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Sample records for density vegetation greenness

  1. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  2. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: combining a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily use shallow soil water whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment seems to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information, bringing new insights on vegetation dynamics.

  3. Global changes in dryland vegetation dynamics (1988–2008 assessed by satellite remote sensing: comparing a new passive microwave vegetation density record with reflective greenness data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drylands, covering nearly 30% of the global land surface, are characterized by high climate variability and sensitivity to land management. Here, two satellite-observed vegetation products were used to study the long-term (1988–2008 vegetation changes of global drylands: the widely used reflective-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the recently developed passive-microwave-based Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD. The NDVI is sensitive to the chlorophyll concentrations in the canopy and the canopy cover fraction, while the VOD is sensitive to vegetation water content of both leafy and woody components. Therefore it can be expected that using both products helps to better characterize vegetation dynamics, particularly over regions with mixed herbaceous and woody vegetation. Linear regression analysis was performed between antecedent precipitation and observed NDVI and VOD independently to distinguish the contribution of climatic and non-climatic drivers in vegetation variations. Where possible, the contributions of fire, grazing, agriculture and CO2 level to vegetation trends were assessed. The results suggest that NDVI is more sensitive to fluctuations in herbaceous vegetation, which primarily uses shallow soil water, whereas VOD is more sensitive to woody vegetation, which additionally can exploit deeper water stores. Globally, evidence is found for woody encroachment over drylands. In the arid drylands, woody encroachment appears to be at the expense of herbaceous vegetation and a global driver is interpreted. Trends in semi-arid drylands vary widely between regions, suggesting that local rather than global drivers caused most of the vegetation response. In savannas, besides precipitation, fire regime plays an important role in shaping trends. Our results demonstrate that NDVI and VOD provide complementary information and allow new insights into dryland vegetation dynamics.

  4. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and per

  5. Vegetation type classification and vegetation cover percentage estimation in urban green zone using pleiades imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Open green space in the urban area has aims to maintain the availability of land as a water catchment area, creating aspects of urban planning through a balance between the natural environment and the built environment that are useful for the public needs. Local governments have to make the green zone plan map and monitor the green space changes in their territory. Medium and high resolution satellite imageries have been widely utilized to map and monitor the changes of vegetation cover as an indicator of green space area. This paper describes the use of pleaides imagery to classify vegetation types and estimate vegetation cover percentage in the green zone. Vegetation cover was mapped using a combination of NDVI and blue band. Furthermore, vegetation types in the green space were classified using unsupervised and supervised (ISODATA and MLEN) methods. Vegetation types in the study area were divided into sparse vegetation, low-medium vegetation and medium-high vegetation. The classification accuracies were 97.9% and 98.9% for unsupervised and supervised method respectively. The vegetation cover percentage was determined by calculating the ratio between the vegetation type area and the green zone area. These information are useful to support green zone management activities.

  6. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Nutrient Density and the Cost of Vegetables from Elementary School Lunches123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishdorj, Ariun; Capps, Oral; Murano, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Vegetables are the major source of the dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins A and C that are crucial in the diets of children. This study assessed the nutrient content of vegetables offered through the National School Lunch Program and examined the relation between the overall nutrient density of vegetable subgroups and the costs of nutrients offered and wasted before and after the changes in school meal standards. Using data collected from 3 elementary schools before and after the changes in school meal standards, we found that vegetable plate waste increased from 52% to 58%. Plate waste for starchy vegetables, exclusive of potatoes, was relatively high compared with other subgroups; however, plate waste for white potatoes was the lowest among any type of vegetable. Energy density; cost per 100 g, per serving, and per 100 kcal; and percentage daily value were calculated and used to estimate nutrient density value and nutrient density per dollar. Cost per 100 kcal was highest for red/orange vegetables followed by dark green vegetables; however, nutrient density for red/orange vegetables was the highest in the group and provided the most nutrients per dollar compared with other subgroups. Given that many vegetables are less energy dense, measuring vegetable costs per 100 g and per serving by accounting for nutrient density perhaps is a better way of calculating the cost of vegetables in school meals. PMID:26773034

  8. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p green-up date and dust storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  9. Protective effects of Asian green vegetables against oxidant induced cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Rose; Choon Nam Ong; Matt Whiteman

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant and phase Ⅱ detoxification enzyme inducing ability of green leaf vegetables consumed in Asia.METHODS: The antioxidant properties of six commonly consumed Asian vegetables were determined using the ABTS, DPPH, deoxyribose, PR bleaching and ironascorbate induced lipid peroxidation assay. Induce of phase Ⅱ detoxification enzymes was also determined for each respective vegetable extract. Protection against authentic ONOO- and HOCI mediated cytotoxicity in human colon HCT116 cells was determined using the MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide) viability assay.RESULTS: All of the extracts derived from green leaf vegetables exhibited antioxidant properties, while also having cytoprotective effects against ONOO- and HOCI mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, evaluation of the phase Ⅱ enzyme inducing ability of each extract,as assessed by quinone reductase and glutathioneS-transferase activities, showed significant variation between the vegetables analyzed.CONCLUSION: Green leaf vegetables are potential sources of antioxidants and phase Ⅱ detoxification enzyme inducers in the Asian diet. It is likely that consumption of such vegetables is a major source of beneficial phytochemical constituents that may protect against colonic damage.

  10. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramesa Shafi Bhat; Sooad Al-Daihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity and photochemicals of five green leafy vegetables against a panel of five bacteria strains. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity, while kanamycin was used as a reference antibiotic. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed using standard methods. Results:All methanol extracts were found active against all the test bacterial strains. Overall maximum extracts shows antibacterial activity which range from 6 to 15 mm. Proteins and carbohydrates was found in all the green leaves, whereas alkaloid, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins were found in most of the test samples. Conclusions:The obtain result suggests that green leafy vegetables have moderate antibacterial activity and contain various pharmacologically active compounds and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of the studied vegetables in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  11. Vegetation impoverishment despite greening: a case study from central Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Stefanie M.; Tappan, G. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have documented a greening trend in the semi-arid Sahel and Sudan zones of West Africa since the early 1980s, which challenges the mainstream paradigm of irreversible land degradation in this region. What the greening trend means on the ground, however, has not yet been explored. This research focuses on a region in central Senegal to examine changes in woody vegetation abundance and composition in selected sites by means of a botanical inventory of woody vegetation species, repeat photography, and perceptions of local land users. Despite the greening, an impoverishment of the woody vegetation cover was observed in the studied sites, indicated by an overall reduction in woody species richness, a loss of large trees, an increasing dominance of shrubs, and a shift towards more arid-tolerant, Sahelian species since 1983. Thus, interpretation of the satellite-derived greening trend as an improvement or recovery is not always justified. The case of central Senegal represents only one of several possible pathways of greening throughout the region, all of which result in similar satellite-derived greening signals.

  12. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  13. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  14. Positive effects of vegetation: urban heat island and green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, T; Gaffin, S R; Dell'osso, G R

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 °C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO(2) equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role.

  15. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are

  16. NITRATE IN LEAFY GREEN VEGETABLES AND ESTIMATED INTAKE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Danijel; Bošnir, Jasna; Bevardi, Martina; Bošković, Andrea Gross; Miloš, Sanja; Lasić, Dario; Krivohlavek, Adela; Racz, Aleksandar; Ćuić, Ana Mojsović; Trstenjak, Natalija Uršulin

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are rich in vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are foods that contain considerable amounts of nitrate, which can have both positive and negative effects on the human body. Their potential carcinogenicity and toxicity have been proven, particularly after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite itself or just serving as a reactant with amines and/or amides in the formation of N-nitroso compounds -N-nitrosamines and other nitrogen compounds which may have high levels of nitrate. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference, considering the location and seasonal sampling period, in the level of nitrate in certain types of green vegetables, all in order to be able to assess their intake, and possible impact on human health, especially knowing that exposure to nitrate can be potentially higher for vegetarian population group. For this purpose, the sampling of 200 different leafy green vegetables was conducted, all of which could be found in free sale in the Republic of Croatia. The sampling was conducted during two seasonal periods - the spring and autumn period. In the springtime, lettuce (sem), spinach (pinacho), kale (kale), chard (mangel) and cabbage (brassica) were sampled, and in autumn lettuce, spinach, kale, chard and arugula. Samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The results from the spring sampling phase were in the range of 603 mg/kg for cabbage - 972 mg/kg for chard, and for autumn phase of 1.024 mg/kg for chard to 4.354 mg/kg for the arugula. The results showed that there were significant differences (p vegetables contain significant amounts of nitrate in their composition, which represents relatively significant, but still acceptable intake into the human body.

  17. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Jiao, Wentao

    2012-02-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree-shrub-herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of industrial processing on folate content in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Le Grandois, Julie; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Galland, Rachel; Georgé, Stéphane; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-08-15

    Folates are described to be sensitive to different physical parameters such as heat, light, pH and leaching. Most studies on folates degradation during processing or cooking treatments were carried out on model solutions or vegetables only with thermal treatments. Our aim was to identify which steps were involved in folates loss in industrial processing chains, and which mechanisms were underlying these losses. For this, the folates contents were monitored along an industrial canning chain of green beans and along an industrial freezing chain of spinach. Folates contents decreased significantly by 25% during the washing step for spinach in the freezing process, and by 30% in the green beans canning process after sterilisation, with 20% of the initial amount being transferred into the covering liquid. The main mechanism involved in folate loss during both canning green beans and freezing spinach was leaching. Limiting the contact between vegetables and water or using steaming seems to be an adequate measure to limit folates losses during processing.

  19. Determining Thermal Specifications for Vegetated GREEN Roofs in Moderate Winter Climats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesloot, Christoph Maria

    2015-01-01

    Because local weather conditions in moderate climates are changing constantly, heat transfer specifications of substrate and vegetation in vegetated green roofs also change accordingly. Nevertheless, it is assumed that vegetated green roofs can have a positive effect on the thermal performance of co

  20. Pathogens and Heavy Metals Concentration in Green Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of heavy metal and bacterial pathogen in randomly collected samples of green leafy from various stations of Bengaluru city was detected. Heavy metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium, nickel and lead were analyzed by tri-acid digestion method. The presence of heavy metals in general was in the order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb. Trace metal concentration in all green leafy vegetables of stations 1-5 were within permissible limit and it has been exceeded in station 6-10. This indicated high levels of soil contamination pose potential danger for the vegetables grown in the vicinity of Arakere lake, Bannerghatta road, Gottigere lake, Naganaikanakere, Bommasandra lake, Hulimavu lake, Kelaginakere and Amblipura lake. The total bacteria and coliforms were enumerated on TSA (Tryptone Soya Agar and VRBA (Violet Red Bile Agar media respectively. The total bacterial count in randomly collected samples of coriander ranged from 296 cfu/g to 8 cfu/g, in palak from 16 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g, whereas in case of cabbage was 104 cfu/g to 0.9 cfu/g which is an indication of improper pre-harvest and post harvest handling.

  1. Influence of vegetation dynamic modeling on the allocation of green and blue waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Francés, Félix

    2015-04-01

    The long history of the Mediterranean region is dominated by the interactions and co-evolution between man and its natural environment. It is important to consider that the Mediterranean region is recurrently or permanently confronted with the scarcity of the water. The issue of climate change is (and will be) aggravating this situation. This raises the question of a loss of services that ecosystems provide to human and also the amount of available water to be used by vegetation. The question of the water cycle, therefore, should be considered in an integrated manner by taking into account both blue water (water in liquid form used for the human needs or which flows into the oceans) and green water (water having the vapor for resulting from evaporation and transpiration processes). In spite of this, traditionally, very few hydrological models have incorporated the vegetation dynamic as a state variable. In fact, most of them are able to represent fairly well the observed discharge, but usually including the vegetation as a static parameter. However, in the last decade, the number of hydrological models which explicitly take into account the vegetation development as a state variable has increased substantially. In this work, we want to analyze if it is really necessary to use a dynamic vegetation model to quantify adequately the distribution of water into blue and green water. The study site is located in the Public Forest Monte de la Hunde y Palomeras (Spain). The vegetation in the study area is dominated by Aleppo pine of high tree density with scant presence of other species. Two different daily models were applied (with static and dynamic vegetation representation respectively) in three different scenarios: dry year (2005), normal year (2008) and wet year (2010). The static vegetation model simulates the evapotranspiration considering the vegetation as a stationary parameter. Contrarily, the dynamic vegetation model connects the hydrological model with a

  2. Portulaca grandiflora as green roof vegetation: Plant growth and phytoremediation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2017-06-03

    Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m(3)) and high water-holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%), and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/hour). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P. grandiflora was evaluated using metal-spiked green roof substrate as a function of time and spiked substrate metal concentration. It was identified that P. grandiflora accumulated all metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from metal-spiked green roof substrate. At the end of 40 days, P. grandiflora accumulated 811 ± 26.7, 87.2 ± 3.59, 416 ± 15.8, 459 ± 15.6, 746 ± 20.9, 357 ± 18.5, 565 ± 6.8, and 596 ± 24.4 mg/kg of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Results also indicated that spiked substrate metal concentration strongly influenced metal accumulation property of P. grandiflora with metal uptake increased and accumulation factor decreased with increase in substrate metal concentration. P. grandiflora also showed potential to translocate all the examined metals with translocation factor greater than 1 for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn, indicating hyperaccumulation property.

  3. Determining Thermal Specifications for Vegetated GREEN Roofs in Moderate Winter Climats

    OpenAIRE

    Ravesloot, Christoph Maria

    2015-01-01

    Because local weather conditions in moderate climates are changing constantly, heat transfer specifications of substrate and vegetation in vegetated green roofs also change accordingly. Nevertheless, it is assumed that vegetated green roofs can have a positive effect on the thermal performance of construction in winter conditions. Is there proof from scientific research and field testing for this assumption? To answer this question, research is conducted with the main research question: Which...

  4. 76 FR 24291 - Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Recommended Decision and Opportunity To... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 970 Proposed National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green...) under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 to cover the handling of fresh leafy green...

  5. Green Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate Uniform Microspheres Using Vegetables%Green Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate Uniform Microspheres Using Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen, Long; Bao, Zuben; Pan, Jian; Xu, Weibing; Zhang, Heping; Hu, Hongbo; Hu, Jichao; Zhou, Lili

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel strategy for the green synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microspheres by using four vegetables: potato, cucumber, aubergine, and carrot. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry and/or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the spherical calcite crystals are obtained in the presence of potato, cucumber and aubergine extracts, while uniform vaterite and calcite mixed microspheres are produced with the extracts of carrot. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 microspheres by using vegetables is also discussed, suggesting that the biomolecules especially proteins may induce and control the nucleation and growth of CaCO3 crystals. CaCO3 is an important biomineral and inorganic material. Uniform particles have numerous important applications in many areas. Therefore, this study is very significant not only for expanding the scope of crystal engineering, but also for biomineralization research and green synthesis of functional inorganic materials.

  6. Developing a compositing algorithm for retrieval of green vegetation fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z.; Ju, J.; vargas, M.; Csiszar, I. A.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time weekly global green vegetation fraction (GVF) is needed in the numeric weather, climate and hydrological models. The current NOAA operational GVF product is derived from weekly AVHRR NDVI data, which are composited using the maximum-value compositing (MVC) method. MVC is a widely used technique to remove cloud and atmospheric contamination over land surface by selecting the observation of the maximum NDVI in a compositing period. However, it is well documented that the maximum NDVI is often selected from high sensor zenith angles (SZA), which may introduce error in GVF retrieval. To reduce the composite sensor zenith angles, a view angle adjusted soil-adjusted vegetation index (VA-SAVI), instead of NDVI, is proposed as the criterion of compositing in this study (VA-SAVI=SAVI-C×SZA2, where C is a coefficient). The observation with the maximum VA-SAVI (MVA-SAVI) is selected to represent a compositing period. To evaluate the MVA-SAVI compositing method, global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daily surface reflectance data (MYD09GA) in different seasons were composited using the MVA-SAVI method. Composite data were then compared with the 16-day MVC composite data, the MODIS standard 16-day vegetation index (MYD13A1) and 8-day surface reflectance data (MYD09A1). It was found that the mean 16-day composite sensor zenith angle by MVA-SAVI was 13.5°, whereas the mean sensor zenith angles composited by MVC was 39.3°, demonstrated that MVA-SAVI compositing tends to select observations close to the nadir view. MVA-SAVI compositing produced the mean sensor zenith angle 10° and 6° smaller than the MYD13A1 and MYD09A1 data and the mean NDVI (EVI) values 1.4% and 3.2% (4.0% and 3.3%) higher than those the MYD13A1 and MYD09A1 data, respectively. The smaller composited sensor zenith angles and higher vegetation index values suggest that MVA-SAVI compositing is a better compositing method than the MODIS compositing methods and the

  7. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Yingtang; Qiao, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain, the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate, as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables. Currently, the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China, and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained, so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green su...

  8. Vegetation modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2004-12-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that includes hydrologic, ecologic and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on known geomorphic relations, thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution, using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants, and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding), and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that, in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion dominated landscape, under none or loose vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the CHILD model. Numerical experiments reveal the importance of vegetation disturbances on the landscape structure. Simulated landscapes resemble real-world catchments in the OCR when vegetation disturbances are considered.

  9. Vegetation-modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.

    2005-06-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that include hydrologic, ecologic, and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on a power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. This approach is validated using data. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding) and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion-dominated landscape, under none or poor vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the Channel Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model confirm the findings based on the analytical theory. A highly dissected fluvial landscape emerges when surface is assumed bare. When vegetation cover is modeled, landscape relief increases

  10. Recent trends in vegetation greenness in China significantly altered annual evapotranspiration and water yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Xiao, Jingfeng; Ju, Weimin; Xu, Ke; Zhou, Yanlian; Zhao, Yuntai

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing evidence that vegetation greenness has been increasing in many parts of the northern middle and high latitudes including China during the last three to four decades. However, the effects of increasing vegetation greenness particularly afforestation on the hydrological cycle have been controversial. We used a process-based ecosystem model and a satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) dataset to examine how the changes in vegetation greenness affected annual evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield for China over the period from 2000 to 2014. Significant trends in vegetation greenness were observed in 26.1% of China’s land area. We used two model simulations driven with original and detrended LAI, respectively, to assess the effects of vegetation ‘greening’ and ‘browning’ on terrestrial ET and water yield. On a per-pixel basis, vegetation greening increased annual ET and decreased water yield, while vegetation browning reduced ET and increased water yield. At the large river basin and national scales, the greening trends also had positive effects on annual ET and had negative effects on water yield. Our results showed that the effects of the changes in vegetation greenness on the hydrological cycle varied with spatial scale. Afforestation efforts perhaps should focus on southern China with larger water supply given the water crisis in northern China and the negative effects of vegetation greening on water yield. Future studies on the effects of the greenness changes on the hydrological cycle are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  11. Different Hydrologic Responses to Vegetation Greening between Water-limited and Energy-limited Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Bai, P.; Li, Y.; Changming, L.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation greening has been reported at regional and continental scales on the basis of forest inventory and satellite measurements. Large areas of vegetation greening have been observed in China due to the implementation of country-wide ecological protection and reforestation programs since the late 1990s. Investigation on how vegetation greening affects hydrologic cycle is an important topic for hydrologic research. In this study, two typical greening regions with different climatic conditions, namely the Loess Plateau with relatively dry climatic condition and the largest freshwater lake in China (Poyang Lake) with humid climatic condition, were selected to investigate hydrologic responses to vegetation greening. Results show that large-scale greening in the Poyang Lake basin did not cause significant water reduction, while greening in the Loess Plateau did lead to a significant decrease in streamflow. Vegetation greening allows more precipitation to be intercepted by the vegetation canopy and to be infiltrated into soil. In the Loess Plateau, those increased intercepted and infiltrated water quickly return to the atmosphere through evaporation (Ea) because of the water-limited condition, leading to the decrease in streamflow. In the Poyang Lake basin, however, the increased intercepted and infiltrated water did not increase Ea, because Ea is constrained by potential evaporation (Ep) due to the energy-limited condition. The increased intercepted and infiltrated water enhanced groundwater recharge and thus baseflow in the Poyang Lake basin. The findings highlight that hydrologic responses to vegetation greening greatly depend on regional climatic conditions, which is inconsistent with the widely held perception of the trade-off relationship between vegetation greening and water resources. These results can benefit future ecological protection and reforestation programs and water resource management worldwide.

  12. Amazon vegetation greenness as measured by satellite sensors over the last decade

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, P.M.; Dash, J.; Jeganathan, C.

    2011-01-01

    [1] During the last decade two major drought events, one in 2005 and another in 2010, occurred in the Amazon basin. Several studies have claimed the ability to detect the effect of these droughts on Amazon vegetation response, measured through satellite sensor vegetation indices (VIs). Such monitoring capability is important as it potentially links climate changes (increasing frequency and severity of drought), vegetation response as observed through vegetation greenness, and land-atmosphere ...

  13. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  14. Green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel by green leafy vegetables extracts in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadah M. Al-Senani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV extracts namely Lactuca sativa (Lactuca, Eruca Sativa (Arugula, Petroselinum crispum (Parsley, and Anethum Graveolens (Dill were investigated on inhibition of corrosion carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution using gravimetric (weight loss method. The inhibition efficiency has increased as concentration of the extract increased. The inhibition efficiency has decreased as the temperature increased. The results obtained showed that GLV extracts inhibited the corrosion process by a physical adsorption mechanism that followed the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters that were calculated include, free energy of adsorption (∆G°ads, activation energy (Ea, enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH°ads, and entropy of adsorption (ΔS°ads are proposed for the corrosion of carbon steel in 1 M HCl in the absence and presence of GLV extract.

  15. Observational Quantification of Climatic and Human Influences on Vegetation Greening in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Hua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to quantify the relative contributions of vegetation greening in China due to climatic and human influences from multiple observational datasets. Satellite measured vegetation greenness, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and relevant climate, land cover, and socioeconomic data since 1982 are analyzed using a multiple linear regression (MLR method. A statistically significant positive trend of average growing-season (April–October NDVI is found over more than 34% of the vegetated areas, mainly in North China, while significant decreases in NDVI are only seen in less than 5% of the areas. The relationships between vegetation and climate (temperature, precipitation, and radiation vary by geographical location and vegetation type. We estimate the NDVI changes in association with the non-climatic effects by removing the climatic effects from the original NDVI time series using the MLR analysis. Our results indicate that land use change is the dominant factor driving the long-term changes in vegetation greenness. The significant greening in North China is due to the increase in crops, grasslands, and forests. The socioeconomic datasets provide consistent and supportive results for the non-climatic effects at the provincial level that afforestation and reduced fire events generally have a major contribution. This study provides a basis for quantifying the non-climatic effects due to possible human influences on the vegetation greening in China.

  16. 78 FR 73111 - National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Termination of Proceeding on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 970 National Marketing Agreement Regulating Leafy Green Vegetables; Termination of Proceeding on Proposed Marketing Agreement AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Termination of proceeding. SUMMARY: This action terminates...

  17. Enzymatic Digestion for Improved Bacteria Separation from Leafy Green Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danhui; Wang, Ziyuan; He, Fei; Kinchla, Amanda J; Nugen, Sam R

    2016-08-01

    An effective and rapid method for the separation of bacteria from food matrix remains a bottleneck for rapid bacteria detection for food safety. Bacteria can strongly attach to a food surface or internalize within the matrix, making their isolation extremely difficult. Traditional methods of separating bacteria from food routinely involve stomaching, blending, and shaking. However, these methods may not be efficient at removing all the bacteria from complex matrices. Here, we investigate the benefits of using enzyme digestion followed by immunomagnetic separation to isolate Salmonella from spinach and lettuce. Enzymatic digestion using pectinase and cellulase was able to break down the structure of the leafy green vegetables, resulting in the detachment and release of Salmonella from the leaves. Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella from the liquefied sample allowed an additional separation step to achieve a more pure sample without leaf debris that may benefit additional downstream applications. We have investigated the optimal combination of pectinase and cellulase for the digestion of spinach and lettuce to improve sample detection yields. The concentrations of enzymes used to digest the leaves were confirmed to have no significant effect on the viability of the inoculated Salmonella. Results reported that the recovery of the Salmonella from the produce after enzyme digestion of the leaves was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than traditional sample preparation methods to separate bacteria (stomaching and manually shaking). The results demonstrate the potential for use of enzyme digestion prior to separation can improve the efficiency of bacteria separation and increase the likelihood of detecting pathogens in the final detection assay.

  18. Effect of Processing on Magnesium Content of Green Leafy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D.; Agrawal, R.; Kumar, R.; Rai, A. Kumar; Rai, G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the effect of different food processing techniques like blanching, microwave processing, boiling, frying, and different drying methods on depletion of minerals especially magnesium in green leafy vegetables (leaves of Trigonella foenum, common name methi, and Spinacia oleracea, common name spinach) using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). These processing techniques are frequently used at home as well as in food processing industries. The LIBS spectra of the fresh leaves of methi and spinach and their pellets (made by drying, grinding, and pressing the leaf) were recorded in a spectral range from 200 to 500 nm. After applying the above processing techniques, different pellets of these leaves were made in the same way. The LIBS spectra of these processed leaf samples were also recorded using the same experimental parameters as used for the fresh samples. Our results show that among the above processing techniques, frying most significantly reduces the content of magnesium, whereas the least loss of Mg is observed in the case of boiling. We have verified this result by recording the LIBS spectra of the intact fresh leaves and of those processed with different techniques. The same results were also obtained from the LIBS spectra of the intact leaves and their pellets. The LIBS spectra of methi and spinach leaves were also recorded after drying them using two different techniques — drying in vacuum and in a hot air oven; the results show that vacuum drying is more suitable in terms of minimizing loss of Mg content in leaves.

  19. Remote Sensing of Fractional Green Vegetation Cover Using Spatially-Interpolated Endmembers

    OpenAIRE

    Ryutaro Tateishi; Brian Johnson; Toshiyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Fractional green vegetation cover (FVC) is a useful parameter for many environmental and climate-related applications. A common approach for estimating FVC involves the linear unmixing of two spectral endmembers in a remote sensing image; bare soil and green vegetation. The spectral properties of these two endmembers are typically determined based on field measurements, estimated using additional data sources (e.g., soil databases or land cover maps), or extracted directly from the imagery. M...

  20. Identifying environmental controls on vegetation greenness phenology through model-data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forkel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs have a~limited ability in reproducing phenology and decadal dynamics of vegetation greenness as observed by satellites. These limitations in reproducing observations reflect a poor understanding and description of the environmental controls on phenology, which strongly influence the ability to simulate longer term vegetation dynamics, e.g. carbon allocation. Combining DGVMs with observational data sets can potentially help to revise current modelling approaches and thus to enhance the understanding of processes that control seasonal to long-term vegetation greenness dynamics. Here we implemented a~new phenology model within the LPJmL (Lund Potsdam Jena managed lands DGVM and integrated several observational data sets to improve the ability of the model in reproducing satellite-derived time series of vegetation greenness. Specifically, we optimized LPJmL parameters against observational time series of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR, albedo and gross primary production to identify the main environmental controls for seasonal vegetation greenness dynamics. We demonstrated that LPJmL with new phenology and optimized parameters better reproduces seasonality, inter-annual variability and trends of vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that soil water availability is an important control on vegetation phenology not only in water-limited biomes but also in boreal forests and the arctic tundra. Whereas water availability controls phenology in water-limited ecosystems during the entire growing season, water availability co-modulates jointly with temperature the beginning of the growing season in boreal and arctic regions. Additionally, water availability contributes to better explain decadal greening trends in the Sahel and browning trends in boreal forests. These results emphasize the importance of considering water availability in a new generation of phenology modules

  1. Detecting Wind Farm Impacts on Local Vegetation Growth in Texas and Illinois Using MODIS Vegetation Greenness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible impacts of real-world wind farms (WFs on vegetation growth using two vegetation indices (VIs, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, at a ~250 m resolution from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS for the period 2003–2014. We focus on two well-studied large WF regions, one in western Texas and the other in northern Illinois. These two regions differ distinctively in terms of land cover, topography, and background climate, allowing us to examine whether the WF impacts on vegetation, if any, vary due to the differences in atmospheric and boundary conditions. We use three methods (spatial coupling analysis, time series analysis, and seasonal cycle analysis and consider two groups of pixels, wind farm pixels (WFPs and non-wind-farm pixels (NWFPs, to quantify and attribute such impacts during the pre- and post-turbine periods. Our results indicate that the WFs have insignificant or no detectible impacts on local vegetation growth. At the pixel level, the VI changes demonstrate a random nature and have no spatial coupling with the WF layout. At the regional level, there is no systematic shift in vegetation greenness between the pre- and post-turbine periods. At interannual and seasonal time scales, there are no confident vegetation changes over WFPs relative to NWFPs. These results remain robust when the pre- and post-turbine periods and NWFPs are defined differently. Most importantly, the majority of the VI changes are within the MODIS data uncertainty, suggesting that the WF impacts on vegetation, if any, cannot be separated confidently from the data uncertainty and noise. Overall, there are some small decreases in vegetation greenness over WF regions, but no convincing observational evidence is found for the impacts of operating WFs on vegetation growth.

  2. Water retention and evapotranspiration of green roofs and possible natural vegetation types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Matching vegetation to growing conditions on green roofs is one of the options to increase biodiversity in cities. A hydrological model has been applied to match the hydrological requirements of natural vegetation types to roof substrate parameters and to simulate moisture stress for specific substr

  3. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  4. A multitemporal and non-parametric approach for assessing the impacts of drought on vegetation greenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrao, Hugo; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F;

    2013-01-01

    for the period between 1998 and 2010. The time-series analysis of vegetation greenness is performed during the growing season with a non-parametric method, namely the seasonal Relative Greenness (RG) of spatially accumulated fAPAR. The Global Land Cover map of 2000 and the GlobCover maps of 2005/2006 and 2009......This study evaluates the relationship between the frequency and duration of meteorological droughts and the subsequent temporal changes on the quantity of actively photosynthesizing biomass (greenness) estimated from satellite imagery on rainfed croplands in Latin America. An innovative non...... Full Data Reanalysis precipitation time-series product, which ranges from January 1901 to December 2010 and is interpolated at the spatial resolution of 1° (decimal degree, DD). Vegetation greenness composites are derived from 10-daily SPOT-VEGETATION images at the spatial resolution of 1/112° DD...

  5. [Green space vegetation quantity in workshop area of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Li, Haifang; Zhong, Yingfei

    2006-04-01

    Aimed at the complex community structure and higher fragmentation of urban green space, and based on the investigation of synusia structure and its coverage, this paper studied the vegetation quantity of ornamental green space in the workshop area of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company, with the help of GIS. The results showed that different life forms of ornamental plants in this area had a greater difference in their single leaf area and leaf area index (LAI), and the LAI was not only depended on single leaf area, but also governed by the shape of tree crown and the intensive degree of branches and leaves. The total vegetation quantity was 1 694.2 hm2, with the average LAI being 7.75, and the vegetation quantity of arbor-shrub-herb and arbor-shrub communities accounted for 79.7% and 92.3% of the total, respectively, reflecting that the green space structure was dominated by arbor species and by arbor-shrub-herb and arbor-shrub community types. Single layer-structured lawn had a less percentage, while the vegetation quantity of herb synusia accounted for 22.9% of the total, suggesting an afforestation characteristic of "making use of every bit of space" in the workshop area. The vegetation quantity of urban ornamental green space depended on the area of green space, its synusia structure, and the LAI and coverage of ornamental plants. In enlarging urban green space, ornamental plant species with high LAI should be selected, and community structure should be improved to have a higher vegetation quantity in urban area. To quantify the vegetation quantity of urban ornamental green space more accurately, synusia should be taken as the unit to measure the LAI of typical species, and the synusia structure and its coverage of different community types should be investigated with the help of remote sensing images and GIS.

  6. Green's function based density estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesarki, Peter; Brock, Ian C.; Nuncio Quiroz, Adriana Elizabeth [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A method was developed based on Green's function identities to estimate probability densities. This can be used for likelihood estimations and for binary classifications. It offers several advantages over neural networks, boosted decision trees and other, regression based classifiers. For example, it is less prone to overtraining, and it is much easier to combine several samples. Some capabilities are demonstrated using ATLAS data.

  7. Linking Vital Rates of Landbirds on a Tropical Island to Rainfall and Vegetation Greenness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Saracco

    Full Text Available Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI] to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons, bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus, and golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei. Rainfall was positively related to vegetation greenness at all but the highest rainfall levels. Temporal variation in greenness affected the productivity of each bird species in unique ways. Predicted productivity of rufous fantail was highest when dry and wet season greenness values were high relative to site-specific 5-year seasonal mean values (i.e., relative greenness; while the white-eye species had highest predicted productivity when relative greenness contrasted between wet and dry seasons. Survival of rufous fantail and bridled white eye was positively related to relative dry-season greenness and negatively related to relative wet-season greenness. Bridled white-eye survival also showed evidence of a positive response to overall greenness. Our results highlight the potentially important role of rainfall regimes in affecting population dynamics of species on oceanic tropical islands. Understanding linkages between rainfall, vegetation, and animal population dynamics will be critical for developing effective conservation strategies in this and other regions where the seasonal timing, extent, and variability of rainfall is expected to change in the

  8. Tropical rotation crops influence nematode densities and vegetable yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hochmuth, R C

    1994-09-01

    The effects of eight summer rotation crops on nematode densities and yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in field studies conducted in north Florida from 1991 to 1993. The crop sequence was as follows: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) 'Lemondrop L' squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) 'Classic' eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The eight summer crop rotation treatments were as follows: 'Hale' castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), sesame (Sesamum indicum), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), weed fallow, 'SX- 17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max), and 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) as a control. Rotations with castor, velvetbean, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass were most effective in maintaining the lowest population densities of Meloidogyne spp. (a mixture of M. incognita race 1 and M. arenaria race 1), but Paratrichodorus minor built up in the sorghum-sudangrass rotation. Yield of squash was lower (P crops evaluated here may be useful for managing nematodes in the field and for improving yields of subsequent vegetable crops.

  9. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  10. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  11. Simple saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Christensen, Lars P

    2005-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and gentle saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables was developed. The method involves an extraction procedure with acetone and the selective removal of the chlorophylls and esterified fatty acids from the organic phase using a strongly basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). Extracts from common green vegetables (beans, broccoli, green bell pepper, chive, lettuce, parsley, peas, and spinach) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their content of major carotenoids before and after action of Ambersep 900 OH. The mean recovery percentages for most carotenoids [(all-E)-violaxanthin, (all-E)-lutein epoxide, (all-E)-lutein, neolutein A, and (all-E)-beta-carotene] after saponification of the vegetable extracts with Ambersep 900 OH were close to 100% (99-104%), while the mean recovery percentages of (9'Z)-neoxanthin increased to 119% and that of (all-E)-neoxanthin and neolutein B decreased to 90% and 72%, respectively.

  12. A multitemporal and non-parametric approach for assessing the impacts of drought on vegetation greenness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrao, Hugo; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the frequency and duration of meteorological droughts and the subsequent temporal changes on the quantity of actively photosynthesizing biomass (greenness) estimated from satellite imagery on rainfed croplands in Latin America. An innovative non...... Full Data Reanalysis precipitation time-series product, which ranges from January 1901 to December 2010 and is interpolated at the spatial resolution of 1° (decimal degree, DD). Vegetation greenness composites are derived from 10-daily SPOT-VEGETATION images at the spatial resolution of 1/112° DD...

  13. Remote Sensing of Fractional Green Vegetation Cover Using Spatially-Interpolated Endmembers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Tateishi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractional green vegetation cover (FVC is a useful parameter for many environmental and climate-related applications. A common approach for estimating FVC involves the linear unmixing of two spectral endmembers in a remote sensing image; bare soil and green vegetation. The spectral properties of these two endmembers are typically determined based on field measurements, estimated using additional data sources (e.g., soil databases or land cover maps, or extracted directly from the imagery. Most FVC estimation approaches do not consider that the spectral properties of endmembers may vary across space. However, due to local differences in climate, soil type, vegetation species, etc., the spectral characteristics of soil and green vegetation may exhibit positive spatial autocorrelation. When this is the case, it may be useful to take these local variations into account for estimating FVC. In this study, spatial interpolation (Inverse Distance Weighting and Ordinary Kriging was used to predict variations in the spectral characteristics of bare soil and green vegetation across space. When the spatially-interpolated values were used in place of scene-invariant endmember values to estimate FVC in an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image, the accuracy of FVC estimates increased, providing evidence that it may be useful to consider the effects of spatial autocorrelation for spectral mixture analysis.

  14. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingtang; LI; Zhong; QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain,the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate,as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables.Currently,the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China,and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained,so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.The operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors,and the most important factor is the incomplete consistency between the individual interests of supply chain members and the overall interests of supply chain.Therefore,the key driving force to improve the efficiency of green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is to build the scientific and rational collaborative decision-making mechanism of supply chain,in order to solve the problems concerning the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables,such as risk sharing,cost control and revenue allocation,thereby achieving the coordinated development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.

  15. Temperature and snowfall trigger alpine vegetation green-up on the world's roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Inouye, David W; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    Rapid temperature increase and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the world's highest and largest plateau, are a matter of global concern. Satellite observations have revealed distinctly different trend changes and contradicting temperature responses of vegetation green-up dates, leading to broad debate about the Plateau's spring phenology and its climatic attribution. Large uncertainties in remote-sensing estimates of phenology significantly limit efforts to predict the impacts of climate change on vegetation growth and carbon balance in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which are further exacerbated by a lack of detailed ground observation calibration. Here, we revealed the spatiotemporal variations and climate drivers of ground-based herbaceous plant green-up dates using 72 green-up datasets for 22 herbaceous plant species at 23 phenological stations, and corresponding daily mean air temperature and daily precipitation data from 19 climate stations across eastern and southern parts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1981 to 2011. Results show that neither the continuously advancing trend from 1982 to 2011, nor a turning point in the mid to late 1990s as reported by remote-sensing studies can be verified by most of the green-up time series, and no robust evidence for a warmer winter-induced later green-up dates can be detected. Thus, chilling requirements may not be an important driver influencing green-up responses to spring warming. Moreover, temperature-only control of green-up dates appears mainly at stations with relatively scarce preseason snowfall and lower elevation, while coupled temperature and precipitation controls of green-up dates occur mostly at stations with relatively abundant preseason snowfall and higher elevation. The diversified interactions between snowfall and temperature during late winter to early spring likely determine the spatiotemporal variations of green-up dates. Therefore, prediction of vegetation growth

  16. Impact of climate and vegetation type on evapotranspiration from green roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, M. E.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; Way, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly popular low impact development tool used to mitigate the adverse effects of urbanization and the loss of vegetated spaces. The benefits of green roofs include reducing stormwater volume and peak flows, reducing building energy loads, and mitigating the urban heat island effect. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key process fundamental to hydrologic and thermal performance of green roofs. For example, ET governs the water storage volume available in the soil medium and thus the ability of the green roof to retain and attenuate stormwater. Green roof design considerations such as soil medium depth and plant type impact ET rates. Additionally, climate has a strong impact on ET rates. To date, the influence between climate and green roof design factors (e.g. vegetation type and soil medium depth) on ET rates have not been well quantified. We performed a field study to evaluate the impact of climate, vegetation type, and soil medium depth on ET rates from extensive modular green roofs over prolonged drying periods. Three Canadian cities with distinct climates were chosen as field sites: London, ON, Calgary, AB, and Halifax, NS. At each site, daily module weights were recorded from May to August in 2013 and 2014 for approximately 40 green roof modules. These modules were divided into four vegetation treatments (three single species and one mixed species), and each treatment was divided into two groups of soil medium depth (10 cm or 15 cm). Daily ET rates and seasonal moisture loss were calculated and compared for the modules to determine which treatment provided the highest ET rates. The root depth profile, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance were also measured. On average, daily ET rates among the vegetation treatments did not vary greatly, however, observations on plant survival indicate which plant types are best suited for each site. In all three sites, mixed species in 15 cm of soil medium had higher seasonal moisture loss compared to

  17. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Red Clay Green Roof Vegetation Blocks for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for restoration of ecological systems in buildings, porous vegetation red clay green roof blocks were designed for performance evaluation. Blast furnace slag (BFS; fine aggregates (agg., coarse aggregates, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fiber (hydrophilic fiber, and red clay (ecofriendly additive material were applied to the construction of the porous vegetation red clay green roof blocks. A decrease in cement use is one way of reducing carbon emissions. To increase the water retentivity and the efficiency of roof vegetation blocks, blast furnace slag aggregates with excellent water absorptivity and polyvinyl alcohol fiber with a water absorption rate above 20% were added. In particular, the addition of polyvinyl alcohol fiber prevents performance reduction of the green roof vegetation blocks during freezing and melting in winter. Compressive strength, void ratio, and unit-mass tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the roof vegetation blocks. After their application to roof vegetation, the effect of water purification was evaluated. According to the experimental results, the mix that satisfies the target performance of green roof vegetation blocks (compression strength above 8 MPa, void ratio above 20%, unit mass 2.0 kg/cm3 or below is: cement = 128.95 kg/m3, BFS = 96.75 kg/m3, red clay = 96.75 kg/m3, water = 81.50 kg/m3, BFS agg. = 1450 kg/m3, PVA fiber = 1.26 kg/m3. The green roof vegetation blocks were designed using the mix that satisfied the target performance. To find the amount of attainable water due to rainfall, a rainfall meter was installed after application of the roof vegetation to measure daily rainfall and calculate the amount of attainable water. The results show that, for 1 mm of rainfall, it is possible to attain about 0.53 L of water per 1 m2. In addition, the water quality of effluents after application of roof vegetation was analyzed, and the results satisfied Class 4 of the River-life Environmental

  18. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  19. Impact of boiling on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of green vegetables consumed in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinha, Ana F; Alves, Rita C; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-04-01

    The effect of boiling (10 minutes) on eleven green vegetables frequently consumed in the Mediterranean diet was evaluated. For that, some physicochemical parameters and the contents of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity, were determined in raw and boiled samples. The raw vegetables analysed in this study were good sources of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, with contents ranging from 10.6 to 255.1 mg/100 g, 0.03 to 3.29 mg/100 g and 202.9 to 1010.7 mg/100 g, respectively. Boiling promoted losses in different extensions considering both the different bioactive compounds and the distinct vegetables analysed. Contrary to phenolics (more resistant), vitamin C was the most affected compound. Boiling also originated significant losses in the antioxidant activity of the vegetables. Considering all the parameters analysed, the vegetables most affected by boiling were broccoli and lettuce. The least affected ones were collard and tronchuda cabbage.

