies are necessary for medical and dental graduate students.

  9. [Association between coverage by oral health teams in the family health and the increase in dental care output in Brazilian municipalities, 1999 and 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Gabriel Trevizan; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between population coverage by oral health teams under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and the difference in 1999 and 2011 in rates of use of public dental services in Brazilian municipalities. The sample included all 5,507 municipalities in both years. Data were used from government information systems to perform logistic regression for modeling the increase in procedure rates. By 2011, 85% of Brazil's municipalities had oral health teams under the FHS and there had been an increase in infrastructure, human and financial resources. Dental care output increased 49.5% from 1999 to 2011. Municipalities that incorporated more than 3 oral health teams per 10,000 inhabitants showed higher odds of increasing their rates of community procedures (OR = 1.61, 95%CI: 1.23-2.11), prophylactic procedures (OR = 2.05, CI95%: 1.56-2.69), restorations (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58-2.71), and extractions (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.19-1.97) after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and variations in physical, human and financial resources. The incorporation of oral health teams into the FHS appears more effective for increasing indicators of the use of dental services.

  10. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effect of Bac8c on major bacteria associated with dental caries and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yonglin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Meng; Tong, Zhongchun; Kuang, Rong; Jiang, WenKai; Ni, Longxing

    2014-02-01

    Dental caries is a common oral bacterial infectious disease. Its prevention and treatment requires control of the causative pathogens within dental plaque, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), one of the promising substitutes for conventional antibiotics, have been widely tested and used for controlling bacterial infections. The present study focuses on evaluating the potential of the novel AMPs cyclic bactenecin and its derivatives against bacteria associated with dental caries. The results indicate that Bac8c displayed highest activity against the bacteria tested, whereas both cyclic and linear bactenecin had weak antimicrobial activity. The cytotoxicity assay showed that Bac8c did not cause detectable toxicity at concentrations of 32-128μg/ml for 5min or 32-64μg/ml for 60min. S. mutans and Lactobacillus fermenti treated with Bac8c showed variable effects on bacterial structure via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. There appeared to be a large amount of extracellular debris and obvious holes on the cell surface, as well as loss of cell wall and nucleoid condensation. The BioFlux system was employed to generate S. mutans biofilms under a controlled flow, which more closely resemble the formation process of natural biofilms. Bac8c remarkably reduced the viability of cells in biofilms formed in the BioFlux system. This phenomenon was further analyzed and verified by real-time PCR results of a significant suppression of the genes involved in S. mutans biofilm formation. Taken together, this study suggests that Bac8c has a potential clinical application in preventing and treating dental caries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dental status and associated factors in a dentate adult population in bulgaria: a cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damyanov, N.D.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine variations in the dental status of a dentate adult population in terms of "decayed," "missing," and "filled" teeth in relation to several sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Quota sampling was used to draw 2531 subjects aged 20 years and over. Data were collected b

  12. Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sunitha, S

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride intake at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries. However, excessive intake, especially during developmental stages can cause adverse effects such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in primary school children born and raised in three villages of Mysore District. The three selected villages have different water fluoride concentrations. Three villages namely, Nerale (water fluoride 2.0 ppm), Belavadi (1.2 ppm) and Naganahally (0.4 ppm) were selected for the study. Then, a total of 405 children, 10-12-year-old (204 [50.4%] males and 201 [49.60%] females) were selected from three schools of the villages. Dean's fluorosis index recommended by World Health Organization was used to evaluate fluorosis among the study population. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 41.73%. An increase in the community fluorosis index (CFI) was higher among those living in high water fluoride area. A significantly positive correlation was found between CFI and water fluoride concentration in drinking water.

  13. The association between dental and periodontal diseases and sickle cell disease. A pilot case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Al-Alawi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Data suggest that patients with SCD have increased susceptibility to dental caries, with a higher prevalence of tooth decay and lower prevalence of filled teeth. Known caries risk factors influenced oral health more markedly than did factors related to SCD.

  14. The development of an Ada programming support environment database: SEAD (Software Engineering and Ada Database), user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Morris; Evesson, Donna

    1988-01-01

    This is a manual for users of the Software Engineering and Ada Database (SEAD). SEAD was developed to provide an information resource to NASA and NASA contractors with respect to Ada-based resources and activities that are available or underway either in NASA or elsewhere in the worldwide Ada community. The sharing of such information will reduce the duplication of effort while improving quality in the development of future software systems. The manual describes the organization of the data in SEAD, the user interface from logging in to logging out, and concludes with a ten chapter tutorial on how to use the information in SEAD. Two appendices provide quick reference for logging into SEAD and using the keyboard of an IBM 3270 or VT100 computer terminal.