  20. Green vegetables and colon cancer: the mechanism of a protective effect by chlorophyll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important environmental determinants of the risk of colon cancer is the composition of the diet. Regular consumption of high amounts of red meat increases colon cancer risk. In contrast, consumption of green vegetables decreases the risk of colon cancer. This thesis provides a molecular m

  1. Electrostatic density measurements in green-state PM parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Georg H. W.

    The goal of this research is to show the feasibility of detecting density variations in greenstate powder metallurgy (P/M) compacts from surface voltage measurements. By monitoring a steady electric current flow through the sample and recording the voltages over the surface, valuable information is gathered leading to the prediction of the structural health of the compacts. Unlike prior research that concentrated on the detection of surface-breaking and subsurface defects, the results presented in this thesis target the density prediction throughout the volume of the sample. The detection of density variations is achieved by establishing a correlation between the conductivity and their respective density. The data obtained from the surface measurements is used as part of an inversion algorithm, calculating the conductivity distribution, and subsequently the density within the compact. In a first step, the relationship between conductivity and density of green-state P/M compacts was investigated. Tests were conducted for a number of parts of various powder mixtures. In all cases a clear correlation between conductivity and density could be established, indicating that measurements of electric conductivity could indeed be exploited in an effort to render valid information about the density of the sample under test. We found a linear correlation for nonlubricated parts and a non-linear behavior for lubricated samples. Specifically, it was found that the conductivity increases with increasing density only up to a maximum value obtained at approximately 6.9g/cm 3. Interestingly, any additional density increase leads to a reduction of the conductivity. This behavior was confirmed to be inherent in all powder mixtures with lubricants. The thesis research is able to provide a physical model and a mathematical formulation describing this counter-intuitive phenomenon. A finite element solver in conjunction with an inversion algorithm was then implemented to study arbitrarily

  2. Impacts of Greening Materials and Seed Pretreatment on Vegetation Development at an initial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Slope protection using greening measures as an integral part of soil-bioengineering is characterized by an increasing demand in research and practice. However, successful greening is a very complex issue due to the vast variety in specific slope characteristics such as morphology, soil properties and environmental factors. Because of practical experience in the greening of slopes and the results of further investigations in small-scale tests, it can be stated that the use of appropriate planting techniques, the quality of the materials used and the proper implementation of potential needed auxiliary materials at difficult locations are seen as key success criteria for sustainable vegetation development. Within this framework small-scale testing series were conducted regarding the influence of specific soil-properties, the use of auxiliary greening materials (fertilizer, mycorrhiza fungi, Bonded fiber matrix (BFM)…), application of different seed-pretreatment methods and influences of specific environmental factors (inclination, seeding depth) on vegetational development in an early phase. The aim of the series is to quantitatively and thus economically optimize the use of different greening-components and seed mixtures for practical application, while ensuring optimal development of vegetation. To quantify the influence of the treatment systems, vegetation cover ratio, biomass production (aboveground and belowground) and the germination of plant seeds served as main criteria for assessing the development in an initial stage. Selected findings for instance show that the admixture of mycorrhiza fungi can increase the cover ratio up to 23 % compared to untreated plots. In addition, pretreatment of seeds showed distinct effects too by shortening germination phase and increasing the capability of producing a higher amount of healthy sprouts. From a bioengineering perspective the results will serve as potential decisive advantage for successful implementation of

  3. The importance of vegetation density for tourists' wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction in African savannah ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbieu, Ugo; Grünewald, Claudia; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Southern African protected areas (PAs) harbour a great diversity of animals, which represent a large potential for wildlife tourism. In this region, global change is expected to result in vegetation changes, such as bush encroachment and increases in vegetation density. However, little is known on the influence of vegetation structure on wildlife tourists' wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction. In this study, we collected data on vegetation structure and perceived mammal densities along 196 road transects (each 5 km long) and conducted a social survey with 651 questionnaires across four PAs in three Southern African countries. Our objectives were 1) to assess visitors' attitude towards vegetation, 2) to test the influence of perceived mammal density and vegetation structure on the easiness to spot animals, and 3) on visitors' satisfaction during their visit to PAs. Using a Boosted Regression Tree procedure, we found mostly negative non-linear relationships between vegetation density and wildlife tourists' experience, and positive relationships between perceived mammal densities and wildlife tourists' experience. In particular, wildlife tourists disliked road transects with high estimates of vegetation density. Similarly, the easiness to spot animals dropped at thresholds of high vegetation density and at perceived mammal densities lower than 46 individuals per road transect. Finally, tourists' satisfaction declined linearly with vegetation density and dropped at mammal densities smaller than 26 individuals per transect. Our results suggest that vegetation density has important impacts on tourists' wildlife viewing experience and satisfaction. Hence, the management of PAs in savannah landscapes should consider how tourists perceive these landscapes and their mammal diversity in order to maintain and develop a sustainable wildlife tourism.

  4. Vegetation factors influencing density and distribution of wild large herbivores in a southern African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing large herbivore densities and distribution in terrestrial ecosystems is a fundamental goal of ecology. This study examined environmental factors influencing the density and distribution of wild large herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetation and s

  5. Vegetation factors influencing density and distribution of wild large herbivores in a southern African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing large herbivore densities and distribution in terrestrial ecosystems is a fundamental goal of ecology. This study examined environmental factors influencing the density and distribution of wild large herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Vegetation and

  6. CONDITION OF VEGETATION ON THE GREEN WALL WITH THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Skarżyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the possibility of using remote sensing methods to evaluate condition of vegetation on the green walls were performed on experimental models in 2010–2011. Two models that differ from one another with vegetation layer were analyzed: a retention model (MR I with substrate soil and an economic model (ME II with hydroponic felt. In the individual panels plants representing shrubs, perennials and grasses were planted. In total, on experimental models 60 plant species was applied depending on the exhibition of the walls. The evaluation of the plants condition was performed based on field observations and the analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Evaluation of vegetation condition using remote sensing methods leads to the conclusion that the vegetation on retention model (MR I have a much higher NDVI index value compared with the economic model (ME II. The comparison of the percent coverage of panels on retention model (MR I and economic model (ME II by the plants was done by separating the background plane from the plant surface. As a division criterion NDVI ratio in the range from -1 to 0.2 was taken. The results showed a clear contrast between the level of plant coverage of the examined models for individual facades. On the retention model (MR I panels plant covering was significantly higher than on an economic model (ME II where plant growth was limited. The growth of vegetation on the retention model (MR I using substrate soil in plant panels was normal suggesting the potential use of such solutions in the climatic conditions of Lower Silesia. Vegetation on the economic model (ME II is characterized by a worse growth throughout the growing season, which is why it is not recommended. The study showed that it is possible to evaluate the conditions of vegetation on the green walls with the use of remote sensing methods based on a modified photographic camera.

  7. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables from green markets in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenov Danijela D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available are valuable source of vitamins, minerals and fibers important for healthy human nutrition. However, an increased level of heavy metals in vegetables has been noticed in recent years. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze content of heavy metals, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and chromium (Cr in 11 vegetable species which are the most common in human diet. Vegetables were collected from three green markets (Limanska, Futoška and Riblja pijaca in Novi Sad, during September and October, from 2009 to 2011. Heavy metal contents were analyzed in edible parts of tomato, potato, spinach, onion, beetroot, parsley, parsnip, carrot, cauliflower, pepper and broccoli using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Varian, AAS 240FS. The results showed statistically significant differences in element concentrations among analyzed vegetables. In general, the highest metal pollution was observed in the year of 2011. Spinach was found to contain the highest metals content - 0.89 μg/g for Cd, 5.81 μg/g for Pb, and 3.67 μg/g for Cr. According to Serbian official regulations, 18.18% of all analyzed species exceeded maximum permissible level for Cd, 9.09% for Pb, while for Cr these limits are not defined. Elevated content of heavy metals in vegetables might be related to soil contamination, atmospheric depositions during transportation and marketing. Thus, a continuous monitoring of vegetables on markets should be performed in order to prevent potential health risks to consumers.

  8. Study of Cyclospora cayetanensis in health care facilities, sewage water and green leafy vegetables in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchand, J B; Cross, J H; Jimba, M; Sherchand, S; Shrestha, M P

    1999-03-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging parasite, is endemic in Nepal. A total of 2,123 stool specimens were collected from 3 health care facilities based on clinical symptoms during the period between 1995 to October, 1998. Out of these specimens, cayetanensis oocysts were found in 632 (29.8%). To identify possible sources for Cyclospora infection, drinking water, sewage water, green-leafy vegetables including fecal samples of various animals were collected and examined. The vegetable leaves were washed in distilled water then the washings, sewage water and drinking water were centrifuged and the sediment were examined microscopically. As a result, oocyst of Cyclospora were identified in sewage water and vegetable washings on four different occasions in June, August, October and November. The positive results were also confirmed as C. cayetanensis by development of 2 sporocysts after 2 week incubation period in potassium dichromate. A survey of 196 domestic animals from the same areas demonstrated that two chickens were positive for Cyclospora-like organism and others were negative. Although further studies are needed to clarify the direct link between Cyclospora infection and these sources, the results suggest that sewage water, green leafy vegetables are possible sources of infection and chickens could be possible reservoir host of Cyclospora in Nepal.

  9. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  10. Iron bioavailability of sweet potato and moringa leaves in comparision with leafy green vegetables commonly consumed in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a significant public health problem in Northern Ghana especially amongst women and children. Leafy green vegetables are major contributors to iron intake in this part of the world; poor iron bioavailability from these food sources may be part of the reason for the high prevalence of IDA. Evidence suggests that sweet potato and Moringa leaves might be better sources of bioavailable iron, compared with other leafy green vegetables, as both have hig...

  11. The influence of vegetation cover on debris-flow density during an extreme rainfall in the northern Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengers, Francis; Mcguire, Luke; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    We explored regional influences on debris-flow initiation throughout the Colorado Front Range (Colorado, USA) by exploiting a unique data set of more than 1100 debris flows that initiated during a 5 day rainstorm in 2013. Using geospatial data, we examined the influence of rain, hillslope angle, hillslope aspect, and vegetation density on debris-flow initiation. In particular we used a greenness index to differentiate areas of high tree density from grass and bare soil. The data demonstrated an overwhelming propensity for debris-flow initiation on south-facing hillslopes. However, when the debris-flow density was analyzed with respect to total rainfall and greenness we found that most debris flows occurred in areas of high rainfall and low tree density, regardless of hillslope aspect. These results indicate that present-day tree density exerts a stronger influence on debris-flow initiation locations than aspect-driven variations in soil and bedrock properties that developed over longer time scales.

  12. High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandom, Christopher J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Hansen, Morten D D; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-03-18

    The impact of large herbivores on ecosystems before modern human activities is an open question in ecology and conservation. For Europe, the controversial wood-pasture hypothesis posits that grazing by wild large herbivores supported a dynamic mosaic of vegetation structures at the landscape scale under temperate conditions before agriculture. The contrasting position suggests that European temperate vegetation was primarily closed forest with relatively small open areas, at most impacted locally by large herbivores. Given the role of modern humans in the world-wide decimations of megafauna during the late Quaternary, to resolve this debate it is necessary to understand herbivore-vegetation interactions before these losses. Here, a synthetic analysis of beetle fossils from Great Britain shows that beetles associated with herbivore dung were better represented during the Last Interglacial (132,000-110,000 y B.P., before modern human arrival) than in the early Holocene (10,000-5,000 y B.P.). Furthermore, beetle assemblages indicate closed and partially closed forest in the early Holocene but a greater mixture of semiopen vegetation and forest in the Last Interglacial. Hence, abundant and diverse large herbivores appear to have been associated with high structural diversity of vegetation before the megafauna extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. After these losses and in the presence of modern humans, large herbivores generally were less abundant, and closed woodland was more prevalent in the early Holocene. Our findings point to the importance of the formerly rich fauna of large herbivores in sustaining structurally diverse vegetation in the temperate forest biome and provide support for recent moves toward rewilding-based conservation management.

  13. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: the influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Berretta, C; Poe, S.; Stovin, V.

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one lef...

  14. Diets containing traditional and novel green leafy vegetables improve liver fatty acid profiles of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Melissa; Pace, Ralphenia D.; Dawkins, Norma L.; Willian, Kyle R

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) has been demonstrated to reduce the risks associated with cardiovascular and other diseases. However, no literature exists that examines the influence of traditional and novel GLVs on the liver fatty acid profile of an animal model genetically predisposed to developing hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of diets containing 4% collard greens, purslane or sweet potato greens on the liver fatty acid pr...

  15. Effect of Fermentation on Nutritional Composition of Selected Commonly Consumed Green Leafy Vegetables in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O.T. Ifesan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fresh leafy vegetables which include Amarathus hybridus (Bush green, Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted pumpkin leaf, Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf and Pterocarpus mildbraedii (White campwood leaf were subjected to spontaneous fermentation for 5 days at room temperature. Physicochemical properties (pH, temperature, and total titratable acidity were monitored during the fermentation. It was observed that the pH (6.8 to 3.78 of all the vegetables decreased steadily as fermentation progressed. However, the temperature (27°C to 34°C and total titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid equivalent (0.014-0.147 for all the vegetables increased as fermentation progressed. The percentage of occurrence of bacteria isolated from the fermenting mass include Bacillus spp. (39.1%, Lactobacillus spp. (26.1%, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. (8.7%, Proteus spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp (4.3% respectively. The proximate composition and mineral contents of fermented and unfermented leaves were investigated. Significant increase in ash content was noticed for unfermented (8.07%-15.72% and for fermented vegetables (12.50%-23.28%. The protein contents of T. occidentalis (24.29%-25.65%, and A. hybridus (14.27%-16.96% increased significantly after fermentation. A decrease in fiber content was noticed for all fermented vegetables except for V. amygdalina where significant increase was noticed (10.97%-14.55%. Increase in both thiamine (1.37-1.52mg/ml and niacin (1.32-1.62mg/ml contents were observed in T. occidentalis after fermentation while significant reductions were recorded for A. hybridus and V. amygdalina. Generally, vitamin C content of the vegetables decreased during fermentation while some increases were recorded in the mineral content of fermented vegetables.

  16. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  17. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  18. A Study on the Impact of Vegetation and Green Roof on Increasing the Wind Speed and Pollutants Dispersion in the Urban Canyons Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Increasing population growth and construction of high-rise buildings have doubled the amount of environmental pollution in the cities. Moreover, people use the open urban spaces more than before in order to meet their ecological needs. Accordingly, some parameters such as various vegetation and continuous winds streams can be considerably influential in transmittance of the particle pollution.  Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the impacts of different green roofs on the dispersion of pollutants in the standpoint of height and density for urban airflow condition of Shiraz City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, a literature review in the field computer simulation with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD model in Envi-met software environment was used. Results: Regarding the importance of using vegetation in the urban spaces, vertical dispersion of the particles in presence of vegetation was explored. By comparing the basic model (without vegetation results with models including vegetation with short, medium and high crowns, it was revealed that vegetation with medium crowns is the closest model to the basic model with a difference of 7.65 m2/s in terms of vertical dispersion of particles; in fact, it was the most optimized condition for maximizing the dispersion of environmental pollutants. Conclusion: The results showed that the green roofs in the buildings increase the horizontal dispersion of the particulate pollution and decrease this term in the vertical dispersion. Finally, by an expansion of green roof usage in the buildings the sustainability in architecture and urbanism can be achieved.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of vegetation and green walls on building thermal performance and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susorova, Irina

    This research explored the use of vegetation in building facades as a potential solution to the problems of urban ecology and the excessive energy consumption in buildings. Vegetated facades substantially reduce building energy use, reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality, and increase the biodiversity of plants and animals in cities. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of plants on building thermal performance and energy consumption by developing a thermal model of a building facade covered with a layer of plants. The developed mathematical model accounts for thermal physical processes in a vegetated exterior wall including solar radiation, infrared radiative exchange between the facade and sky, the facade and ground, the facade and vegetation layer, convection to and from the facade, evapotranspiration from the plant layer, heat storage in the facade material, and heat conduction through the facade. The model calculates vegetated facade surface temperature and heat flux through the facade for multiple weather conditions, plant physiological characteristics, and facade parameters inputs. The model was validated with the results of a one-week long experiment measuring the thermal properties of bare and vegetated facades on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus. The experiment and subsequent sensitivity analysis demonstrated that a plant layer can effectively reduce the facade exterior surface temperature, daily temperature fluctuations, exterior wall temperature gradient, and, as a result, provide as much additional thermal insulation to the facade as a 2.5 cm layer of expanded polystyrene insulation. The vegetated facade model was also used to analyze the reduction in energy consumption in generic office and residential thermal zones for multiple parameters. The simulations showed that energy reduction could be as high as 6.2% of annual total energy use and 34.6% of cooling energy use in residential thermal zones. Overall

  20. Constrained projections of high northern latitudinal photosynthesis increase by satellite observations of vegetation greenness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander J.; Myneni, Ranga; Brovkin, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Satellite observations of the last three decades provide strong evidence that the Earth is greening. Especially in northern high latitudes, a substantial increase of the leaf area index (LAI), an indicator of greening, is observed. For these regions, it is assumed that plant growth benefits from higher temperature (radiative effect) and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (CO2 fertilization effect). This greening trend, in terms of increasing LAI, is also simulated by various global ecosystem models. We also found a persistent greening trend analyzing historical simulations of Earth system models (ESM) participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, a wide spread in magnitude of an associated increase of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) among the ESMs is found, and thus contributes to pronounced uncertainties in projections of future climate change. Here we demonstrate that the tight correlation between enhanced GPP of high northern latitudinal ecosystems and their LAI sensitivity to both key environmental factors, temperature and CO2 concentration, opens up the possibility of an Emergent Constraint on plant photosynthesis. Combining this almost linear relationship across the ensemble of CMIP5 models with the LAI trends in the long-term satellite records, we are able to constrain projections of vegetation growth increase for respective ecosystems.

  1. Detection of Minerals in Green Leafy Vegetables Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P.; Kumar, R.; Raib, A. Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of minerals in different green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, chenopodium, chickpea, mustard, and fenugreek, was calculated using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS can provide an easy, reliable, efficient, low-cost, and in situ chemical analysis with a reasonable precision. In situ LIBS spectra in the range 200-500 nm were carried out using fresh leaves and leaves in the pellet form. As the spectra suggest, magnesium and calcium are present in each vegetable; however, the amount of them varies. It is observed that the amount of iron is maximal in spinach. The nutrition value of the plants was analyzed, and it was revealed that they are low in calories and fat and high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium, and phytochemicals.

  2. PEXSI-$\\Sigma$: A Green's function embedding method for Kohn-Sham density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiantao; Lu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    As Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) being applied to increasingly more complex materials, the periodic boundary condition associated with supercell approaches also becomes unsuitable for a number of important scenarios. Green's function embedding methods allow a more versatile treatment of complex boundary conditions, and hence provide an attractive alternative to describe complex systems that cannot be easily treated in supercell approaches. In this paper, we first revisit the literature of Green's function embedding methods from a numerical linear algebra perspective. We then propose a new Green's function embedding method called PEXSI-$\\Sigma$. The PEXSI-$\\Sigma$ method approximates the density matrix using a set of nearly optimally chosen Green's functions evaluated at complex frequencies. For each Green's function, the complex boundary conditions are described by a self energy matrix $\\Sigma$ constructed from a physical reference Green's function, which can be computed relatively easily. In th...

  3. The antioxidant and phenolic profiles of five green vegetables grown in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Abiola M; Ighodaro, Osasenaga M; Aminu, Abiola O; Ogunlana, Aminat I

    2016-01-01

    Regular consumption of vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. The phenolic and free radical scavenging properties of five green vegetables grown in southern Nigeria were determined. The phenolic and antioxidant profile of African spinach, bitter leaf, jute leaf, scent leaf and water leaf harvested in the month of August were assessed using standard protocols. The total phenolic content (GAE mg/100 g) of the fresh vegetables ranges from 738.70 ±7.90 in African spinach to 1464.63 ±7.60 in scent leaf. A higher flavonoid content (QE mg/100 g) was found in water leaf (512.07 ±1.47) and jute leaf (510.13 ±2.22) compared to the other vegetables examined; scent leaf (496.51 ±1.31), African spinach (457.40 ±1.50), bitter leaf (371.89 ±0.44). Scent leaf possesses the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an EC50 [μg/mL] of 74.64 ±7.73. The other vegetables show a lower EC50 [μg/mL]; jute leaf (125.86 ±11.34) > water leaf (132.43 ±9.43) > bitter leaf (156.02 ±5.43) > African spinach (213.44 ±9.29). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (EC50, μg/mL) of the vegetables in order of decreasing activity, was bitter leaf (50.38 ±7.17) > water leaf (103.41 ±6.27) > African spinach   (110.54±8.15) > jute leaf (144.39 ±9.37) > scent leaf (217.51 ±6.90). The total antioxidant capacity (EC50, μg/mL) of the vegetables increases in the following order; African spinach (227.39 ±7.25) vegetables possess appreciable phenolic and antioxidant potentials, which underscore their regular consumption as part of healthy Nigerian diet. Principal component analysis (PCA) buttresses the correlations and variations of the aforementioned potential among vegetable species.

  4. More Americans are eating "5 a day" but intakes of dark green and cruciferous vegetables remain low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C S; Taylor, C A; Hampl, J S

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations repeatedly show that the regular consumption of dark green and cruciferous vegetables, tomatoes and citrus fruits in particular is related to reduced cancer risk. We used the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals to examine the types of fruits and vegetables consumed by Americans. The analytic sample population, which consisted of 4806 men and women (25-75 y old) who completed two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls, consumed 3.6 +/- 2.3 servings of vegetables and 1.6 +/- 2.0 servings of fruit daily. Iceberg lettuce, tomatoes, French fried potatoes, bananas and orange juice were the most commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, accounting for nearly 30% of all fruits and vegetables consumed. The most popular items, lettuce and tomatoes, were consumed by 39-42% of the sample population during the reporting period. Fewer respondents (16-24%) consumed French fried potatoes, bananas or orange juice. Only 3% of the sample consumed broccoli during the reporting period. White potato consumption averaged 1.1 servings daily, with French fried potatoes representing 0.4 serving. Tomato product consumption averaged 0.5 serving daily, dark green vegetable consumption averaged 0.2 serving daily and citrus, berries or melon consumption amounted to nearly 0.8 serving daily. These data indicate that Americans are consuming more fruits and vegetables but that dark green and cruciferous vegetable intake is low.

  5. Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercanoglu Taban, Birce; Halkman, A Kadir

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, there is an increasing demand for leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads since people changed their eating habits because of healthier lifestyle interest. Nevertheless fresh leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads are recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks in many parts of the world. However, this increased proportion of outbreaks cannot be completely explained by increased consumption and enhanced surveillance of them. Both in Europe and in the USA, recent foodborne illness outbreaks have revealed links between some pathogens and some leafy green vegetables such as mostly lettuces and spinaches and their RTE salads since fresh leafy green vegetables carry the potential risk of microbiological contamination due to the usage of untreated irrigation water, inappropriate organic fertilizers, wildlife or other sources that can occur anywhere from the farm to the fork such as failure during harvesting, handling, processing and packaging. Among a wide range of pathogens causing foodborne illnesses, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate leafy green vegetables. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised people are the most at risk for developing complications from foodborne illness as a result of eating contaminated leafy greens or their RTE salads. These outbreaks are mostly restaurant associated or they sometimes spread across several countries by international trade routes. This review summarizes current observations concerning the contaminated leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads as important vehicles for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyperspectral Monitoring of Green Roof Vegetation Health State in Sub-Mediterranean Climate: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Patrizia; Porti, Michele; Veltri, Simone; Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica

    2017-03-23

    In urban and industrial environments, the constant increase of impermeable surfaces has produced drastic changes in the natural hydrological cycle. Decreasing green areas not only produce negative effects from a hydrological-hydraulic perspective, but also from an energy point of view, modifying the urban microclimate and generating, as shown in the literature, heat islands in our cities. In this context, green infrastructures may represent an environmental compensation action that can be used to re-equilibrate the hydrological and energy balance and reduce the impact of pollutant load on receiving water bodies. To ensure that a green infrastructure will work properly, vegetated areas have to be continuously monitored to verify their health state. This paper presents a ground spectroscopy monitoring survey of a green roof installed at the University of Calabria fulfilled via the acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. This study is part of a larger research project financed by European Structural funds aimed at understanding the influence of green roofs on rainwater management and energy consumption for air conditioning in the Mediterranean area. Reflectance values were acquired with a field-portable spectroradiometer that operates in the range of wavelengths 350-2500 nm. The survey was carried out during the time period November 2014-June 2015 and data were acquired weekly. Climatic, thermo-physical, hydrological and hydraulic quantities were acquired as well and related to spectral data. Broadband and narrowband spectral indices, related to chlorophyll content and to chlorophyll-carotenoid ratio, were computed. The two narrowband indices NDVI705 and SIPI turned out to be the most representative indices to detect the plant health status.

  7. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Residents of Villages Surrounding Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimof

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs associated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated association between fruit and vegetables intake and bone mineral density in rural population of Tehran surroundings. Subjects were a subgroup of a large study on prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surrounding Tehran, capital of Iran. Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL (Calscan method at the heels. Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 years were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men were 69.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetable intake women were grouped as those consuming less than 1.5 servings of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reported consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01. Those consumed more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin A (r= 0.03, P<0.05 was correlated with BMD. High consumption of vegetables positively affected bone mineral density in rural women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables could positively affect osteoporosis prevention.

  9. Effects of moose density and supplementary feeding on field layer vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Torgersen, Silje Bjørgan

    2011-01-01

    English: Large mammalian herbivores have the potential to directly and indirectly affect the ecosystem they live in, such as plant structure and dynamics of vascular plants. The present study experimentally estimated the impact of moose density and moose feeding stations on field layer vegetation. The effects of browsing on the field layer vegetation horn moose feeding stations are somewhat unanswered, and there are few studies referring to this problem. Supplementary feeding of moose in wint...

  10. A Daily Snack Containing Leafy Green Vegetables, Fruit, and Milk before and during Pregnancy Prevents Gestational Diabetes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Sirazul A; Potdar, Ramesh D; Gandhi, Meera; Kehoe, Sarah H; Brown, Nick; Sane, Harshad; Coakley, Patsy J; Marley-Zagar, Ella; Chopra, Harsha; Shivshankaran, Devi; Cox, Vanessa A; Jackson, Alan A; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-07-01

    Prospective observational studies suggest that maternal diets rich in leafy green vegetables and fruit may help prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our objective was to test whether increasing women's dietary intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk before conception and throughout pregnancy reduced their risk of GDM. Project SARAS ("excellent") (2006-2012) was a nonblinded, individually randomized, controlled trial in women living in slums in the city of Mumbai, India. The interventions included a daily snack made from leafy green vegetables, fruit, and milk for the treatment group or low-micronutrient vegetables (e.g., potato and onion) for the control group, in addition to the usual diet. Results for the primary outcome, birth weight, have been reported. Women were invited to take an oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 28-32 wk gestation to screen for GDM (WHO 1999 criteria). The prevalence of GDM was compared between the intervention and control groups, and Kernel density analysis was used to compare distributions of 120-min plasma glucose concentrations between groups. Of 6513 women randomly assigned, 2291 became pregnant; of these, 2028 reached a gestation of 28 wk, 1008 (50%) attended for an OGTT, and 100 (9.9%) had GDM. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the prevalence of GDM was reduced in the treatment group (7.3% compared with 12.4% in controls; OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86; P = 0.008). The reduction in GDM remained significant after adjusting for prepregnancy adiposity and fat or weight gain during pregnancy. Kernel density analysis showed that this was explained by the fact that fewer women in the treatment group had a 2-h glucose concentration in the range 7.5-10.0 mmol/L. In low-income settings, in which women have a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods, improving dietary micronutrient quality by increasing intake of leafy green vegetables, fruit, and/or milk may have an important protective effect against the development of GDM

  11. Detection and attribution of vegetation greening trend in China over the last 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shilong; Yin, Guodong; Tan, Jianguang; Cheng, Lei; Huang, Mengtian; Li, Yue; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Myneni, Ranga B; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Ben; Shi, Xiaoying; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Zeng, ZhenZhong; Wang, Yingping

    2015-04-01

    The reliable detection and attribution of changes in vegetation growth is a prerequisite for the development of strategies for the sustainable management of ecosystems. This is an extraordinary challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively detect and attribute a greening trend in China over the last three decades. We use three different satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) datasets for detection as well as five different process-based ecosystem models for attribution. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition are identified as the most likely causes of the greening trend in China, explaining 85% and 41% of the average growing-season LAI trend (LAIGS) estimated by satellite datasets (average trend of 0.0070 yr(-1), ranging from 0.0035 yr(-1) to 0.0127 yr(-1)), respectively. The contribution of nitrogen deposition is more clearly seen in southern China than in the north of the country. Models disagree about the contribution of climate change alone to the trend in LAIGS at the country scale (one model shows a significant increasing trend, whereas two others show significant decreasing trends). However, the models generally agree on the negative impacts of climate change in north China and Inner Mongolia and the positive impact in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Provincial forest area change tends to be significantly correlated with the trend of LAIGS (P trend, calculated as the trend observed by satellite minus that estimated by models through considering the effects of climate change, rising CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, across different provinces. This result highlights the important role of China's afforestation program in explaining the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Predicting Opportunities for Greening and Patterns of Vegetation on Private Urban Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Austin R.; Grove, J. Morgan; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2007-09-01

    This paper examines predictors of vegetative cover on private lands in Baltimore, Maryland. Using high-resolution spatial data, we generated two measures: “possible stewardship,” which is the proportion of private land that does not have built structures on it and hence has the possibility of supporting vegetation, and “realized stewardship,” which is the proportion of possible stewardship land upon which vegetation is growing. These measures were calculated at the parcel level and averaged by US Census block group. Realized stewardship was further defined by proportion of tree canopy and grass. Expenditures on yard supplies and services, available by block group, were used to help understand where vegetation condition appears to be the result of current activity, past legacies, or abandonment. PRIZM™ market segmentation data were tested as categorical predictors of possible and realized stewardship and yard expenditures. PRIZM™ segmentations are hierarchically clustered into 5, 15, and 62 categories, which correspond to population density, social stratification (income and education), and lifestyle clusters, respectively. We found that PRIZM 15 best predicted variation in possible stewardship and PRIZM 62 best predicted variation in realized stewardship. These results were further analyzed by regressing each dependent variable against a set of continuous variables reflective of each of the three PRIZM groupings. Housing age, vacancy, and population density were found to be critical determinants of both stewardship metrics. A number of lifestyle factors, such as average family size, marriage rates, and percentage of single-family detached homes, were strongly related to realized stewardship. The percentage of African Americans by block group was positively related to realized stewardship but negatively related to yard expenditures.

  13. Ecohydrologic controls on vegetation density and evapotranspiration partitioning across the climatic gradients of the central United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kochendorfer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil-water balance and plant water use are investigated over a domain encompassing the central United States using the Statistical-Dynamical Ecohydrology Model (SDEM. The seasonality in the model and its use of the two-component Shuttleworth-Wallace canopy model allow for application of an ecological optimality hypothesis in which vegetation density, in the form of peak green leaf area index (LAI, is maximized, within upper and lower bounds, such that, in a typical season, soil moisture in the latter half of the growing season just reaches the point at which water stress is experienced. Another key feature of the SDEM is that it partitions evapotranspiration into transpiration, evaporation from canopy interception, and evaporation from the soil surface. That partitioning is significant for the soil-water balance because the dynamics of the three processes are very different. The partitioning and the model-determined peak in green LAI are validated based on observations in the literature, as well as through the calculation of water-use efficiencies with modeled transpiration and large-scale estimates of grassland productivity. Modeled-determined LAI are seen to be at least as accurate as the unaltered satellite-based observations on which they are based. Surprising little dependence on climate and vegetation type is found for the percentage of total evapotranspiration that is soil evaporation, with most of the variation across the study region attributable to soil texture and the resultant differences in vegetation density. While empirical evidence suggests that soil evaporation in the forested regions of the most humid part of the study region is somewhat overestimated, model results are in excellent agreement with observations from croplands and grasslands. The implication of model results for water-limited vegetation is that the higher (lower soil moisture content in wetter (drier climates is more-or-less completely offset by the greater

  14. The Energy Impact in Buildings of Vegetative Solutions for Extensive Green Roofs in Temperate Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Barozzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many bibliographical studies have highlighted the positive effects of green roofs as technological solutions both for new and renovated buildings. The one-year experimental monitoring campaign conducted has investigated, in detail, some aspects related to the surface temperature variation induced by the presence of different types of vegetation compared to traditional finishing systems for flat roofs and their impact from an energy and environmental point of view. The results obtained underlined how an appropriate vegetative solution selection can contribute to a significant reduction of the external surface temperatures (10 °C–20 °C for I > 500 W/m2 and 0 °C–5 °C for I < 500 W/m2, regardless of the season compared to traditional flat roofs. During the winter season, the thermal gradients of the planted surface temperatures are close to zero compared to the floor, except under special improving conditions. This entails a significant reduction of the energy loads from summer air conditioning, and an almost conservative behavior with respect to that from winter heating consumption. The analysis of the inside growing medium temperatures returned a further interesting datum, too: the temperature gradient with respect to surface temperature (annual average 4 °C–9 °C is a function of solar radiation and involves the insulating contribution of the soil.

  15. Effect of Processing on the Vitamin C Content of Seven Nigerian Green Leafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola Babalola

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of processing on the Vitamin C content of seven Nigerian green leafy vegetables, Telfaria occidentalis (ugu, Talinum triangulare (waterleaf, Basella alba (indian spinach, Celosia argentea (soko, Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf, Amaranthus hybridus (tete and Crassephalum crepidioees (rorowo. Processing methods employed are, blanching, boiling, sundrying, squeezewashing, squeeze-washing with salt and squeeze-washing with boiling. Raw ugu had highest Vitamin C content of 62.50 mg/100g while raw waterleaf had the lowest value of 9.30 mg/100g. Blanching and boiling reduced the Vitamin C content of soko and tete tremendously with a value of 91.50% reduction for boiled tete. The percentage loss for sundried vegetables was the lowest when compared with other processing methods with a reduction of 6.50 and 12.40% in indian spinach and rorowo, respectively. Squeeze washing reduced the Vitamin C content of ugu from 62.50 mg/100g to 6.47 mg/100g (89.65% and bitter leaf from 42.40 mg/100g to 4.28 mg/100g (89.90%. Squeeze-washing followed by boiling of bitter leaf reduced the Vitamin C content from 42.40 mg/100g to 2.18 mg/100g recording the highest loss of 94.90% when compared with other processing methods.

  16. Development of satellite green vegetation fraction time series for use in mesoscale modeling: application to the European heat wave 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for development of satellite green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF data is in the WRF model used to describe the temporal evolution of many land surface parameters, in addition to the evolution...

  17. Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Lieshout, van E.M.M.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with increased colon cancer risk. This association might be partly due to the haem content of red meat. In rats, dietary haem is metabolized in the gut to a cytotoxic factor that increases colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial prolifera

  18. Two-time Green's functions and spectral density method in nonextensive quantum statistical mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, A.; Cosenza, F.; De Cesare, L.

    2007-01-01

    We extend the formalism of the thermodynamic two-time Green's functions to nonextensive quantum statistical mechanics. Working in the optimal Lagrangian multipliers representation, the $q$-spectral properties and the methods for a direct calculation of the two-time $q$% -Green's functions and the related $q$-spectral density ($q$ measures the nonextensivity degree) for two generic operators are presented in strict analogy with the extensive ($q=1$) counterpart. Some emphasis is devoted to the...

  19. Evaluation of Minerals, Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican, Central American, and African Green Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguilar, Dulce M; Grusak, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The green leafy vegetables Cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Crotalaria longirostrata are native to Mexico and Central America, while Solanum scabrum and Gynandropsis gynandra are native to Africa. They are consumed in both rural and urban areas in those places as a main food, food ingredient or traditional medicine. Currently, there is limited information about their nutritional and phytochemical composition. Therefore, mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentration, and antioxidant activity were evaluated in multiple accessions of these leafy vegetables, and their mineral and vitamin C contribution per serving was calculated. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and P in these leafy vegetables were 0.82-2.32, 1.61-7.29, 0.61-1.48 and 0.27-1.44 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. The flavonoid concentration in S. scabrum accessions was up to 1413 μg catechin equivalents/g FW, while the highest antioxidant activities were obtained in C. longirostrata accessions (52-60 μmol Trolox equivalents/g FW). According to guidelines established by the US Food and Drug Administration, a serving size (30 g FW) of C. longirostrata would be considered an excellent source of Mo (20 % or more of the daily value), and a serving of any of these green leafy vegetables would be an excellent source of vitamin C. Considering the importance of the minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants in human health and their presence in these indigenous green leafy vegetables, efforts to promote their consumption should be implemented.

  20. Predicting bird phenology from space: satellite-derived vegetation green-up signal uncovers spatial variation in phenological synchrony between birds and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ella F; Long, Peter R; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Szulkin, Marta; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Population-level studies of how tit species (Parus spp.) track the changing phenology of their caterpillar food source have provided a model system allowing inference into how populations can adjust to changing climates, but are often limited because they implicitly assume all individuals experience similar environments. Ecologists are increasingly using satellite-derived data to quantify aspects of animals' environments, but so far studies examining phenology have generally done so at large spatial scales. Considering the scale at which individuals experience their environment is likely to be key if we are to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes acting on reproductive phenology within populations. Here, we use time series of satellite images, with a resolution of 240 m, to quantify spatial variation in vegetation green-up for a 385-ha mixed-deciduous woodland. Using data spanning 13 years, we demonstrate that annual population-level measures of the timing of peak abundance of winter moth larvae (Operophtera brumata) and the timing of egg laying in great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) is related to satellite-derived spring vegetation phenology. We go on to show that timing of local vegetation green-up significantly explained individual differences in tit reproductive phenology within the population, and that the degree of synchrony between bird and vegetation phenology showed marked spatial variation across the woodland. Areas of high oak tree (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) density showed the strongest match between remote-sensed vegetation phenology and reproductive phenology in both species. Marked within-population variation in the extent to which phenology of different trophic levels match suggests that more attention should be given to small-scale processes when exploring the causes and consequences of phenological matching. We discuss how use of remotely sensed data to study within-population variation

  1. Implications of Increasing Forest Density and Vegetation Water Demand on Drought Impacts in California Montane Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksa, P. C.; Safeeq, M.; Dymond, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation density has been increasing over the past 30 years at mid-elevation southern Sierra mixed-conifer catchments and northern California coastal conifer catchments, as shown from Landsat mean annual values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Forest vegetation in these regions is being maintained or even increased during the recent drought, despite record low precipitation levels statewide and heavy tree mortality at lower elevation Sierra pine-dominated forests. The increase in vegetation density suggests an increase in forest water use, exacerbating the effects of the drought on runoff and water supply. Between 1984 and 2015, mean annual NDVI increased in the southern Sierra from 0.47 to 0.56 (+19%) in the Providence Creek basin (1730-2115m elevation) and from 0.53 to 0.62 (+17%) in Bull Creek basin (2145-2490m), while NDVI increased along the northern California coast from 0.75 to 0.88 (+17%) in the Caspar Creek basin (40-300m). Previous research has shown an exponential relationship exists between NDVI and measured annual evapotranspiration (ET), indicating even greater increases in ET than NDVI over the three decades. This increase in vegetation has also led to more competition for plant available water, and can be used to explain the large tree mortality occurring in the pine forests at lower elevations, which did not occur during previous drought periods. Preliminary results of a hydro-ecological model, RHESSys, suggest intensive vegetation treatments in these regions can reduce evapotranspiration and modify the catchment-scale water balance. Forest management strategies for implementation of thinning and fuels treatments to reduce forest density may be effective in limiting vegetation mortality during future drought events.

  2. Camera derived vegetation greenness index as proxy for gross primary production in a low Arctic wetland area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Lund, Magnus; Hansen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    of these changes. This study investigates the ability to use automatic digital camera images (DCIs) as proxy data for gross primary production (GPP) in a complex low Arctic wetland site. Vegetation greenness computed from DCIs was found to correlate significantly (R2 = 0.62, p ... vegetation index (NDVI) product derived from the WorldView-2 satellite. An object-based classification based on a bi-temporal image composite was used to classify the study area into heath, copse, fen, and bedrock. Temporal evolution of vegetation greenness was evaluated and modeled with double sigmoid...... and GPP (R2 = 0.85, p cameras may be used as a cost-effective proxy for potential GPP in remote Arctic regions....

  3. System development for the nondestructive assessment of density in green-state powder metallurgy compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Reinhold; Makarov, Sergey; Leuenberger, Georg; Apelian, Diran

    2001-04-01

    In this research we discuss an electrostatic measurement approach whereby electric current is injected into green-state compacts and the resulting surface voltages are recorded in an effort to determine the density distribution. We present results of pure iron powder with and without lubricants compacted to various densities and their measured electric resistivities in an effort to establish a statistical correlation. The electric measurements will ultimately be utilized to predict density distributions throughout the green-state P/M compact. The constant current is injected through point and aperture electrodes and voltages are recorded along the surface of the compact. The recorded voltages of the controlled cylindrical samples are compared to a mathematical Green's function model involving an analytical electrostatic solution of Poisson's equation.

  4. Effect of landscape pattern on insect species density within urban green spaces in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Weiqi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban areas. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the relationship between the landscape pattern of green spaces and biodiversity to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization. In this study, we collected insects from 45 green patches in Beijing during July 2012 using suction sampling. The green patches were dominated by managed lawns, mixed with scattered trees and shrubs. We examined the effects of landscape pattern on insect species density using hierarchical partitioning analysis and partial least squares regression. The results of the hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that five explanatory variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest patch (13.8%), diversity for patch types (11.0%), and patch shape (8.3%), significantly contributed to insect species density. With the partial least squares regression model, we found species density was negatively related to patch area, shape, connectivity, diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p green patches with an area <500 m2. Our results indicated that improvement in habitat quality, such as patch area and connectivity that are typically thought to be important for conservation, did not actually increase species density. However, increasing compactness (low-edge) of patch shape and landscape composition did have the expected effect. Therefore, it is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality.

  5. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Green tea catechins prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation via their accumulation in low-density lipoprotein particles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Taguchi, Chie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Suzuki, Emiko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenols, including catechins which have antioxidant activities and are considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of green tea catechins on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro and in human studies to test the hypothesis that catechins are incorporated into LDL particles and exert antioxidant properties. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 healthy men ingested green tea extract (GTE) in the form of capsules at a dose of 1 g total catechin, of which most (>99%) was the gallated type. At 1 hour after ingestion, marked increases of the plasma concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate were observed. Accordingly, the plasma total antioxidant capacity was increased, and the LDL oxidizability was significantly reduced by the ingestion of GTE. We found that gallated catechins were incorporated into LDL particles in nonconjugated forms after the incubation of GTE with plasma in vitro. Moreover, the catechin-incorporated LDL was highly resistant to radical-induced oxidation in vitro. An additional human study with 5 healthy women confirmed that GTE intake sufficiently increased the concentration of gallated catechins, mainly in nonconjugated forms in LDL particles, and reduced the oxidizability of LDL. In conclusion, green tea catechins are rapidly incorporated into LDL particles and play a role in reducing LDL oxidation in humans, which suggests that taking green tea catechins is effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress.

  7. The influence of increasing riverbank vegetation density on bed shear stresses and transport of bed material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    Riverbank vegetation can significantly influence the hydrodynamics of the river, such as flow velocity and bed shear stress, as well as affecting geomorphic processes across it. The aim of this study is to report preliminary results from extensive set of experiments aiming to better establish the link between flow and solid transport processes at the vicinity of the riverbank. A set of laboratory experiments is conducted in a recirculating flume with a series of acrylic panels mounted on the side of the flume at an angle to simulate the riverbank, and a large number of acrylic rods placed on top of it simulating riparian vegetation. Ten different vegetation configurations are examined, for the range of vegetation densities found in natural river systems. Three of these are configured in linear arrangement; another three of them in staggered; and the other four follow a random configuration at chosen densities. Turbulent flow is measured across the channel using acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) along a dense measurement grid. The measurements covered the whole cross-section of the channel at the main measurement plane, as well as the riverbank region. The results reported include mean streamwise flow velocity and turbulent intensity profiles, bed shear stresses, momentum transfer at the riverbank region. These are associated with transport metrics obtained using an instrumented tracer particle entrained from different release locations (both from the centerline of the main channel and the near bank region). The results show that the flow velocity at the riverbank reduces with increasing densities of riparian vegetation, while they increase at the main channel. Likewise, the bed shear stresses increased at the main channel, and decreased within the vegetated riverbank, which is replicated by the observations from the particle transport experiments.

  8. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  9. Effects of Percent Tree Canopy Density and DEM Misregistration on SRTM/NED Vegetation Height Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Miliaresis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S National Elevation Dataset and the NLCD 2001 landcover data were used to test the correlation between SRTM elevation values and the height of evergreen forest vegetation in the Klamath Mountains of California.Vegetation height estimates (SRTM-NED are valid only for the two out of eight (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW geographic directions, due to NED and SRTM grid data misregistration. Penetration depths of SRTM radar were found to linearly correlate to tree percent canopy density.

  10. EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN EATABLE VEGETABLES – A PROPOSAL FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S Paiva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The  carotenoids  are  natural  colored  pigments  varying  from  yellow  to  red.  They  are  divided  in  carotenes,  as  β-carotene  and lycopene, and their oxygenated derivatives, the xanthophylls, as astaxanthin present in shellfishes.  β-carotenes are precursors of vitamin A being an important anti-oxidant molecule. Both β-carotene and lycopene, have been  used  in  the  cancer  inhibition.  In  the  present  work,  we  detected  the  presence  of  carotenoids  using  thin  layer chromatography (TLC for the separation of the pigments of green eatable vegetables, aiming the application of those methods  in  the  practical  classes  of  the  Biological  Science  Course  of  UFPE.  Spinacia  oleracea  (spinach,  Brassica oleracea (cabbage and Lactuca sativa (lettuce were macerated with washed send in the presence of sodium sulfate followed by the addition of 25 ml of hexane until total homogeneity. The extracts were filtrated, washed with 10 ml of hexane, concentrated in vacuum  evaporator  and resuspended in hexane. The  hexanic extract was applied  on silica gel  G  plates  activated  at  120°C  for  30  min.  The  chromatogram  was  developed  in  hexane-benzene-pyridine  system (40:5:5.  All  the  used  solvents  were  from  analytical  grade,  β-carotene  (C40H56  and  astaxanthin  (C40H52O4  from Sigma  St.  Louis  – USA  were  used  as  standards.  Meanwhile,  the  lycopene  was  identified  by  a  comparison  with  the same compound present in a tomato extract. The results demonstrated that β-carotene has a higher concentration in the  spinach  and  cabbage  than  in  the  lettuce.  However,  lettuce  presented  more  lycopene  than  the  others  two vegetables. Astaxanthin was not detected in all studied vegetables. In conclusion, green eatable vegetables could be a  good  source  of

  11. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  12. Elevation-Dependent Vegetation Greening of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin in the Southern Tibetan Plateau, 1999–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River basin is an important alley to transport moisture from the Indian Ocean to the inner Tibetan Plateau. With a wide range of elevations from 147 m to over 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l., ecosystems respond differently to climate change at various elevations. However, the pattern of elevation-dependent vegetation change and how it responds to recent warming have been rarely reported. Here, we investigated the pattern of vegetation greening at different elevations in this river basin using SPOT normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data during 1999–2013, and examined its relationship with elevation-dependent changes in temperature and precipitation. The annual NDVI has increased by 8.83% from 1999 to 2013. In particular, the NDVI increased more apparently at lower elevations, but remained relatively stable or even decreased at high elevations. It seems that rising temperature has driven the basin-wide vegetation greening, but the greening rate is in contrast to the pattern of elevation-dependent warming (EDW with more significant temperature increase at higher elevations. It appears that decreasing precipitation does not reverse the overall increasing trend in NDVI, but relatively limited precipitation (<500 mm may constrain the NDVI increases, causing apparently stable or even decreased NDVI at higher elevations (>4000 m.

  13. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid

    2017-09-05

    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  14. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m(2) plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  15. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  16. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Vegetation on Building Comfort: A Comparative Study of Lawns, Green Walls and Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Malys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following development and validation of the SOLENE-microclimat tool, the underlying model was used to compare the impacts of various “greening strategies” on buildings’ summer energy consumption and indoor comfort. This study distinguishes between direct and indirect impacts by successively implementing the test strategies on both the studied building and surrounding ones; it also considers insulated vs. non-insulated buildings. Findings indicate that green walls have a direct effect on indoor comfort throughout the entire building, whereas the effect of green roofs is apparently primarily confined to the upper floor. Moreover, the indirect effect of a green wall is greater, mainly due to the drop in infrared emissions resulting from a lower surface temperature. It has also been proven that the indirect effects of green walls and surrounding lawns can help reduce the loads acting on a non-insulated building.

  17. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  18. A green tea catechin extract upregulates the hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursill, Christina A; Roach, Paul D

    2007-07-01

    Green tea extracts have hypocholesterolaemic properties in epidemiological and animal intervention studies. Upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor may be one mechanism to explain this as it is the main way cholesterol is removed from the circulation. This study aimed to determine if a green tea extract could upregulate the hepatic LDL receptor in vivo in the rat. A green tea extract (GTE) enriched in its anti-oxidant constituents, the catechins, was fed to rats (n = 6) at concentrations of either 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% (w/w) mixed in with their normal chow along with 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol for 12 days. Administration of the GTE had no effect on plasma total or LDL cholesterol concentrations but high-density lipoprotein significantly increased (41%; p extract was able to increase the efflux of cholesterol from liver cells.

  19. Electrostatic Detection of Density Variations in Green-State Powder Metallurgy Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Georg; Ludwig, Reinhold

    2003-03-01

    Producing P/M compacts is generally a low-cost, high-volume manufacturing effort with very special quality assurance requirements. When considering the three basic P/M steps of mixing, compacting, and sintering, it is the compaction process producing the green-state parts that offer the highest pay-off for quality control through nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. A detection of compacting-related problems in the green-state samples permits early process intervention, and thus prevents the creation of potentially significant numbers of faulty parts. Work at WPI currently has concentrated on extending the previously developed method for crack detections to measure density variations within the parts. In this paper a physical model and a mathematical formulation are reported that are capable of relating green-state density to electric conductivity for various lubricant concentrations. Electrostatic measurements of cylindrical compacts have so far confirmed the theoretical model assumptions. Specifically, the green-state conductivity increases as the sample density increases up to approximately 6.9 - 7.0 g/ccm. Any further density increase results in a decrease in conductivity. Preliminary measurements with a range of cylindrical samples support the theoretical model.

  20. Environmental controls on the greening of terrestrial vegetation across northern Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dass

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems of northern Eurasia are greening, yet few studies have provided definitive attribution for the changes. While prior studies point to increasing temperatures as the principle environmental control, influences from moisture and other factors are less clear. We assess how changes in temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and forest fires contribute to the trend in Gross Primary Productivity (GPP derived from satellite data across northern Eurasia. For the period 1982–2008 we find that GPP, estimated using ensemble satellite NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index observations from GIMMS3g and VIP datasets, is most sensitive to temperature, precipitation and cloudiness during summer, the peak of the growing season. For regional median GPP, summer temperature explains 33.3 % of the variation in GPP, while the other environmental variables explain from 2.2 to 11.8 %. Warming over the period analyzed, even without a sustained increase in precipitation, led to a significant GPP increase over 67.3 % of the region. A significant decrease in GPP was found over 6.2 % of the region, primarily the dryer grasslands in the south-western. For this area, precipitation positively correlates with GPP, as does cloudiness. This shows that the south-western part of northern Eurasia is relatively more vulnerable to drought than other areas. Our results further advance the notion that air temperature is the dominant environmental control for the recent GPP increases across northern Eurasia.

  1. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Green's Dyadic, Spectral Function, Local Density of States, and Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, W C; Dai, Q I

    2015-01-01

    The spectral functions are studied in conjunction with the dyadic Green's functions for various media. The dyadic Green's functions are found using the eigenfunction expansion method for homogeneous, inhomogeneous, periodic, lossless, lossy, and anisotropic media, guided by the Bloch- Floquet theorem. For the lossless media cases, the spectral functions can be directly related to the photon local density of states, and hence, to the electromagnetic energy density. For the lossy case, the spectral function can be related to the ?eld correlation function. Because of these properties, one can derive properties for ?eld correlations and the Langevin-source correlations without resorting to the uctuation dissipation theorem. The results are corroborated by the uctuation dissipation theorem. An expression for the local density of states for lossy, inhomogeneous, and dispersive media has also been suggested.

  3. Relationship of Remote Sensing Normalized Differential Vegetation Index to Anopheles Density and Malaria Incidence Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To study the relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) to Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate. Methods Data of monthly average climate, environment, Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate, and remote sensing NDVI were collected from 27 townships of 10 counties in southeastern Yunnan Province from 1984 to 1993. The relationship of remote sensing ecological proxy index, NDVI, to Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate was studied by principal component analysis, factor analysis and grey correlation analysis. Results The correlation matrix showed that NDVI highly correlated with Anopheles density in 4 townships of Mengla, Jinghong, and Yuanjiang counties, but in other 23 townships the relationship was not clear. Principal component and factor analyses showed that remote sensing NDVI was the representative index of the first principal component and the first common factor of Anopheles density evaluation. Grey correlation analysis showed that in rainy season NDVI had a high grey correlation with Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate. The grey correlation analysis showed that in rainy season the grey degree of NDVI correlated with Anopheles. Minimus density was 0.730, and 0.713 with Anopheles sinensis density, and 0.800 with malarial incidence rate. Conclusion Remote sensing NDVI can serve as a sensitive evaluation index of Anopheles density and malaria incidence rate.

  4. The role of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and water velocity in determining river temperature dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Grace; Malcolm, Iain A.; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Hannah, David M.

    2017-10-01

    A simulation experiment was used to understand the importance of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and flow velocity for stream energy budgets and river temperature dynamics. Water temperature and meteorological observations were obtained in addition to hemispherical photographs along a ∼1 km reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland. Data from nine hemispherical images (representing different uniform canopy density scenarios) were used to parameterise a deterministic net radiation model and simulate radiative fluxes. For each vegetation scenario, the effects of eight channel orientations were investigated by changing the position of north at 45° intervals in each hemispheric image. Simulated radiative fluxes and observed turbulent fluxes drove a high-resolution water temperature model of the reach. Simulations were performed under low and high water velocity scenarios. Both velocity scenarios yielded decreases in mean (≥1.6 °C) and maximum (≥3.0 °C) temperature as canopy density increased. Slow-flowing water resided longer within the reach, which enhanced heat accumulation and dissipation, and drove higher maximum and lower minimum temperatures. Intermediate levels of shade produced highly variable energy flux and water temperature dynamics depending on the channel orientation and thus the time of day when the channel was shaded. We demonstrate that in many reaches relatively sparse but strategically located vegetation could produce substantial reductions in maximum temperature and suggest that these criteria are used to inform future river management.

  5. Consumption Patterns of Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Dietary Nutrient Density among French Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurée Francou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old and adults (≥21 years old. Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES. Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3 index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046 than for whole fruit (p < 0.01. Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS.

  6. The Impact of Soil Reflectance on the Quantification of the Green Vegetation Fraction from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. A common method to calculate Fg is to create a simple linear mixing rnodeP between two NDVI endmembers: bare soil NDVI (NDVI(sub o)) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI(sub infinity)). Usually it is assumed that NDVI(sub o), is close to zero (NDVI(sub o) approx.-0.05) and is generally chosen from the lowest observed NDVI values. However, the mean soil NDVI computed from 2906 samples is much larger (NDVI=0.2) and is highly variable (standard deviation=O. 1). We show that the underestimation of NDVI(sub o) yields overestimations of Fg. The largest errors occur in grassland and shrubland areas. Using parameters for NDVI(sub o) and NDVI(sub infinity) derived from global scenes yields overestimations of Fg ((Delta) Fg*) that are larger than 0.2 for the majority of U.S. land cover types when pixel NDVI values are 0.2

  7. Stay-green in spring wheat can be determined by spectral reflectance measurements (normalized difference vegetation index) independently from phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2012-06-01

    The green area displayed by a crop is a good indicator of its photosynthetic capacity, while chlorophyll retention or 'stay-green' is regarded as a key indicator of stress adaptation. Remote-sensing methods were tested to estimate these parameters in diverse wheat genotypes under different growing conditions. Two wheat populations (a diverse set of 294 advanced lines and a recombinant inbred line population of 169 sister lines derived from the cross between Seri and Babax) were grown in Mexico under three environments: drought, heat, and heat combined with drought. In the two populations studied here, a moderate heritable expression of stay-green was found-when the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at physiological maturity was estimated using the regression of NDVI over time from the mid-stages of grain-filling to physiological maturity-and for the rate of senescence during the same period. Under heat and heat combined with drought environments, stay-green calculated as NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence, showed positive and negative correlations with yield, respectively. Moreover, stay-green calculated as an estimation of NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence regressed on degree days give an independent measurement of stay-green without the confounding effect of phenology. On average, in both populations under heat and heat combined with drought environments CTgf and stay-green variables accounted for around 30% of yield variability in multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that stay-green traits may provide cumulative effects, together with other traits, to improve adaptation under stress further.

  8. Retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids in green leafy vegetables: effect of different Indian culinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeenivasa J Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV is pigment-rich and nutritionally relevant functional food sources with unique phytochemical constituents that include carotenoids which are precursors for vitamin A and protect cells from oxidation and cellular damage. Cooking processes and other factors such as temperature, light and alteration in moisture content generally promote either isomerization (trans to cis form or oxidative degradation of carotenoids to epoxides. Rationale: Studies pertaining to the effect of cooking methods on dietary carotenoids bio accessibility and their retention percent are scarce, particularly in an Indian Diasporas. Objective: Present study was to determine the carotenoids retention based bio accessibility in GLV such as amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus, spinach (Spinacia oleracea and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii, when subjected to domestic cooking methods of microwave cooking, sautéing, pressure cooking, steaming and deep frying in oil, for a time duration of 8 and 12 minutes, either with lid closed or open. Method: The retention based bio accessibility of carotenoids were quantified by rapid separation liquid chromatography (RSLC using RP-C-18 column (150mm×4.6µ with 70% acetonitrile, 20% dichlomethane and 10% methanol for 20 minutes at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Results: The maximum retention based bio accessibility of total carotenoids and β-carotene were observed with micro wave cooking, steaming and sautéing methods. (Spinach: 57.88% and 55.92%, Amaranth: 56.15% and 57.49%, Curry leaves: 50.55% and 52.66% respectively. Conclusion: The reduction in the contents of carotenes in GLVs in correlation to various cooking methods are discussed which would be valuable for food researchers, nutritionists as well as health practitioners and dietitians, in developing and promoting nutritionally balanced diets and minimize vitamin A deficiency in Indian context.

  9. Green Function Approach to the Calculation of the Local Density of States in the Graphitic Nanocone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smotlacha Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and other nanostructures belong to the center of interest of today’s physics research. The local density of states of the graphitic nanocone influenced by the spin–orbit interaction was calculated. Numerical calculations and the Green function approach were used to solve this problem. It was proven in the second case that the second order approximation is not sufficient for this purpose.

  10. Effect of rheological properties of zircon-alumina suspensions on density of green casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Garrido

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of aqueous suspensions (48 vol% of zircon-alumina mixtures containing different amounts of polyelectrolyte as dispersant were studied. Slip casting in a plaster mold and pressure filtration at 8 MPa experiments were performed to correlate the rheological properties of the suspensions with the relative density of green casts. Flow curves fitted satisfactorily to the Casson model. The Casson viscosity values remained nearly constant whereas Casson yield stress parameter decreased to a minimum and then increased with increasing the amount of dispersant added. The influence of particle size distribution (PSD of the powder mixtures on Casson yield stress parameter and on the minimum viscosity was also examined. Green densities increased as yield stress Casson parameter decreased. The mixture of alumina and zircon as fine and coarse powders produced bimodal PSD which maximized the green density of the compacts. Some weakly flocculated suspensions having low apparent viscosity and small yield stress produced casts with relatively high densification. This is attributed to a slight higher viscosity at low shear rates of these suspensions in which settling of particles and /or segregation of components can not occur.

  11. Assessing onset and length of greening period in six vegetation types in Oaxaca, Mexico, using NDVI-precipitation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mendoza, L; Galicia, L; Cuevas-Fernández, M L; Magaña, V; Gómez, G; Palacio-Prieto, J L

    2008-07-01

    Variations in the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, were analyzed in terms of precipitation anomalies for the period 1997-2003. Using 10-day averages in NDVI data, obtained from AVHRR satellite information, the response of six types of vegetation to intra-annual and inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation were examined. The onset and temporal evolution of the greening period were studied in terms of precipitation variations through spectral analysis (coherence and phase). The results indicate that extremely dry periods, such as those observed in 1997 and 2001, resulted in low values of NDVI for much of Oaxaca, while good precipitation periods produced a rapid response (20-30 days of delay) from a stressed to a non-stressed condition in most vegetation types. One of these rapid changes occurred during the transition from dry to wet conditions during the summer of 1998. As in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, the NDVI reflects low frequency variations in precipitation on several spatial scales. Even after long dry periods (2001-2002), the various regional vegetation types are capable of recovering when a good rainy season takes place, indicating that vegetation types such as the evergreen forests in the high parts of Oaxaca respond better to rainfall characteristics (timing, amount) than to temperature changes, as is the case in most mid-latitudes. This finding may be relevant to prepare climate change scenarios for forests, where increases in surface temperature and precipitation anomalies are expected.

  12. Laser ultrasonics for bulk-density distribution measurement on green ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, G. M.; Cavuto, A.; Pandarese, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Laser Ultrasonics (LUT) system is developed and applied to measure bulk density distribution of green ceramic tiles, which are porous materials with low heat conductivity. Bulk density of green ceramic bodies is a fundamental parameter to be kept under control in the industrial production of ceramic tiles. The LUT system proposed is based on a Nd:YAG pulsed laser for excitation and an air-coupled electro-capacitive transducer for detection. The paper reports experimental apparent bulk-density measurements on white ceramic bodies after a calibration procedures. The performances observed are better than those previously achieved by authors using air-coupled ultrasonic probes for both emission and detection, allowing to reduce average uncertainty down to about ±6 kg/m3 (±0.3%), thanks to the increase in excitation efficiency and lateral resolution, while maintaining potential flexibility for on-line application. The laser ultrasonic procedure proposed is available for both on-line and off-line application. In this last case it is possible to obtain bulk density maps with high spatial resolution by a 2D scan without interrupting the production process.

  13. Two-time Green's functions and spectral density method in nonextensive quantum statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A; Cosenza, F; De Cesare, L

    2008-05-01

    We extend the formalism of the thermodynamic two-time Green's functions to nonextensive quantum statistical mechanics. Working in the optimal Lagrangian multiplier representation, the q -spectral properties and the methods for a direct calculation of the two-time q Green's functions and the related q -spectral density ( q measures the nonextensivity degree) for two generic operators are presented in strict analogy with the extensive (q=1) counterpart. Some emphasis is devoted to the nonextensive version of the less known spectral density method whose effectiveness in exploring equilibrium and transport properties of a wide variety of systems has been well established in conventional classical and quantum many-body physics. To check how both the equations of motion and the spectral density methods work to study the q -induced nonextensivity effects in nontrivial many-body problems, we focus on the equilibrium properties of a second-quantized model for a high-density Bose gas with strong attraction between particles for which exact results exist in extensive conditions. Remarkably, the contributions to several thermodynamic quantities of the q -induced nonextensivity close to the extensive regime are explicitly calculated in the low-temperature regime by overcoming the calculation of the q grand-partition function.

  14. Could small scale vegetable production contribute to a green economy in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the principle of a green economy, and is in the process of transitioning to a low carbon, resource efficient economy. The green economy - a response to the challenges of sustainable development, integrates social, economic and environmental objectives. It also...

  15. Reanalysis of global terrestrial vegetation trends from MODIS products: Browning or greening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulong Zhang; Conghe Song; Lawrence E. Band; Ge Sun; Junxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Accurately monitoring global vegetation dynamics with modern remote sensing is critical for understanding the functions and processes of the biosphere and its interactions with the planetary climate. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) product has been a primary data source for this purpose. To date, theMODIS teamhad released...

  16. Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modeling urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lemonsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands, and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form, and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The development is performed so that any vegetation model can be used to represent the vegetation part. Here the ISBA model is used. The model results are compared to microclimatic and evaporation measurements performed in small courtyards in a very arid region of Israel. Two experimental landscaping strategies – bare soil or irrigated grass in the courtyard – are observed and simulated. The new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon scale.

  17. Harmonised investigation of the occurrence of human enteric viruses in the leafy green vegetable supply chain in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, P; Kozyra, I; Lazic, S; Bouwknegt, M; Rutjes, S; Willems, K; Moloney, R; de Roda Husman, A M; Kaupke, A; Legaki, E; D'Agostino, M; Cook, N; Rzeżutka, A; Petrovic, T; Vantarakis, A

    2012-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks have been attributed to the consumption of raw or minimally processed leafy green vegetables contaminated with enteric viral pathogens. The aim of the present study was an integrated virological monitoring of the salad vegetables supply chain in Europe, from production, processing and point-of-sale. Samples were collected and analysed in Greece, Serbia and Poland, from 'general' and 'ad hoc' sampling points, which were perceived as critical points for virus contamination. General sampling points were identified through the analysis of background information questionnaires based on HACCP audit principles, and they were sampled during each sampling occasion where as-ad hoc sampling points were identified during food safety fact-finding visits and samples were only collected during the fact-finding visits. Human (hAdV) and porcine (pAdV) adenovirus, hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus, norovirus GI and GII (NoV) and bovine polyomavirus (bPyV) were detected by means of real-time (RT-) PCR-based protocols. General samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, HAV, HEV, NoV GI, NoV GII and bPyV at 20.09 % (134/667), 5.53 % (13/235), 1.32 % (4/304), 3.42 % (5/146), 2 % (6/299), 2.95 % (8/271) and 0.82 % (2/245), respectively. Ad hoc samples were positive for hAdV, pAdV, bPyV and NoV GI at 9 % (3/33), 9 % (2/22), 4.54 % (1/22) and 7.14 % (1/14), respectively. These results demonstrate the existence of viral contamination routes from human and animal sources to the salad vegetable supply chain and more specifically indicate the potential for public health risks due to the virus contamination of leafy green vegetables at primary production.

  18. Stimulatory and possible antioxidant effects of High Density Green Photons (HDGP) on cellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslaru, L; Nastase, A; Stefan, L; Florea, R; Sorop, A; Ionescu, E; Popescu, I; Comorasan, S

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between the electromagnetic field and the biological systems were extensively investigated, with remarkable results and advanced technologies. Nevertheless, the visible domain of the spectrum has been rather neglected, since the classic physics did not allow electronic transitions induced by visible light. Recently, the interaction of light with the matter has generated a new scientific domain known in Physics as optical manipulation, with the new concepts of optical matter and optical force. This article presents the results of our work concerning in vitro effects of High Density Green Photons (HDGP) irradiation on cell cultures: stimulation of cell proliferation and migration and a possible antioxidant action.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 15m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  1. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  2. Inclusion of vegetation in the Town Energy Balance model for modelling urban green areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lemonsu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities impact both local climate, through urban heat islands and global climate, because they are an area of heavy greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere due to heating, air conditioning and traffic. Including more vegetation into cities is a planning strategy having possible positive impacts for both concerns. Improving vegetation representation into urban models will allow us to address more accurately these questions. This paper presents an improvement of the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy model. Vegetation is directly included inside the canyon, allowing shadowing of grass by buildings, better representation of urban canopy form and, a priori, a more accurate simulation of canyon air microclimate. The surface exchanges over vegetation are modelled with the well-known Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA model that is integrated in the TEB's code architecture in order to account for interactions between natural and built-up covers. The design of the code makes possible to plug and use any vegetation scheme. Both versions of TEB are confronted to experimental data issued from a field campaign conducted in Israel in 2007. Two semi-enclosed courtyards arranged with bare soil or watered lawn were instrumented to evaluate the impact of landscaping strategies on microclimatic variables and evapotranspiration. For this case study, the new version of the model with integrated vegetation performs better than if vegetation is treated outside the canyon. Surface temperatures are closer to the observations, especially at night when radiative trapping is important. The integrated vegetation version simulates a more humid air inside the canyon. The microclimatic quantities (i.e., the street-level meteorological variables are better simulated with this new version. This opens opportunities to study with better accuracy the urban microclimate, down to the micro (or canyon scale.

  3. Changes in satellite-derived spring vegetation green-up date and its linkage to climate in China from 1982 to 2010: a multimethod analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Nan; Wang, Tao; Nan, Huijuan; Ma, Yuecun; Wang, Xuhui; Myneni, Ranga B; Piao, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    The change in spring phenology is recognized to exert a major influence on carbon balance dynamics in temperate ecosystems. Over the past several decades, several studies focused on shifts in spring phenology; however, large uncertainties still exist, and one understudied source could be the method implemented in retrieving satellite-derived spring phenology. To account for this potential uncertainty, we conducted a multimethod investigation to quantify changes in vegetation green-up date from 1982 to 2010 over temperate China, and to characterize climatic controls on spring phenology. Over temperate China, the five methods estimated that the vegetation green-up onset date advanced, on average, at a rate of 1.3 ± 0.6 days per decade (ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 days per decade) over the last 29 years. Moreover, the sign of the trends in vegetation green-up date derived from the five methods were broadly consistent spatially and for different vegetation types, but with large differences in the magnitude of the trend. The large intermethod variance was notably observed in arid and semiarid vegetation types. Our results also showed that change in vegetation green-up date is more closely correlated with temperature than with precipitation. However, the temperature sensitivity of spring vegetation green-up date became higher as precipitation increased, implying that precipitation is an important regulator of the response of vegetation spring phenology to change in temperature. This intricate linkage between spring phenology and precipitation must be taken into account in current phenological models which are mostly driven by temperature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Sensitivity of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to Topographic Effects: A Case Study in High-density Cypress Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Qiu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices play an important role in monitoring variations in vegetation.The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI proposed by the MODIS Land Discipline Groupand the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI are both global-based vegetationindices aimed at providing consistent spatial and temporal information regarding globalvegetation. However, many environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions and soilbackground may produce errors in these indices. The topographic effect is another veryimportant factor, especially when the indices are used in areas of rough terrain. In thispaper, we theoretically analyzed differences in the topographic effect on the EVI and theNDVI based on a non-Lambertian model and two airborne-based images acquired from amountainous area covered by high-density Japanese cypress plantation were used as a casestudy. The results indicate that the soil adjustment factor “L” in the EVI makes it moresensitive to topographic conditions than is the NDVI. Based on these results, we stronglyrecommend that the topographic effect should be removed in the reflectance data beforethe EVI was calculated—as well as from other vegetation indices that similarly include a term without a band ratio format (e.g., the PVI and SAVI—when these indices are used in the area of rough terrain, where the topographic effect on the vegetation indices having only a band ratio format (e.g., the NDVI can usually be ignored.

  5. Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Green Games-this is a Chinese promise to the world. Green it has to be when the Olympic Games are opened at a spectacular venue in the north of Beijing in 2008. However, those who live in the capital still worry whether it will be possible to turn the rather polluted city. into a green or even half-green city. But time and again, China has proved that this kind of huge challenge can be met. Nevertheless,this time around it is a tough call indeed and a little over three years are left to execute and complete an audacious task.

  6. Density-dependent reproductive and vegetative allocation in the aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Freitas Coelho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Pistia stratiotes is an aquatic macrophyte that grows in temporary-ponds in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. It reproduces both sexually and asexually and is usually observed forming dense mats on the water surface, a condition favored by the plant’s vegetative reproduction coupled with an ability for rapid growth. In this study we examined the effect of densely crowded conditions on the production of reproductive and vegetative structures. In addition, we verified whether there is a trade-off between clonal growth and investment in sexual reproductive structures, and whether there is an allocation pattern with plant size. Individual plant biomass and the number of the rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures both increased with density. Increase in plant size resulted in increased proportional allocation to sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Allocation of biomass to reproduction did not occur at the expense of clonal growth. Thus, the density response appears as a increase of rosettes producing sexual reproductive structures and vegetative growth structures. Therefore, long leaves and stolons may be adaptive under densely crowded conditions where competition for light is intense. An important aspect in the study of trade-offs is the size-dependency of the allocation patterns .Usually, larger plants produce more biomass. Therefore, larger plants can allocate more biomass to both vegetative and sexual reproduction than smaller plants and thus show a positive correlation between both traits rather than the expected negative one. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 369-376. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Pistias strariotes es una macrófita acuática que crece en charcas estacionales en el Pantanal sureño de Brasil. Se reproduce tanto sexual como asexualmente y se obsrva generalmente que forma densas parches sobre la superficie del agua, una condicion que favorecida por la reproduccion vegetativa de la

  7. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  8. Human Factors in Green Office Building Design: The Impact of Workplace Green Features on Health Perceptions in High-Rise High-Density Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about human factors in green building, which is imperative in high-rise high-density urban environments. This paper describes our attempts to explore the influence of workplace green features (such as green certification, ventilation mode, and building morphology on health perceptions (personal sensation, sensorial assumptions, healing performance based on a survey in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results validated the relationship between green features and health perceptions in the workplace environment. Remarkably, participants from the air-conditioned offices revealed significant higher concerns about health issues than those participants from the mixed-ventilated offices. The mixed-ventilation design performs as a bridge to connect the indoor environment and outdoor space, which enables people to have contact with nature. Additionally, the preferred building morphology of the workplace is the pattern of a building complex instead of a single building. The complex form integrates the configuration of courtyards, podium gardens, green terrace, public plaza, and other types of open spaces with the building clusters, which contributes to better health perceptions. This research contributes to the rationalization and optimization of passive climate-adaptive design strategies for green buildings in high-density tropical or subtropical cities.

  9. Functional response of Euseius concordis to densities of different developmental stages of the cassava green mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Evila C; Teodoro, Adenir V; Rêgo, Adriano S; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Sarmento, Renato A

    2014-11-01

    Both prey density and developmental stage of pests and natural enemies are known to influence the effectiveness of biological control. However, little is known about the interaction between prey density and population structure on predation and fecundity of generalist predatory mites. Here, we evaluated the functional response (number of prey eaten by predator in relation to prey density) of adult females and nymphs of the generalist predatory mite Euseius concordis to densities of different developmental stages of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, as well as the fecundity of adult females of the predator. We further assessed the instantaneous rate of increase, based on fecundity and mortality, of E. concordis fed on eggs, immatures and adults of M. tanajoa. Overall, nymphs and adults of E. concordis feeding on eggs, immatures and females of M. tanajoa had a type III functional response curve suggesting that the predator increased prey consumption rate as prey density increased. Both nymphs and adult females of the predator consumed more eggs than immatures of M. tanajoa from the density of 20 items per leaf disc onwards, revealing an interaction between prey density and developmental stage in the predatory activity of E. concordis. In addition, population growth rate was higher when the predator fed on eggs and immatures in comparison with females. Altogether our results suggest that E. concordis may be a good candidate for the biological control of M. tanajoa populations. However, the efficiency of E. concordis as a biological control agent of M. tanajoa is contingent on prey density and population structure.

  10. Selection of vegetation types and density of bison in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Nielsen, Scott E.; Pague, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species habitat selection and factors that drive selection are key components for conservation. We report the first resource selection functions (RSFs) for bison inhabiting an arid ecosystem and use them with density estimates of bison to estimate the number of bison that could be supported if the bison range were expanded to federal lands in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. We derived RSFs for vegetation types using locations of plains bison collected weekly over 3 years from 2005 to 2007. Bison selected for wet or mesic grassland habitats in all seasons. Wetland selection by bison was predicted to be 18 times greater than that of rabbitbrush vegetation, the reference category, and selection of meadows was predicted to be 11 times greater than that of the rabbitbrush type. Willow-dominated plant communities were strongly avoided. Cottonwood communities were also avoided, with the exception of some moderate levels of selection in fall. The willow and cottonwood communities have an understory with low biomass of herbaceous species and low productivity in this arid system. Based on the RSFs we predicted that in the San Luis Valley of Colorado up to 2,379 bison could be supported in similar habitats under Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) jurisdiction, and up to 759 bison could be supported on adjacent National Park Service (NPS) land. This modeling framework provides a conservation tool for the restoration of bison to their historical habitats, and has utility for application to other terrestrial species where assumptions are met. 

  11. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  12. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  13. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  14. Phylloquinone content from wild green vegetables may contribute substantially to dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Spagner, Camilla; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Nordic eatable wild plants are now sold in local stores and available to everyone. Wild vegetables may contain large amounts of vitamin K1. Due to the concomitant therapeutic use of anticoagulants among the populations, it is important to gain knowledge about the content o...