  15. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  16. AdaBoost分类算法的数学分析%The Mathematical Analysis of AdaBoost Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a gentle introduction to the AdaBoost algorithm, and the mathematical analysis of how to draft classifiers and assign a weight for them, finally form a strong classifier through a set of weak classifiers.%本文对AdaBoost算法进行了介绍,并从整个数学推导过程中分析怎样挑选分类器并设置权值,最终通过一组弱分类器组合构成强分类器。

  17. Dental stories for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Ian W; Nelson, Travis M; Sheller, Barbara; McKinney, Christy M; Scott, JoAnna M

    2016-07-01

    To investigate caregivers' preference regarding dental stories to prepare children with autism for dental visits. Caregivers of children with autism were allowed use of dental stories available via different media (paper, tablet computer, computer) and image types (comics or drawings, photographs, video). Caregivers completed pre- and postintervention surveys. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine associations between predictive factors and preferences. Forty initial and 16 follow-up surveys were completed. Subjects were primarily male (85%). Mean child age was 6.7 years. Nine (64%) caregivers found the dental story useful for themselves and their child. Two (14%) caregivers found the aid only helpful for themselves. Preferred media type was associated with language understanding (p = .038) and home media preference (p = .002). Practitioners should consider using dental stories to help prepare families and children for dental visits. Individual preferences for dental stories vary; using prior history can aid in selection. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Rate of Convergence of AdaBoost

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Indraneel; Schapire, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    The AdaBoost algorithm was designed to combine many "weak" hypotheses that perform slightly better than random guessing into a "strong" hypothesis that has very low error. We study the rate at which AdaBoost iteratively converges to the minimum of the "exponential loss." Unlike previous work, our proofs do not require a weak-learning assumption, nor do they require that minimizers of the exponential loss are finite. Our first result shows that at iteration $t$, the exponential loss of AdaBoost's computed parameter vector will be at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of any parameter vector of $\\ell_1$-norm bounded by $B$ in a number of rounds that is at most a polynomial in $B$ and $1/\\epsilon$. We also provide lower bounds showing that a polynomial dependence on these parameters is necessary. Our second result is that within $C/\\epsilon$ iterations, AdaBoost achieves a value of the exponential loss that is at most $\\epsilon$ more than the best possible value, where $C$ depends on the dataset. We show that this d...

  19. Preliminary Design of the Ada Programming Support Environment Configuration Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    October 1980. 62 ............................................... 10. Buxton , J. and V. H. Stenning, eds. "Stoneman," Requirements for Ada Programming...18. Stoner, Bill . Logicon. Course EE 5.45, "Software Acquisition," School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB OH

  20. ADA and multi-microprocessor real-time simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, S.; Collins, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The selection of a high-order programming language for a real-time distributed network simulation is described. The additional problem of implementing a language on a possibly changing network is addressed. The recently designed language ADA (trademarked by DoD) was chosen since it provides the best model of the underlying application to be simulated.

  1. Cross-sectional Study of Dental Trauma and Associated Factors Among 9- to 14-year-old Schoolchildren in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    To assess the prevalence of dental trauma (DT) and its associated factors in 9- to 14-year-olds. A cross-sectional survey was carried out through clinical examination of the permanent incisors and canines of 907 schoolchildren (9 to 14 years old, average age = 11 ± 0.5 [SD] years, 55% female and 45% male) enrolled in 20 public schools in Isfahan, Iran. The demographic data, history and cause of trauma were recorded during patient interviews and with a structured questionnaire filled in by their parents. The overjet, lip coverage, and visible signs of DT (permanent incisors only, similar to the classification used by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994, NHANES III) were recorded. DT in permanent canines were also recorded. Approximately 36% (n = 325) recalled the occurrence of dental trauma, but only 23.8% (n = 216) of children had visible signs of dental trauma to the permanent incisors (girls [18.8%], boys [29.9%], OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.40- 0.74; p = 0.000). The maxillary central incisors were commonly injured (69.5%). The most frequent types of injuries were the enamel fracture (59.0%), craze lines (16.3%), and enamel and dentin fracture (13.4%). Tooth avulsion was seen in 0.7%. No significant association was found between dental trauma and increased overjet of > 3 mm (p = 0.328), but a tendency was identified for overjet > 5 mm (OR = 1.51; 95% CI 0.89-2.58; p = 0.060). The relationship between DT and lip coverage was statistically significant (OR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.18-2.25; p = 0.003). Violence (30%) and fall (22.7%) were the main causes of DT. The prevalence of DT in permanent incisors was high (23.8%) and significantly lower in girls. The association between DT and lip coverage was significant. There was no association between DT and increased overjet of > 3 mm.

  2. 77 FR 36231 - Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines; Emergency Transportable Housing Units AGENCY... Disabilities Act (ADA) and Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines to specifically address... the ADA or ABA are readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. Other...

  3. CSF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE (ADA ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges (pia, arachnoid and dura mater covering the brain and the spinal cord. ADA is an enzyme in the purine salvage pathway which is found in abundance in active T-lymphocytes. Hence, an attempt was made to estimate the CSF ADA level in patients with suspected meningitis and throw light on its use in differentiating the various types of meningitis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To estimate the level of CSF adenosine deaminase level in different types of meningitis. To assess its usefulness in differentiating the various types (bacterial, viral and tuberculous of meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted at the medical wards of Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, a prospective analytical study from a period of April 2012 to September 2012. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS Tuberculous meningitis occurred more in the age group of 21–40 years. Bacterial meningitis was seen mainly in patients < 20 years of age. Viral meningitis was seen in all age groups. CSF ADA level was highest in tuberculous meningitis, the mean value being 24.5 U/L. The mean value of ADA in bacterial meningitis was 4.54 U/L and viral meningitis patients had lowest mean ADA value of 2.65 U/L. CONCLUSION In our study, 50 patients with meningitis admitted in Government Rajaji Hospital from April 2012 to September 2012 were evaluated. Meningitis predominantly affected people in the age group of 20-40 years in our study with a male: female ratio of 1.9:1. Cases of tuberculous meningitis constituted 48% of the study group and bacterial and viral meningitis were 26% each. CSF protein values were higher and sugar values lower in patients with tuberculous and bacterial meningitis. CSF cell counts were higher in patients with bacterial meningitis.