  15. greening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utpal

    Results reveal that sodium sulphite method of DNA isolation provided higher yield and ... rescence tests with monoclonal antibodies and DNA-DNA hybridization with .... Validation of PCR for detection of greening bacterium. Following the ...

  16. The influence of current speed and vegetation density on flow structure in two macrotidal eelgrass canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The influence of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on near-bed currents, turbulence, and drag was investigated at three sites in two eelgrass canopies of differing density and at one unvegetated site in the San Juan archipelago of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Eelgrass blade length exceeded 1 m. Velocity profiles up to 1.5 m above the sea floor were collected over a spring-neap tidal cycle with a downward-looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler above the canopies and two acoustic Doppler velocimeters within the canopies. The eelgrass attenuated currents by a minimum of 40%, and by more than 70% at the most densely vegetated site. Attenuation decreased with increasing current speed. The data were compared to the shear-layer model of vegetated flows and the displaced logarithmic model. Velocity profiles outside the meadows were logarithmic. Within the canopies, most profiles were consistent with the shear-layer model, with a logarithmic layer above the canopy. However, at the less-dense sites, when currents were strong, shear at the sea floor and above the canopy was significant relative to shear at the top of the canopy, and the velocity profiles more closely resembled those in a rough-wall boundary layer. Turbulence was strong at the canopy top and decreased with height. Friction velocity at the canopy top was 1.5–2 times greater than at the unvegetated, sandy site. The coefficient of drag CD on the overlying flow derived from the logarithmic velocity profile above the canopy, was 3–8 times greater than at the unvegetated site (0.01–0.023 vs. 2.9 × 10−3).

  17. Detection of Ni, Cd, and Cu in green leafy vegetables collected from different cultivation areas in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananke, Thilini; Wansapala, Jagath; Gunaratne, Anil

    2016-03-01

    Five types of green leafy vegetables ["Kankun" (Ipomoea aquatica), "Mukunuwenna" (Alternanthera sessilis), "Thampala" (Amaranthus viridis), "Nivithi" (Basella alba), and "Kohila leaves" (Lasia spinosa)] were randomly collected from six different locations (Wellampitiya, Kolonnawa, Kottawa, Piliyandala, Bandaragama, and Kahathuduwa) in and around Colombo District, Sri Lanka, and subjected to analysis of three heavy metals [nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu)] by atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils from green leafy vegetable cultivation lands and irrigated water were also tested. The average concentrations of heavy metals Ni, Cd, and Cu in soils were 51.5 ± 45.5, 1.4 ± 1.1, and 66.5 ± 59.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The highest Ni contamination was detected in the irrigated water samples from Wellampitiya (2.02 mg L(-1)) followed by Kolonnawa (1.02 mg L(-1)) and Kahathuduwa (0.25 mg L(-1)) areas. This has exceeded the WHO/FAO guideline (0.2 mg L(-1)). However, Cd and Cu contents in all tested irrigated water samples were well below the detection limits. Significant differences were observed in Ni, Cd, and Cu levels, between both production sites and green leafy vegetables analyzed (P vegetable samples collected from six areas varied as 0.23 ± 0.15 for Cd, 12.60 ± 9.01 for Cu, and 7.62 ± 8.41 for Ni. Maximum Ni, Cd, and Cu contaminations were found in the green leafy vegetables collected from Kolonnawa area. Among the green leafy vegetables analyzed, "Kohila leaves" have the highest tendency to accumulate Ni, Cd, and Cu from the environment.

  18. Optimal-rearing density for head-starting green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanghae, Hirun; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Jatupornpitukchat, Sasiporn; Kittiwattanawong, Kongkiat

    2016-09-01

    While ex situ conservation programs of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758), before release to natural habitats, have been conducted in several countries, the optimal-stocking density for husbandry has not yet been reported. The optimization of stocking density was the main purpose of this study. The 15-day-old post-hatching turtles (29.30 ± 0.05 g body weight) were reared in round fiberglass tanks at various stocking densities including 20 turtles/m(3) (20TM), 40 turtles/m(3) (40TM), 60 turtles/m(3) (60TM), and 80 turtles/m(3) (80TM), over an 8-week trial. Water quality, survival, growth performance, feed utilization, aggressive behavior, fecal digestive enzymes, and hematological parameters were compared between the treatments, and were used as indicators of a successful captive rearing program. The water quality across the four treatments was in the standard range, but a high-stocking density reduced the quality significantly. No mortality was observed in any treatment group. Superior growth and feed utilization were only observed with the 40TM treatment, relative to the others (P < 0.05). The turtles in this group had no aggressive behavior, as indicated by observing hind limb biting. This treatment manipulated the level of proteolytic activity of pepsin and trypsin in response to density stressor, but not amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsin. The 40TM treatment also maintained the hematological characteristics, indicating no negative effects on health status. Overall, the findings indicate that the captivity program of post-hatching turtles at 40 turtles/m(3) is the preferred option in their head-started propagation, as well as in public displays in zoos or aquaria. Zoo Biol. 35:454-461, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of broodstock density on reproduction and juvenile culture of green buffalo leech, Hirudinea manillensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulhisyam Abdul Kari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the broodstock density on reproduction and juvenile culture of green buffalo leech, Hirudinea manillensis was examined with six different densities (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ind tank-1. The number of cocoons produced was significantly different among the different densities (p = 0.00 after three months of culture. Although hatching rate was not (p = 0.354, the average number of hatchings per cocoon was also significantly different (p<0.05 with 5 ind tank-1 gave the highest number (6.61±1. The 25 ind tank-1 produced the highest mortality of parent leeches (67±13.16%. According to their length and diameter, the sizes of the cocoons were not significantly different among the treatments, with the 5 ind tank-1 having the largest cocoon of 22.19±0.92 mm and 13.25±0.07 mm, respectively. The wet weight of cocoons was significantly different at p<0.05 with the 5 ind tank-1 producing the heaviest cocoons of 1.26±0.11g compared to the 25 ind tank-1producing the lightest cocoons of 0.22±0.38 g.

  20. Impact of a social marketing campaign promoting dark-green leafy vegetables and eggs in central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, S; Bloem, M W; Satoto; Yip, R; Sukaton, A; Tjiong, R; Shrimpton, R; Muhilal; Kodyat, B

    1998-01-01

    In order to work towards further reduction of vitamin A deficiency in central Java, Indonesia, a social marketing campaign promoting eggs and dark-green leafy vegetables was initiated in March 1996. The nutritional surveillance system (December 1995-December 1996) found the following. The campaign's messages were well noticed. Consumption of at least one egg in the past week increased from 80% to 92% in mothers and from 78% to 92% in children 12-36 months old. It increased in all socio-economic groups and was independent of ownership of chickens. Most eggs had been purchased. The quantity of vegetables prepared increased from 93 to 111 g/person daily and most was purchased. Vitamin A intake increased from 335 to 371 RE/d for mothers and from 130 to 160 RE/d for children. Serum retinol levels increased after the start of the campaign, and were related to egg consumption and vitamin A intake. Because 1. data were collected in such a way that respondents were not aware of the link between data collected and the campaign, and 2. vitamin A status increased and was related to increased consumption of eggs and vitamin A intake, we conclude that the social marketing campaign was successful.

  1. Comparison of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of building blocks in shinseoncho and kale green vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeong

    2012-12-01

    Shinseoncho and kale were divided into stem [shinseoncho stems (SS) and kale stems (KS)] and leaf parts [shinseoncho leaves (SL) and kale leaves (KL)] and made into green vegetable juices for analyses of nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities. Higher values of total acidity were observed in SL (0.736%) and KL (0.841%) than in SS (0.417%) and KS (0.335%) (p KL (218.494 μg/mL)> KS (107.269 μg/mL)> SS (75.894 μg/mL). KL exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.834%) (p SL (63.473%)> KS (52.894%)> SS (35.443%). ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that SL (66.088%) and KL (38.511%) had higher scavenging activities, whereas SS (7.695%) and KS (9.609%) demonstrated to be lower activities (pgreen vegetable juices and the consumption of them may be beneficial as a nutrition source and in health protection.

  2. A comparison of Aedes vigilax larval population densities and associated vegetation categories in a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacups, S P; Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M

    2009-12-01

    Darwin's northern suburbs border an extensive coastal reed and upper mangrove wetland recognized as an important larval habitat for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito, an established vector for Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses and an appreciable pest species. We sought to identify the most important vegetation categories associated with Ae. vigilax breeding to maximize the efficiency of mosquito control efforts. Using a generalized linear model with negative binominal distribution and log link, this study compares larval densities, determined by focused dipping, between 13 discernable vegetation categories. The incidence rate ratios (RR) generated can be used to compare the magnitude of larval densities for each vegetation category, compared with the reference category. Aedes vigilax larval densities were almost ten times greater in artificial drainage areas (RR=9.82), followed by tide-affected reticulate (Sporobolus/Xerochloa) areas (RR=8.15), then Schoenoplectus/mangroves (RR=2.29), compared with the reference vegetation category "lower mangroves." Furthermore, larval densities were highest in May, due to tidal inundation, for drainage areas and tide-affected reticulates (RR=12.2, 11.7, respectively) compared with March, the reference month. Thus, to maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in this wetland, larval control is best accomplished by concentrating on drains, Schoenoplectus/mangroves, and tide-affected reticulate areas, commencing early after the wet season. These results should apply to other areas of salt marsh mosquito breeding across northern Australia.

  3. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  4. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  5. Pattern of NDVI-based vegetation greening along an altitudinal gradient in the eastern Himalayas and its response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Li, Yingkui; Xu, Yuyue; Shen, Weishou

    2016-03-01

    The eastern Himalayas, especially the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon Nature Reserve (YNR), is a global hotspot of biodiversity because of a wide variety of climatic conditions and elevations ranging from 500 to > 7000 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The mountain ecosystems at different elevations are vulnerable to climate change; however, there has been little research into the patterns of vegetation greening and their response to global warming. The objective of this paper is to examine the pattern of vegetation greening in different altitudinal zones in the YNR and its relationship with vegetation types and climatic factors. Specifically, the inter-annual change of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its variation along altitudinal gradient between 1999 and 2013 was investigated using SPOT-VGT NDVI data and ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data. We found that annual NDVI increased by 17.58% in the YNR from 1999 to 2013, especially in regions dominated by broad-leaved and coniferous forests at lower elevations. The vegetation greening rate decreased significantly as elevation increased, with a threshold elevation of approximately 3000 m. Rising temperature played a dominant role in driving the increase in NDVI, while precipitation has no statistical relationship with changes in NDVI in this region. This study provides useful information to develop an integrated management and conservation plan for climate change adaptation and promote biodiversity conservation in the YNR.

  6. Recent Declines in Warming and Vegetation Greening Trends over Pan-Arctic Tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Polyakov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation productivity trends for the Arctic tundra are updated for the 1982–2011 period and examined in the context of land surface temperatures and coastal sea ice. Understanding mechanistic links between vegetation and climate parameters contributes to model advancements that are necessary for improving climate projections. This study employs remote sensing data: Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MaxNDVI, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I sea-ice concentrations, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR radiometric surface temperatures. Spring sea ice is declining everywhere except in the Bering Sea, while summer open water area is increasing throughout the Arctic. Summer Warmth Index (SWI—sum of degree months above freezing trends from 1982 to 2011 are positive around Beringia but are negative over Eurasia from the Barents to the Laptev Seas and in parts of northern Canada. Eastern North America continues to show increased summer warmth and a corresponding steady increase in MaxNDVI. Positive MaxNDVI trends from 1982 to 2011 are generally weaker compared to trends from 1982–2008. So to better understand the changing trends, break points in the time series were quantified using the Breakfit algorithm. The most notable break points identify declines in SWI since 2003 in Eurasia and 1998 in Western North America. The Time Integrated NDVI (TI-NDVI, sum of the biweekly growing season values of MaxNDVI has declined since 2005 in Eurasia, consistent with SWI declines. Summer (June–August sea level pressure (slp averages from 1999–2011 were compared to those from 1982–1998 to reveal higher slp over Greenland and the western Arctic and generally lower pressure over the continental Arctic in the recent period. This suggests that the large-scale circulation is likely a key contributor to the cooler temperatures over Eurasia through increased summer cloud

  7. Relative effects of plumage coloration and vegetation density on nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    Many passerine species are highly dichromatic with brightly-colored males and cryptically-colored females. Bright plumage in males is commonly thought to arise as a result of sexual selection by females such that males with bright coloration possess high fitness. However, bright plumage potentially could expose males to increased predation risk. Consistent with this idea, males of many highly dichromatic passerine species do not incubate. I tested whether brightly-colored males avoid incubation to reduce the probability of visual predators locating their nest. This hypothesis predicts greater hatching success for clutches incubated by cryptically-colored individuals than by brightly-colored individuals. The Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is a common dichromatic species that breeds throughout the eastern U.S. I placed two button-quail (Turnix st).) eggs in each of 203 simulated cardinal nests. Dull brown cardboard, simulating a female cardinal, was placed over about half of all clutches. Bright red cardboard, simulating a male cardinal, was placed over the other clutches. Nest success was highest for well-concealed nests (87%) and lowest for nests in open habitat (54%). Nests containing red cardboard did not have significantly lower success than nests with brown cardboard, nor did I detect a significant color X vegetation-density interaction. My analysis may have had insufficient power to detect an effect of color on nest success; alternatively, brightly-colored males that do not incubate may achieve benefits unrelated to predation risk.

  8. Vegetation Greening and Climate Change Promote Multidecadal Rises of Global Land Evapotranspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Kimball, John S; Nemani, Ramakrishna R; Running, Steven W; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-10-30

    Recent studies showed that anomalous dry conditions and limited moisture supply roughly between 1998 and 2008, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, led to reduced vegetation productivity and ceased growth in land evapotranspiration (ET). However, natural variability of Earth's climate system can degrade capabilities for identifying climate trends. Here we produced a long-term (1982-2013) remote sensing based land ET record and investigated multidecadal changes in global ET and underlying causes. The ET record shows a significant upward global trend of 0.88 mm yr(-2) (P climate phases associated with strong El Niño events.

  9. Quantifying roughness density of vegetation and nebkha dunes in the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA using terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nield, J. M.; Gillies, J. A.; Nickling, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    The roughness density and patterning of vegetation and nebkha dune elements in semi-arid environments has important implications for aeolian sediment transport. These individual elements often form complex spatial patterns, which are traditionally quantified as a single density or lambda value based on mean shrub height, breath and number of elements within a defined surface area. Measurements of height and width are undertaken using traditional surveying techniques or based on remote sensing imagery analysis, which are limited in their ability to capture the true frontal area of vegetation and dune elements, as well as the relationship between solid and flexible frontal area components. Here we use terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to quantify three-dimensional plant and dune distributions, determining height and width values for individual elements in three different vegetation communities at the Jornada Experimental Range in the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. These communities include a creosote vegetated surface without dunes, an incipient mesquite nebkha dune environment and a mature mesquite nebkha dune site. TLS measurements compare well to manual measurements using DGPS and survey levels, but have the advantage that larger areas can be systematically quantified more efficiently. More importantly, TLS derived surface, dune and vegetation DEMs enable us to accurately characterise individual dune and shrub frontal areas under different wind directions, improving traditional lambda calculations.

  10. Advising Consumption of Green Vegetables, Beef, and Full-Fat Dairy Products Has No Adverse Effects on the Lipid Profiles in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen José van der Gaag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In children, little is known about lipid profiles and the influence of dietary habits. In the past, we developed a dietary advice for optimizing the immune system, which comprised green vegetables, beef, whole milk, and full-fat butter. However, there are concerns about a possible negative influence of the full-fat dairy products of the diet on the lipid profile. We investigated the effect of the developed dietary advice on the lipid profile and BMI (body mass index/BMI-z-score of children. In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 1–16 years, of whom a lipid profile was determined in the period between June 2011 and November 2013 in our hospital. Children who adhered to the dietary advice were assigned to the exposed group and the remaining children were assigned to the unexposed group. After following the dietary advice for at least three months, there was a statistically significant reduction in the cholesterol/HDL (high-density lipoproteins ratio (p < 0.001 and non-HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.044 and a statistically significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.009 in the exposed group, while there was no difference in the BMI and BMI z-scores. The dietary advice has no adverse effect on the lipid profile, BMI, and BMI z-scores in children, but has a significant beneficial effect on the cholesterol/HDL ratio, non-HDL-cholesterol, and the HDL-cholesterol.

  11. Green diesel production via catalytic hydrogenation/decarboxylation of triglycerides and fatty acids of vegetable oil and brown grease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Elvan

    Increase in the petroleum prices, projected increases in the world's energy demand and environmental awareness have shifted the research interest to the alternative fuel technologies. In particular, green diesel, vegetable oil/animal fat/waste oil and grease derived hydrocarbons in diesel boiling range, has become an attractive alternative to biodiesel---a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, particularly due to its superior fuel properties that are similar to petroleum diesel. Hence, green diesel can be used as a drop-in fuel in the current diesel engines. The current technology for production of green diesel-hydrodeoxygenation of triglycerides and fatty acids over conventional hydrotreating catalysts suffers from fast catalyst deactivation in the absence of hydrogen combined with high temperatures and high fatty acid content in the feedstock. Additionally, excess hydrogen requirement for hydrodeoxygenation technique leads to high production costs. This thesis proposes a new technology-selective decarboxylation of brown grease, which is a mixture of fats and oils collected from waste water trap and rich in fatty acids, over a supported noble metal catalyst that overcomes the green diesel production challenges. In contrast to other feedstocks used for liquid biofuel production, brown grease is inexpensive and non-food competing feedstock, therefore the process finds solution to waste management issues, reduces the renewable fuel production cost and does not add to the global food shortage problems. Special catalyst formulations were developed to have a high activity and stability in the absence of hydrogen in the fatty acid decarboxylation process. The study shows how catalyst innovations can lead to a new technology that overcomes the process challenges. First, the effect of reaction parameters on the activity and the selectivity of brown grease decarboxylation with minimum hydrogen consumption over an activated carbon supported palladium catalyst were

  12. Reprint of “Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-08-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  13. Effects of soil freezing and thawing on vegetation carbon density in Siberia: A modeling analysis with the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, C.; Lucht, W.; Gerten, D.; Thonicke, K.; Schmullius, C.

    2007-03-01

    The current latitudinal gradient in biomass suggests a climate-driven limitation of biomass in high latitudes. Understanding of the underlying processes, and quantification of their relative importance, is required to assess the potential carbon uptake of the biosphere in response to anticipated warming and related changes in tree growth and forest extent in these regions. We analyze the hydrological effects of thawing and freezing of soil on vegetation carbon density (VCD) in permafrost-dominated regions of Siberia using a process-based biogeochemistry-biogeography model, the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM). The analysis is based on spatially explicit simulations of coupled daily thaw depth, site hydrology, vegetation distribution, and carbon fluxes influencing VCD subject to climate, soil texture, and atmospheric CO2 concentration. LPJ represents the observed high spring peak of runoff of large Arctic rivers, and simulates a realistic fire return interval of 100 to 200 years in Siberia. The simulated VCD changeover from taiga to tundra is comparable to inventory-based information. Without the consideration of freeze-thaw processes VCD would be overestimated by a factor of 2 in southern taiga to a factor of 5 in northern forest tundra, mainly because available soil water would be overestimated with major effects on fire occurrence and net primary productivity. This suggests that forest growth in high latitudes is not only limited by temperature, radiation, and nutrient availability but also by the availability of liquid soil water.

  14. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters.

  15. Green facades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Winden, J.; Smits, E.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Knowledge of living organisms applied in buildings can prevent crucial designer mistakes. Therefore this manual provides information on vegetated facades. Green facade, vertical green, green wall, vertical g

  16. Ly$\\alpha$ emission from Green Peas: the role of circumgalactic gas density, covering, and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, Alaina; Martin, Crystal; Erb, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations of the Ly$\\alpha$ emission and interstellar absorption lines in a sample of ten star-forming galaxies at z~0.2. Selected on the basis of high equivalent width optical emission lines, the sample, dubbed "Green Peas," make some of the best analogs for young galaxies in an early Universe. We detect Ly$\\alpha$ emission in all ten galaxies, and 9/10 show double-peaked line profiles suggestive of low H I column density. We measure Ly$\\alpha$/H$\\alpha$ flux ratios of 0.5-5.6, implying that 5% to 60% of Ly$\\alpha$ photons escape the galaxies. These data confirm previous findings that low-ionization metal absorption (LIS) lines are weaker when Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction and equivalent width are higher. However, contrary to previously favored interpretations of this trend, increased Ly$\\alpha$ output cannot be the result of a varying H I covering: the Lyman absorption lines (Ly$\\beta$ and higher) show a covering fraction near unity for gas with N...

  17. Investigating the Impact of Off-Nominal Events on High-Density "Green" Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callatine, Todd J.; Cabrall, Christopher; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Palmer, Everett A.

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory-based controller tools developed to support a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management (ATM) concept have been shown effective for enabling green arrivals along Area Navigation (RNAV) routes in moderately high-density traffic conditions. A recent human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of the concept and tools to off-nominal events events that lead to situations in which runway arrival schedules require adjustments and controllers can no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. Study participants included a terminal-area Traffic Management Supervisor responsible for adjusting the schedules. Sector-controller participants could issue alternate RNAV transition routes to absorb large delays. The study also included real-time winds/wind-forecast changes. The results indicate that arrival spacing accuracy, schedule conformance, and tool usage and usefulness are similar to that observed in simulations of nominal operations. However, the time and effort required to recover from an off-nominal event is highly context-sensitive, and impacted by the required schedule adjustments and control methods available for managing the evolving situation. The research suggests ways to bolster the off-nominal recovery process, and highlights challenges related to using human-in-the-loop simulation to investigate the safety and robustness of advanced ATM concepts.

  18. Green Bank Telescope observations of low column density HI around NGC 2997 and NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J

    2013-01-01

    Observations of ongoing HI accretion in nearby galaxies have only identified about 10% of the needed fuel to sustain star formation in these galaxies. Most of these observations have been conducted using interferometers and may have missed lower column density, diffuse, HI gas that may trace the missing 90% of gas. Such gas may represent the so-called "cold flows" predicted by current theories of galaxy formation to have never been heated above the virial temperature of the dark matter halo. As a first attempt to identify such cold flows around nearby galaxies and complete the census of HI down to N(HI)~10^18 cm^-2, I used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to map the circumgalactic (r < 100-200 kpc) HI environment around NGC 2997 and NGC 6946. The resulting GBT observations cover a four square degree area around each galaxy with a 5-sigma detection limit of N(HI)~10^18 cm^-2 over a 20 km/s linewidth. This project complements absorption line studies, which are well-suited to the regime of lower ...

  19. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  20. Estimating water consumption of potential natural vegetation on global dry lands: building an LCA framework for green water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Montserrat; Pfister, Stephan; Roux, Philippe; Antón, Assumpció

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a framework for assessing direct soil-water consumption, also termed green water in the literature, in life cycle assessment (LCA). This was an issue that LCA had not tackled before. The approach, which is applied during the life cycle inventory phase (LCI), consists of quantifying the net change in the evapo(transpi)ration of the production system compared to the natural reference situation. Potential natural vegetation (PNV) is used as the natural reference situation. In order to apply the method, we estimated PNV evapotranspiration adapted to local biogeographic conditions, on global dry lands, where soil-water consumption impacts can be critical. Values are reported at different spatial aggregation levels: 10-arcmin global grid, ecoregions (501 units), biomes (14 units), countries (124 units), continents, and a global average, to facilitate the assessment for different spatial information detail levels available in the LCI. The method is intended to be used in rain-fed agriculture and rainwater harvesting contexts, which includes direct soil moisture uptake by plants and rainwater harvested and then reused in production systems. The paper provides the necessary LCI method and data for further development of impact assessment models and characterization factors to evaluate the environmental effects of the net change in evapo(transpi)ration.

  1. Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. L.; Anderson, R. G.; Shiflett, S. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2017-08-01

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical for urban water management and conservation, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. In this study, we deployed a mobile energy balance platform to measure evaporative fraction throughout Riverside, California, a warm, semi-arid, city. We observed the relationship between evaporative fraction and satellite derived vegetation index across 29 sites, which was then used to map whole-city ET for a representative mid-summer period. Resulting ET distributions were strongly associated with both neighborhood population density and income. By comparing 2014 and 2015 summer-period water uses, our results show 7.8% reductions in evapotranspiration, which were also correlated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest a mobile energy balance measurement platform coupled with satellite imagery could serve as an effective tool in assessing the outdoor water use at neighborhood to whole city scales.

  2. Bioavailability of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin from commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, V; Sharada, D; Pushpamma, P

    1982-01-01

    The physiological availability of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin from three green leafy vegetables -- amaranth (Amaranthes gangeticus), gogu (Hibiscus cannabinus) and drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera) was calculated from individual dose response curves. The bioavailability of thiamine and riboflavin was higher from drumstick leaves curry, while the availability of niacin was higher from gogu curry. But the differences in the bioavailability of the vitamins from the experimental curries was not significant.

  3. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for a beneficial effect of dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, on measures of cardiovascular function in healthy individuals is accumulating. It is less clear whether increased dietary nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables would have similar beneficial vascular effects in those at increased risk of developing hypertension. Our aim was to assess the effects of short-term regular consumption of increased nitrate from green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Thirty-eight men and women ages 30-70 years with systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm Hg were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover trial. The effects of a 7-day high-nitrate diet intervention (increased nitrate intake by at least 300 mg/day from green leafy vegetables) were compared to a 7-day low-nitrate diet intervention. Outcome measures included pre- and postintervention salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations; ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure; augmentation index; and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The high-nitrate diet intervention resulted in at least a fourfold increase in salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite (Pblood pressure and arterial stiffness were not different between the high-nitrate diet and the low-nitrate diet. Increasing dietary nitrate intake in those with high-normal blood pressure and at increased risk of hypertension may not be an effective short-term strategy to lower blood pressure.

  4. A High Density Storm Surge Monitoring Network: Evaluating the Ability of Wetland Vegetation to Reduce Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, S.; Denton, M.; Ferreira, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tropical storm activity in the Chesapeake Bay and a potential increase in the predicted frequency and magnitude of weather systems have drawn increased attention to the need for improved tools for monitoring, modeling and predicting the magnitude of storm surge, coastal flooding and the respective damage to infrastructure and wetland ecosystems. Among other forms of flood protection, it is believed that coastal wetlands and vegetation can act as a natural barrier that slows hurricane flooding, helping to reduce the impact of storm surge. However, quantifying the relationship between the physical process of storm surge and its attenuation by wetland vegetation is an active area of research and the deployment of in-situ measuring devices is crucial to data collection efforts in this field. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) mobile storm-surge network has already successfully provided a framework for evaluating hurricane induced storm surge water levels on a regional scale through the use of in-situ devices installed in areas affected by storm surge during extreme events. Based on the success of the USGS efforts, in this study we adapted the monitoring network to cover relatively small areas of wetlands and coastal vegetation with an increased density of sensors. Groups of 6 to 10 water level sensors were installed in sites strategically selected in three locations on the Virginia coast of the lower Chesapeake Bay area to monitor different types of vegetation and the resulting hydrodynamic patterns (open coast and inland waters). Each group of sensors recorded time series data of water levels for both astronomical tide circulation and meteorological induced surge. Field campaigns were carried out to survey characteristics of vegetation contributing to flow resistance (i.e. height, diameter and stem density) and mapped using high precision GPS. A geodatabase containing data from field campaigns will support the development and calibration of

  5. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  6. Two models to compute an adjusted Green Vegetation Fraction taking into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, L. M.; Small, E.

    2008-12-01

    The green vegetation fraction (Fg) is an important climate and hydrologic model parameter. The commonly- used Fg model is a simple linear mixing of two NDVI end-members: bare soil NDVI (NDVIo) and full vegetation NDVI (NDVI∞). NDVI∞ is generally set as a percentile of the historical maximum NDVI for each land cover. This approach works well for areas where Fg reaches full cover (100%). Because many biomes do not reach Fg=0, however, NDVIo is often determined as a single invariant value for all land cover types. In general, it is selected among the lowest NDVI observed over bare or desert areas, yielding NDVIo close to zero. There are two issues with this approach: large-scale variability of soil NDVI is ignored and observations on a wide range of soils show that soil NDVI is often larger. Here we introduce and test two new approaches to compute Fg that takes into account the spatial variability of soil NDVI. The first approach uses a global soil NDVI database and time series of MODIS NDVI data over the conterminous United States to constrain possible soil NDVI values over each pixel. Fg is computed using a subset of the soils database that respects the linear mixing model condition NDVIo≤NDVIh, where NDVIh is the pixel historical minimum. The second approach uses an empirical soil NDVI model that combines information of soil organic matter content and texture to infer soil NDVI. The U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO2) database is used as input for spatial soil properties. Using in situ measurements of soil NDVI from sites that span a range of land cover types, we test both models and compare their performance to the standard Fg model. We show that our models adjust the temporal Fg estimates by 40-90% depending on the land cover type and amplitude of the seasonal NDVI signal. Using MODIS NDVI and soil maps over the conterminous U.S., we also study the spatial distribution of Fg adjustments in February and June 2008. We show that the standard Fg method

  7. Evaluation of bulk density and vegetation as affected by military vehicle traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for greater understanding of the relationship of dust emission levels to disturbances of soil and vegetation indices that occur during military vehicle activities in Department of Defense training areas. A replicated field experiment was conducted in the fall of 2010 on two soils tha...

  8. Groundwater recharge decrease with increased vegetation density in the Brazilian Cerrado 2322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the cons...

  9. Effect of the method of preparation for consumption on calcium retention, calcium:phosphorus ratio, nutrient density and recommended daily allowance in fourteen vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słupski, Jacek; Gębczyński, Piotr; Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate calcium retention in 14 species of vegetable (from four usable groups). The material investigated consisted of raw and boiled fresh vegetables and two types of frozen product prepared for consumption after 12-month storage: one traditionally produced; the other obtained using the modified method (convenience food). The highest calcium content was found in leafy vegetables, followed (in descending order) by leguminous, root and brassica vegetables. The proportion by weight of Ca to P was highest in leafy vegetables and decreased with calcium retention despite the fact that levels of phosphorus were highest in leguminous and lowest in leafy vegetables. The nutrient density (ND%) of calcium for adults exceeded 100 for each individual vegetable species. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) percentage value varied between 23.04 (kale) and 1.46 (white cauliflower). Of the three types of product, ND and RDA values were generally greater in the frozen convenience products.

  10. The density and cloud point of diesel oil mixtures with the straight vegetable oils (SVO): Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Loukou, Kouakou; Henri, Planche [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The densities and cloud points of six vegetable oils mixed in variable proportions to diesel oils (commercial vehicle fuels) are measured. Simple correlations are reported between these properties and the fatty acids vegetable oil composition. A simple modelling summarises experimental data informations. (author)

  11. Relative contribution of biotic and abiotic factors to the population density of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A

    2013-08-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.

  12. Estimation of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Using Frontal Area Density Determined from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  13. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  14. Variations in vegetation cover and topography control gully density and sediment production on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    The factors controlling topsoil erosion rates are relatively well understood. This explains why topsoil erosion rates on the Chinese loess plateau (CLP) can be relatively accurately estimated using a combination of empirical data and relatively simple models (Zhao et al., in press). This is, however, not the case for non-topsoil erosion (sediment production by gullying and landslides): while it is well known that these processes produce significant amounts of sediment, the factors controlling their intensity on the CLP are far less understood. In this study, the contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production on the CLP was investigated. We estimated non-topsoil erosion rates (ENT) by making the difference between measured total sediment yield and the estimated topsoil erosion in 46 gauged catchments on the CLP for the period 1950-1970, when soil conservation measures were mostly absent in the area. We tested an extensive set of environmental variables related to topography, climate and the impact of land use for correlation Our results showed that the average catchment erosion rate (E) and ENT between 1950 and 1970 were 68.29 tha-1yr-1 and 58.02 tha-1yr-1 respectively. The sediment contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production ranged between 0 and 97% with a mean of 70%. Both E and ENT were significantly related with river slope, land use, NDVI, and gully density. However, gully density was the only variable explaining a major part of the variance in both E (60%) and ENT (57%). Gully density itself was significantly related to topography and vegetation cover but not to precipitation. Importantly, gully density was not only related to overall slope steepness, but also the river gradients and the hypsometric integral, suggesting that not only land cover disturbance but also tectonic uplift may control gully density and erosion rates. The absence of a clear climate signal, both with respect to the variation in gully density and in

  15. Vegetation cover and topography rather than human disturbance control gully density and sediment production on the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Chen, Longqian; Govers, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    The factors controlling topsoil erosion rates on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are currently relatively well understood and topsoil erosion rates can now be relatively accurately estimated. This is, however, not the case for non-topsoil erosion (sediment production by gullying and landslides): while it is well known that these processes produce significant amounts of sediment, the factors controlling their intensity and spatial distribution on the CLP are less well understood. In this study we quantified the contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production on the CLP and investigated which factors control spatial and temporal variations in non-topsoil erosion. We estimated non-topsoil erosion rates (ENT) by comparing the measured average sediment yields of 46 gauged catchments for the 1950-1970 period, when soil conservation measures were nearly absent in the area, with predicted topsoil erosion rates (using a recently developed empirical model). In addition, gully density was estimated in each catchment using Google Earth data. Our results showed that the area-weighted average catchment erosion rate (E) and ENT were 58.60 ± 51.80 and 48.68 ± 49.78 t ha- 1 yr- 1 respectively for the studied catchments. The sediment contribution of non-topsoil erosion to total sediment production ranged between ca. 0 and 97% with a mean of 70 ± 25%. Both E and ENT were significantly correlated to longitudinal river slope, land use, NDVI, and gully density. However, gully density was the only variable explaining a major part of the variance in both E (60%) and ENT (57%). Gully density itself was significantly related to topography and vegetation cover but not to rainfall erosivity. Importantly, gully density was not only related to overall slope steepness, but also to the longitudinal slope of the river network and the hypsometric integral, suggesting that not only land cover disturbance but also tectonic uplift controls gully density and erosion rates. The

  16. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  17. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are roofs that have been covered with a growing medium, creating a habitat on what would otherwise be a bland, lifeless surface. It is for this reason that green roofs are sometimes call 'vegetated' or 'living' roofs (Cantor 2008). A...

  18. Orange fruit is more effective than are dark-green, leafy vegetables in increasing serum concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene in schoolchildren in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pee, S; West, C E; Permaesih, D; Martuti, S; Muhilal; Hautvast, J G

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effectiveness of dietary retinol sources, orange fruit, and dark-green, leafy vegetables in improving vitamin A status, and to test whether orange fruit is a better source of vitamin A and carotenoids than are leafy vegetables. Anemic schoolchildren aged 7-11 y (n = 238) in West Java, Indonesia, were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups to consume 2 complete meals/d, 6 d/wk, for 9 wk: 1) 556 retinol equivalents (RE)/d from retinol-rich food (n = 48); 2) 509 RE/d from fruit (n = 49); 3) 684 RE/d from dark-green, leafy vegetables and carrots (n = 45); and 4) 44 RE/d from low-retinol, low-carotene food (n = 46). Mean changes in serum retinol concentrations of the retinol-rich, fruit, vegetable, and low-retinol, low-carotene groups were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.28), 0.12 (0.06, 0.18), 0.07 (0.03,0.11), and 0.00 (-0.06, 0.05) micromol/L, respectively. Mean changes in serum beta-carotene concentrations in the vegetable and fruit groups were 0.14 (0.12, 0.17) and 0.52 (0.43, 0.60) micromol/L, respectively. Until now, it has been assumed that 6 microg dietary beta-carotene is equivalent to 1 RE. On the basis of this study, however, the equivalent of 1 RE would be 12 microg beta-carotene (95% CI: 6 microg, 29 microg) for fruit and 26 microg beta-carotene (95% CI: 13 microg, 76 microg) for leafy vegetables and carrots. Thus, the apparent mean vitamin A activity of carotenoids in fruit and in leafy vegetables and carrots was 50% (95% CI: 21%, 100%) and 23% (95% CI: 8%, 46%) of that assumed, respectively. This has important implications for choosing strategies for controlling vitamin A deficiency. Research should be directed toward ways of improving bioavailability and bioconversion of dietary carotenoids, focusing on factors such as intestinal parasites, absorption inhibitors, and food matrixes.

  19. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    OpenAIRE

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve the environment in urban areas and is becoming a key design consideration in modern building developments. Vertical greening of structures offers large surfaces with vegetation and at the same time...

  20. From greening to browning: Catchment vegetation development and reduced S-deposition promote organic carbon load on decadal time scales in Nordic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Anders G.; Andersen, Tom; Larsen, Søren; Tominaga, Koji; Blumentrath, Stefan; de Wit, Heleen A.; Tømmervik, Hans; Hessen, Dag Olav

    2016-08-01

    Increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), often labelled “browning”, is a current trend in northern, particularly boreal, freshwaters. The browning has been attributed to the recent reduction in sulphate (S) deposition during the last 2 to 3 decades. Over the last century, climate and land use change have also caused an increasing trend in vegetation cover (“greening”), and this terrestrially fixed carbon represents another potential source for export of organic carbon to lakes and rivers. The impact of this greening on the observed browning of lakes and rivers on decadal time scales remains poorly investigated, however. Here, we explore time-series both on water chemistry and catchment vegetation cover (using NDVI as proxy) from 70 Norwegian lakes and catchments over a 30-year period. We show that the increase in terrestrial vegetation as well as temperature and runoff significantly adds to the reduced SO4-deposition as a driver of freshwater DOC concentration. Over extended periods (centuries), climate mediated changes in vegetation cover may cause major browning of northern surface waters, with severe impact on ecosystem productivity and functioning.

  1. Systems of Vegetal Façade and Green Roofs used as a Sustainable Option in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chanampa, Mariana; Vidal Rivas, Pilar; Alonso Ojembarrena, Javier; Olivieri, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Green architecture contributes not only in reducing the building’s thermal loads but also in reducing the effects of the urban heat island in densely built-up areas in a hardly natural environment. The current green systems are built in situ/on site and are very expensive, hence the need to create industrialized prevegetated systems which improve the buildings’ energy savings and reduce the times of construction works. The present paper describes three green systems for façades (gabion façade...

  2. High dose of green tea infusion normalized spiral artery density in rats treated with the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilda, A S; Veri, Nora; Alchalidi, Alchalidi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea (GT) on the spiral artery density and endometrial thickness in female rats treated with the depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). A total of 24 female rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 each): The control group (no treatment), the DMPA-treated group, treated with DMPA and GT doses of 165 mg/kg of body weight/day, and treated with DMPA and GT doses of 330 mg/kg of body weight/day. Spiral artery density and endometrial thickness were subjected to histopathological analysis. Spiral artery density decreased in the DMPA-treated group, despite the insignificant difference (P > 0.05). With regard to the administration of GT at doses of 165 and 330 mg/g of body weight/day, only GT at the high dose was capable of significantly preventing a decrease in spiral artery density (P 0.05). Meanwhile, the administration of DMPA and/or DMPA with GT did not cause significant changes in endometrial thickness relative to the control group (P > 0.05). DMPA induced a decrease in spiral artery density, despite the insignificant differences, and these changes could be normalized by the administration of high doses of GT. Therefore, GT could be a candidate herb to prevent the adverse effects of the contraceptive DMPA.

  3. Fate of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin in ditch enclosures differing in vegetation density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Zweers, Anton J; Warinton, Jacqui S; Crum, Steven J H; Hand, Laurence H; Beltman, Wim H J; Maund, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Use of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin in agriculture may result in the contamination of water bodies, for example by spray drift. Therefore, the possible exposure of aquatic organisms to this insecticide needs to be evaluated. The exposure of the organisms may be reduced by the strong sorption of the insecticide to organic materials and its susceptibility to hydrolysis at the high pH values in the natural range. In experiments done in May and August, formulated lambda-cyhalothrin was mixed with the water body of enclosures in experimental ditches containing a bottom layer and macrophytes (at different densities) or phytoplankton. Concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water body and in the sediment layer, and contents in the plant compartment, were measured by gas-liquid chromatography at various times up to 1 week after application. Various water quality parameters were also measured. Concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin decreased rapidly in the water column: 1 day after application, 24-40% of the dose remained in the water, and by 3 days it had declined to 1.8-6.5%. At the highest plant density, lambda-cyhalothrin residue in the plant compartment reached a maximum of 50% of the dose after 1 day; at intermediate and low plant densities, this maximum was only 3-11% of the dose (after 1-2 days). The percentage of the insecticide in the ditch sediment was 12% or less of the dose and tended to be lower at higher plant densities. Alkaline hydrolysis in the water near the surface of macrophytes and phytoplankton is considered to be the main dissipation process for lambda-cyhalothrin.

  4. GROWTH ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEET IN DIFFERENT SOWING DENSITY DURING VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Varga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse sugar beet growth in field conditions during 2014 growing season. Sugar beet (hybrid Serenade, KWS was sown on March 18th at inter–row spacing of 50 cm and four different intra–row spacings: 13 cm, 15 cm,17 cm and 19 cm. During the growing season sugar beet plants samples were taken in eight terms from June to September. In each sampling term sugar beet leaf and root fresh weight (g/plant were determined. Also, diameter, number and distance between cambium rings and the number of cambium rings of 1 cm diameter were determined at the cross section of the widest hypocotyl part. Sowing density had a significant effect (P≤0.05 on all observed parameters. Average fresh leaf weight for all densities of 717.84 g/plant was the highest in late July and early August. Generally, during the growing season the plants sown at wider intra–row spacings (17 and 19 cm had on average higher root weight compared to average root weight in narrower intra–row spacings (13 and 15 cm. Average root diameter of all sowing densities increases from 4.13 cm in the first decade of June to 12.51 cm in the second decade of September wherein the diameter varied from 11.55 cm (intra–row spacing 13 cm to 14.79 cm (intra–row spacing 19 cm. Intensive formation of cambium rings for all densities was found out in June, where at the beginning of the June, the average number of cambium rings was 4.9, while and at the end of it was 7.3. In September, sugar beet root had on average of 8.4 cambium rings. On July 30th the largest number of cambium rings at 1 cm root diameter was on the average 1.52.

  5. Influence of size and density on filtration rate modeling and nutrient uptake by green mussel (Perna viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantanasarit, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya; Englande, Andrew J; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2013-03-15

    This study investigates green mussel filtration rates based on variation of the mussel size and density, and attempts to correlate these with the amount of Chaetoceros calcitrans consumed by kinetic modeling. The filtration rates were found to be more effective in small mussels and with greater volumes of seawater/mussel which represent low mussel densities in the mussel farms. Under field condition, the first order kinetic model is useful for evaluation of mussel filtration rate. However, the composite exponential kinetic model was determined to better describe filtration rates in a close system. Higher ratios of seawater volume L/g DW mussel tissue, resulted in an increasing filtration rate until a maximum plateau was reached at 10.37 L/h/g DW tissue as determined by first order kinetics. Based on the filtration rate, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus uptake by green mussels were found to be 2128.72, 265.41, and 66.67 mg/year/indv, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban outdoor water use and response to drought assessed through mobile energy balance and vegetation greenness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban vegetation provides many highly valued ecosystem services but also requires extensive urban water resources. Increasingly, cities are experiencing water limitations and managing outdoor urban water use is an important concern. Quantifying the water lost via evapotranspiration (ET) is critical ...

  7. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  8. Growing up green on serpentine soils: Biogeochemistry of serpentine vegetation in the Central Coast Range of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Skinner, C.; Schroth, A.W.; Coleman, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Serpentine soils derived from the weathering of ultramafic rocks and their metamorphic derivatives (serpentinites) are chemically prohibitive for vegetative growth. Evaluating how serpentine vegetation is able to persist under these chemical conditions is difficult to ascertain due to the numerous factors (climate, relief, time, water availability, etc.) controlling and affecting plant growth. Here, the uptake, incorporation, and distribution of a wide variety of elements into the biomass of serpentine vegetation has been investigated relative to vegetation growing on an adjacent chert-derived soil. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic C, total N, soil extractable elements, total soil elemental compositions and plant digestions in conjunction with spider diagrams are utilized to determine the chemical relationships of these soil and plant systems. Plant available Mg and Ca in serpentine soils exceed values assessed in chert soils. Magnesium is nearly 3 times more abundant than Ca in the serpentine soils; however, the serpentine soils are not Ca deficient with Ca concentrations as high as 2235 mg kg-1. Calcium to Mg ratios (Ca:Mg) in both serpentine and chert vegetation are greater than one in both below and above ground tissues. Soil and plant chemistry analyses support that Ca is not a limiting factor for plant growth and that serpentine vegetation is actively moderating Mg uptake as well as tolerating elevated concentrations of bioavailable Mg. Additionally, results demonstrate that serpentine vegetation suppresses the uptake of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn and Co into its biomass. The suppressed uptake of these metals mainly occurs in the plants' roots as evident by the comparatively lower metal concentrations present in above ground tissues (twigs, leaves and shoots). This research supports earlier studies that have suggested that ion uptake discrimination and ion suppression in the roots are major mechanisms for serpentine vegetation to tolerate the chemistry of

  9. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Estimated Intersection Density of Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the intersection density of walkable roads within a 750 meter radius of any given 10 meter pixel in the community. Intersections...

  10. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants.

  11. Space-borne Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Greenness, Vegetation Models and Interannual Variability of Photosynthetic Activity: Spatio-temporal Patterns, Mechanisms, and Environmental Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, S.; Guanter, L.; Jung, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Sun, Y.; Forkel, M.; Zhang, Y.; Duveiller, G.; Cescatti, A.; Camps-Valls, G.; Köhler, P.

    2016-12-01

    It is much debated whether respiration or photosynthesis drive net ecosystem productivity andwhich regions contribute strongest to the observed interannual variability (IAV) of the strengthof the land sink. Several studies point to photosynthetic productivity in semi-arid regions as avery important factor influencing atmospheric CO2 variability globally (e.g. Jung et al., 2011;Poulter et al., 2014; Ahlstr ̈ om et al., 2015). Here, we aim at a comprehensive comparison ofthe strength, timing and spatial extent of anomalies of photosynthesis as they are indicated bysatellite observations of greenness, vegetation optical depth, and sun-induced chlorophyll fluo-rescence (SIF). We will compare them to the results of diagnostic, empirical and process-basedvegetation models. Except for the evergreen tropics, the spatio-temporal patterns of monthlydominant vegetation variability are generally consistently shown in semi-arid areas, albeit withdiffering magnitudes between greenness and photosynthesis globally. Relative anomalies (to themean seasonal cycle) are particularly widespread in high northern latitudes. Further researchsteps will include i) the repeated analysis at higher temporal resolution to better refine the dif-ferent time scales of reaction between light-use-efficiency and APAR and between forestedand non-forested ecosystems, ii) investigate on characteristic time scales at which the proxies(dis-)agree and why, iii) study the relative contributions of anomalies in peak and length of thegrowing season to IAV (similar to Xia et al., 2015; Zhou et al., 2016), iv) analyse the proxiesfor possibly differing hydrological sensitivities, and v) vegetation models have long been knownto have very diverse abilities to capture GPP IAV. Our preliminary results confirm this and wewill further study possible limitations and possible ways for improvement of the simulations.

  12. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2010-02-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green vegetables in salad from salad bars in The Netherlands. Pathogen growth was modeled in Aladin (Agro Logistics Analysis and Design Instrument) using time-temperature profiles in the chilled supply chain and one particular restaurant with a salad bar. A second-order Monte Carlo risk assessment model was constructed (using @Risk) to estimate the public health effects. The temperature in the studied cold chain was well controlled below 5 degrees C. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was minimal (17 and 15%, respectively). Growth of L. monocytogenes was considerably greater (194%). Based on first-order Monte Carlo simulations, the average number of cases per year in The Netherlands associated the consumption leafy greens in salads from salad bars was 166, 187, and 0.3 for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The ranges of the average number of annual cases as estimated by second-order Monte Carlo simulation (with prevalence and number of visitors as uncertain variables) were 42 to 551 for E. coli O157:H7, 81 to 281 for Salmonella, and 0.1 to 0.9 for L. monocytogenes. This study included an integration of modeling pathogen growth in the supply chain of fresh leafy vegetables destined for restaurant salad bars using software designed to model and design logistics and modeling the public health effects using probabilistic risk assessment software.

  13. Effect of planting density on nutritional quality of green-chopped corn for silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Alfonso, Mauro; Depino, Sebastián; Alessandri, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this on-farm study was to determine the effect of corn planting density on the nutritional quality of whole-plant corn for silage. This study was performed in a commercial 1,900-cow dairy farm located in Piedritas (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Two commercial hybrids (A and B) were planted in experimental plots within a cornfield destined for corn silage. Hybrids were sown at a theoretical seeding rate of 60,000, 70,000, 80,000, and 90,000 seeds/ha in 4 replicates per hybrid. Plots were eight 50-m-long rows separated by 52cm. Corn was planted with a no-till seeder equipped with a pneumatic dosing machine. Ten plants within each plot were cut by hand at 15cm above ground. Whole plants were chopped, weighed, mixed thoroughly, and frozen until analysis. Nutritional composition was determined by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Harvesting occurred at one-quarter milk-line [31.4% dry matter (DM)] and one-half milk-line (34.5% DM) stages of maturity for hybrids B and A, respectively. No interactions between hybrid and planting density were observed for any of the variables of interest. Planting density did not affect either plant DM weight or DM, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or starch concentrations of whole-plant corn. Dry matter yield was significantly increased at higher planting densities. The similar per-plant biomass and nutritional quality among different densities can be explained by the abundant precipitation observed during this growing season (719mm since the beginning of fallow until harvest). In conclusion, greater yields of silage can be obtained by increasing corn planting density without affecting its nutritional composition, although the effect of planting density with limiting resources (e.g., precipitation) still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of washing procedures in reducing Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on a raw leafy green vegetable (Eruca vescicaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pezzuto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Vegetables are an important source of nutrients, but they can host a large microbial population, particularly bacteria. Foodborne pathogens can contaminate raw vegetables at any stage of their production process with a potential for human infection. Appropriate washing can mitigate the risk of foodborne illness consequent to vegetable consumption by reducing pathogen levels, but few data are available to assess the efficacy of different practices. In the present work, six different washing methods, in the presence or absence of sanitisers (peracetic acid and percitric acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and vinegar, were tested for their effectiveness in reducing Salmonella and Listeria counts after artificial contamination of raw rocket (Eruca vescicaria. Results showed that washing with sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/L was the only method able to produce a significant 2 Log reduction of Salmonella counts, but only in the case of high initial contamination (7 Log CFU/g, suggesting potential harmful effects for consumers could occur. In the case of Listeria monocytogenes, all the examined washing methods were effective, with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution and a solution of peracetic and percitric acids displaying the best performances (2 and 1.5 Log reductions, respectively. This highlights the importance of targeting consumers on fit for purpose and safe washing practices to circumvent vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens.

  15. Performance of green LTE networks powered by the smart grid with time varying user density

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we implement a green heuristic algorithm involving the base station sleeping strategy that aims to ensure energy saving for the radio access network of the 4GLTE (Fourth Generation Long Term Evolution) mobile networks. We propose an energy procurement model that takes into consideration the existence of multiple energy providers in the smart grid power system (e.g. fossil fuel and renewable energy sources, etc.) in addition to deployed photovoltaic panels in base station sites. Moreover, the analysis is based on the dynamic time variation of daily traffic and aims to maintain the network quality of service. Our simulation results show an important contribution in the reduction of CO2 emissions that can be reached by optimal power allocation over the active base stations. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  16. Audubon vegetation monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the summary and the analysis of vegetative data for the Audubon Refuge from NPWRC. The data included measurements of vegetation density, vegetation...

  17. Simulation of green roof runoff under different substrate depths and vegetation covers by coupling a simple conceptual and a physically based hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Konstantinos X; Valiantzas, John D; Ntoulas, Nikolaos; Kargas, George; Nektarios, Panayiotis A

    2017-09-15

    In spite of the well-known green roof benefits, their widespread adoption in the management practices of urban drainage systems requires the use of adequate analytical and modelling tools. In the current study, green roof runoff modeling was accomplished by developing, testing, and jointly using a simple conceptual model and a physically based numerical simulation model utilizing HYDRUS-1D software. The use of such an approach combines the advantages of the conceptual model, namely simplicity, low computational requirements, and ability to be easily integrated in decision support tools with the capacity of the physically based simulation model to be easily transferred in conditions and locations other than those used for calibrating and validating it. The proposed approach was evaluated with an experimental dataset that included various green roof covers (either succulent plants - Sedum sediforme, or xerophytic plants - Origanum onites, or bare substrate without any vegetation) and two substrate depths (either 8 cm or 16 cm). Both the physically based and the conceptual models matched very closely the observed hydrographs. In general, the conceptual model performed better than the physically based simulation model but the overall performance of both models was sufficient in most cases as it is revealed by the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index which was generally greater than 0.70. Finally, it was showcased how a physically based and a simple conceptual model can be jointly used to allow the use of the simple conceptual model for a wider set of conditions than the available experimental data and in order to support green roof design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  19. Exploration on the Green Control Technology of Vegetables Diseases and Pests in Jiangning District%江苏省南京市江宁区蔬菜病虫害绿色防控技术探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮小勇

    2016-01-01

    从江苏省南京市江宁区蔬菜种植绿色防控现状出发,阐述了病虫害绿色防控在江宁区蔬菜生产中的重要性和必要性,并提出了规模化应用病虫害绿色防控的相关建议,为更好地推动江宁区蔬菜病虫害绿色防控技术,保障蔬菜质量安全,促进蔬菜产业生态可持续发展提供借鉴与参考。%Starting from introducing the green prevention and control status of vegetables in Jiangning District,the importance and necessity of green pest prevention and control in the production of vegetables were expounded,and the application of green prevention and con-trol of plant diseases and pests in large scale was put forward,in order to provide a reference for better promoting the green prevention and control of vegeta-bles diseases and pests in Jiangning District,protecting the quality and safety of vegetables,and promoting the ecologi-cal sustainable development of vegetable industry.

  20. Evaluation of methods to prepare samples of leafy green vegetables for preenrichment with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Andrew Patrick; Gill, Vikas Singh; Irvin, Kari Anne; Wang, Hua; Hammack, Thomas Seyliard

    2012-02-01

    Three sample preparation procedures, soak, stomach, and blend, were evaluated using the Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method with eight types of leafy green produce. In the soak method, test portions were added to lactose broth without homogenization; in the stomach method, test portions were stomached with lactose broth; and in the blend method, test portions were blended with lactose broth. Twenty artificially contaminated test portions were analyzed with each procedure in individual experimental trials. The number of test portions identified as positive were compared among the procedures. Statistically significant differences were identified with Fisher's exact two-tailed F test (P < 0.05). Where differences did occur (P < 0.05), the soak procedure was the most effective or was at least as effective as homogenization by either blending or stomaching. Statistically significant differences most frequently occurred with romaine lettuce and cabbage; for these items, blending was significantly less effective than the soak procedure. Overall, for all of the produce types examined, results showed that the soak procedure was more effective than either of the homogenization procedures in recovering Salmonella from leafy green produce. Of the 540 test portions examined by each sample preparation method, 344 were positive for the presence of Salmonella by soaking, 293 by stomaching, and 232 by blending. We recommend that the soak procedure replace homogenization for the analysis of leafy green produce because the soak procedure is more productive than homogenization by either blending or stomaching of the leafy green produce types as reported herein.

  1. Excited states properties of organic molecules: from density functional theory to the GW and Bethe-Salpeter Green's function formalisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, C; Boulanger, P; Attaccalite, C; Duchemin, I; Blase, X

    2014-03-13

    Many-body Green's function perturbation theories, such as the GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms, are starting to be routinely applied to study charged and neutral electronic excitations in molecular organic systems relevant to applications in photovoltaics, photochemistry or biology. In parallel, density functional theory and its time-dependent extensions significantly progressed along the line of range-separated hybrid functionals within the generalized Kohn-Sham formalism designed to provide correct excitation energies. We give an overview and compare these approaches with examples drawn from the study of gas phase organic systems such as fullerenes, porphyrins, bacteriochlorophylls or nucleobases molecules. The perspectives and challenges that many-body perturbation theory is facing, such as the role of self-consistency, the calculation of forces and potential energy surfaces in the excited states, or the development of embedding techniques specific to the GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation formalisms, are outlined.

  2. Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

  3. The effect of urban density, green spaces and mobility patterns in cities’ environmental quality: An empirical study of the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verani Eleni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that urban development patterns affect in various ways cities’ environmental quality. To this purpose, one of the factors that have been examined is the role of urban green spaces, in balancing the effects of human activities in dense urban landscapes. One of the major external costs of dense urban environment is smog and greenhouse gas emissions that are heavily related to existing mobility patterns. High levels of concentration of such emissions along with high urban density are considered to be the main reason for cities’ environmental degradation. In this context this paper presents the results of a study investigating how urban green spaces can improve air quality, in major transportation axis within the city of Thessaloniki. In order to do so, urban density along the axis, green space per capita, green space spatial distribution, mobility patterns and transport emissions volumes are being considered. Comparison of these indices among the transportation axis under study indicates that there is a positive relation between building density, urban density and volume of emissions observed, while a dispersed rather than a concentrated pattern of green spaces could better help improve cities’ environmental quality.

  4. Density of phonon states in the light-harvesting complex II of green plants

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G

    2002-01-01

    In photosynthetic antenna complexes, the coupling of electronic transitions to low-frequency vibrations of the protein matrix (phonons) plays an essential role in light absorption and ultra-fast excitation energy transfer (EET). The model calculations presented here indicate that inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide invaluable information on the phonon density of states for light-harvesting complex II, which may permit a consistent interpretation of contradictory results from high-resolution optical spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. The effect of image radiometric correction on the accuracy of vegetation canopy density estimate using several Landsat-8 OLI’s vegetation indices: A case study of Wonosari area, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, R. P.; Danoedoro, P.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on the use of spectral indices have involved radiometric correction as a prerequisite. However, study on the effect of radiometric correction level on the accuracy of biophysical parameters’ estimate is still rare in Indonesia. This study tried to investigate the influence of various radiometric correction levels and the number of vegetation strata on the accuracy of vegetation density estimates using NDVI, MSAVI2 and GEMI of Landsat 8 OLI. In this study, the dataset covering vegetated area in Wonosari, Gunung Kidul Regency, Indonesia was processed radiometrically using eight different methods, i.e. spectral radiance, at sensor reflectance, sun elevation correction, histogram adjustments using original DN, spectal radiance, at sensor reflectance, and sun position correction respectively, as well as dark object subtraction (DOS). Every image with specific correction level was then transformed using the aforementioned indices, in order correlate with the field-measured canopy density. The analysis were carried out by considering the number of canopy layers. This found that different radiometric correction methods resulted canopy density estimates with different accuracies. The number of canopy strata also played an important role. Every vegetation index transformation performed its best accuracy by using different radiometric correction method and different number of canopy layers.

  6. Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in Marudu Bay, Northeast Malaysian Borneo, three years after a massive mortality event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Mohd Taib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in a particular coastal marine environment can be affected by many factors, including environmental change, pollution, disease outbreak and massive mortality event. The present study was conducted to determine the density, recruitment and growth performance of farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay, three years after a mass mortality event. The study was carried out for 12 months between April 2013 and March 2014. The length frequency data of 1,308 individuals of green mussel were analyzed using the latest version of the FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT II. The result showed that the green mussel recruitment in Marudu Bay occurs throughout the year with two major peaks i.e. February and July which coincided with the monsoon seasons. The asymptotic length (L∞, growth coefficient (K and growth performance index (φ’ of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay are relatively high at 113.4 mm, 1.7 year-1 and 4.34, respectively. However, despite good culture location, the settlement density of green mussel in the bay was low. We suspected that the low settlement density could be influenced by the ecological effects due to the long term suspension of the culture substrates and the physiochemical properties of the water in Marudu Bay. Nevertheless, chlorophyll-á measurement alone was not able to justify if food scarcity has resulted in high mortality of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay.

  7. The green building envelope: vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  8. Mapping of Impervious Surfaces and Green Vegetation Fraction in Urban Areas Using High-Resolution Optical- and SAR- Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Benjamin; Becker, Frauke; Menz, Gunther

    2010-12-01

    Impervious surfaces (IS) and vegetated surfaces (VS) are two important variables for urban planning. Both are related to surface biophysical processes (e. g. urban heat island) and the quality of life in urban environments. The new generation of spatially very high resolution satellite sensors (e.g. RapidEye, or TerraSAR-X) show promising capabilities to extract these variables in relevant detail and hence to overcome some of the limitations using traditional approaches. In this study, we show a simple workflow for the synergistic use of high-resolution optical and SAR data for the retrieval of detailed information of IS and VS. Here, the focus is on the processing step of vegetation extraction. Three approaches - linear Spectral Mixture Analysis, per-pixel, and segment-oriented classification - are compared. It will also be analyzed if an explicit shadow analysis leads to a significant improvement of the products.

  9. Multi-Vitamins, Folate, and Green Vegetables Protect Against Gene Promoter Methylation in the Aerodigestive Tract of Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stidley, Christine A.; Picchi, Maria A.; Leng, Shuguang; Willink, Randy; Crowell, Richard E.; Flores, Kristina G.; Kang, Huining; Byers, Tim; Gilliland, Frank D.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising molecular marker for early lung cancer detection. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary fruits and vegetables and the micronutrients they contain may reduce risk of lung cancer. This investigation evaluated whether diet and multi-vitamin use influence the prevalence for gene methylation in the cells exfoliated from the aerodigestive tract of current and former smokers. Members (n = 1101) of the Lovelace Smokers Coho...

  10. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  11. Magnetic bead based immuno-detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables using the Bio-Plex suspension array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Basavanna, U

    2015-04-01

    Listeriosis, a disease contracted via the consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic Listeria species, can produce severe symptoms and high mortality in susceptible people and animals. The development of molecular methods and immuno-based techniques for detection of pathogenic Listeria in foods has been challenging due to the presence of assay inhibiting food components. In this study, we utilize a macrophage cell culture system for the isolation and enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii from infant formula and leafy green vegetables for subsequent identification using the Luminex xMAP technique. Macrophage monolayers were exposed to infant formula, lettuce and celery contaminated with L. monocytogenes or L. ivanovii. Magnetic microspheres conjugated to Listeria specific antibody were used to capture Listeria from infected macrophages and then analyzed using the Bio-Plex 200 analyzer. As few as 10 CFU/mL or g of L. monocytogenes was detected in all foods tested. The detection limit for L. ivanovii was 10 CFU/mL in infant formula and 100 CFU/g in leafy greens. Microsphere bound Listeria obtained from infected macrophage lysates could also be isolated on selective media for subsequent confirmatory identification. This method presumptively identifies L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii from infant formula, lettuce and celery in less than 28 h with confirmatory identifications completed in less than 48 h.

  12. Noise Attenuation Effect of Green Vegetation on Beijing Viaduct Rail Traffic System%北京高架轨道交通沿线绿地噪声衰减效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑芬; 任杰

    2012-01-01

    轨道交通系统沿线绿地可以有效地降低高架轨道交通噪声.选取北京地铁13号线沿线15块绿地进行高架轨道交通噪声测试实验.采用相关性分析方法对绿地噪声净衰减值与6个影响因子进行分析,提出绿地植物配置建议和噪声衰减预测数学模型.实验结果表明:绿地植物群落噪声衰减效果明显,声源高度、绿地宽度、测试点与噪声源的水平距离、植物配置指数、郁闭度和契合度各影响因素与绿地噪声净衰减值的P值分别为0.632、0.538、0.126、0.048、0.024和0.143,植物配置指数和郁闭度呈显著相关性,在降噪绿地设计时应着重考虑绿地的这2个因子.%Green vegetation along the viaduct rail traffic system (VRTS) plays a vital role in the reduction of noise produced by VRTS. An observational trial to obtain practical data is a convinced method. The noise testing experiments were conducted in 15 patches of greenery along Beijing Subway Line 13. Based on the data analysis on correlation between excessive noise attenuation and six factors, suggestions on green plant configuration and the mathematical model to forecast the attenuation effect are worked out. The results showed that green plant community has obvious effect to reduce noise. The SPSS software analysis shows that P value of the correlation coefficient of the height of sound source, the width of greenbelt, the horizontal distance of test point and noise source, plant configuration index, canopy density and fitness are 0.632, 0.538, 0.126, 0.048, 0.024 and 0.143 respectively. Plant disposition index and canopy density showed a significant correlation. Thus, the design of noise reduction greenbelt should consider them.

  13. Application of gas chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry to the multi-residue analysis of pesticides in green leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2008-12-01

    A new, sensitive and specific method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 129 pesticides in lettuce and other green leafy vegetables. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and co-extractives such as fatty acids and pigments were removed using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). All pesticides were analyzed in a single injection gas chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) acquisition method. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of precursor ions fragmenting into product ions were recorded for the targeted pesticides, thus fulfilling the EU identification points system criteria for the identification of contaminants (2002/657/EC). Calibration curves were determined using matrix-matched standards, and exhibited excellent linearity at two orders of magnitude from 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg for almost all the pesticides studied (R(2) > or = 0.99). The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of lettuce samples spiked at five concentration levels ranging from 0.005 to 0.5 mg/kg for each pesticide. The recovery and repeatability results satisfied SANCO/2007/3131 criteria (i.e. average recoveries were in the range 70-120% with RSDs vegetable samples such as lettuce, cabbage and leek.

  14. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Tufts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL, followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL. Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r2=0.7639, P=0.0228. Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  15. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, H R; Harris, C S; Bukania, Z N; Johns, T

    2015-01-01

    Background. Inflammation, together with related oxidative stress, is linked with the etiology of kwashiorkor, a form of severe acute malnutrition in children. A diet rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytochemicals may offer potential for the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor. We selected and assayed five leafy green vegetables, two wild fruits, and six medicinal plants from Kenya for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consensus regarding medicinal plant use was established from ethnobotanical data. Methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro targeting the inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Results. Mangifera indica (leaves used medicinally) showed the greatest antioxidant activity (5940 ± 632 µM TE/µg) and total phenolic content (337 ± 3 mg GAE/g) but Amaranthus dubius (leafy vegetable) showed the greatest inhibition of TNF-α (IC50 = 9 ± 1 μg/mL), followed by Ocimum americanum (medicinal plant) (IC50 = 16 ± 1 μg/mL). Informant consensus was significantly correlated with anti-inflammatory effects among active medicinal plants (r (2) = 0.7639,  P = 0.0228). Conclusions. Several plant species commonly consumed by Kenyan children possess activity profiles relevant to the prevention and treatment of kwashiorkor and warrant further investigation.

  16. Monitoring of the Spatial Distribution and Temporal Dynamics of the Green Vegetation Fraction of Croplands in Southwest Germany Using High-Resolution RapidEye Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imukova, Kristina; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The green vegetation fraction (GVF) is a key input variable to the evapotranspiration scheme applied in the widely used NOAH land surface model (LSM). In standard applications of the NOAH LSM, the GVF is taken from a global map with a 15 km×15 km resolution. The central objective of the present study was (a) to derive gridded GVF data in a high spatial and temporal resolution from RapidEye images for a region in Southwest Germany, and (b) to improve the representation of the GVF dynamics of croplands in the NOAH LSM for a better simulation of water and energy exchange between land surface and atmosphere. For the region under study we obtained monthly RapidEye satellite images with a resolution 5 m×5 m by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The images hold five spectral bands: blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR). The GVF dynamics were determined based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated from the red and near-infrared bands of the satellite images. The satellite GVF data were calibrated and validated against ground truth measurements. Digital colour photographs above the canopy were taken with a boom-mounted digital camera at fifteen permanently marked plots (1 m×1 m). Crops under study were winter wheat, winter rape and silage maize. The GVF was computed based on the red and the green band of the photographs according to Rundquist's method (2002). Based on the obtained calibration scheme GVF maps were derived in a monthly resolution for the region. Our results confirm a linear relationship between GVF and NDVI and demonstrate that it is possible to determine the GVF of croplands from RapidEye images based on a simple two end-member mixing model. Our data highlight the high variability of the GVF in time and space. At the field scale, the GVF was normally distributed with a coefficient of variation of about 32%. Variability was mainly caused by soil heterogeneities and management differences. At the regional scale the GVF

  17. Consistent shifts in spring vegetation green-up date across temperate biomes in China, 1982-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan

    2013-03-01

    Understanding spring phenology changes in response to the rapid climate change at biome-level is crucial for projecting regional ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. In this study, we assessed the long-term changes and responses to changing climate of the spring phenology in six temperate biomes of China by analyzing the global inventory monitoring and modeling studies (GIMMS) NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and concurrent mean temperature and precipitation data for 1982-2006. Results show that the spring phenology trends in the six temperate biomes are not continuous throughout the 25 year period. The spring phenology in most areas of the six biomes showed obvious advancing trends (ranging from -0.09 to -0.65 day/yr) during the 1980s and early 1990s, but has subsequently suffered consistently delaying trends (ranging from 0.22 to 1.22 day/yr). Changes in spring (February-April) temperature are the dominating factor governing the pattern of spring vegetation phenology in the temperate biomes of China. The recently delayed spring phenology in these temperate biomes has been mainly triggered by the stalling or reversal of the warming trend in spring temperatures. Results in this study also reveal that precipitation during November-January can explain 16.1% (P biomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. How Do Vegetation Density and Transportation Network Density Affect Crime across an Urban Central-Peripheral Gradient? A Case Study in Kitchener—Waterloo, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikang Du

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation, transportation networks, and crime has been under debate. Vegetation has been positively correlated with fear of crime; however, the actual correlation between vegetation and occurrences of crime is uncertain. Transportation networks have also been connected with crime occurrence but their impact on crime tends to vary over different circumstances. By conducting spatial analyses, this study explores the associations between crime and vegetation as well as transportation networks in Kitchener-Waterloo. Further, geographically weighted regression modeling and a dummy urban variable representing the urban center/other urban areas were employed to explore the associations across an urban central-peripheral gradient. Associations were analyzed for crimes against persons and crimes against property for four specific crime types (assaults, vehicle theft, sex offences, and drugs. Results suggest that vegetation has a reverse association with crimes against persons and crimes against property while transportation networks have a positive relationship with these two types of crime. Additionally, vegetation can be a deterrent to vehicle theft crime and drugs, while transportation networks can be a facilitator of drug-related crimes. Besides, these two associations appear stronger in the urban center compared to the urban periphery.

  19. Changes of the green house gas production potential of inundated peatlands in the perspective of temporal vegetation shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Reuter, Hendrik; Augustin, Jürgen; Shatwell, Tom; Barth, Martin; Gelbrecht, Jörg; McInnes, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Artificially drained minerotrophic peatlands, commonly called fens, are being rewetted on a large scale in many European countries, including Germany. The objectives behind rewetting include the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in particular of carbon dioxide (CO2) via oxidative degradation processes in the aerated peat soil, as well as the recovering of the nutrient sink and ecological habitat functions of pristine fens. As a result of long-term organic soil losses, subsidence and the associated lowering of the land surface, rewetting of these areas often results in shallow lake formation. These developing ecosystems differ considerably from pristine fens. Peat formation cannot occur in the open waterbody; instead the highly degraded submerged peat surface becomes covered by organic sediments which form readily due to the subaqueous decomposition of dying grassland vegetation that is intolerant to permanent flooding and the decomposition of shoot biomass from wetland plants. With regard to lake ontogeny, these sites can be compared to lakes in the process of terrestrialization, where peat formation can follow as infill proceeds to surface levels. These newly formed shallow lakes with a highly degraded peat substrate are characteristically eutrophic and show high mobilisations of nutrients and dissolved organic carbon. Furthermore, extremely high methane (CH4) emissions from rewetted fens have been observed. The GHG emissions in the initial stage after rewetting have even been shown to lead to a net climate impact that exceeds that of drained fens. Another distinct difference of rewetted fens from natural fens in Central Europe is the rapid secondary plant succession. In the initial phase of rewetting, Phalaris arundinacea has been observed to be the dominating plant species; more adapted to wet-dry conditions, this species routinely dies off within the first year of inundation. Helophytes like Typha latifolia in marginal areas and Ceratophyllum

  20. 屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜绿化降温试验%Greening and Temperature Cooling Test for Cultivating Lianoid Vegetables on Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解盼; 龙岳林

    2014-01-01

    Roof thermal radiation is an important reason causing urban thermal environment effect, and the roof greening is an effective way to reduce the thermal radiation. This study selects the balsam pear, lentils and towel gourd as test materials and adopts box-type cultivation method on the roof with steel mesh stent to respectively observe their growth adaptability and compare their temperature cooling effect for roof. The results showed that before middle July, the growth of sponge gourd and bitter melon was vigorous, but gradually declined with increasing temperature after middle July, but lentils had strong ability to resist high temperature, so it can maintain a strong growth state until met the frost; for greening and temperature cooling effect, before middle July, there was no significant difference among three kinds of vegetable, but lentils was obviously better than sponge gourd and bitter after middle July. Cultivating lianoid vegetables on roof has significant temperature cooling effect, the higher the temperature is, the temperature cooling effect the more obvious, especially at 12:00, the temperature cooling range was the largest by 8.7℃.%屋顶热辐射是导致城市热环境效应产生的一个重要原因,屋顶绿化是减轻热辐射的一项有效措施。选用苦瓜、扁豆和丝瓜作试验材料,在屋顶上采用箱式栽培方式,搭建钢丝网作支架,分别观测其生长适应性,并比较屋面降温效果。结果表明:7月中旬前丝瓜与苦瓜生长旺盛,7月中旬后随着温度升高而逐渐衰退,而扁豆具有较强的抗高温能力,一直保持旺盛生长状态,直到遇霜枯死;绿化降温效果7月中旬之前3种蔬菜无明显差异,7月中旬以后扁豆明显优于丝瓜和苦瓜。屋顶栽培藤本蔬菜降温效果显著,气温越高降温越明显,特别是在中午12:00降温幅度最大,达到8.7℃。

  1. Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Changes in the Vegetation Density of Similipal Biosphere Reserve in Odisha (India Using Multitemporal Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Biswal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available National parks and protected areas require periodic monitoring because of changing land cover types and variability of landscape contexts within and adjacent to their boundaries. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyse the changes in the vegetation density particularly in the zones of higher anthropogenic pressure in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR of Odisha (India, using Landsat imagery from 1975 to 2005. A technique for the detection of postclassification changes was followed and the change in vegetation density as expressed by normalized difference vegetation index was computed. Results indicate that high dense forest in the core zone has been conserved and the highest reforestation has also occurred in this zone of SBR. The results also reveal that anthropological interventions are more in the less dense forest areas and along the roads, whereas high dense forest areas have remained undisturbed and rejuvenated. This study provides baseline data demonstrating alteration in land cover over the past three decades and also serves as a foundation for monitoring future changes in the national parks and protected areas.

  2. Modelling rainfall interception by vegetation of variable density using an adapted analytical model. Part 2. Model validation for a tropical upland mixed cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.

    2001-07-01

    To improve the description of rainfall partitioning by a vegetation canopy that changes in time a number of adaptations to the revised analytical model for rainfall interception by sparse canopies [J. Hydrol., 170 (1995) 79] was proposed in the first of two papers. The current paper presents an application of this adapted analytical model to simulate throughfall, stemflow and interception as measured in a mixed agricultural cropping system involving cassava, maize and rice during two seasons of growth and serial harvesting in upland West Java, Indonesia. Measured interception losses were 18 and 8% during the two measuring periods, while stemflow fractions were estimated at 2 and 4%, respectively. The main reasons for these discrepancies were differences in vegetation density and composition, as well as differences in the exposure of the two sites used in the two respective years. Functions describing the development of the leaf area index of each of the component crops in time were developed. Leaf area index (ranging between 0.7 and 3.8) was related to canopy cover fraction (0.41-0.94). Using average values and time series of the respective parameters, interception losses were modelled using both the revised analytical model and the presently adapted version. The results indicate that the proposed model adaptations substantially improve the performance of the analytical model and provide a more solid base for parameterisation of the analytical model in vegetation of variable density.

  3. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Torbjørn Høstmark

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD, we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  4. The oslo health study: a dietary index estimating frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables is negatively associated with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density.

  5. The Oslo Health Study: A Dietary Index Estimating Frequent Intake of Soft Drinks and Rare Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Negatively Associated with Bone Mineral Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Alvær, Kari; Meyer, Haakon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Since nutritional factors may affect bone mineral density (BMD), we have investigated whether BMD is associated with an index estimating the intake of soft drinks, fruits, and vegetables. Methods. BMD was measured in distal forearm in a subsample of the population-based Oslo Health Study. 2126 subjects had both valid BMD measurements and answered all the questions required for calculating a Dietary Index = the sum of intake estimates of colas and non-cola beverages divided by the sum of intake estimates of fruits and vegetables. We did linear regression analyses to study whether the Dietary Index and the single food items included in the index were associated with BMD. Results. There was a consistent negative association between the Dietary Index and forearm BMD. Among the single index components, colas and non-cola soft drinks were negatively associated with BMD. The negative association between the Dietary Index and BMD prevailed after adjusting for gender, age, and body mass index, length of education, smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity. Conclusion. An index reflecting frequent intake of soft drinks and rare intake of fruit and vegetables was inversely related to distal forearm bone mineral density. PMID:21772969

  6. Green towers and green walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.

  7. Ecosystem respiration, vegetation development and soil nitrogen in relation to breeding density of seagulls on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, B. D.; Magnusson, B.

    2009-08-01

    Since its birth in 1963 by volcanic eruption in the North Atlantic Ocean off Iceland, Surtsey has been a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structure and function. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate, soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured on 21 plots distributed among the main plant communities found 40 years after the primary succession started. The plots could be divided into two groups, inside and outside seagull (Larus sp.) colonies found on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of seagull nests within and around them. The occurrence of seagull nests and increased vegetation also coincided with significant increase in ecosystem respiration, soil carbon and nitrogen, and with significantly lower soil pH and soil temperatures. The ecosystem respiration was high inside the gull colonies, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The most important factor for vegetation succession and ecosystem function on Surtsey seems to be the amount of nitrogen, which was mainly brought in by the seagulls.

  8. Ecosystem respiration, vegetation development and soil nitrogen in relation to breeding density of seagulls on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Sigurdsson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its birth in 1963 by volcanic eruption in the North Atlantic Ocean off Iceland, Surtsey has been a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structure and function. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate, soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured on 21 plots distributed among the main plant communities found 40 years after the primary succession started. The plots could be divided into two groups, inside and outside seagull (Larus sp. colonies found on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of seagull nests within and around them. The occurrence of seagull nests and increased vegetation also coincided with significant increase in ecosystem respiration, soil carbon and nitrogen, and with significantly lower soil pH and soil temperatures. The ecosystem respiration was high inside the gull colonies, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The most important factor for vegetation succession and ecosystem function on Surtsey seems to be the amount of nitrogen, which was mainly brought in by the seagulls.