  4. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Data by Topic > Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) Main Content Dental caries (tooth decay) remains the most prevalent chronic ... important source of information on oral health and dental care in the United States since the early ...

  5. Infant dental care (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  6. Implications of gluten exposure period, CD clinical forms, and HLA typing in the association between celiac disease and dental enamel defects in children. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorana, Alessandra; Bardellini, Elena; Ravelli, Alberto; Plebani, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella; Campus, Guglielmo

    2010-03-01

    The association between coeliac disease (CD) and dental enamel defects (DED) is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DED in children with CD and to specifically find the association of DED and gluten exposure period, CD clinical forms, HLA class II haplotype. This study was designed as a matched case-control study: 250 children were enrolled (125 coeliac children - 79 female and 46 male, 7.2 +/- 2.8 years and 125 healthy children). Data about age at CD diagnosis, CD clinical form, and HLA haplotype were recorded. Dental enamel defects were detected in 58 coeliac subjects (46.4%) against seven (5.6%) controls (P < 0.005). We found an association between DED and gluten exposure period, as among CD subjects the mean age at CD diagnosis was significantly (P = 0.0004) higher in the group with DED (3.41 +/- 1.27) than without DED (1.26 +/- 0.7). DED resulted more frequent (100%) in atypical and silent CD forms than in the typical one (30.93%). The presence of HLA DR 52-53 and DQ7antigens significantly increased the risk of DED (P = 0.0017) in coeliac children. Our results confirmed a possible correlation between HLA antigens and DED.

  7. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  8. Disparities in unmet dental need and dental care received by pregnant women in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Astha; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, A Isabel; Adams, Amy B; Cheng, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To examine prenatal dental care needs, utilization and oral health counseling among Maryland women who delivered a live infant during 2001-2003 and identify the factors associated with having a dental visit and having an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System is an ongoing population based surveillance system that collects information of women's attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to model dental visits and unmet dental need using predictor variables for Maryland 2001-2003 births. Less than half of all women reported having a dental visit and receiving oral health advice during pregnancy. Twenty-five percent of women reported a need for dental care, of which 33 % did not receive dental care despite their perceived need. Multivariate modeling revealed that racial minorities, women who were not married and those with annual income dental visit. Women who were not married, had low annual income, were older than 40 years of age, had an unintended pregnancy and received prenatal care later than desired were most likely to have an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Despite reported needs and existing recommendations to include oral health as a component of prenatal care, less than half of pregnant women have a dental visit during their pregnancy. One-third of women with a dental problem did not have a dental visit highlighting the unmet need for dental care during pregnancy.

  9. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  10. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  11. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  12. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05). Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  13. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  14. A Pre-Allocation Strategy for Implement ADA95's Distrbuted Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to realize distributed computing of Ada95, this paper discusses Ada95's distributed system model and an implement model of Ada95's distributed computing—workstation cluster model. Under this model, we presents a pre-allocation strategy for allocating the computation quantity of distributed units evenly among workstations and also reducing the communication expense between those distributed units.

  15. The N-terminus region of the putative C2H2 transcription factor Ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. In addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. Here, we report the functional characterization of Ada1, a putative Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to Aspergillus nidulans FlbC, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brlA. ADA1 is predicted to encode a protein with two DNA binding motifs at the C terminus and a putative activator domain at the N terminus region. Deletion of the flbC gene in A. nidulans results in "fluffy" cotton-like colonies, with a defect in transition from vegetative growth to asexual development. In this study we show that Ada1 plays a key role in asexual development in F. verticillioides. Conidia production was significantly reduced in the knockout mutant (Δada1), in which aberrant conidia and conidiophores were also observed. We identified genes that are predicted to be downstream of ADA1, based on A. nidulans conidiation signaling pathway. Among them, the deletion of stuA homologue, FvSTUA, resulted in near absence of conidia production. To further investigate the functional conservation of this transcription factor, we complemented the Δada1 strain with A. nidulans flbC, F. verticillioides ADA1, and chimeric constructs. A. nidulans flbC failed to restore conidia production similar to the wild-type level. However, the Ada1N-terminal domain, which contains a putative activator, fused to A. nidulans FlbC C-terminal motif successfully complemented the Δada1 mutant. Taken together, Ada1 is an important transcriptional regulator of asexual development in F. verticillioides and that the N-terminus domain is critical for proper function of this transcription factor.

  16. ELAPSE - NASA AMES LISP AND ADA BENCHMARK SUITE: EFFICIENCY OF LISP AND ADA PROCESSING - A SYSTEM EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    One area of research of the Information Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center is devoted to the analysis and enhancement of processors and advanced computer architectures, specifically in support of automation and robotic systems. To compare systems' abilities to efficiently process Lisp and Ada, scientists at Ames Research Center have developed a suite of non-parallel benchmarks called ELAPSE. The benchmark suite was designed to test a single computer's efficiency as well as alternate machine comparisons on Lisp, and/or Ada languages. ELAPSE tests the efficiency with which a machine can execute the various routines in each environment. The sample routines are based on numeric and symbolic manipulations and include two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations, Cholesky decomposition and substitution, Gaussian elimination, high-level data processing, and symbol-list references. Also included is a routine based on a Bayesian classification program sorting data into optimized groups. The ELAPSE benchmarks are available for any computer with a validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system. Of the 18 routines that comprise ELAPSE, provided within this package are 14 developed or translated at Ames. The others are readily available through literature. The benchmark that requires the most memory is CHOLESKY.ADA. Under VAX/VMS, CHOLESKY.ADA requires 760K of main memory. ELAPSE is available on either two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes (standard distribution) or a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. The contents of the diskettes are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The ELAPSE benchmarks were written in 1990. VAX and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  17. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414) selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered...

  18. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 901112W1. 11116 Cray Research, Inc., Cray Ada Compiler, Release 2.0, Cray X-MP/EA (Host & Target)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-12

    9. Summary of parameter types 140 Interlanguage data access for Ada calling C 152 Table 10. Summary of parameter types 141 Pragma INTERFACZ for for... interlanguage programming. The conventions described in this manual apply only to software running on Cray Research systems. You can find descriptions of...these conventions in Interlanguage Programming Conventions, publication SN-3009. Ada also supports callback. A foreign routine can call an Ada routine by

  19. Does the presence of the Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque associate with its gastric infection? A meta-analysis and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Navabi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Co-infection of gastric H. pylori and dental plaque is reported by half of the studies. However, there is not enough evidence for the efficacy of dental treatment on prevention of recurrent gastric H. pylori infection.

  20. Association between History of Dental Amalgam Fillings and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Chuang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Hsin-Lin; Chuang, Chuan-Chung; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Li, Wan-Yun; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Fu, Earl

    2016-01-01

    The impact of dental amalgam on the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still uncertain, although a positive association between dental amalgam and PD has been found in a few case-control studies. The patients with amalgam fillings restored between 2000 and 2008 were identified by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The same number of patients who had no new amalgam filling restored was matched by sex, age, and treatment date. Both cohorts were followed up from the treatment date until the date of diagnosis of PD, death, or the end of the year 2008. The individuals who received amalgam fillings had a significantly higher risk of PD afterward (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.583, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.122-2.234, p=0.0089) than those who did not. In the individuals who received amalgam fillings, being diagnosed with diabetes or hyperlipidemia demonstrated a significantly lower HR of PD occurrence than in the patients without diabetes or hyperlipidemia (HR=0.449, 95% CI=0.254-0.794, p=0.0059; HR=0.445, 95% CI=0.260-0.763, p=0.0032) after adjusting for comorbidities and Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores. Meanwhile, hypertension increased the hazard risk of PD (HR=1.645, 95% CI=1.098-2.464, p=0.0159). The patients exposed to dental amalgam fillings were 1.583 times more likely to have PD afterward compared to their non-exposed counterparts after adjusting for comorbidities and CCI scores.

  1. Association between History of Dental Amalgam Fillings and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Chuang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Hsin-Lin; Chuang, Chuan-Chung; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Li, Wan-Yun; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Fu, Earl

    2016-01-01

    The impact of dental amalgam on the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is still uncertain, although a positive association between dental amalgam and PD has been found in a few case-control studies. The patients with amalgam fillings restored between 2000 and 2008 were identified by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The same number of patients who had no new amalgam filling restored was matched by sex, age, and treatment date. Both cohorts were followed up from the treatment date until the date of diagnosis of PD, death, or the end of the year 2008. The individuals who received amalgam fillings had a significantly higher risk of PD afterward (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.583, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.122–2.234, p=0.0089) than those who did not. In the individuals who received amalgam fillings, being diagnosed with diabetes or hyperlipidemia demonstrated a significantly lower HR of PD occurrence than in the patients without diabetes or hyperlipidemia (HR=0.449, 95% CI=0.254–0.794, p=0.0059; HR=0.445, 95% CI=0.260–0.763, p=0.0032) after adjusting for comorbidities and Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores. Meanwhile, hypertension increased the hazard risk of PD (HR=1.645, 95% CI=1.098–2.464, p=0.0159). The patients exposed to dental amalgam fillings were 1.583 times more likely to have PD afterward compared to their non-exposed counterparts after adjusting for comorbidities and CCI scores. PMID:27906991

  2. Dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D

    2017-01-01

    , exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental......Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life...... caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries...