  9. 基于绿色供应链的鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流效率分析%ANALYSIS ON EFFICIENCY OF FRESH VEGETABLE AND FRUIT COLD CHAIN BASED ON GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡滢

    2015-01-01

    为了响应国家对于环保的号召,促进我国果蔬物流行业的可持续发展,绿色供应链策略成为我国冷链物流发展的关键因素.随着人们对于果蔬需求的不断提升,鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流的需求也进一步增加,如何提高我国冷链物流效率成为果蔬物流行业发展的主要问题.文章主要通过对绿色供应链的定义、主要内容和食品冷链物流等理论进行梳理和总结,分析我国鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流发展现状,主要呈现果蔬产销发展迅速、果蔬冷链物流水平较低和果蔬冷链物流问题较多等特点,并进一步从冷链物流流程和绿色环保两方面,基于绿色供应链角度,对我国鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流效率进行研究,发现其运输损耗率较高,虽然在环保投资额和包装回收率等方面都有所提升,但是与发达国家还存在一定差距.文章最后从政府、行业和企业3方面,为鲜蔬鲜果冷链物流的发展提出对策建议.%In order to respond to the national call for environmental protection, and promote the sustainable devel-opment of China's fruit and vegetable logistics industry, green supply chain strategy has become the key factor in the development of cold chain logistics in China. Along with the rising demand of the people for fruits and vegetables, fresh vegetable and fruit cold chain logistics demand is further increased, how to improve the efficiency of cold chain logistics in China has already become the main problem of the development of the vegetable and fruit logistics industry. Through review and summary the main content and definition of green supply chain, and the food cold chain logistics theory, This paper mainly analyses China's fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics development situa-tion, mainly showing the rapid development of fruit and vegetable production and marketing, fruit and vegetable cold chain logistics level is low and more problems of vegetables and fruit cold chain logistics

  10. Predator Presence and Vegetation Density Affect Capture Rates and Detectability of Litoria aurea Tadpoles: Wide-Ranging Implications for a Common Survey Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Madeleine R; Clulow, Simon; Bower, Deborah S; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Trapping is a common sampling technique used to estimate fundamental population metrics of animal species such as abundance, survival and distribution. However, capture success for any trapping method can be heavily influenced by individuals' behavioural plasticity, which in turn affects the accuracy of any population estimates derived from the data. Funnel trapping is one of the most common methods for sampling aquatic vertebrates, although, apart from fish studies, almost nothing is known about the effects of behavioural plasticity on trapping success. We used a full factorial experiment to investigate the effects that two common environmental parameters (predator presence and vegetation density) have on the trapping success of tadpoles. We estimated that the odds of tadpoles being captured in traps was 4.3 times higher when predators were absent compared to present and 2.1 times higher when vegetation density was high compared to low, using odds ratios based on fitted model means. The odds of tadpoles being detected in traps were also 2.9 times higher in predator-free environments. These results indicate that common environmental factors can trigger behavioural plasticity in tadpoles that biases trapping success. We issue a warning to researchers and surveyors that trapping biases may be commonplace when conducting surveys such as these, and urge caution in interpreting data without consideration of important environmental factors present in the study system. Left unconsidered, trapping biases in capture success have the potential to lead to incorrect interpretations of data sets, and misdirection of limited resources for managing species.

  11. Influence of shrub cover vegetal and slope length on soil bulk density; Influencia de la cubierta vegetal arbustiva y la longitud de la ladera sobre la densidad aparente del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienes, R.; Jimenez, R.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia-Estringana, P.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    In arid and semiarid environments of the Mediterranean climate, the shrub species play an important role in the revegetation of abandoned lands, which enables to control the soil losses, organic material and water. In this article are compared the results obtained under different revegetation in abandoned lands in the central area of Spain. In these revegetation has been used two native shrubs: A triplex halimus (Ah) and Retama sphaerocarpa (Rs), and were analyzed the influence of these revegetation in the contents of organic material of soil and apparent density in 5 years time after planting. As control, have been considered the pieces of ground with spontaneous vegetation abandoned in the same date that the shrubs revegetation. Atriplex halimus gives to the soil a covering capable to intercept a big amount of water drops absorbing a great amount part of the kinetic energy of the rain, while provides a microclimates as a result of be able to soften the wind, the temperature and the evaporation-transpiration, which makes it efficient to control the erosion and the desertification (Le Houerou, 2000). Retama sphaerocarpa was chosen because it is a native shrub very characteristic, and, due to its symbiosis with the Bradyrhizobium, enriches the soil in nitrogen, which is taken by the nitrophilous species enhancing the spontaneous vegetal covering. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...

  13. A High Fiber and Vegetable Protein Diet is Associated with Low Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Young Oligo-amenorrheic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elizabeth; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Maffazioli, Giovana D. N.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Woolley, Ryan; Holmes, Tara M.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in a population more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). Objective To determine dietary intake of specific food components in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA) compared to eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Design and Subjects This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA 14–23 years old. Measurements included four-day food records (assessed using Nutrient Data System for Research software), a DXA scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Results Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (pfiber [β coefficient (β)= −0.30; p=0.01], vegetable protein (β = −0.28, p=0.02), phytic acid (β = −0.27, p=0.02), genistein (β = −0.25, p=0.01), and daidzein (β = −0.24, p=0.01), and positively with %SFA (β =0.32, p=0.0006)]. Conclusions Compared to EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize bone accrual. PMID:26686817

  14. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Petra M; Coffman, Reid

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April-October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  15. Estimation of effective hydrologic properties of soils from observations of vegetation density. M.S. Thesis; [water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Maine and Santa Paula, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellers, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    An existing one-dimensional model of the annual water balance is reviewed. Slight improvements are made in the method of calculating the bare soil component of evaporation, and in the way surface retention is handled. A natural selection hypothesis, which specifies the equilibrium vegetation density for a given, water limited, climate-soil system, is verified through comparisons with observed data and is employed in the annual water balance of watersheds in Clinton, Ma., and Santa Paula, Ca., to estimate effective areal average soil properties. Comparison of CDF's of annual basin yield derived using these soil properties with observed CDF's provides excellent verification of the soil-selection procedure. This method of parameterization of the land surface should be useful with present global circulation models, enabling them to account for both the non-linearity in the relationship between soil moisture flux and soil moisture concentration, and the variability of soil properties from place to place over the Earth's surface.

  16. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejoh, Richard A; Dever, Joseph T; Mills, Jordan P; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-06-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanum nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to six treatment groups (n 10; four vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100 % bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0.0001). Liver beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1.9 and 2.3 microg beta-carotene equivalents to 1 microg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol.

  17. Response of coastal vegetation and the need for green belts along the Tamil Nadu coast, India: The December 2004 tsunami experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    protection as natural shelter belt against any eventual extreme event. Future plantation strategies will have to consider natural bio-zonalion rather than haphazard patterns that are observed at present. Green belts are beneficial for several reasons: control...

  18. Identification of long-term trends in vegetation dynamics in the Guinea savannah region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmadewa, Babatunde A.; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    (i.e. positive) trend in the time series. The significance of the result was tested using Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient and the results were significant. Finally the NDVI data and TAMSAT data were analysed together in order to describe the relationship between both values. Although, increase in rainfall over the last decades enhances vegetation greenness, other factors such as land use change and population density need to be investigated in order to better explain changing trends of vegetation greening for the study area in the future.

  19. Biopolymers from vegetable oils via catalyst- and solvent-free "click" chemistry: effects of cross-linking density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian; Luo, Qiang; Wan, Xianmei; Petrović, Zoran S; Shah, Bipin K

    2012-01-09

    New monomers were prepared by introducing the azide groups in castor, canola, corn, soybean, and linseed oils. Polymerization of the azidated oils with alkynated soybean oil under thermal "click" chemistry conditions (without using a solvent or a catalyst) yielded fully cross-linked elastomers (1-5) of almost the same density (1.05 × 10(-3) kg/m(3)). The degree of cross-linking gradually increased from the castor-derived polymer (220 mol/m(3)) to the linseed-derived polymer (683 mol/m(3)). A systematic correlation between the degree of cross-linking and the thermal and mechanical properties was observed in these biopolymers. Tensile strength (0.62-3.39 MPa) and glass transition temperature (-5 to 16 °C) increased and the linear thermal expansion coefficient decreased in the series from the canola-derived polymer (2) to the linseed-derived polymer (5). The castor-derived polymer (1) that possesses an additional hydroxyl group per fatty acid chain behaved differently.

  20. Vegetation Phenology and Intensity as a Function of Climate and River Flows for an Ephemeral Desert River, 2000 to 2010, Using MODIS Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Van Riper, C., III

    2011-12-01

    The San Pedro river, located along Sonoran and Chihuahuan desert, is one of the most biologically diverse ecosystems in the Rocky mountains of the Southwestern United States. Vegetation dynamics related to seasonal changes may affect the life and migration of many wildlife species. Furthermore, vegetation density is related to surface flows in the river and depth to groundwater, which vary year to year. The MODIS Vegetation Index products (EVI and NDVI) were used to monitor vegetation dynamics during 10 years (2000-2010) to examine the impact of climatic conditions (such as temperature from LST, precipitation from PRISM and rive flows from gaga data) on the onset of greenness, senescence, and maximum vegetation density. The phenology profiles from time series data and relationships between vegetation index and temperature not only show seasonal changes but also respond to moisture stress on vegetation in the riparian areas of the San Pedro River.

  1. Greater Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Lower Osteoporosis Risk in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui-yuan; He, Juan; Chen, Geng-dong; Chen, Yu-ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective A few studies have suggested that the consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) may benefit bone health, but limited data are available in Asian subjects. We examined the association between FV intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Chinese adults. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study involved 2083 women and 1006 men aged 40–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Habitual dietary data was collected from a 79-item food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The BMD was measured for the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femur neck (FN) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results After adjustment for potential covariates, we observed dose-dependent associations between total FV intake and BMD and osteoporosis risk. The mean BMD was higher in tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 by 1.33% (TH) and 1.31% (FN) for FV, and 1.10% (WB), 1.57% (TH), and 2.05% (FN) for fruit (all P-trends osteoporosis (T-score ≤ −2.5) in tertile 3 (vs. 1) were 0.73 (0.58–0.92), 0.37 (0.22–0.60), and 0.71 (0.52–0.97) for FV; 0.82 (0.66–1.03), 0.48 (0.30–0.77) and 0.89 (0.61–1.12) for fruit; and 0.80 (0.64–1.01), 0.57 (0.35–0.92) and 0.76 (0.55–1.05) for vegetables at the LS, TH, and FN, respectively. The favorable association between FV intake and the occurrence of osteoporosis was evident only in subjects with lower BMI (osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects with lower BMI. Fruit tended to have more contribution to the favorable association than vegetables. PMID:28045945

  2. 氮肥施用量对2种绿叶蔬菜产量的影响%Effect of Application Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Production of Two Green Leafy Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱波; 豁泽春; 张志芳; 潘一展

    2015-01-01

    以翡翠生菜和白苋菜为试验材料,研究了追施氮肥用量( N0( CK ):0 kg/hm2, N1:75 kg/hm2, N2:105 kg/hm2,N3:150 kg/hm2)对这2种绿叶蔬菜单株叶片数、株高、单株鲜质量和单株干质量的影响,以筛选2种绿叶蔬菜的最佳氮肥施用量。结果表明,施用氮肥可促进2种绿叶蔬菜单株叶片数和株高的增加,单株叶片数和株高(苋菜除外)均随着氮肥施用量的增加先增加后降低,总体以N2处理最高;施用氮肥可显著增加2种绿叶蔬菜单株鲜质量和单株干质量,单株鲜质量和单株干质量均随着氮肥施用量的增加先增加后降低,以N2处理最高。综上,追施105 kg/hm2氮肥最有利于促进2种绿叶蔬菜的生长和产量提高,且节约肥料。%In order to select the best application amount of nitrogen fertilizer for two green leafy vegeta-bles emerald green lettuce and white Amaranth, the plant height, leaves numbers, fresh weight and dry weight per plant of the two green leafy vegetables treated with different application amount of nitrogen fer-tilizer (N0 (CK):0 kg/ha,N1:75 kg/ha,N2:105 kg/ha,N3:150 kg/ha) were studied. The results showed that the application of nitrogen fertilizer could improve the leaves numbers per plant and the plant height of the two green leafy vegetables,which increased at first and then decreased with the increase of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer except the plant height of white Amaranth,reaching the highest value at N2 treatment;the application of nitrogen fertilizer could significantly improve the fresh weight and dry weight per plant,which increased at first and then decreased with the increase of application amount of nitrogen fertilizer,reaching the highest value at N2 treatment. Overall,105 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer was the best to improve the growth and production of the two green leafy vegetables,and could save fertilizer.

  3. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure can be defined as the design and development of infrastructure that works with natural systems in the performance of its functions. Green infrastructure recognises the importance of the natural environment in land use planning...

  4. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  5. Green tea with high-density catechins improves liver function and fat infiltration in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ryuichiro; Nakamura, Toru; Torimura, Takuji; Ueno, Takato; Sata, Michio

    2013-11-01

    Catechins, a major component of green tea extract, have anti-hyperlipidemic effects. The present study investigated the effects of consumption of green tea with high-density catechins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Seventeen patients with NAFLD consumed green tea with high-density catechins, low-density catechins or a placebo for 12 weeks in a randomized double-blind study. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and urine 8-isoprostane were monitored and compared to baseline at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Body fat was significantly decreased in the high-density catechin group compared with the placebo and low-density catechin groups after 12 weeks of consumption. All the patients in the high-density catechin group showed a significantly improved liver-to-spleen CT attenuation ratio compared with the placebo and low-density catechin groups after 12 weeks of consumption. The high-density catechin group significantly decreased serum ALT levels and reduced urinary 8-isoprostane excretion compared with the placebo and low-density catechin group after 12 weeks of consumption. Based on a reduced proportion of body fat as estimated by bioimpedance measurement, increased liver-to-spleen CT attenuation ratio, decreased serum ALT levels and reduced urinary 8-isoprostane excretion, we concluded that 12 weeks of 700 ml per day of green tea containing >1 g catechin improved liver fat content and inflammation by reducing oxidative stress in patients with NAFLD.

  6. Vegetation dieback as a proxy for temperature within a wet pyroclastic density current: A novel experiment and observations from the 6th of August 2012 Tongariro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efford, Jackson T.; Bylsma, Rebecca J.; Clarkson, Bruce D.; Pittari, Adrian; Mauriohooho, Kate; Moon, Vicki G.

    2014-10-01

    The 6th of August 2012 eruption of Te Maari (Mt Tongariro, New Zealand) generated wet pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which caused widespread dieback of vegetation (singed, brown foliage) in their path. An absence of significant charcoal formation suggests that PDC temperatures were mostly below 250 °C. Textural evidence for liquid water being present in the matrices during emplacement (vesicles) suggests that temperatures were < 100 °C. We determined a probable minimum PDC temperature using an experiment replicating the critical temperatures required to induce foliar browning in seven species affected by the eruption. In locations where all species exhibited browned foliage (or were defoliated), temperatures were probably ≥ 64 °C assuming a PDC duration of 60 s. In the more distal areas, where only the most susceptible species were browned while others remained healthy and unaffected, temperatures were probably around 51-58 °C. These results have relevance to volcanic hazard mitigation and risk assessment, especially on the popular Tongariro Alpine Crossing.

  7. Initial Response of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index to Infrared Warming in Highland Barley of the Tibet%西藏高原青稞三种植被指数对红外增温的初始响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付刚; 沈振西; 钟志明

    2015-01-01

    Climatic warming affects the crop growth and its related vegetation indices. In order to understand the initial response of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized green difference vegetation index (GNDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) to climatic warming, a field warming experiment using infrared radiator was conducted in a highland barley located at the Dazi county of the Tibet since late May, 2015. There were three warming treatments, i.e., control, low (1000 W) and high (2000W) warming. The NDVI, GNDVI and SAVI were obtained using an agricultural digital camera during the period from June to September in 2015. Meanwhile, the soil temperature and soil moisture at depths of 5 cm and 20 cm were also obtained using HOBO microclimate observing systems. Then this study analyzed the response of NDVI, GNDVI and SAVI to infrared warming and the relationships between the three vegetation indices and soil temperature and moisture. The 1000 W and 2000 W infrared warming increased soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm (t5) by 1.62℃ and 1.77℃, and soil temperature at the depth of 20 cm (t20) by 1.16℃and 1.43℃, but decreased soil moisture at the depth of 5 cm (SM5) by 1.8% and 14.1%, and soil moisture at the depth of 20 cm (SM20) by 21.6% and 14.7%, respectively. The 1000 W infrared warming increased NDVI by 2.4%, GNDVI by 4.3% and SAVI by 0.5%, whereas the 2000 W infrared warming increased NDVI by 5.5%, GNDVI by 5.3% and SAVI by 4.8%, although these changes were non-significant. Simple regression analyses showed that (1) NDVI (r2=0.110,P=0.026) and GNDVI(r2=0.254, P=0.0004)decreased with increasingt5,whereas there was non-significant correlation between SAVI andt5 (r2=0.069,P=0.082); (2) GNDVI decreased with increasingt20, (r2=0.218,P=0.001), whereas there were non-significant relationships between NDVI (r2=0.040,P=0.190), SAVI (r2=0.014,P=0.443) andt20; (3) NDVI (r2=0.277,P=0.0002), GNDVI (r2=0.394,P=0.0000) and SAVI (r2=0.208,P=0

  8. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  9. Viability of dried vegetative cells or filaments, survivability and/or reproduction under water and light stress, and following heat and UV exposure in some blue-green and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S C; Pal, U

    2003-01-01

    Vegetative cells in dried, mucilagenous mass of Gloeocapsa aeruginosa and Aphanothece nidulans, reticulum of Hydrodictyon reticulatum, mucilagenous mass of Chroococcus minor, and filaments of Oedogonium sp. and Scytonema hofmanni died within 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 h, respectively, while dried vegetative filaments of Phormidium foveolarum retained under similar storage conditions viability for 4 d. P. foveolarum tolerated 1 mol/L NaCl. The resistance to desiccation in P. foveolarum exhibited similar dependence as that to heat or UV light. The water stress imposed on growing algae either on high-agar solid media or in NaCl-containing liquid media reduced at various levels or altogether inhibited the survival of vegetative parts in all, the cell division in C. minor, G. aeruginosa and A. nidulans, formation of heterocyst and false branch in S. hofmanni, oogonium in Oedogonium sp., and daughter net in H. reticulatum. Heat or UV shock of any level also produced similar effects as that by water stress. P. foveolarum tolerated low light level of 10 and 2 mumol m-2 s-1 and no light longer than the rest of other algae studied. Tolerance of microalgal forms to water, heat or UV stress depends primarily upon cell-wall characteristics or cell-sap osmotic properties rather than their habitats, morphology and prokaryotic or eukaryotic nature.

  10. Study on Vegetation Carbon Storage and Carbon Density of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration%长株潭城市群植被碳贮量与碳密度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振雄; 何华

    2016-01-01

    利用湖南2014年森林资源清查样地资料,采用系统抽样理论,综合运用回归模型方法对长株潭地区绿地植被(乔、灌、草)碳贮量与碳密度进行了研究,为建立碳汇计量监测体系提供可靠数据,以期为科学评价区域植被在碳平衡中的作用提供依据。研究结果表明:长株潭地区植被总碳贮量为47.31 Tg (1Tg=1012g),森林植被碳贮量为39.22 Tg,占植被总量的89.73%,其中乔木层碳贮量占71.7%、灌木层碳贮量占22.8%、草本层碳贮量占5.5%;植被平均碳密度为16.9 t/hm2,森林植被平均碳密度为29.53 t/hm2;自然地理因子与植被碳密度具有明显相关性。%In order to provide reliable data for the measurement and monitoring system of carbon sink ,and e-valuate the role of vegetation in the carbon balance . In this paper,based on original data of Hunan forest continuous inventory in 2014,the vegetation carbon storage and carbon density of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiang-tan urban agglomeration were studied.The results showed that:the total vegetation carbon storage was 47. 31 Tg,forest vegetation carbon storage was 39. 22 Tg,account for 89. 73%;In forest vegetation storage,the carbon storage of tree layer,shrub layer,herb layer account were 71. 7% and 22. 8% and 5. 5% respective-ly;the average vegetation carbon density was 16. 9 t/hm2 ,the average carbon density of forest vegetation was 29. 53 t/hm2 .Natural geographical factors and vegetation carbon density had a significant correlation.

  11. Investigation of Vegetation Dynamics using Long-Term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Bellone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is the most extensively used satellite-derived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. The proposed study attempted to investigate the temporal vegetation dynamics in the whole Africa using historical NDVI time-series. Approach: For this aim, 15 day maximum value NDVI composites at 8 km spatial resolution produced from the NASA Global Inventory Mapping and Monitoring System (GIMMS had been used. They were derived from data collected daily by NOAA AVHRR satellites. The AVHRR NDVI GIMMS dataset was freely available and gives global coverage over an extensive time period. First of all, the selected NDVI base data had been geometrically pre-processed and organized into a historical database implemented in order to grant their spatial integration. Starting from this archive, monthly and yearly NDVI historical time-series, extended from 1982-2006, had been then developed and analysed on a pixel basis. Several routines hade been developed in IDL (Interactive Data Language programming tool with the purpose of applying suitable statistical analysis techniques to the historical information in the database in order to identify the long-term trend components of generated NDVI time-series and extract vegetation dynamics. Specific tests had been then considered in order to define the validity of results. Results: The existence of clear regional trends of NDVI, both decreasing and increasing had been showed, which helped to highlight areas subject, respectively to reduction or increase in vegetation greenness. Conclusion: As the relationship between the NDVI and vegetation productivity was well established, these estimated long-term trend components may be also, with much more

  12. Green-step assembly of low density lipoprotein/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose nanogels for facile loading and pH-dependent release of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Liang, Hongshan; Lin, Liufeng; Shah, Bakht Ramin; Li, Yan; Chen, Yijie; Li, Bin

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a simple and green approach was developed to produce a novel nanogel via self-assembly of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to efficiently deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to cancer cells. Under optimal conditions, the stable nanogels were of spherical shape with an average diameter of about 90 nm, PDIencapsulated into LDL/CMC nanogels with an exceptionally high encapsulation efficiency of ∼ 98%. The release of DOX from DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels was pH-dependent, and DOX was released at a quicker rate at pH 6.2 than at pH 7.4. Importantly, the DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels were shown to effectively kill cancer cells in vitro. The IC50 of the DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels in HeLa and HepG2 cells was approximately 2.45 and 1.72 times higher than that of free DOX. The slightly reduced antitumor efficacy was primarily due to the less cellular uptake of the DOX-LDL/CMC nanogels, which was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and flow cytometry analysis. The high DOX payload and pH-dependent drug release rendered LDL/CMC nanogels as an efficient carrier for doxorubicin and possibly be used for other cationic drugs in different biomedical applications.

  13. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a veggie wrap. 3 choose vegetables rich in color Brighten your plate with vegetables that are red, orange, or dark green. They are full of vitamins and minerals. Try acorn squash, cherry tomatoes, sweet potatoes, or collard greens. They not only ...

  14. Soil-water fluxes modelling in a green roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Green roofs differ from a natural environment as they are on top of a building and are not connected to the natural ground; therefore it is critical that soils can drain and retain water simultaneously and that they work even in very shallow systems. The soil or growing medium used for green roofs is specifically engineered to provide the vegetation with nutrients, discharging any excess water into the drainage layer, and releasing stored water back into the substrate. In this way, medium depth and porosity plays an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth in a green roof. Due to the lack of a good understanding about the hydraulic efficiency of each green roof's layer in rainwater management, a detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected with the green roof technical design is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this research is analyzing the soil-water dynamics through the different components of a green roof and modeling these processes though a detailed but clear subsurface hydrology module, based on green roof vertical soil water movement reproduction, in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). A multi-layer bucket model has been applied to examine the hydrological response of the green roof system under a temperate maritime climate, by varying the physical and geometric parameters that characterize the different components of the vegetated cover. Following a stage of validation and calibration, results confirm the suitability of the model to describe the hydrologic response of the green roof during the observed rainfall events: the discharge hydrograph profile, volume and timing, predicted by the model, matched experimental measurements

  15. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their neigh

  16. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their neighbourhood and meet their fellow resident

  17. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA Activated Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ange Mouithys-Mickalad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae, Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD. The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.

  18. Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Petra M., E-mail: pkklein@ou.edu [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Coffman, Reid, E-mail: rcoffma4@kent.edu [College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Green roofs alter the surface energy balance and can help in mitigating urban heat islands. However, the cooling of green roofs due to evapotranspiration strongly depends on the climatic conditions, and vegetation type and density. In the Southern Central Plains of the United States, extreme weather events, such as high winds, heat waves and drought conditions pose challenges for successful implementation of green roofs, and likely alter their standard performance. The National Weather Center Experimental Green Roof, an interdisciplinary research site established in 2010 in Norman, OK, aimed to investigate the ecological performance and surface energy balance of green roof systems. Starting in May 2010, 26 months of vegetation studies were conducted and the radiation balance, air temperature, relative humidity, and buoyancy fluxes were monitored at two meteorological stations during April–October 2011. The establishment of a vegetative community trended towards prairie plant dominance. High mortality of succulents and low germination of grasses and herbaceous plants contributed to low vegetative coverage. In this condition succulent diversity declined. Bouteloua gracilis and Delosperma cooperi showed typological dominance in harsh climatic conditions, while Sedum species experienced high mortality. The plant community diversified through volunteers such as Euphorbia maculate and Portulaca maculate. Net radiation measured at a green-roof meteorological station was higher than at a control station over the original, light-colored roofing material. These findings indicate that the albedo of the green roof was lower than the albedo of the original roofing material. The low vegetative coverage during the heat and drought conditions in 2011, which resulted in the dark substrate used in the green roof containers being exposed, likely contributed to the low albedo values. Nevertheless, air temperatures and buoyancy fluxes were often lower over the green roof indicating

  19. Transesterificação de óleos vegetais: caracterização por cromatografia em camada delgada e densidade Transesterification of vegetable oils: characterization by thin-layer cromatography and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Froehner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the transesterification of two vegetable oils: soybean and waste frying oil. The main problem of transesterification is related to the measurement of the ethyl ester content. In this work we used a quick analytical method for assessing the ethyl ester fraction of the purified fuel-grade transesterification products by applying a simple correlation with density. If the ester content is higher than 85% by weight the correlation allows the determination by a single density measurement. This method is suitable for control and determines the ethyl ester quickly and simply.

  20. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 viability on leafy green vegetables by treatment with a bacteriophage mixture and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Akhtar, Mastura; Feirtag, Joellen; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2011-02-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been recognized as a major foodborne pathogen responsible for frequent gastroenteritis outbreaks. Phages and essential oils can be used as a natural antimicrobial method to reduce bacterial pathogens from the food supply. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a bacteriophage cocktail, BEC8, alone and in combination with the essential oil trans-cinnameldehyde (TC) on the viability of a mixture of EHEC O157:H7 strains applied on whole baby romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. The EHEC O157:H7 strains used were Nal(R) mutants of EK27, ATCC 43895, and 472. Exponentially growing cells from tryptic soy (TS) broth cultures were spot inoculated on leaves and dried. EHEC cells were placed at low, medium, and high inoculum levels (10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively). Appropriate controls, BEC8 (approx. 10(6) PFU/leaf), and TC (0.5% v/v) were applied on treated leaves. The leaves were incubated at 4, 8, 23, and 37 °C in Petri dishes with moistened filter papers. EHEC survival was determined using standard plate count on nalidixic acid (50 μg/mL) Sorbitol MacConkey agar. No survivors were detected when both leaves were treated with BEC8 or TC individually at low inoculum levels after 24 h at 23 and 37 °C. When the EHEC inoculum size increased and/or incubation temperature decreased, the efficacy of BEC8 and TC decreased. However, when the two treatments were combined, no survivors were detected after 10 min at all temperatures and inoculum levels on both leafy greens. These results indicated that the BEC8/TC combination was highly effective against EHEC on both leafy greens. This combination could potentially be used as an antimicrobial to inactivate EHEC O157:H7 and reduce their incidence in the food chain.

  1. 施用腐熟陈藻水对青菜产量和土壤质量的影响%Influence of using decomposed stale algae-laden water on productivity of green vegetables and soil quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿德晔; 吕锡武; 余亚琴

    2013-01-01

    以太湖蓝藻暴发期打捞的富藻水沤制腐熟的陈藻水为原料,设置低量陈藻水、中量陈藻水、高量陈藻水、化肥及空白对照5个试验,用盆栽模拟法研究腐熟陈藻水施用于青菜对其产量和空白土壤质量的影响.结果表明:施用低量陈藻水和化肥的青菜产量分别增加27%和26%,而施用化肥的土壤有机质含量较空白对照试验降低26%,施用陈藻水的土壤有机质含量则变化不大,土壤全氮含量和碱解氮含量随着施用的腐熟藻水量增加而增加.因此适量腐熟陈藻水会增加作物产量,改良土壤理化性质,增加土壤有机质、全氮和碱解氮含量.%Taking stale algae-laden water refloated in the blue-algae outbreak period as the material, the influence of using the decomposed stale algae-laden water on the productivity of green vegetables and soil quality was studied with the aid of potted simulation method. Five experiments including low quantity of stale algae-laden water, medium quantity of stale algae-laden water, high quantity of stale algae-laden water, chemical fertilizer and blank control were carried out. The results show that the production of green vegetables with low quantity of stale algae-laden and chemical fertilizer water increase 27% and 26% respectively, while the organic content of soil with chemical fertilizer is 26% lower than that of the blank control. In contrast, the organic content of soil with the stale algae-laden water changes only a little, and the total nitrogen content and alkali solution nitrogen content of soil increase with the increase of the amount of stale algae-laden water. Therefore, appropriate amount of stale algae-laden water may boost the crop yield, improve physical and chemical properties of soil, and increase the organic content, total nitrogen content and alkali solution nitrogen content in soil.

  2. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  3. Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans provide most nutrients per penny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    Full Text Available Vegetables are important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals in the diets of children. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National School Lunch Program has new requirements for weekly servings of vegetable subgroups as well as beans and peas. This study estimated the cost impact of meeting the USDA requirements using 2008 national prices for 98 vegetables, fresh, frozen, and canned. Food costs were calculated per 100 grams, per 100 calories, and per edible cup. Rank 6 score, a nutrient density measure was based on six nutrients: dietary fiber; potassium; magnesium; and vitamins A, C, and K. Individual nutrient costs were measured as the monetary cost of 10% daily value of each nutrient per cup equivalent. ANOVAs with post hoc tests showed that beans and starchy vegetables, including white potatoes, were cheaper per 100 calories than were dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables. Fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables had similar nutrient profiles and provided comparable nutritional value. However, less than half (n = 46 of the 98 vegetables listed by the USDA were were consumed >5 times by children and adolescents in the 2003-4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. For the more frequently consumed vegetables, potatoes and beans were the lowest-cost sources of potassium and fiber. These new metrics of affordable nutrition can help food service and health professionals identify those vegetable subgroups in the school lunch that provide the best nutritional value per penny.

  4. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  5. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  6. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  7. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  8. Towards Harmonious Green Urban Environments in Japan and Other Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Elgene O.; Miyawaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Kazue

    1987-01-01

    Natural vegetation and green environments have disappeared rapidly from cities since World War Ⅱ, replaced by concrete deserts with only sparse, unnatural vegetation. Japanese cities traditionally did not destroy the surrounding vegetation except as needed for city growth, but now even in Japan there is a great need for both the ecological and socializing functions of productive, traditional green environments in the otherwise largely abiotic urban areas. True green environments are more than...

  9. Modeling a Hydrologically Optimal Green Roof Media Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/MethodsA key environmental concern in managing urban ecosystems is controlling stormwater runoff to ameliorate pollution problems and sewage overflows. Vegetated green roofs have become an important green infrastructure tool to collect, store, and gradually r...

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2014 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2014 award winner, Solazyme, engineered microalgae to produce oils tailored to customers’ needs that can mimic or enhance properties of traditional vegetable oils.

  11. NUMERICAL MODEL FOR FLOW MOTION WITH VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-tao; SU Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    A set of governing equations for turbulent flows in vegetated area were derived with the assumption that vegetation is of straight and rigid cylinder. The effect of vegetation on flow motion was represented by additional inertial and drag forces. The new model was validated by available experimental data for open channel flows passing through vegetated areas with different vegetation size, density and distribution. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the flow around a supposed isolated vegetated pile was simulated and the effects of vegetation density on the wake flow were discussed. It is found that the presence of vegetation, even at a very low density, has the pronounced influence on the dissipation of flow energy, both inside the vegetation domain and outside it in the wake flow region.

  12. Wood Density and Moisture Content of Green Trees in Urban Area of Longyan, Fujian%福建龙岩城区园林树木木材密度和生材含水率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄日明; 黄汝群; 段萍; 陈承德

    2016-01-01

    对福建龙岩城区栽植的30种园林树木测定木材基本密度、生材密度和生材含水率。结果表明,针叶树木材基本密度以柏木Cupressus funebris最高(0.636 g·cm-3),南洋杉Araucaria cunninghamii最低(0.462 g·cm-3);阔叶树以相思树Acacia confusa最高(0.757 g·cm-3),美丽异木棉Ceiba speciosa最低(0.228 g·cm-3)。生材密度针叶树竹柏Podocarpus nagi最高(0.975 g·cm-3),南洋杉最低(0.838 g·cm-3);阔叶树相思树最高(1.204 g·cm-3),石栗Aleurites moluccana最低(0.799 g·cm-3)。生材含水率针叶树竹柏最高(105%),柏木最低(30%);阔叶树以美丽异木棉最高(319%),光皮梾木Swida wilsoniana和木麻黄Casuarina equisetifolia最低,均为56%。南北两向的基本密度、生材密度和生材含水率差异不大。在距树皮8 cm范围内,基本密度和生材密度的径向变化模式可归纳为五种类型:(1)密度从髓心向树皮方向递增;(2)密度从髓心向树皮方向递减;(3)距树皮8 cm范围内密度变化不明显;(4)距树皮3~5 cm范围内密度较低;(5)距树皮3~5 cm范围内密度较高。生材含水率径向变化趋势仅限于上述前四种类型。%The wood basic density, green density and moisture content of 30 species landscape trees planted in Longyan urban area had been determined. The results showed that the highest of basic density of softwood was Cupressus funebris(0.636 g·cm-3), the lowest wasAraucaria cunninghamii (0.462 g·cm-3). In hardwood, the highest of basic density wasAcacia confusa (0.757 g·cm-3), the lowest wasCeiba speciosa (0.228 g·cm-3). The highest of green density of softwood wasPodocarpus nagi(0.975 g·cm-3), the lowest wasAraucaria cunninghamii (0.838 g·cm-3). In hardwood, the highest of green density wasAcacia confusa(1.204g·cm-3), the lowest isAleurites moluccana (0.799 g·cm-3). The highest of moisture content of green wood in softwood wasP. nagi 105%, the lowest was Cupressus funebris

  13. A Dynamic Vegetation Senescence Indicator for Near-Real-Time Desert Locust Habitat Monitoring with MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Renier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria represent a major threat for agro-pastoral resources and food security over almost 30 million km2 from northern Africa to the Arabian peninsula and India. Given the differential food preferences of this insect pest and the extent and remoteness of the their distribution area, near-real-time remotely-sensed information on potential habitats support control operations by narrowing down field surveys to areas favorable for their development and prone to gregarization and outbreaks. The development of dynamic greenness maps, which detect the onset of photosynthetic vegetation, allowed national control centers to identify potential habitats to survey, as locusts prefer green and fresh vegetation. Their successful integration into the daily control operations led to a new need: the near-real-time identification of the onset of dryness, a synonym for the loss of habitat attractiveness, likely to be abandoned by locusts. The timely availability of this information would enable control centers to focus their surveys on areas more prone to gregarization, leading to more efficiency in the allocation of resources and in decision making. In this context, this work developed an original method to detect in near-real-time the onset of vegetation senescence. The design of the detection relies on the temporal behavior of two indices: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, depending on the green vegetation, and the Normalized Difference Tillage Index, sensitive to both green and dry vegetation. The method is demonstrated in Mauritania, an ever-affected country, with 10-day MODIS mean composites for the years 2010 and 2011. The discrimination performance of three classes (“growth”, “density reduction” and “drying” were analyzed for three classification methods: maximum likelihood (61.4% of overall accuracy, decision tree (71.5% and support vector machine (72.3%. The classification accuracy is heterogeneous in

  14. Dune vegetation fertilization by nesting sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Laura B; Roth, James D; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Weishampel, John F

    2007-04-01

    Sea turtle nesting presents a potential pathway to subsidize nutrient-poor dune ecosystems, which provide the nesting habitat for sea turtles. To assess whether this positive feedback between dune plants and turtle nests exists, we measured N concentration and delta15N values in dune soils, leaves from a common dune plant (sea oats [Uniola paniculata]), and addled eggs of loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) across a nesting gradient (200-1050 nests/km) along a 40.5-km stretch of beach in east central Florida, USA. The delta15N levels were higher in loggerhead than green turtle eggs, denoting the higher trophic level of loggerhead turtles. Soil N concentration and delta15N values were both positively correlated to turtle nest density. Sea oat leaf tissue delta15N was also positively correlated to nest density, indicating an increased use of augmented marine-based nutrient sources. Foliar N concentration was correlated with delta15N, suggesting that increased nutrient availability from this biogenic vector may enhance the vigor of dune vegetation, promoting dune stabilization and preserving sea turtle nesting habitat.

  15. Suitability analysis of fresh-cut vegetable processing for twenty main green capsicum cultivars in China%中国主栽青辣椒品种鲜切加工适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈月; 高美须; 杨丽; 赵鑫; 陈雪; 王志东; 李淑荣; 王丽

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the suitability for fresh-cut vegetable processing of green capsicum, 20 main cultivars of green capsicum in China were collected and planted in greenhouse, and fruits were picked at the similar maturity level. Seventeen indices of the fruits were measured, which included physical and chemical indices (L*,a* andb *value, sensory evaluation score, product yield ratio, fruit hardness, pulp thickness, moisture content, ratio of sugar to acid, soluble solids, titratable acid), and functional indices (vitamin C content, total phenolics content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH value), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP value), ABTS+·radical scavenging activity (ABTS value) and beta carotene content). Significance analysis of basic measured data was carried out by SAS 9.2. Main evaluation indices were filtered by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and variable cluster analysis. The weight of main evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The suitability for fresh-cut vegetable processing of the 20 tested green pepper cultivars was appraised by grey relational degree analysis method. The basic data of 17 indices on 20 green pepper cultivars were measured and analyzed. Results of significance analysis showed that all indices varied from one tested green capsicum cultivar to another one excepted for moisture content, and the 3 indices which had the top coefficient of variation wereb*value, beta carotene content and FRAP value. Among all the tested 20 cultivars, “Longjiao No. 5” had the highest content of vitamin C, “Jingla No. 2” had the highest content of beta carotene and “Jingyanzhoupila” had the strongest antioxidant capacity. Results of correlation analysis showed that fruit hardness had significantly negative correlation with sensory evaluation score and the correlation coefficient was -0.68, however it had positive correlation with soluble solid content and the

  16. 21 CFR 155.200 - Certain other canned vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned vegetable II—Source III—Optional forms of vegetable ingredient Artichokes Flower buds of the... of the celery plant Cut; hearts. Collards Leaves of the collard plant Dandelion greens Leaves of the dandelion plant Kale Leaves of the kale plant Mustard greens Leaves of the mustard plant Okra Pods of the...

  17. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars, based on modeling supply chain logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; Franz, E

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference between simulating supply chain logistics (MOD) and assuming fixed storage times (FIX) in microbial risk estimation for the supply chain of fresh-cut leafy green vegetables destined for working-canteen salad bars. The results of the FIX model were previously published (E. Franz, S. O. Tromp, H. Rijgersberg, and H. J. van der Fels-Klerx, J. Food Prot. 73:274-285, 2010). Pathogen growth was modeled using stochastic discrete-event simulation of the applied logistics concept. The public health effects were assessed by conducting an exposure assessment and risk characterization. The relative growths of Escherichia coli O157 (17%) and Salmonella enterica (15%) were identical in the MOD and FIX models. In contrast, the relative growth of Listeria monocytogenes was considerably higher in the MOD model (1,156%) than in the FIX model (194%). The probability of L. monocytogenes infection in The Netherlands was higher in the MOD model (5.18×10(-8)) than in the FIX model (1.23×10(-8)). The risk of listeriosis-induced fetal mortality in the perinatal population increased from 1.24×10(-4) (FIX) to 1.66×10(-4) (MOD). Modeling the probabilistic nature of supply chain logistics is of additional value for microbial risk assessments regarding psychrotrophic pathogens in food products for which time and temperature are the postharvest preventive measures in guaranteeing food safety.