  3. AdaBoost for Improved Voice-Band Signal Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A good voice-band signal classification can not only enable the safe application of speech coding techniques,the implementation of a Digital Signal Interpolation (DSI)system, but also facilitate network administration and planning by providing accurate voice-band traffic analysis.A new method is proposed to detect and classify the presence of various voice-band signals on the General Switched Telephone Network ( GSTN ). The method uses a combination of simple base classifiers through the AdaBoost algorithm. The conventional classification features for voiceband data classification are combined and optimized by the AdaBoost algorithm and spectral subtraction method.Experiments show the simpleness, effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility of the method.

  4. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  5. Fear of deportation is not associated with medical or dental care use among Mexican-origin farmworkers served by a federally-qualified health center--faith-based partnership: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Lee, Junghee; Donlan, William

    2014-08-01

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers face many health risks with limited access to health care and promotion services. This study explored whether fear of deportation (as a barrier), and church attendance (as an enabling factor), were associated with medical and dental care use among Mexican-origin farmworkers. Interviews were conducted with 179 farmworkers who attended mobile services provided by a local federally-qualified health center (FQHC) in partnership with area churches, during the 2007 agricultural season. The majority of respondents (87 %) were afraid of being deported, and many (74 %) attended church. Although about half of participants reported poor/fair physical (49 %) and dental (58 %) health, only 37 % of farmworkers used medical care and 20 % used dental care during the previous year. Fear of deportation was not associated with use of medical or dental care; while church attendance was associated with use of dental care. Findings suggest that despite high prevalence of fear of deportation, support by FQHCs and churches may enable farmworkers to access health care services.

  6. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  7. Extracting Objects from Ada83 Programs: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Baowen; ZHOU Yuming

    2001-01-01

    Reengineering legacy systems written in conventional procedural languages to equivalent OO systems makes software more maintainable and reliable. This paper proposes a method for extracting objects from legacy Ada83 systems using module features. First, metrics are developed to measure module cohesion. Then, effects on cohesion from changing module components are analyzed and rules about how to extract inheritance relations among objects are given. At the end of this paper, an object-extracting algorithm using module features is proposed.

  8. The INTEL 432/670 and ADA Performance Benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    a QUICK.MSE"); with text4-io,imtio~guicksort; use texto -io,intio,quicksort; package body OUICKSORT is procedure SORT(1eft~ri(3ht : in subimt; arg...time and ’fuss’, A knowledge of ADA is assumed, as is familiarity with VMS (e.g. the VMS editor ), Referring back to Figure(63 it can be seen that a

  9. Olimpíadas e geopolítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    o artigo trata de competições esportivas,

    em especial as olimpíadas. Nelas, valorizam-se o

    nacionalismo e o poder dos países.

  10. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  11. Overfitting Reduction of Text Classification Based on AdaBELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Overfitting is an important problem in machine learning. Several algorithms, such as the extreme learning machine (ELM, suffer from this issue when facing high-dimensional sparse data, e.g., in text classification. One common issue is that the extent of overfitting is not well quantified. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of overfitting referred to as the rate of overfitting (RO and a novel model, named AdaBELM, to reduce the overfitting. With RO, the overfitting problem can be quantitatively measured and identified. The newly proposed model can achieve high performance on multi-class text classification. To evaluate the generalizability of the new model, we designed experiments based on three datasets, i.e., the 20 Newsgroups, Reuters-21578, and BioMed corpora, which represent balanced, unbalanced, and real application data, respectively. Experiment results demonstrate that AdaBELM can reduce overfitting and outperform classical ELM, decision tree, random forests, and AdaBoost on all three text-classification datasets; for example, it can achieve 62.2% higher accuracy than ELM. Therefore, the proposed model has a good generalizability.

  12. Software tools to aid Pascal and Ada program design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowitz, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes a software tool which analyses the style and structure of Pascal and Ada programs by ensuring that some minimum design requirements are fulfilled. The tool is used in much the same way as a compiler is used to teach students the syntax of a language, only in this case issues related to the design and structure of the program are of paramount importance. The tool operates by analyzing the design and structure of a syntactically correct program, automatically generating a report detailing changes that need to be made in order to ensure that the program is structurally sound. The author discusses how the model gradually evolved from a plagiarism detection system which extracted several measurable characteristics in a program to a model that analyzed the style of Pascal programs. In order to incorporate more-sophistical concepts like data abstraction, information hiding and data protection, this model was then extended to analyze the composition of Ada programs. The Ada model takes full advantage of facilities offered in the language and by using this tool the standard and quality of written programs is raised whilst the fundamental principles of program design are grasped through a process of self-tuition.

  13. Association of smoking and snuffing with dental caries occurrence in a young male population in Finland: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tarja; Kämppi, Antti; Päkkilä, Jari; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and snuffing habits in association with dental caries occurrence in a male cohort born in the early 1990s in Finland. The impact of health behaviours and factors related to the place of residence were included in analyses. Oral health of 8537 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study. In the same occasion they also answered a questionnaire covering their smoking and snuffing habits and other background factors. The residence-related factors were obtained from the Defence Forces' database. Cross-tabulation together with chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used for analyses. Almost forty per cent (39.4%) of the men reported smoking daily and 9.0% reported daily snuffing. Restorative treatment need of those who reported frequent smoking was more than 2-fold (mean DT = 2.22) compared to the non-smokers (mean DT = 1.07). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with other harmful health behaviours. The snuffers reported more snacking than the non-smokers, but were most frequent brushers. The result from the statistical modelling showed that smoking, low tooth brushing frequency, eating sweets and consuming energy drinks frequently were significantly associated with restorative treatment need. In this cross-sectional study, association between smoking and dental caries was distinct. The high rate of restorative treatment need among smokers may be explained by their poor health behaviours. Dietary habits of the snuffers seem harmful too, but are compensated by good tooth brushing frequency.

  14. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for work related musculoskeletal disorders associated with job contentment in dental professionals: Indian outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Kumar Rajendra; Karim, Bushra; Kanwar, Alpana; Jain, Ankita; Yadav, Ankit; Saini, Priya; Arya, Satya; Sachdeva, Neha

    2014-04-01

    High prevalence rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) among dentists have been reported. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies can be helpful in managing and preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine if dental professionals are using CAM for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Who have greater job satisfaction: dentist who uses Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or conventional therapy (CT) as a treatment modality for WRMSD. Dentists who registered in Uttar Pradesh state, India under Indian Dental Council, Uttar Pradesh branch (n=1134) were surveyed. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate analyses and logistic regression. A response rate of 53% (n=601) was obtained, revealing that 82% (n=487) of the respondents suffered from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The use of complementary and alternative medicine or conventional therapy was reported among 80% (n=390) of the dentists with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine users reported greater overall health compared to conventional therapy users (Palternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work disruptions and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is important that dentists incorporate complementary and alternative medicine strategies into practice to facilitate musculoskeletal health that will enable longer and healthier careers, increase productivity, provide safer workplace and prevent musculoskeletal disorders.

  15. Association study for the role of Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 gene polymorphisms in dental caries susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayasheva, Dobrina; Glushkova, Maria; Boteva, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanyo; Kadiyska, Tanya

    2016-08-01

    Various exogenous and endogenous risk factors have been described as contributing to dental caries susceptibility. In the last decade it has been established that both pro and active forms of host derived Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are present in the oral cavity. MMPs role in caries development has been hypothesized. The aim of this study was to analyse MMP2 (rs2287074) and MMP3 (rs679620) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their role in caries susceptibility. The two SNPs were analysed by PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in a sample of 102 ethnic Bulgarian volunteers (42 males and 60 females), all students in Sofia Medical University. Statistical analysis of the MMP2 SNP showed significant differences for the genotype frequencies between the caries free (CF, DMFT=0) and low caries experience (LCE, DMFT≤5) groups. Analysis for the non-synonymous MMP3 SNP found significant differences between both CF vs caries experience groups (LCE+ high caries experience (HCE, DMFT≥5)) and LCE vs HCE groups. The presence of allele G decreased the risk of HCE about 4 times. MMP2 and MMP3 genes are likely to be involved in caries susceptibility in our population. However, as dental caries is a multifactorial disorder and several genes are likely to have influence on it, it is reasonable to expect that SNPs, even those proven to be functional like rs679620, potentially play a significant, but not major role in the disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental fear-related cognitive vulnerability perceptions, dental prevention beliefs, dental visiting, and caries: a cross-sectional study in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Crego, Antonio; Armfield, Jason M; Romero, Martin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the role that psychosocial elements may play concerning dental attendance and oral health in children. In particular, we explored the associations among dental fear-related cognitive vulnerability perceptions, dental prevention beliefs, the pattern of dental visits, and the number of decayed teeth. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 250 Spanish schoolchildren who completed a questionnaire. Oral health status was evaluated by pediatric dentists. Statistical analyses were mainly based on binary logistic regression and multiple linear regression, which allowed us to test possible associations among variables as well as interaction and mediation effects. Children with more vulnerability-related cognitions (Adj. OR = 0.74 P dental prevention beliefs (Adj. OR = 1.47 P dental prevention beliefs and cognitive vulnerability perceptions was associated with more decayed teeth (β = -0.13 P dental visit, associated with fearful and unfavorable dental prevention cognitions, accounted for 20% of the effects of these variables on dental caries. The combination of greater cognitive vulnerability-related perceptions and low awareness of the benefits of dental prevention increased the risk of dental caries. Children with this profile also tended to demonstrate a more inadequate pattern of dental attendance. Preventive oral health programs would benefit from considering the role of children's cognitions on their oral health habits and dental health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, J

    1993-08-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats.

  18. [Dental management of hemorrhage-prone patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, József; Joób-Fancsaly, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    The authors present a proposal of dental treatment and management of anticoagulated patients and of patients on antiplatelet therapy, with the approval by the Hungarian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and by the Dental Implantology Association of Hungarian Dentists. This current guide was based on recent Hungarian and on several foreign national guidelines and considers significant publications from international literature.

  19. [Bone and Calcium Metabolisms Associated with Dental and Oral-Maxillofacial Diseases. Bone remodeling and alveolar bone homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2015-08-01

    Bone, which support motile organ and periodontal tissue, is renewing throughout our life. This restructuring process is called "bone remodeling" , and osteoclasts and osteoblasts play a crucial role in this process. Bone remodeling is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Bone remodeling is stringently regulated by communication between bone component cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. An imbalance of this process is often linked to various bone diseases. Alveolar bone remodeling is directly influenced by occlusal force from the teeth. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in alveolar bone remodeling is critical for a deeper understanding of the maintenance of healthy tooth and dental disease.