  18. [Ecological benefits of greening and related controlling factors in urban residential areas of Hangzhou: a quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Wen-yong; He, Yan-long; Jia, Yue

    2011-09-01

    Based on the 1 m x 1 m high resolution aerial images in 2007 and the 30 m x 30 m Landsat 5 TM images in summer 2007, and with the help of GIS and remote sensing image interpretation, this paper calculated the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) representing the overall ecological benefits of greening as well as the six controlling factors, i.e., multilayer structure height, area ratio of softness to hardness, greening rate, floor area ratio, greening area, and building density, in 30 typical urban residential quarters of west Hangzhou. The contributions of the controlling factors to the ecological benefits of greening as well as the quantitative relationships between the overall ecological benefits and the six controlling factors were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correspondence analysis, and some advises were given for the improvement of the ecological benefits. The contribution rate of the six factors was in the order of multilayer structure height > area ratio of softness to hardness > greening rate > floor area ratio > greening area > building density, and the contribution of multilayer structure height was far greater than that of the others whereas building density had the weakest effect on the ecological benefits. Correspondence analysis was effective in simplifying a complex data table into an intuitive two-dimensional chart, and thus, a potential powerful tool in decision-making for the improvement of ecological benefits of greening in urban residential quarters.

  19. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Prof Richard P. Wool of the University of Delaware, created high-performance materials using vegetable oils, feathers, and flax. Can be used as adhesives, composites, foams, and circuit boards.

  1. 点播灌木绿化技术在南广铁路路基边坡植被防护中的应用%The Application of Dibble Seeding Shrubs Greening Technology in Subgrade Slope Vegetation Protection of Nanning-Guangzhou Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯尧

    2015-01-01

    近年来点播灌木绿化技术在公路绿化工程中应用较多,但在铁路边坡绿化工程中很少大面积应用。为实现“灌草结合,以灌为主”的植被目标,针对南广铁路的工程环境特点,结合路基边坡防护工程开展了点播灌木绿化技术的应用研究。通过对典型工点施工工艺和绿化效果的对比分析,总结了一般地区点播灌木的技术要点。%Recently, dibble seeding shrubs greening technology has been commonly used in highway greening engineering, but rarely in railway. In order to achieve the goal of"combination of shrub grass, shrub dominated vegetation ", study on the application of dibble seeding shrubs greening technology is carried out according to the environmental characteristics of the Nanning ~Guangzhou railway project. Through comparative analysis of the process and greening effect for some typical work sites, the application of dibble seeding shrubs greening technology in normal areas is summarized.

  2. Trend changes in global greening and browning: Contribution of short-term trends to longer-term change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Verbesselt, J.; Schaepman, M.E.; Bruin, de S.

    2012-01-01

    Field observations and time series of vegetation greenness data from satellites provide evidence of changes in terrestrial vegetation activity over the past decades for several regions in the world. Changes in vegetation greenness over time may consist of an alternating sequence of greening and/or

  3. Effects of Freezing Disaster on Green-up Date of Vegetation Using MODIS/EVI Time Series Data%基于MODIS/EVI时间序列数据分析冰冻灾害对植被绿叶始期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏浩铭; 毕远溥; 杨永国

    2009-01-01

    In the field of global changes, the relationship between plant phenology and climate, which reflects the response of terrestrial ecosystem to global climate change, has become a key subject that is highly concerned. Using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)/enhanced vegetation index(EVI) collected every eight days during January- July from 2005 to 2008 and the corresponding remote sensing data as experimental materials, we constructed cloud-free images via the Harmonic analysis of time series (HANTS). The cloud-free images were then treated by dynamic threshold method for obtaining the vegetation phenology in green up period and its distribution pattern. And the distribution pattern between freezing disaster year and normal year were comparatively analyzed for revealing the effect of freezing disaster on vegetation phenology in experimental plot. The result showed that the treated EVI data performed well in monitoring the effect of freezing disaster on vegetation phenology, accurately reflecting the regions suffered from freezing disaster. This result suggests that processing of remote sensing data using HANTS method could well monitor the ecological characteristics of vegetation.

  4. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  5. Swift Foxes and Ideal Free Distribution: Relative Influence of Vegetation and Rodent Prey Base on Swift Fox Survival, Density, and Home Range Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    into estimates of percent basal cover, percent bare ground, percent litter ( dead material), and mean shrub and grass height. Shrub density was calculated...2003. [39] W. S. Longland and M. V. Price, “Direct observations of owls and heteromyid rodents: can predation risk explain microhab- itat use?” Ecology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 2261–2273, 1991.

  6. 热处理时间和压制密度对氮化钽粉电性能的影响%Effect of Heat Treatment Time and Green Density on Electrical Characteristics of Tantalum Nitride Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莲云; 马春红; 黄凯; 朱鸿民

    2012-01-01

    The tantalum nitride nanopowders synthesized by homogenous sodium reduction were annealed at 1 350 °C for different durations. The sintered blocks were electrochemically oxidized. The phase structure and microstructure of sintered powders were analyzed with XRD and FESEM. The effects of annealing time and green density on electrical characteristics of powders were studied. The results show that the sintered anode blocks present high CV and low current leakage when annealed at 1 350 °C for 40 min with the green density of the powders of 4 g/cm3.%用均相钠还原得到的纳米氮化钽粉在1350℃进行不同时间的热处理,热处理后的粉末制成烧结体并进行阳极氧化过程.通过XRD和场发射扫描电镜分析了粉末的物相结构和形貌,研究了热处理时间和压制密度对氮化钽粉末电性能的影响.结果 表明:热处理温度为1350℃、热处理时间40 min、压制密度约4 g/cm时氮化钽阳极块体有较高的比容和较低的漏电流常数.

  7. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  8. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF VEGETATION DENSITY AND THE ESTIMATION OF CARBON CONTENT IN SOME CONDITIONS OF FOREST IN SIBERUT ISLAND, WEST SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests have a very large source of carbon stocks that may change due to changes in forest conditions caused by human activities, including logging and plantations that threaten the world climate change. We analyze the structure of the vegetation and the carbon content of the three conditions of the forest on the island of Siberut as climate change mitigation efforts. We use a terraced plot method to obtain data on the ground biomass and litter section. Results obtained 38 species and 122 individual plants in primary forests, 22 species and 49 individuals in the logged forest and 45 species and 120 individuals in the mixed production forest. The carbon content of plant life at the top of the primary forests 1,359,884.68 kg / h, logged forest 610,429.67 kg/ha and timber mix 360,793.70 kg/ha. The carbon content in the primary forest litter 774.49 kg/ha, logged forest 521.36 kg/ ha and timber mix 766.20 kg/ ha.

  10. A Quantitative Evaluation of the Multiple Narratives of the Recent Sahelian "Re-greening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, A.; Stith, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an interdisciplinary spatial analysis that aims to assess the evidence for ecological, climate, and social dimensions of the "re-greening" of the Sahelian environment. We explore human-environment interactions by creating an archival database of donor-funded interventions in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal from 1979 to 2001. We examine the spatial distribution of these interventions in relation to population density and to trends in precipitation and in greenness using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI. We classify three categories of environmental change using the spatial distribution of re-greening, its relation to precipitation, and population density: (A) regions at the northern grassland/shrubland edge of the Sahel, where NDVI varies interannually with precipitation, (B) densely populated cropland regions of the Sahel where significant trends in precipitation and NDVI decouple at interannual time scale, and (C) regions at the southern savanna edge of the Sahel, where NDVI has increased independent of precipitation. Examination of the number of projects implemented from 1979 to 2001 in the three respective areas brings to the fore a diversity of relationships between greening, precipitation, number of development projects, and population density over the western Sahel. The most interesting of these characterizations is category B, covering the cropland areas where population density and "re-greening" are higher than normal, particularly where agricultural projects are present. These areas coincide with emerging hotspots of "re-greening" in northern Burkina Faso and southern central Niger known from case-study literature. In examining the impact of efforts to rejuvenate the Sahelian environment and livelihoods in the aftermath of the droughts of the 1970s and 1980s against the backdrop of a varying and uncertain climate, our findings support the transition from desertification to "re-greening" discourses in the context of

  11. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  12. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  13. Effects of Rearing Pattern and Density on Animal Behaviors in Green Shell Laying Hens%饲养方式及密度对绿壳蛋鸡行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰; 马子力; 徐嘉易; 苗晋锋

    2015-01-01

    采用单因素试验方法,研究了不同饲养方式及密度对产蛋期绿壳蛋鸡行为学的影响.试验选择生长发育正常的产蛋期绿壳蛋鸡7 500只,随机分成笼养高密度组、笼养低密度组和散养组.结果表明,散养组蛋鸡的啄羽现象、攻击行为、刻板行为都明显低于笼养低密度组和高密度组,而这些行为在高密度组非常严重;散养组蛋鸡的觅食行为、修饰行为都明显多于笼养低密度组和高密度组.结果显示:不同饲养方式及密度对于蛋鸡不同的行为参数有明显影响,过高密度的饲养会严重影响绿壳蛋鸡的行为表现.%Based on the single factor experiment method, it is studied the effects of different rearing patterns and densities on animal behaviors in laying hens. In this study, 7 500 green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned into a free range group and 2 caged groups with low-density or high-density housing. The results show that the dispersion phenomenon, aggressive behavior and stereotyped behavior of laying hens in free range group were significantly lower than low-density group and high-density group, and the high-density group was more serious, and the foraging behavior, behavior modification of laying hens in free range group were significantly higher than low-density group and high-density group. These results indicate that different rearing patterns and densities have obvious influences on the behavioral parameters, and the increase of rearing density will seriously affect the animal behavior in laying hens.

  14. Soil water evaporation under densities of coverage with vegetable residue Evaporação da água do solo em função da densidade de cobertura com resíduo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR in Londrina, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil (latitude 23º18'S, longitude 51º09'W and average altitude of 585 m. The local climate, according to the classification of Köeppen, is Cfa type, i.e., humid subtropical climate, with rain in all seasons and can occur dry seasons during the winter. It was determined soil evaporation (E under different coverage densities with residue from the wheat crop. The treatments were installed in weighting lysimeters of 2.66 m² and 1.3 m deep, which allows to determine E by the mass difference with measuring precision of 0.1mm at one hour intervals. Treatments consisted of 0; 2.5; 5 and 10 t ha-1 of wheat crop residues, placed evenly over each lysimeter. In the first cycle (September 22nd to October 20th, 2008, the reduction of E, as compared to a bare soil, was 4; 15 and 24%, while in the second cycle (December 1st to 30th, 2008, the reduction was of 15; 22 and 25%, respectively, for the treatments of 2.5; 5 and 10 t ha-1.O presente estudo foi realizado no Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná (latitude de 23º18'S, longitude de 51º09'W e altitude média de 585 m. O clima local, segundo a classificação do Köppen, é do tipo Cfa, ou seja, subtropical úmido, com chuvas em todas as estações, podendo ocorrer secas no período de inverno. Determinou-se a evaporação (E da água do solo sob diferentes densidades de cobertura com resíduo da cultura de trigo. Os tratamentos foram instalados em lisímetros de pesagem de 2,66 m² e 1,3 m de profundidade, que permitem determinar E por diferença de massa com precisão equivalente a 0,1 mm em intervalos de uma hora. Os tratamentos consistiram em 0; 2,5; 5 e 10 t ha-1 de resíduos da cultura do trigo, colocadas de forma homogênea em cada lisímetro. No primeiro ciclo (22/09 a 20/10/2008, a redução de E em relação ao solo descoberto foi de 4; 15 e 24

  15. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  16. Green Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  17. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... is made to estimate the global cost of drought....

  18. GREEN AND CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF GOLD AND PLATINUM NANOMATERIALS USING VITAMIN B2: DENSITY-ASSISTED SELF-ASSEMBLY OF NANOSPHERES, WIRES AND RODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, we report density-assisted self-assembly and efficient synthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) nanospheres, nanowires and nanorods using vitamin B2 (riboflavin) without employing any special capping or dispersing agent at room temperature; this env...

  19. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  20. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  1. ALPINE VEGETATION ECOTONE DYNAMICS IN GANGOTRI CATCHMENT USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the satellite imagery reveals two different perspectives of the vegetation ecotone dynamics in Gangotri catchment. On one hand, there is evidence of upward shift in the alpine tree and vegetation ecotone over three decades. On the other hand, there has been densification happening at the past treeline. The time series fAPAR data of two decades from NOAA-AVHRR confirms the greening trend in the area. The density of trees in Chirbasa has gone up whereas in Bhojbasa there is no significant change in NDVI but the number of groves has increased. Near Gaumukh the vegetal activity has not shown any significant change. We found that the treeline extracted from satellite imagery has moved up about 327±80m and other vegetation line has moved up about 401±77m in three decades. The vertical rate of treeline shift is found to be 11m/yr with reference to 1976 treeline; however, this can be 5m/yr if past toposheet records (1924 – 45 are considered as reliable reference. However, the future IPCC scenario based bioclimatic fundamental niche modelling of the Betula utilis (a surrogate to alpine treeline suggests that treeline could be moving upward with an average rate of 3m/yr. This study not only confirms that there is an upward shift of vegetation in the alpine zone of Himalayas, but also indicate that old vegetation ecotones have grown denser

  2. Effect of Vegetation Composition on Noise and Temperature in Waru - Sidoarjo Highway, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Retno PUDJOWATI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The city development and population density need to be followed by infrastructure and facilities such as residential facilities, education, and transportation industries. Infrastructure development has a tendency to minimize the green open space. This region decreased could result in noise and temperature rise due to the increasing amount of residential development, the number of motor vehicles and industrial and transportation using fossil fuels in its production process. It could be mitigated by planting along highway. Naturally, the vegetation could reduce noise and temperature. Vegetation Composition existing along the highway Waru-Sidoarjo are tree-shrub-bushes composition, no vegetation at all composition, just tree composition and tree-shrubs composition. This study aimed to compare the percentage of noise reduction and a decrease in the temperature of each vegetation composition existing along the highway. The results of this study showed that vegetation composition which is consist of trees, shrubs and bushes was more effective to reduce the noise (up to 12.25% and to decrease temperatures (up to 8.18%. It's recommended for Waru-Sidoarjo highway management to plant the tree-shrub-bushes vegetation composition for reduced the noise that occurs along the highway and helped temperature decrease, for the convenience of road users.

  3. EFFECTS OF DWARFING GISELA 5 ROOTSTOCK ON REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL, VEGETATIVE GROWTH, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF SOME SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS IN HIGH-DENSITY SWEET CHERRY ORCHARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisela 5 rootstock is most important in terms of reducing the vigor of growth. The varieties grafted on Gisela 5 had good horticultural results in terms of yield, adaptability and dwarf growth. This study was aimed to evaluate the growth and physiological behavior of the most popular sweet cherry cultivars in Europe grafted of Gisela 5 rootstock in one of the most important fruit growing area from Romania. The rootstock – scion combinations namely Skeena, Kordia and Ferrovia were grafted on Gisela 5 dwarf rootstocks. Gisela 5 influenced significantly the trunk cross section area among all the tested cultivars (p<0.05. Ferrovia cultivar was the most vigorous in terms of trunk cross sectional area and total annual growth length. Total annual growth was lower for Kordia (1225.61 cm. The ratio between Chl a and Chl b seems to be constant in all grafted plants. The photosynthesis rate [µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1] varied from 24.12 µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Kordia grafted sweet cherry variety to 25.80 µ mol (CO2 m-2 s-1 in the Ferrovia sweet cherry cultivar. Data obtained from field measurements and laboratory observations demonstrated that the Gisela 5 rootstock is compatible with foreign sweet cherry varieties under the selected growing area and can be used to achieve high-density sweet cherry orchards.

  4. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  5. [Research progress on urban green space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Li, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Hong-Yuan; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yang-Lin

    2007-07-01

    Nature, diversity, and openness are what we demand from urban green space in the 21st century. Based on the summary of urban green space connotation, types and significance, this paper reviewed the research hotspots of urban green space, i.e., conservation and planning of urban-rural fringe, restoration and preservation of natural areas and indigenous vegetation, ecological restoration and planning of green way, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem structure and services, and management policy. The difference between foreign and domestic urban green space researches and practices were summarized, and some preferential urban green space research aspects in the future were proposed. It was suggested that in China, urban green space strategy should be integrated into urban planning and land use planning.

  6. Uso da poda seca e da poda verde para obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em três cultivares de videira Use of winter pruning and green pruning for obtaining two harvests by vegetative cicle of three vine cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas épocas de poda seca e de poda verde visando ao alcance de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo nas videiras 'Niagara Branca', 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord', cultivadas em sistema de espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental da UFRG, em Eldorado do Sul - RS, na safra de 2007/2008. As plantas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, T2 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07; T3 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, e T4 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07, sendo a poda de inverno feita em cordão esporonado, e a poda verde, mediante desponte do sarmento a partir da quarta gema acima do último cacho. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta, a massa dos cachos, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT, a relação SST/ATT, o potencial da água na folha e a relação folha:fruto, de ambas as safras. Os resultados demonstraram que a execução de uma poda seca associada a uma poda verde permitiu obter duas safras de uva por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca', Niagara Rosada e 'Concord', sendo mais eficiente quando a poda seca foi realizada em agosto, associada à poda verde em novembro. A 'Niagara Branca' apresentou maior potencial para produzir uma segunda colheita, comparativamente à 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord'. Os frutos oriundos da poda verde apresentaram menor valor de SST, maior ATT e menor relação SST/ATT em relação aos obtidos na safra normal.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of winter and green pruning for obtaining two harvests per vegetative cycle for Niagara Branca, Niagara Rosada and Concord grapevine cultivars conducted by cordon training. The experiment was performed at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during the 2007/2008 harvest. Grapevines were submitted to the following treatments: T1 (winter pruning on 07/20/07 and

  7. Green Tea and Its Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Jason

    1999-01-01

    Green tea contains antioxidants which have been implicated to contribute to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This may be explained in part by the green tea's antioxidant properties. Green tea is a rich source of flavonoids with high antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. This includes the ability of green tea to lower the oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. In vivo lipid oxidation as measure by plasma lipid peroxides and LDL oxidizability are significantly...

  8. Native and exotic woody vegetation communities in domestic gardens in relation to social and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda M. van Heezik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation in private gardens contributes significantly to plant species richness and vegetation volume across urban areas. Drivers of garden diversity and structure are complex, reflecting the diversity of social, cultural, and socioeconomic characteristics of the householders who manage their gardens, as well as their predecessors. Here we investigate the woodiness of gardens, and focus on (1 the prevalence of native versus exotic woody plants and (2 the influence of characteristics of garden owners, the gardens, and their proximity to neighborhood green spaces to identify the degree to which these factors explain patterns in native and exotic woody species communities in entire (back and front gardens in southern temperate New Zealand. We found few consistent patterns in structure in woody species community composition. Outlying gardens were characterized by low species richness and abundance. Thirty-seven species commonly occurred across most gardens: most of these were exotic. Twelve native species were common throughout most gardens. There was significant but weak matching to social and environmental variables: vegetated area, species knowledge, and education explained pattern in native communities, whereas vegetated area, species knowledge, and householder age explained variation in exotic communities. Native trees > 5 m tall occurred in only 58% of gardens. Tall tree density was 10/ha, and 29% of gardens lacked any trees > 5 m. Tree presence was weakly (positively associated with extent and proximity of neighborhood green space. We suggest that the legacy of previous owners' gardening practices is important to consider when identifying drivers of garden plant community structure.

  9. Green Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LING

    2010-01-01

    @@ World Expo's China Pavilion is a large crimson building,but it's green at heart.The pavilion,a magnificent symbol of Chinese culture,is also a "green landmark" on the world stage,thanks to German company Siemens' energy-saving solutions.

  10. Effects of substrate properties on the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, V. P.; Suarez, F. I.; Victorero, F.; Bonilla, C.; Gironas, J. A.; Vera, S.; Bustamante, W.; Rojas, V.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Green roofs are a sustainable urban development solution that incorporates a growing media (also known as substrate) and vegetation into infrastructures to reach additional benefits such as the reduction of: rooftop runoff peak flows, roof surface temperatures, energy utilized for cooling/heating buildings, and the heat island effect. The substrate is a key component of the green roof that allows achieving these benefits. It is an artificial soil that has an improved behavior compared to natural soils, facilitating vegetation growth, water storage and typically with smaller densities to reduce the loads over the structures. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of substrate properties on green roof performance. The objective of this study is to investigate the physical properties of four substrates designed to improve the behavior of a green roof, and to study their impact on the efficiency of a green roof. The substrates that were investigated are: organic soil; crushed bricks; a mixture of mineral soil with perlite; and a mixture of crushed bricks and organic soil. The thermal properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) were measured using a dual needle probe (Decagon Devices, Inc.) at different saturation levels, and the hydraulic properties were measured with a constant head permeameter (hydraulic conductivity) and a pressure plate extractor (water retention curve). This characterization, combined with numerical models, allows understanding the effect of these properties on the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof. Results show that substrates composed by crushed bricks improve the thermal insulation of infrastructures and at the same time, retain more water in their pores. Simulation results also show that the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof strongly depends on the moisture content prior to a rainstorm.

  11. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  12. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  14. The Role of Vegetation Dynamics on the Soil Water Balance in Water-Limited Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, N.; Rondena, R.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.

    2003-12-01

    The structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Vegetation dynamics are usually neglected, other than seasonal phenology, in land surface models (LSMs). However, changes in vegetation densities, influencing the partitioning of incoming solar energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes, can result in long-term changes in both local and global climates (e.g., precipitation and temperature), which in turn will feedback to affect the vegetation growth. In semi-arid regions, this may result in persistent drought and desertification, with substantial impacts on the human populations of these regions through reduction in agricultural productivity and reduction in quantity and quality of water supply. With an objective of finding a simple vegetation model able to accurately simulate the leaf area index (LAI) dynamics, vegetation models of different level of complexity (e.g., including or not the modeling of the root biomass or the modeling of the dead biomass) are developed and compared. The vegetation dynamics models are coupled to a LSM, with the vegetation models providing the green biomass and the LAI evolution through time, and the LSM using this information in the computation of the land surface fluxes and updating the soil water content in the root-zone. We explore the models on a case study of a water limited grass field in California. Results show that a simple vegetation model that simulates the living aboveground green biomass (i.e., with low parameterization and computational efforts) is able to accurately simulate the LAI. Results also highlight the importance of including the plant growth model in the LSM when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions and the impact of watershed management practices on the scarce water resources over moderate to long time scales. The inclusion of the vegetation model in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential for assessing the

  15. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  16. Green tea polyphenols inhibit low-density lipoprotein-induced proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells%绿茶多酚抑制LDL诱导的血管平滑肌细胞增殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳平; 彭文烈; 赖文岩; 徐安龙

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the major mechanisms of intimal thickening in atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of green tea polyphenols on the proliferation and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in rat VSMCs simulated by native LDL. Rat aortic VSMCs were cultured and treated with LDL (100 μg/ml) in the absence or presence of green tea polyphenols, and the cell proliferation was subsequently quantified by non-radioactive MTS/PES assay and the cell cycle analyzed by flow cytometry. The p44/42 MAPK activity was evaluated by immunoblotting using anti-p44/42 phospho-MAPK antibody. Compared with the cells without polyphenol treatment, the proliferation of the VSMCs induced by LDL was dose-dependently inhibited by green tea polyphenols (P<0.05), with more numerous cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) as shown by flow cytometry analysis. LDL significantly enhanced the p44/42 MAPK activity, an effect obviously inhibited by green tea polyphenols (at 100 μg/ml). These results suggest that green tea polyphenols can inhibit high levels of LDL-induced proliferation of phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK expression in rat VSMCs. Green tea polyphenols may, therefore,offer vascular protection by inhibiting VSMC growth in response to hypercholesterolemia.%观察绿茶多酚对低密度脂蛋白(LDL)刺激下离体大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞增殖和p44/42MAPK表达的影响.体外培养大鼠胸主动脉血管平滑肌细胞,在LDL(100μg/ml)刺激时,应用不同剂量的绿茶多酚作用24 h后,采用MTS/PES法确定血管平滑肌细胞的增殖状态.应用流式细胞术测定细胞周期,p44/42磷酸化抗MAPK抗体的蛋白免疫印迹法测定MAPK蛋白表达.与未经LDL处理的平滑肌细胞相

  17. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  18. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  19. Remote sensing of vegetation dynamics in drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring long-term biomass dynamics in drylands is of great importance for many environmental applications including land degradation and global carbon cycle modeling. Biomass has extensively been estimated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of the vegetation...... greenness. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived from satellite passive microwave observations is mainly sensitive to the water content in total aboveground vegetation layer. VOD therefore provides a complementary data source to NDVI for monitoring biomass dynamics in drylands, yet further evaluations...... based on ground measurements are needed for an improved understanding of the potential advantages. In this study, we assess the capability of a long-term VOD dataset (1992-2011) to capture the temporal and spatial variability of in situ measured green biomass (herbaceous mass and woody plant foliage...

  20. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  1. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  2. Planning and Construction of Green Space Surrounding City Libraries Under High-density Background%高密度背景下城市图书馆周边绿地规划与建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滢

    2012-01-01

    随着我国城市化和经济建设的快速发展,一座座高楼大厦鳞次栉比拔地而起,塑造了高密度的新城市景观。由于土地资源本身固有属性的限制,土地供需矛盾,尤其是高密度地区用地供需矛盾日益尖锐。图书馆建筑也出现低层向多层纵向发展的态势,其周边绿地表现出新的空间特征。在这种背景下如何做好绿地规划与建设,本文提出一些原则和方法,以期图书馆空间环境质量得到不断提高。%In recent years,with the development of national economic construction,many of new landmark library building is emerging.Because of the limitation of land resource,in high density areas,the land supply and demand contradiction is increasingly sharp.Under this background,this paper puts forward some principle and ways of planning and construction of green space surrounding high-density city libraries,in order to improve the environment quality of library space.

  3. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  4. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ), transport (typically roads, rail and airports), and telecommunications. The focus of this chapter will be on greening bulk services and roads. Despite the importance of infrastructure to economic growth and social wellbeing, many countries struggle to meet...

  5. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee ...

  6. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  7. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying reasons include the powers...... of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...... defaults, choice architects should consider consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point in their direction. But when choice architects lack...

  8. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  9. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    environmentally-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the environment but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, green default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives. The underlying...... reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...... to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green defaults, choice architects should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of green defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental considerations point...

  10. Green Kidz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto, Melina; Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Arcuri, Maria Emilia;

    2016-01-01

    Projektet "Green Kidz. Intercultural environmental citizenship in the English language classroom in Argentina and Denmark" er en del af et internationalt udviklingsprojekt, der er ledet af Michael Byram, Durham University. Projektet belyser, hvordan interkulturelt medborgerskab kan styrkes i...

  11. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  12. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  13. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  14. Analysis of the changes in vegetation of the Sapanca Lake Basin (in Turkey using multitemporal satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cercis İkiel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Sapanca Basin is located in an area where urbanization and industrialization is rapidly increasing because of its geographical location. The Sapanca Lake Basin was opened to settlement densely after 1980 due to recreational activities for urbanization and industrialization. The aim of this study is to investigate and evaluate the changes in natural vegetation and settlement caused by the effects of human activities in the Sapanca Lake Basin. For this purpose, Landsat 5 TM (1987 and Landsat 8 (2013 satellite images have been used. These images have been analyzed using ERDAS and ArcGIS software’s and this was supported and confirmed by the carried land studies. The results showed that there has been an % 12.8 decrease in the high density green vegetation areas. It is concluded that the natural vegetation of Sapanca Lake Basin damaged rapidly in the period between the years of 1987-2013.

  15. Status of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Dong-sheng; CHEN Yu-juan

    2003-01-01

    According to a survey for the urban vegetation of Guangzhou, urban vegetation has a significantly difference from natural vegetation because of intense human impacts. The research was conducted in a synthetic survey for soil, species diversity, roadside trees and ecological function of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City. The results showed that: (1) soil densities of urban roadside and park forests were higher than mean density of natural forest soil. The pH values of soil in urban roadside were higher too, and the content of organic matter and the concentration of nitrogen were lower. (2) Species diversity of urban vegetation was lower. The most number of species was only 16 species in tree layers of urban forest. (3) Tree growth was limited by narrow space in high-density urban area, where the trees with defects and disorders were common. (4) Comparing with mature natural forests, the productivity of urban vegetation was lower. The effect of urban vegetation on balance of carbon and oxygen were influenced by the low primary production of urban vegetation. Therefore, the growth condition for urban vegetation should be improved. Biodiversity, primary production and ecological function should be increased for urban vegetation in order to improve urban eco-environment.

  16. Effects of water vapor density on cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss and body temperature in green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygoda, Mark L; Kersten, Constance A

    2013-01-01

    Increased cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (Rc) in tree frogs results in decreased water loss rate and increased body temperature. We examined sensitivity of Rc to water vapor density (WVD) in Hyla cinerea by exposing individual frogs and agar models to four different WVD environments and measuring cutaneous evaporative water loss rate and body temperature simultaneously using a gravimetric wind tunnel measuring system. We found that water loss rate varied inversely and body temperature directly with WVD but that models were affected to a greater extent than were animals. Mean Rc was significantly different between the highest WVD environment and each of the three drier environments but did not differ among the drier environments, indicating that Rc initially increases and then reaches a plateau in response to decreasing WVD. Rc was equivalent when calculated using either WVD difference or WVD deficit as the driving force for evaporation. We also directly observed secretions from cutaneous glands while measuring body temperature and tested secretions and skin samples for the presence of lipids. We found that irregular transient body temperature depressions observed during wind tunnel trials occur due to evaporative cooling from intermittent skin secretions containing lipids, although we were unable to identify lipid-secreting glands.

  17. Using NDVI to assess departure from average greenness and its relation to fire business. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgan, R.E.; Hartford, R.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Satellite-derived vegetation greenness maps of the contiguous United States have been available to fire managers since 1989. This report describes a new map, departure from average, which is designed to compare current-year vegetation greenness to average greenness for the same time of year and describes it relationship to fire business.

  18. Associations between multiple green space measures and birth weight across two US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne; Larkin, Andrew; Carozza, Susan E; Hystad, Perry

    2017-09-01

    Several measures of green space exposure have been used in epidemiological research, but their relevance to health, and representation of exposure pathways, remains unclear. Here we examine the relationships between multiple urban green space metrics and associations with term birth weight across two diverse US cities. We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort from 2005 to 2009 in the cities of Portland, Oregon (n = 90,265) and Austin, Texas (n = 88,807). These cities have similar green space levels but very different population and contextual characteristics. Green space metrics derived from mother's full residential address using multiple buffer distances (50-1000m) included: Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), % tree cover, % green space, % street tree buffering, and access to parks (using US EPA EnviroAtlas Data). Correlation between green space metrics were assessed and mixed models were used to determine associations with term birth weight, controlling for a comprehensive set of individual and neighborhood factors. City-specific models were run to determine how contextual and population differences affected green space associations with birth weight. We observed moderate to high degrees of correlation between different green space metrics (except park access), with similar patterns between cities. Unadjusted associations demonstrated consistent protective effects of NDVI, % green space, % tree cover, and % street tree buffering for most buffer sizes on birth weight; however, in fully adjusted models most metrics were no longer statistically significant and no clear patterns remained. For example, in Austin the difference in birth weight for the highest versus lowest quartile of % green space within 50m was 38.3g (95% CI: 30.4, 46.1) in unadjusted and -1.5g (98% CI: -8.8, 6.3) in adjusted models compared to 55.7g (95%CI: 47.9, -63.6) and 12.9g (95% CI: 4.4, 21.4) in Portland. Maternal race, ethnicity and education had the

  19. CONFIRMAÇÃO DA IDENTIDADE DA alfa-CRIPTOXANTINA E INCIDÊNCIA DE CAROTENÓIDES MINORITÁRIOS PROVITAMÍNICOS A EM VERDURAS FOLHOSAS VERDES CONFIRMATION OF THE IDENTITY OF alpha-CRYPTOXANTHIN AND INCIDENCE OF MINOR PROVITAMIN A CAROTENOIDS IN GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Z. MERCADANTE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos trabalhos comprovaram que os carotenóides principais de folhas verdes são invariavelmente luteína, beta-caroteno, violaxantina e neoxantina. No entanto, há discordância em torno dos carotenóides minoritários. Portanto, a espectrometria de massas por impacto de elétrons e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos foram utilizados para confirmar a identidade de carotenóides minoritários com atividade provitamínica A em verduras folhosas brasileiras. Os carotenóides pró-vitamínicos A, incluindo os isômeros cis e trans de beta-caroteno, foram separados em coluna de C18 polimérica, Vydac 201TP54, com metanol/água (98:2 como fase móvel. Os espectros UV-visível e de massas confirmaram o carotenóide monoidroxilado como sendo alfa-criptoxantina e não beta-criptoxantina como aponta a literatura internacional. Todas as onze folhas analisadas (agrião, alface crespa, alface lisa, almeirão, caruru, chicória, couve, espinafre, rúcula, salsinha e taioba apresentaram alfa-criptoxantina, 13-cis-beta-caroteno e 9-cis-beta-caroteno, enquanto que alfa-caroteno foi encontrado em apenas quatro folhas (caruru, couve, salsinha e taioba.The main carotenoids from green leafy vegetables have been consistently found to be lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin. However, there is a controversy about the identity of minor carotenoids. Therefore, electron impact mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector were used in order to confirm the identity of the minor provitamin A carotenoids in Brazilian green leaves. The provitamin A carotenoids, including the cis and trans isomers of beta-carotene, were separated on a polymeric C18 column, Vydac 201TP54, with MeOH/H2O (98:2 as mobile phase. The UV-visible and mass spectra confirmed that the monohydroxy carotenoid present in Brazilian green leafy vegetable to be alpha-cryptoxanthin, and not beta

  20. Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

    2010-06-01

    Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

  1. Thermal insulation performance of green roof systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Serdar; Morgan, Susan; Retzlaff, William; Once, Orcun [southern Illinois University (United States)], e-mail: scelik@siue.edu, e-mail: smorgan@siue.edu, e-mail: wretzla@siue.edu, e-mail: oonce@siue.edu

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing costs of energy, good building insulation has become increasingly important. Among existing insulation techniques is the green roof system, which consists of covering the roof of a building envelop with plants. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of vegetation type and growth media on the thermal performance of green roof systems. Twelve different green roof samples were made with 4 different growth media and 3 sedum types. Temperature at the sample base was recorded every 15 minutes for 3 years; the insulation behavior was then analysed. Results showed that the insulation characteristics were achieved with a combination of haydite and sedum sexangulare. This study demonstrated that the choice of growth media and vegetation is important to the green roof system's performance; further research is required to better understand the interactions between growth media and plant roots.

  2. Green-tailed Towhee response to prescribed fire in montane shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, G.; Savidge, J.A.; Kotliar, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Fire alters the structure and composition of shrublands and affects habitat quality for the associated avifauna. Because shrubland ecosystems have been greatly reduced from their original extent in western North America and fire is increasingly being used to manage these landscapes, a better understanding of how fire affects the associated vegetation and wildlife is imperative. We evaluated the response of Green-tailed Towhees (Pipilo chlorurus) to prescribed fire in the montane shrublands of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado during 2002 and 2003. Three to five years following prescribed burning, Green-tailed Towhee density and shrub cover were generally higher in unburned areas. Nests (n = 179) were located in unburned vegetation; within burned sites, all nests were in remnant patches. Green-tailed Towhee nest survival was 57% (95% CI = 49%-65%) across the two years of the study. More than half of the nests were in common juniper (Juniperus communis) shrubs, and nest survival was higher for nests in junipers than those in other shrub species. Daily nest survival rates were lower at the site with the highest density of towhees and declined over the breeding season. With regard to shrub cover, opposite trends were observed for nest-site selection and nest survival: nest plots had greater shrub cover than non-nest plots, but nest survival decreased with increasing shrub cover. Because shrub cover affects towhee density and nest survival in conflicting ways, fire management at Rocky Mountain National Park alters both habitat availability and suitability for Green-tailed Towhees. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  3. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  4. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  5. Green roof impact on the hydrological cycle components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2013-04-01

    building by installing green roofs and, thus, providing a conversion of rooftops in pervious areas; the objective is modeling hydrological fluxes (interception, evapotranspiration, soil water fluxes in the surface and hypodermic components) in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). The sensitivity analysis of hydrological processes at different hydrological, climatic and geometric parameters has allowed to draw some general guidelines useful in the design and construction of this type of drainage systems.

  6. Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril] em diferentes densidades Performance of genotypes of early-cycle vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton César de O. Charlo

    2008-04-01

    the genotypes and the subparcels being the densities, where four replications were used for each treatment. Plots comprised four rows measuring with populations of 20, 10 and 7 plants by meter, and 0.60m between rows, where each parcel consisted of 20 plants. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene trays with 128 pyramidal cells, contend substratum Plantmax Hortaliças®. Transplanting was performed ten days after sowing, to a soil previously fertilized as recommended to the crop. Harvesting was performed when pods reached the reproductive stage R6. The following genotypes were used: JLM010 and CNPSOI. The mean earliness, mean number of pods per plant, mean number of seeds per pod, fresh weight of 100 seeds and estimated yield of immature grains were measured. Results showed that the genotype JLM010 is the best for vegetable soybean production, because a higher fresh weight of 100 seeds was obtained with a population of 7 plants by meter.

  7. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  8. Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre- and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C. C.

    2012-10-01

    The present work aims to study the combined effect of drought and large wildfires in the Iberian Peninsula relying on remotely sensed data of vegetation dynamics and leaf moisture content, in particular monthly NDVI, NDWI and NDDI time series from 1999-2009, derived from VEGETATION dataset. The impact of the exceptional 2004/2005 drought on vegetation was assessed for vegetation recovering from the extraordinary fire season of 2003 and on the conditions that contributed to the onsetting of the fire season of 2005. Drought severity was estimated by the cumulative negative effect on photosynthetic activity (NDVI) and vegetation dryness (NDDI), with about 2/3 of Iberian Peninsula presenting vegetative stress and low water availability conditions, in spring and early summer of 2005. Furthermore, NDDI has shown to be very useful to assess drought, since it combines information on vegetation and water conditions. Moreover, we show that besides looking at the inter-annual variability of NDVI and NDDI, it is useful to evaluate intra-annual changes (δNDVI and δNDDI), as indicators of change in vegetation greenness, allowing a detailed picture of the ability of the different land-cover types to resist to short-term dry conditions. In order to assess drought impact on post-fire regeneration, recovery times were evaluated by a mono-parametric model based on NDVI data and values corresponding to drought months were set to no value. Drought has shown to delay recovery times for several months in all the selected scars from 2003. The analysis of vegetation dynamics and fire selectivity in 2005 suggests that fires tended to occur in pixels presenting lower vegetative and water stress conditions during spring and early summer months. Additionally, pre-fire vegetation dynamics, in particular vegetation density and water availability during spring and early summer, has shown to influence significantly the levels of fire damage. These results stress the role of fuel availability in

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S VEGETABLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the micro regions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.

  10. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, AgraQuest, developed Serenade, an OMRI-listed biofungicide for fruits and vegetables based on Bacillus subtilis QST-713, a naturally occurring strain of bacteria.

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Cargill, Inc., developed a vegetable-oil-based transformer fluid that is much less flammable, provides superior performance, is less toxic, and has a substantially lower carbon footprint.