  20. Dental Training Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  1. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and its association with malocclusion in mixed dentition among patients referred to Tehran Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostani Amlashi P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Selecting an appropriate treatment plan is one of the most critical aspects of dental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare multimedia system and conventional method in patients' selecting prosthetic treatment and the time consumed."nMaterials and Methods: 90 patients randomly divided into three groups. Patients in group A, once were instructed using the conventional method of dental office and once multimedia system and time was measured in seconds from the beginning of the instruction till the patient had came to decision. The patients were asked about the satisfaction of the method used for them. In group B, patients were only instructed using the conventional method, whereas they were only exposed to soft ware in group C. The data were analyzed with Paired-T-test"n(in group A and T-test and Mann-Whitney test (in groups B and C."nResult: There was a significant difference between multimedia system and conventional method in group A and also between groups B and C (P<0.001. In group A and between groups B and C, patient's satisfaction about multimedia system was better. However, in comparison between groups B and C, multimedia system did not have a significant effect in treatment selection score (P=0.08."nConclusion: Using multimedia system is recommended due to its high ability in giving answers to a large number of patient's questions as well as in terms of marketing.

  2. Implant dentistry education in Europe: 5 years after the Association for Dental Education in Europe consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, S; Vandeweghe, S; Mattheos, N; De Bruyn, H

    2014-03-01

    To promote consensus on implant dentistry university education in Europe, a workshop amongst university teachers and opinion leaders was organised in 2008. As a result, guidelines on both under- and postgraduate education were issued. This study aims to investigate the current status of university teaching of implant dentistry and the impact of the recommendations for teaching and assessment, 5 years after the first consensus. Finally, this report attempts to identify future directions in education within the discipline. An online survey was distributed amongst 105 academic leaders in implant education in Europe, and 52 questionnaires were returned (response rate 50%). The average amount of implant dentistry in undergraduate curricula has increased to 74 h, compared to 36 h in 2008, and the inclusion of pre-clinical and clinical education has increased. No change occurred with regard to the aimed competence levels. It was suggested that certain implant procedures including surgery should be provided by dentists after attending additional courses, whilst complex treatments will still require specialist training. The 2008 workshop guidelines have been implemented to a varying extent (25-100%) in under- and postgraduate education. Main reported implementation barriers included limited time availability in the curriculum and limited financial/material resources. Future discussions about implant dentistry in Europe should be focused towards integration in current dental curricula, approaches to overcome barriers and the relations with and role of industrial partners. Implant dentistry is increasingly integrating in undergraduate dental education. Development of the consensus guidelines in 2008 may have facilitated this process. Nevertheless, further progress is needed on all educational levels to align training of professionals to the growing treatment needs of the population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Task Force on Innovation in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The background, origins, functions, and recommendations of the American Association of Dental Schools' task force investigating improvement of access to dental hygiene training programs and of curriculum and program design are presented. (MSE)

  4. Dental anxiety: An understudied problem in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Laura D; Hovey, Joseph D; Chacon, Karina; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2017-07-01

    Dental anxiety and dental phobia typically emerge during childhood; the associated avoidance of dental care can result in oral health problems and is associated with lower quality of life. In this review, we discuss the definition of dental phobia and dental anxiety and issues related to their differentiation. We then review the literature on dental anxiety and dental phobia, including its prevalence, assessment, and sequalae. Moreover, we provide a synthesis of findings on the etiology and maintenance of dental phobia and propose a comprehensive cognitive behavioral model to guide further study. We also present a systematic qualitative and a quantitative review of the treatment literature, concluding that although we have made strides in learning how to prevent dental anxiety in youth, the methods effective in preventing anxiety may not be equally effective in treating youth with dental phobia. We propose a multidisciplinary approach, including those with expertise in pediatric anxiety as well as pediatric dentistry, is likely required to move forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental responsibility loadings and the relative value of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, D N; Ju, X; Brennan, D S

    2017-09-01

    To estimate responsibility loadings for a comprehensive list of dental services, providing a standardized unit of clinical work effort. Dentists (n = 2500) randomly sampled from the Australian Dental Association membership (2011) were randomly assigned to one of 25 panels. Panels were surveyed by questionnaires eliciting responsibility loadings for eight common dental services (core items) and approximately 12 other items unique to that questionnaire. In total, loadings were elicited for 299 items listed in the Australian Dental Schedule 9th Edition. Data were weighted to reflect the age and sex distribution of the workforce. To assess reliability, regression models assessed differences in core item loadings by panel assignment. Estimated loadings were described by reporting the median and mean. Response rate was 37%. Panel composition did not vary by practitioner characteristics. Core item loadings did not vary by panel assignment. Oral surgery and endodontic service areas had the highest proportion (91%) of services with median loadings ≥1.5, followed by prosthodontics (78%), periodontics (76%), orthodontics (63%), restorative (62%) and diagnostic services (31%). Preventive services had median loadings ≤1.25. Dental responsibility loadings estimated by this study can be applied in the development of relative value scales. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi SS Toor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008 focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  7. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Ravi S S; Jindal, R

    2011-01-01

    Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008) focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  8. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes and Oral Health > Diabetes: Dental Tips Diabetes: Dental Tips Main Content Diabetes can cause serious problems ... FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Bethesda, ...

  9. Dental Exam for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they're most treatable. When to have a dental exam Various factors might determine how frequently your ... wisdom teeth (third molars) at the appropriate age. Dental X-ray A dental X-ray (radiograph) allows ...

  10. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  11. Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ada/X Window System Bindings: Conversion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-18

    6, Tis mtd wrs well on ons of-any creates a label on the system’s startup form. size , and has several advantages over low-levelmapping: 1. Identify...Label-Text XM.Xm_String_Create_L_To_R( "Welcome to the SABER Post-Processinq System’, XM.Xm STRING DEFAULTCHARSET ) XT.XtMakeArgList ( SIZE => 3, ARGS...about 2000 lines of Ada code) in one week’s worth of work. It was found that Page 9 r FOrm Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE [orm Appr ove PUNK

  13. Automated flare prediction using the AdaBoost algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Shi Lan; Yong Jiang; Liu-Guan Ding; Jian-Wei Yang

    2012-01-01

    We propose a flare prediction method based on the AdaBoost algorithm,which constructs a strong prediction model from a combination of several basic models.Three predictors,extracted from the photospheric magnetograms,are applied as features to predict the occurrence of flares with a certain level over 24 hours following the time when the magnetogram is recorded.To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method,comparisons of experimental results with respect to some existing methods are given.The results show that an improvement is achieved in predicting the occurrences of large flares.

  14. Large distributed control system using ADA in fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, J. P., LLNL

    1998-04-21

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a large distributed control system constructed using object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers that run software written in Ada and communicating through CORBA. The project has completed its final design review; implementation of the first of five planned increments will be delivered at the end of fiscal year 1998. Preliminary measures of the distributed controls performance confirm the design decisions reported in this paper, and the measurement and supporting simulation of full system performance continue.

  15. Event-based Implicit Invocation Decentralized in Ada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays more and more attraction is drawn by the event-basedimplicit invocation - one of useful architectural patterns, because of its loose couplin g between components in the architecture and reactive integration in software sys tems. Analyzing object-oriented interaction with objects, this paper, based upo n the principle of software architecture, presents an approach on event-based ob j ect model with Ada exception handler. Consequently it is possible for us to impr ove, with adding specific architectural patterns, traditional programming langua ges into architectural description languages.

  16. ADaPPT: Enterprise Architecture Thinking for Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifa Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have architecture: whether it is visible or invisible is another matter. An enterprises' architecture determines the way in which it works to deliver its business objectives and the way in which it can change to continue to meet its evolving business objectives. Enterprise architectural thinking can facilitate effective strategic planning and information systems development. This paper reviews enterprise architecture (EA and its concepts. It briefly considers EA frameworks. It describes the ADaPPT (Aligning Data, People, Processes and Technology EA approach as a means to managing organisational complexity and change. Future research directions are discussed.

  17. Dental Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  18. Dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  19. Prevalence of dental fluorosis and associated risk factors in 11-15 year old school children of Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu, India: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaradoss, Jagan Kumar; Clement, Roger B; Narayanan, Aswath

    2008-01-01

    This study presents data on the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 11-15-years-old school children of Kanyakumari district, TamilNadu, India, and also the relationships between prevalence of dental fluorosis and selected risk factors. A total of 1800 children, from all the nine blocks of Kanyakumari district, studying in classes 6-10 were examined using type III examination. The assessment form designed specifically for this study was used while examining each student. Dental fluorosis was present in 15.8% (285 children) of the study population and the community fluorosis index was calculated to be 0.27. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from as low as 1.4% in some blocks to as high as 29.4% in some others. There was a significant difference in the level of dental fluorosis between rural and urban residents ( P prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in children who consumed pipe water as compared to children who consumed ground water. 65% of the children with dental fluorosis had no caries, indicating the positive effects of fluoride. The prevalence of dental fluorosis can be attributed to the level of fluoride in the drinking water as it exhibited a step-wise increase when the water fluoride levels increased from 1.5-1.7 ppm. Measures for defluoridation of drinking water before distribution has to be taken in the high prevalence blocks to lower the burden of dental fluorosis in this community.

  20. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 920509S1. 11259 Alenia Aeritalia and Selenia S.p.A DACS VAX/VMS to 80x86 PM MARA Ada Cross Compiler, Version 4.6 Microvax 4000/200 => MARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    INTERFACE exc. non ADA ------- v codice ADA exception ADA AH A AI .1 I sistema operativo exc. non ADA ------- - fig. 1- Function Exception Handling is...ASSIGN/NOLOG MYSYSoGRA ADA286_GRAPH $ ASSIGN/NOLOG NODALELABORATION.LNK NODAL ELABORATION $ ADA286/LINK/ LIBR -=MY ALB.ALB/OFD-[ ] / TEMPLATE