  12. Green networking

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on green networking, which is an important topic for the scientific community composed of engineers, academics, researchers and industrialists working in the networking field. Reducing the environmental impact of the communications infrastructure has become essential with the ever increasing cost of energy and the need for reducing global CO2 emissions to protect our environment.Recent advances and future directions in green networking are presented in this book, including energy efficient networks (wired networks, wireless networks, mobile networks), adaptive networ

  13. Quantifying influences of physiographic factors on temperate dryland vegetation, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhitao; Pang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Variability in satellite measurements of terrestrial greenness in drylands is widely observed in land surface processes and global change studies. Yet the underlying causes differ and are not fully understood. Here, we used the GeogDetector model, a new spatial statistical approach, to examine the individual and combined influences of physiographic factors on dryland vegetation greenness changes, and to identify the most suitable characteristics of each principal factor for stimulating vegetation growth. Our results indicated that dryland greenness was predominantly affected by precipitation, soil type, vegetation type, and temperature, either separately or in concert. The interaction between pairs of physiographic factors enhanced the influence of any single factor and displayed significantly non-linear influences on vegetation greenness. Our results also implied that vegetation greenness could be promoted by adopting favorable ranges or types of major physiographical factors, thus beneficial for ecological conservation and restoration that aimed at mitigating environmental degradation. PMID:28067259

  14. Hydrologic Restoration in the Urban Environment Using Green Roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Palla; Ilaria Gnecco; Luca G. Lanza

    2010-01-01

    Loss of natural soil and vegetation within the urban environment can significantly affect the hydrologic cycle by increasing storm water runoff rates and volumes. In order to mitigate these modifications in urban areas engineered systems are developed, such as green roofs, to mimic and replace functions (evapo-transpiration, infiltration, percolation) which have been altered due to the impact of human development. Green roofs, also known as vegetated roof covers, eco-roofs or nature roofs, ar...

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of U.S. Youth, 2009-2010. NCHS Data Brief. Number 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Rossen, Lauren M.; Harris, Diane M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), 2010 encourage Americans, including youth, to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Individuals are encouraged to "eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables." Fruits and vegetables are sources of many under-consumed nutrients and consuming…

  16. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  17. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  18. Green Victory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Award-winning solar energy project benefits millions of people in underdeveloped areas The world’s leading green en- ergy prize, Ashden Award for Sustainable Energy, announced on June 19 that China’s Renewable Energy Development Project (REDP) was among its latest recipients. The REDP

  19. Green Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It seems all happened in a moment.White clouds float in blue sky,green trees are decorated by colorful flags with warm smiling images,and the building are taking a brand new appearance...Some magic must has been done to Beijing:it turns to a cleaner,healthier and more beautiful city.

  20. 新型环保无害的Na-22放射性物位、密度检测仪表%New Green Environmental Protection Harmless Na22 Radioaction Source Level and Density Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰凯

    2016-01-01

    传统的钴-60、铯-137γ射线放射性物位、密度仪表在工业中的应用中,较高的放射性会对人体产生严重的危害,并且在放射源存储、使用中会给用户带来高额的附加费用,从而给用户带来很多不便;“伊科菲斯”新型环保Na-22放射性物位、密度仪表以其极低的放射性及高灵敏度的接收器,解决了用户使用较强放射源对人体潜在伤害的问题,同时也给企业带来了安全,帮助用户节省了高额的放射源维护保管费用。新型环保Na-22放射性物位计、密度计将会逐渐取代传统的钴-60、铯-137等高强度放射性物位计、密度计。%Traditional Co-60、Cs-137 γ radioactive material level, density testing instrument in industrial application,High radiation will have serious harm to human body,Source of storage and use will bring the user high additional cost,So caused a lot of inconvenience to the user. “Ecophyspribor”,The new green Na - 22 radioactive material level, density testing instrument for its extremely low radioactive and high sensitivity of the receiver, to solve the problem of the strong radiation to human body damage.And to bring security to the enterprise, help users save a large amount of radioactive source maintenance and storage costs. The new type of environmental protection Na-22 radioactive material level ,density testing instrument will gradually replace the traditional Co -60, Cs -137 and other high intensity radioactive material level meter.

  1. Semiclassics in Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyung; Cangi, Attila; Elliott, Peter; Burke, Kieron

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we published an article [1] about the semiclassical origin of density functional theory. We showed that the density and the kinetic energy density of one dimensional finite systems with hard walls can be expressed in terms of the external potential using the semiclassical Green's function method. Here, we show a uniformization scheme for the semiclassical density and the kinetic energy density for turning-point problems.[1] P. Elliott, D. Lee, A. Cangi, and K. Burke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256406 (2008).

  2. Poluição e a densidade de vegetação: BTEX em algumas áreas públicas de Curitiba - PR, Brasil Pollution and density of vegetation: BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba - PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX in some public areas of Curitiba-PR, Brazil, was evaluated. Their concentrations were then related to the vegetation's density in each area. Average benzene concentrations varied from 3.9 to 6.1 μg m-3, with higher values occurring in poorly dense vegetation areas. For toluene, average concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 μg m-3. The effect of such pollutants was evaluated by means of a bio indicator, Tillandsia stricta. Variation in total chlorophyll content and in stomatic density were detected in some samples and may be related to the BTEX concentrations found in the studied areas.

  3. Green area loss in San Juan's inner-ring suburban neighborhoods: a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing green/gray area dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Ramos-Santiago

    2014-06-01

    complexity and variety of exogenous and endogenous factors that have been identified in this study as affecting private and public inner-ring suburban green areas reveals dynamic and spatially differentiated concomitant processes and suggests that these are conditioned by the socioeconomic trajectories of each neighborhood and by larger metropolitan scale socioeconomic and technological trends. Lower income neighborhoods reflect a tendency for socioeconomic decline and greater loss of green areas and vegetation cover in time, thus suggesting policies geared toward adaptive governance. In contrast, the upper income neighborhood exhibits a more stable socioeconomic trajectory and less significant green area loss as well as increase in vegetation cover. Three hypotheses are posited for future sampling increments and testing. The findings and literature on urban economics and the decline of inner-ring suburbs in the U.S. suggest the need for policy geared to sustainable urban redevelopment as a strategy for adaptive governance. The competing needs for land by higher density uses and by green areas in sustainable redevelopment initiatives requires a trade-off analysis in which a thorough account of costs and benefits is warranted. As such, sound data as that presented in this paper will aid urban ecological design in the process of achieving sustainable and environmentally sound land-use adaptations that seek to recuperate green areas' environmental services in urban and suburban contexts.

  4. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff.

  5. Development of JPSS VIIRS Global Gridded Vegetation Index products for NOAA NCEP Environmental Modeling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco; Miura, Tomoaki; Csiszar, Ivan; Zheng, Weizhong; Wu, Yihua; Ek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was successfully launched in October, 2011, and it will be followed by JPSS-1, slated for launch in 2017. JPSS provides operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). Vegetation products derived from satellite measurements are used for weather forecasting, land modeling, climate research, and monitoring the environment including drought, the health of ecosystems, crop monitoring and forest fires. The operationally produced S-NPP VIIRS Vegetation Index (VI) Environmental Data Record (EDR) includes two vegetation indices: the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Top of the Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). For JPSS-1, the S-NPP Vegetation Index EDR algorithm has been updated to include the TOC NDV. The current JPSS operational VI products are generated in granule style at 375 meter resolution at nadir, but these products in granule format cannot be ingested into NOAA operational monitoring and decision making systems. For that reason, the NOAA JPSS Land Team is developing a new global gridded Vegetation Index (VI) product suite for operational use by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The new global gridded VIs will be used in the Multi-Physics (MP) version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) in NCEP NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) for plant growth and data assimilation and to describe vegetation coverage and density in order to model the correct surface energy partition. The new VI 4km resolution global gridded products (TOA NDVI, TOC NDVI and TOC EVI) are being designed to meet the needs of directly ingesting vegetation index variables without the need to develop local gridding and compositing procedures. These VI products will be consistent with the already

  6. Relative Greenness Index for assessing curing of grassland fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newnham, G.J.; Verbesselt, J.; Grant, I.F.; Anderson, S.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the proportion of live and dead herbaceous fuel in grasslands is important in determining fire danger. This paper examines the Relative Greenness approach for quantifying these live and dead proportions. Relative Greenness places the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the

  7. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  8. Comparison of oxalate contents and recovery from two green juices prepared using a masticating juicer or a high speed blender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Vanhanen

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Green juices prepared using common vegetables can contain high levels of soluble oxalates, which will vary with the type and proportion of vegetables used and whether or not the pulp fraction was retained during processing.

  9. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  10. A PROPOSED NEW VEGETATION INDEX, THE TOTAL RATIO VEGETATION INDEX (TRVI, FOR ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fadaei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices that provide important key to predict amount vegetation in forest such as percentage vegetation cover, aboveground biomass, and leaf-area index. Arid and semi-arid areas are not exempt of this rule. Arid and semi-arid areas of northeast Iran cover about 3.4 million ha and are populated by two main tree species, the broadleaf Pistacia vera (pistachio and the conifer Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos (Persian juniper. Natural stands of pistachio in Iran are not only environmentally important but also genetically essential as seed sources for pistachio production in orchards. We investigated the relationships between tree density and vegetation indices in the arid and semi-arid regions in the northeast of Iran by analysing Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS data PRISM is a panchromatic radiometer with a 2.5 m spatial resolution at nadir, and has one band with a wavelength of 0.52–0.77 μm (JAXA EORC. AVNIR-2 is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones with a 10 m spatial resolution at nadir, and has four multispectral bands: blue (0.42–0.50 μm, green (0.52–0.60 μm, red (0.61–0.69 μm, and near infrared (0.76–0.89 μm (JAXA EORC. In this study, we estimated various vegetation indices using maximum filtering algorithm (5×5 and examined. This study carried out of juniper forests and natural pistachio stand using Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS and field inventories. Have been compared linear regression model of vegetation indices and proposed new vegetation index for arid and semi-arid regions. Also, we estimated the densities of juniper forests and natural pistachio stands using remote sensing to help in the sustainable management and production of pistachio in Iran. We present a new vegetation index for arid and semi-arid regions with sparse forest cover, the Total Ratio Vegetation Index (TRVI, and we investigate the relationship of the new index to tree density by

  11. FLOW STRUCTURE AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT WITH IMPACTS OF AQUATIC VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng; SHEN Yong-ming

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the flow structure of open channels and thus changes the fate and the transport of sediment. This article proposes a three-dimensional turbulence model by introducing vegetation density and drag force into the control equations of water flow in the presence of vegetation. The model was used to calculate the impacts of submerged vegetation on the vertical profiles of longitudinal flow velocities, the changes of the depth-averaged flow velocities in a compound channel with emergent vegetation in the floodplain, the removal of suspended sediment from the channels by emergent vegetation, and the bed changes around and in a vegetated island. Numerical investigations show that aquatic vegetation retards flow in the vegetation zone, reduces the sediment transport capacity, and contributes to erosion on both sides of the vegetated island. Calculated results agree well with experimental results.

  12. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  13. Hydraulic and Vegetative Models of Historic Environmental Conditions Isolate the Role of Riparian Vegetation in Inducing Channel Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    An enduring question in geomorphology is the role of riparian vegetation in inducing or exacerbating channel narrowing. It is typically difficult to isolate the role of vegetation in causing channel narrowing, because narrowing typically occurs where there are changes in stream flow, sediment supply, the invasion of non-native vegetation, and sometimes climate change. Therefore, linkages between changes in vegetation communities and changes in channel form are often difficult to identify. We took a mechanistic approach to isolate the role of the invasive riparian shrub tamarisk (Tamarix spp) in influencing channel narrowing in the Colorado River basin. Detailed geomorphic reconstructions of two sites on the Yampa and Green Rivers, respectively, in Dinosaur National Monument show that channel narrowing has been progressive and that tamarisk encroachment has also occurred; at the same time, dams have been constructed, diversions increased, and spring snowmelt runoff has been occurring earlier in spring. We simulated hydraulic and sediment transport conditions during the two largest floods of record -- 1984 and 2011. Two-dimensional hydraulic models were built to reflect these conditions and allowed us to perform sensitivity tests to determine the dominant determinants of the observed patterns of erosion and deposition. Channel and floodplain topography were constrained through detailed stratigraphic analysis, including precise dating of deposits based on dating of buried tamarisk plants in a series of floodplain trenches and pits. We also used historical air photos to establish past channel topography. To parameterize the influence of riparian vegetation, we developed a model that links detailed terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements of stand structure and its corresponding hydraulic roughness at the patch scale to reach-scale riparian vegetation patterns determined from airborne LiDaR (ALS). This model, in conjunction with maps of the ages and establishment

  14. Soil Bulk Density and Porosity in Greenhouse Vegetables Field under the Optimized Fertilization Treatment%优化施肥处理下设施菜地土壤容重与孔隙度的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝峰; 曾路生; 李俊良; 陈清

    2013-01-01

    Soil bulk density and porosity influence the bioavailability of soil nutrient and crop growth, and are closely related to the cultivation, fertilization, irrigation and other agricultural management measures. In order to research soil environmental quality and explore the optimal fertilization mode under Greenhouse field conditions, soil bulk density, porosity and soil respiration intensity were studied under the optimized fertilization conditions, with the soil of no chemical fertilizer and manure for control in Shouguang Greenhouse vegetables field planting tomato, and the results showed that, compared with the control, the optimized fertilization treatments improved the soil bulk density and porosity conditions in a certain extent. Such measures reduced the soil bulk density by 3.73%to 14.93%and increased the soil total porosity by 4.18%to 15.79%. In the meantime, the average capillary porosity and the non capillary porosity increased by 8.07%and 8.94%, respectively. Soil respiration intensity enhanced by 23.4%to 34.6%in the root zone and by 9.6%to 106.9%in the non root zone compared with the control. Among them, the treatment with 8 t/hm2 of manure and 4 t/hm2 of straw blending broadcast, and topdressing 150 kg/hm2 of nitrogen in the growth period got the most obvious effect and should be recommended to apply in the production practice. The results also showed that the average soil respiration intensity in root zone was 62.91 mg/(kg·d) with about 1.8 times of 34.45 mg/(kg·d) in the non-root zone. Soil respiration intensity was parabolic relationship to soil bulk density and soil total porosity. When the soil bulk density was about 1.25 g/cm3 and total porosity was about 53%, the soil would have higher respiration intensity.%土壤容重与孔隙度影响土壤养分的有效性及作物生长,与耕作、施肥、灌溉等农业管理措施密切相关。为了研究设施农业条件下土壤环境质量的变化,探索较优施肥

  15. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  16. Metaheuristics-Assisted Combinatorial Screening of Eu(2+)-Doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N Compositional Space in Search of a Narrow-Band Green Emitting Phosphor and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woong; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Minseuk; Hong, Sung Un; Park, Woon Bae; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2017-08-21

    A metaheuristics-based design would be of great help in relieving the enormous experimental burdens faced during the combinatorial screening of a huge, multidimensional search space, while providing the same effect as total enumeration. In order to tackle the high-throughput powder processing complications and to secure practical phosphors, metaheuristics, an elitism-reinforced nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was employed in this study. The NSGA-II iteration targeted two objective functions. The first was to search for a higher emission efficacy. The second was to search for narrow-band green color emissions. The NSGA-II iteration finally converged on BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphors in the Eu(2+)-doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N compositional search space. The BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphor, which was synthesized with no human intervention via the assistance of NSGA-II, was a clear single phase and gave an acceptable luminescence. The BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphor as well as all other phosphors that appeared during the NSGA-II iterations were examined in detail by employing powder X-ray diffraction-based Rietveld refinement, X-ray absorption near edge structure, density functional theory calculation, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The thermodynamic stability and the band structure plausibility were confirmed, and more importantly a novel approach to the energy transfer analysis was also introduced for BaLi2Al2Si2N6:Eu(2+) phosphors.

  17. Chronic oestradiol reduces the dendritic spine density of KNDy (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin) neurones in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomised Tac2-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholanian, M; Krajewski-Hall, S J; McMullen, N T; Rance, N E

    2015-04-01

    Neurones in the arcuate nucleus that express neurokinin B (NKB), kisspeptin and dynorphin (KNDy) play an important role in the reproductive axis. Oestradiol modulates the gene expression and somatic size of these neurones, although there is limited information available about whether their dendritic structure, a correlate of cellular plasticity, is altered by oestrogens. In the present study, we investigated the morphology of KNDy neurones by filling fluorescent neurones in the arcuate nucleus of Tac2-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic mice with biocytin. Filled neurones from ovariectomised (OVX) or OVX plus 17β-oestradiol (E2)-treated mice were visualised with anti-biotin immunohistochemistry and reconstructed in three dimensions with computer-assisted microscopy. KNDy neurones exhibited two primary dendrites, each with a few branches confined to the arcuate nucleus. Quantitative analysis revealed that E2 treatment of OVX mice decreased the cell size and dendritic spine density of KNDy neurones. The axons of KNDy neurones originated from the cell body or proximal dendrite and gave rise to local branches that appeared to terminate within the arcuate nucleus. Numerous terminal boutons were also visualised within the ependymal layer of the third ventricle adjacent to the arcuate nucleus. Axonal branches also projected to the adjacent median eminence and exited the arcuate nucleus. Confocal microscopy revealed close apposition of EGFP and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-immunoreactive fibres within the median eminence and confirmed the presence of KNDy axon terminals in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle. The axonal branching pattern of KNDy neurones suggests that a single KNDy neurone could influence multiple arcuate neurones, tanycytes in the wall of the third ventricle, axon terminals in the median eminence and numerous areas outside of the arcuate nucleus. In parallel with its inhibitory effects on electrical excitability, E2 treatment

  18. Vegetation and soil carbon storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kerang; WANG Shaoqiang; CAO Mingkui

    2004-01-01

    This study estimated the current vegetation and soil carbon storage in China using a biogeochemical model driven with climate, soil and vegetation data at 0.5°latitude-longitude grid spatial resolution. The results indicate that the total carbon storage in China's vegetation and soils was 13.33 Gt C and 82.65 Gt C respectively, about 3% and 4% of the global total. The nationally mean vegetation and soil carbon densities were 1.47 kg C/m2 and 9.17 kg C/m2, respectively, differing greatly in various regions affected by climate, vegetation, and soil types. They were generally higher in the warm and wet Southeast China and Southwest China than in the arid Northwest China; whereas vegetation carbon density was the highest in the warm Southeast China and Southwest China, soil carbon density was the highest in the cold Northeast China and southeastern fringe of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These spatial patterns are clearly correlated with variations in the climate that regulates plant growth and soil organic matter decomposition, and show that vegetation and soil carbon densities are controlled by different climatic factors.

  19. Why Are There Great Fluctuations in the Prices of Vegetables?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang; CHEN; Lijia; HU

    2013-01-01

    The normal supply of vegetables is related to the people’s livelihood and social stability,and smooth prices of vegetables are vital to social development. Based on the phenomenon of great fluctuations in the prices of vegetables in recent years,we use living example to analyze the real reasons for great fluctuations in the prices of vegetables from the perspective of supply chain node of vegetables and macroeconomic policies. Finally,from the balance of supply and demand,industry standardization,circulation,market order and the government mechanism,we put forth the following management strategies for controlling great fluctuations in the prices of vegetables: establishing and improving the channels of information transmission,making the production and marketing information symmetrical,and balancing supply and demand; actively promoting the industry standardization of vegetables; reducing the intermediate links,and curtailing the circulation cost of vegetables; regulating the " green channel" of vegetables,and preventing uptick in the prices of vegetables in the " last mile" ; cracking down on the vegetable speculation behavior to ensure the healthy development of the vegetable market; actively giving play to the role of government,and building the vegetable protection system.

  20. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; Cao, Chunxiang; Cheng, Lei; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Yaozhong; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Poulter, Benjamin; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yingping; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982-2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning). Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. The regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.

  1. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  2. Emprego da poda verde para a obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca' Green pruning to obtain two harvests by vegetative cicle on Niagara grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vitor Dutra de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de épocas de poda verde em dois anos consecutivos visando obter a segunda safra de uva em um mesmo ciclo vegetativo na cv. Niágara Branca (Vitis labrusca L., cultivada no sistema em espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, nas safras de 2003/2004 e 2004/2005. Os tratamentos constaram de três épocas de poda verde, realizadas imediatamente após a quarta folha acima do último cacho, e dois anos consecutivos de avaliação. Todas as plantas foram submetidas à superação de dormência mediante aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada a 2%. Analisou-se a duração dos estádios fenológicos, o período de maturação, a produção por planta, a massa fresca do cacho, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a acidez total titulável. Observou-se que a época de realização da poda verde não afetou a quantidade, nem a qualidade da uva produzida na primeira colheita, apenas atrasando-a em uma semana. A poda verde realizada no início de novembro possibilitou a segunda colheita de uva, realizada entre março e abril, sendo uma alternativa de ampliação do período de oferta do produto no mercado.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green prunings on two consecutive years to obtain a second harvest of 'Niagara Branca' (Vitis labrusca grapevine in the same season. The experiment was carried out at Estação Experimental Agronômica of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, located at Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 growth seasons. The grapevines were conducted by cordon training. The treatments involved three dates of green pruning, performed at fourth leaf situated above the last grape, and two seasons. All the plants were sprayed with hidrogenate cianamide (2% to overcome dormency. Fenology, plant production, weight of grapes, °Brix and titratable acid were evaluated. The green pruning time

  3. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture with vegetation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye, Teferi D.; Inguva, Ramarao; Lang, Roger H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Fahsi, Ahmed; Coleman, Tommy L.; Tadesse, Wubishet; Rajbhandari, Narayan B.; Aburemie, Sunnie A.; de Matthaeis, Paolo

    1999-12-01

    The objectives of this study were: to examine the sensitivity of radar backscatter, to estimate soil moisture under a corn plot and to evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM), adapted from the earlier work of Njoku and Kong, (1977) in predicting brightness temperature from a grass plot. Microwave radar measurements were collected from plots of different vegetation cover types, vegetation density, and moisture conditions during the Huntsville 1998 field experiment. A large amount of ground data on brightness temperatures, soil moisture, and vegetation characteristics (e.g., biomass, and water content) were collected. The experiments were conducted at Alabama A&M University's, Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station, located near Hazel Green, Alabama. Six plots, one 50 X 60 m smooth bare plot, one 50 X 60 m grass plot, and four 30 X 50 m corn plots at full, 2/3, 1/2, and 1/3 densities were used. Radar backscatter data were obtained from a ground based truck mounted radar operating at L, C, and X bands (1.6, 4.75, and 10 GHz) with four linear polarization HH, HV, VV, and VH and two incidence angles (15 and 45 degrees). Soil moisture values were determined using Water Content Reflectometry (WCR). Three types of soil temperature sensors (Infrared Thermometer, Thermistor, and a 4-sensor averaging thermocouple probes) were used. A discrete backscatter approach model and RTM were evaluated. Comparisons between model prediction and experimental observation for HH polarization indicated good agreement for a corn full plot. The direct-reflected scattering coefficient is found to be the most dominant term for both polarization and the backscatter is also highly sensitive to soil moisture. The trends in time variation of brightness temperature are in agreement with the experimental results and the numerical results are within a few percent of the experimental results. The vegetation corrections as estimated by the Jackson and Schmugge

  4. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, K R; Wells, M J; Kershaw, T

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that cities exhibit their own microclimate and are typically warmer than the surrounding rural areas. This 'mesoscale' influence is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect and results largely from modification of surface properties leading to greater absorption of solar radiation, reduced convective cooling and lower water evaporation rates. Cities typically contain less vegetation and bodies of water than rural areas, and existing green and bluespace is often under threat from increasing population densities. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the key ways in which green and bluespace affect both urban canopy- and boundary-layer temperatures, examined from the perspectives of city-planning, urban climatology and climate science. The analysis suggests that the evapotranspiration-based cooling influence of both green and bluespace is primarily relevant for urban canopy-layer conditions, and that tree-dominated greenspace offers the greatest heat stress relief when it is most needed. However, the magnitude and transport of cooling experienced depends on size, spread, and geometry of greenspaces, with some solitary large parks found to offer minimal boundary-layer cooling. Contribution to cooling at the scale of the urban boundary-layer climate is attributed mainly to greenspace increasing surface roughness and thereby improving convection efficiency rather than evaporation. Although bluespace cooling and transport during the day can be substantial, nocturnal warming is highlighted as likely when conditions are most oppressive. However, when both features are employed together they can offer many synergistic ecosystem benefits including cooling. The ways in which green and bluespace infrastructure is applied in future urban growth strategies, particularly in countries expected to experience rapid urbanisation, warrants greater consideration in urban planning policy to mitigate the adverse effects of the UHI and enhance climate

  5. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  6. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Green building handbook: Green pavement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available (as is often experienced in South African locations). Green storm water runoff management mimics nature using man-made elements such as pervious pavement, soakaways, ponds, and gently sloping channels (swales) to attenuate and treat urban runoff...; Pollution from overflowing latrines, soakaways and sewers, causing faecal pollution and disease; Cross contamination of water supplies; Wet soils leading to ideal conditions for worm infections; Providing habitats for vectors (mosquitoes and snails...

  8. Estimation of leaf area index in cereal crops using red-green images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Kristian; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Thomsen, Anton G;

    2009-01-01

    A new method for estimating the leaf area index (LAI) in cereal crops based on red-green images taken from above the crop canopy is introduced. The proposed method labels pixels into vegetation and soil classes using a combination of greenness and intensity derived from the red and green colour...

  9. Modelling the change in colour in broccoli and green beans during blanching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schijvens, E.P.H.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The green colour of vegetables changes considerably during heat treatments like blanching. Green beans from two different countries and growing seasons, and the stems and florets of broccoli were heat-treated from 40 up to 96 °C. The colour was monitored with the CIE-Lab system. Expressing the green

  10. Incipient motion of sediment in presence of submerged flexible vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Hong-wu Tang; Han-qing Zhao; Xuan-yu Zhao; Sheng-qi Lu¨

    2015-01-01

    The presence of submerged vegetation on river beds can change the water flow structure and alter the state of sediment motion. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment in the presence of submerged flexible vegetation in open channels was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The vegetation was simulated with flexible rubber cylinders arranged in parallel arrays. The effect of the vegetation density, water depth, and sediment grain size on the incipient motion was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the incipient motion velocity of sediment increases as the vegetation density decreases and the water depth and sediment grain size increase. With flexible plants, the incipient motion velocity of sediment is lower than it is without vegetation, and is larger than it is with rigid vegetation. A general incipient motion velocity equation was derived, which can be applied to both flexible and rigid vegetation conditions.

  11. Green shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Findings suggesting that consumers buy “green” products, such as organic foods, for selfish reasons are usually accepted at face value. In this article, the author argues that the evidence backing this claim is questionable and that it reflects post hoc rationalizations and self-presentation biases......’s beliefs about intangible private benefits in a way that justifies (bolsters) one’s purchasing decision. A survey study among a representative sample of approximately 4,000 respondents from four European countries (Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom, and Italy) confirmed that this is exactly what “green...

  12. Green roof systems: a study of public attitudes and preferences in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cañero, Rafael; Emilsson, Tobias; Fernandez-Barba, Carolina; Herrera Machuca, Miguel Ángel

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates people's preconceptions of green roofs and their visual preference for different green roof design alternatives in relation to behavioral, social and demographical variables. The investigation was performed as a visual preference study using digital images created to represent eight different alternatives: gravel roof, extensive green roof with Sedums not in flower, extensive green roof with sedums in bloom, semi-intensive green roof with sedums and ornamental grasses, semi-intensive green roof with shrubs, intensive green roof planted with a lawn, intensive green roof with succulent and trees and intensive green roof with shrubs and trees. Using a Likert-type scale, 450 respondents were asked to indicate their preference for each digital image. Results indicated that respondents' sociodemographic characteristics and childhood environmental background influenced their preferences toward different green roof types. Results also showed that green roofs with a more careful design, greater variety of vegetation structure, and more variety of colors were preferred over alternatives.

  13. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  14. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  15. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  16. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  17. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  18. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  19. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Tionni R; Brown, J Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2010-01-01

    Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Sixty-one low-income, married/cohabiting men (n = 28) and women (n = 33). Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored because of unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could (1) alter family norms about vegetables served, (2) change perceptions of experiences, (3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables, and (4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Green space, health inequality and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; de Nazelle, Audrey; Figueras, Francesc; Basagaña, Xavier; Su, Jason; Amoly, Elmira; Jerrett, Michael; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2012-04-01

    Green spaces have been suggested to improve physical and mental health and well-being by increasing physical activity, reducing air pollution, noise, and ambient temperature, increasing social contacts and relieving psychophysiological stress. Although these mechanisms also suggest potential beneficial effects of green spaces on pregnancy outcomes, to our knowledge there is no available epidemiological evidence on this impact. We investigated the effects of surrounding greenness and proximity to major green spaces on birth weight and gestational age at delivery and described the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) on these relationships. This study was based on a cohort of births (N=8246) that occurred in a major university hospital in Barcelona, Spain, during 2001-2005. We determined surrounding greenness from satellite retrievals as the average of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in a buffer of 100 m around each maternal place of residence. To address proximity to major green spaces, a binary variable was used to indicate whether maternal residential address is situated within a buffer of 500 m from boundaries of a major green space. For each indicator of green exposure, linear regression models were constructed to estimate change in outcomes adjusted for relevant covariates including individual and area level SEP. None of the indicators of green exposure was associated with birth weight and gestational age. After assessing effect modification based on the level of maternal education, we detected an increase in birth weight (grams) among the lowest education level group (N=164) who had higher surrounding NDVI (Regression coefficient (95% confidence interval (CI) of 436.3 (43.1, 829.5)) or lived close to a major green space (Regression coefficient (95% CI)) of 189.8 (23.9, 355.7)). Our findings suggest a beneficial effect of exposure to green spaces on birth weight only in the lowest SEP group.

  1. Modeling vegetation reflectance from satellite and in-situ monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria; Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Dida, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation can be distinguished using remote sensing data from most other (mainly inorganic) materials by virtue of its notable absorption in the red and blue segments of the visible spectrum, its higher green reflectance and, especially, its very strong reflectance in the near-IR. Different types of vegetation show often distinctive variability from one another owing to such parameters as leaf shape and size, overall plant shape, water content, and associated background (e.g., soil types and spacing of the plants (density of vegetative cover within the scene). Different three-dimensional numerical models explicitly represent the vegetation canopy and use numerical methods to calculate reflectance. These models are computationally intensive and are therefore not generally suited to the correction of satellite imagery containing millions of pixels. Physically based models do provide understanding and are potentially more robust in extrapolation. They consider the vegetation canopy to comprise thin layers of leaves, suspended in air like sediment particles in water forming a turbid medium. Monitoring of vegetation cover changes by remote sensing data is one of the most important applications of satellite imagery. Vegetation reflectance has variations with sun zenith angle, view zenith angle, and terrain slope angle. To provide corrections of these effects, for visible and near-infrared light, was used a three parameters model and developed a simple physical model of vegetation reflectance, by assuming homogeneous and closed vegetation canopy with randomly oriented leaves. Multiple scattering theory was used to extend the model to function for both near-infrared and visible light. This vegetation reflectance model may be used to correct satellite imagery for bidirectional and topographic effects. For two ASTER images over Cernica forested area, placed to the East of Bucharest town , Romania, acquired within minutes from one another ,a nadir and off-nadir for band 3

  2. Evaluating green infrastructure in urban environments using a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Pedro; Correia, Otília; Lecoq, Miguel; Munzi, Silvana; Vasconcelos, Sasha; Gonçalves, Paula; Rebelo, Rui; Antunes, Cristina; Silva, Patrícia; Freitas, Catarina; Lopes, Nuno; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficient. However, this approach assumes that all types of green cover have the same importance for species. Our aim was to show that not all forested green areas are equal in importance for species, but that based on a multi-taxa and functional diversity approach it is possible to value green infrastructure in urban environments. After evaluating the diversity of lichens, butterflies and other-arthropods, birds and mammals in 31 Mediterranean urban forests in south-west Europe (Almada, Portugal), bird and lichen functional groups responsive to urbanization were found. A community shift (tolerant species replacing sensitive ones) along the urbanization gradient was found, and this must be considered when using these groups as indicators of the effect of urbanization. Bird and lichen functional groups were then analyzed together with the characteristics of the forests and their surroundings. Our results showed that, contrary to previous assumptions, vegetation density and more importantly the amount of urban areas around the forest (matrix), are more important for biodiversity than forest quantity alone. This indicated that not all types of forested green areas have the same importance for biodiversity. An index of forest functional diversity was then calculated for all sampled forests of the area. This could help decision-makers to improve the management of urban green infrastructures with the goal of increasing functionality and ultimately ecosystem services in urban areas.

  3. DUCKWEED – A PERSPECTIVE VEGETABLE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of use duckweed as green vegetable are considered in article. The structure of types of duckweeds, their biological features, distribution in the world and in the territory of the Krasnodar region is shown. Possibility of their use as biotesters and bioindicators of the water environment, as analytical system for the analysis is shown. Questions of use of duckweed in artificial conditions as well as requirements to the content of culture are considered

  4. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationship between green coverage and the credits of the rating systems, evaluated the credits efficiency, and performed cost analysis. As an example, we used a university building in Keelung, Northern Taiwan. The findings suggest that with EEWH, the proposed green coverage is 50–75%, whereas with LEED, the proposed green coverage is 100%. These findings have implications for the application of green roofs in green building.

  5. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    . Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built and unbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One...... is not limited to the architecture of pavilions and can be applied in other architectural forms and functions. The paper ends by questioning the potential of architectural green in urbanity....

  6. Relations between nature-based solutions of green-blue area accessibility and socio-economic-ethnic patterns in the urban Stockholm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Destouni, Georgia

    2017-04-01

    More than half of the world's population lives in cities, a proportion expected to increase to two thirds by 2050 (United Nations (UN), 2015). In this study, we investigate the spatial relationships that may exist between income and/or nationality homogeneity/heterogeneity levels of urban populations and their accessibility to local green-blue areas as possible nature-based solutions for sustainable urban design. For this investigation, we consider as a concrete case study the urban region of Stockholm, Sweden, for which we compile and use available land-cover and vegetation density data (the latter in terms of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) in order to identify and assess the spatial distributions of various green-blue area types and aspects. We further combine this data with spatial distribution data for population density, income and nationality, as well as with road-network data for assessing population travel times to nearby green-blue areas within the region. The present study results converge with those of other recent studies in showing large socio-economic-ethnic segregation in the Stockholm region. Moreover, the present data combination and analysis also show large spatial differences in and important socio-economic-ethnic correlations with accessibility to local green areas and nearby water bodies. Specifically, population income and share of Swedish nationals are well correlated in this region, with increases in both of these variables implying greater possibility to choose where to live within the region. The living choices of richer and more homogeneous (primarily Swedish) population parts are then found to be areas with greater local vegetation density (local green areas as identified by high-resolution NDVI data) and greater area extent of nearby water bodies (blue areas). For comparison, no such correlation is found between increased income or Swedish nationality homogeneity and accessibility to nearby forest areas (overall green

  7. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E; Pausata, Francesco S R; deMenocal, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    During the "Green Sahara" period (11,000 to 5000 years before the present), the Sahara desert received high amounts of rainfall, supporting diverse vegetation, permanent lakes, and human populations. Our knowledge of rainfall rates and the spatiotemporal extent of wet conditions has suffered from a lack of continuous sedimentary records. We present a quantitative reconstruction of western Saharan precipitation derived from leaf wax isotopes in marine sediments. Our data indicate that the Green Sahara extended to 31°N and likely ended abruptly. We find evidence for a prolonged "pause" in Green Sahara conditions 8000 years ago, coincident with a temporary abandonment of occupational sites by Neolithic humans. The rainfall rates inferred from our data are best explained by strong vegetation and dust feedbacks; without these mechanisms, climate models systematically fail to reproduce the Green Sahara. This study suggests that accurate simulations of future climate change in the Sahara and Sahel will require improvements in our ability to simulate vegetation and dust feedbacks.

  8. Rainfall regimes of the Green Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    During the “Green Sahara” period (11,000 to 5000 years before the present), the Sahara desert received high amounts of rainfall, supporting diverse vegetation, permanent lakes, and human populations. Our knowledge of rainfall rates and the spatiotemporal extent of wet conditions has suffered from a lack of continuous sedimentary records. We present a quantitative reconstruction of western Saharan precipitation derived from leaf wax isotopes in marine sediments. Our data indicate that the Green Sahara extended to 31°N and likely ended abruptly. We find evidence for a prolonged “pause” in Green Sahara conditions 8000 years ago, coincident with a temporary abandonment of occupational sites by Neolithic humans. The rainfall rates inferred from our data are best explained by strong vegetation and dust feedbacks; without these mechanisms, climate models systematically fail to reproduce the Green Sahara. This study suggests that accurate simulations of future climate change in the Sahara and Sahel will require improvements in our ability to simulate vegetation and dust feedbacks. PMID:28116352

  9. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  10. Mechanisms Involved in the Mitigation of Urban Heat Islands through Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, F. A.; Smalls-Mantey, L.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat islands are one of many challenges presented by today's unprecedented patterns of urbanization. At higher densities, urban populations are more vulnerable to the increased temperatures that accompany urban landscape change. Though in the US it is funded principally as a means of stormwater management, urban green infrastructure (GI) actually alters hydrologic, energetic, and thermal budgets of urban environments, with a suite of potential co-benefits related to the health of people and ecosystems. Recent research has underscored the roles that vegetation plays in such processes, for example by facilitating evapotranspiration, and regulating air temperature and water availability. While the magnitude of these and other impacts is determined in part by the size, type, location, and configuration of GI facilities, few studies have attempted to characterize and to quantify how various vegetation-mediated processes in GI systems impact the energy and thermal properties of their surroundings. Using data collected at rooftop and ground level GI facilities including green roofs and bioretention areas monitored by Drexel University, this research illustrates the role that processes such as evapotranspiration play in the individual GI site cooling potential, reducing neighborhood vulnerability to the urban heat island effect.

  11. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  12. Short-term bryoid and vascular vegetation response to reforestation alternatives following wildfire in conifer plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori J. Kayes; Klaus J. Puettmann; Paul D. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    How are dynamics of early-seral post-fire vascular plant and bryoid (terrestrial mosses, lichens, and fungi) vegetation impacted by reforestation activities, particularly manual vegetation removal and planting density? Does the relationship between vegetation dynamics and vegetation removal differ between harsh (west-facing) and moderate (east-facing) aspects?...

  13. Composition and Diversity of Avian Communities Using a New Urban Habitat: Green Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Swearingin, Ryan M.; Pullins, Craig K.; Rice, Matthew E.

    2016-06-01

    Green roofs on buildings are becoming popular and represent a new component of the urban landscape. Public benefits of green roof projects include reduced stormwater runoff, improved air quality, reduced urban heat island effects, and aesthetic values. As part of a city-wide plan, several green roofs have been constructed at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD). Like some other landscaping features, green roofs on or near an airport might attract wildlife and thus increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions. During 2007-2011, we conducted a series of studies to evaluate wildlife use of newly constructed green roofs and traditional (gravel) roofs on buildings at ORD. These green roofs were 0.04-1.62 ha in area and consisted of primarily stonecrop species for vegetation. A total of 188 birds were observed using roofs during this research. Of the birds using green roofs, 66, 23, and 4 % were Killdeer, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves, respectively. Killdeer nested on green roofs, whereas the other species perched, foraged, or loafed. Birds used green roofs almost exclusively between May and October. Overall, avian use of the green roofs was minimal and similar to that of buildings with traditional roofs. Although green roofs with other vegetation types might offer forage or cover to birds and thus attract potentially hazardous wildlife, the stonecrop-vegetated green roofs in this study did not increase the risk of bird-aircraft collisions.

  14. Hydrological performance of an extensive green roof: a case study from the central Europe (Bustehrad, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tománková, Klára; Sněhota, Michal; Jelínková, Vladimíra

    2016-04-01

    Extensive green roofs with a thin growing medium require minimal maintenance, and in general no irrigation. The proper functioning of such systems rests with their structural constituents, especially with the substrate used for planting. An extensive green roof with poorly developed vegetation and with a soil layer of a maximum thickness of 5 cm mixed with local stripped topsoil with crushed bricks and green waste was studied with respect to the hydrological behavior. The substrate classified as loam comprises a significant proportion of very fine particles and thus it is prone to clogging up of soil pores and forming of fissures on the surface. The green roof studied is well equipped for measuring meteorological data including air temperature, wind speed and direction, net radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall intensity. The meteorological information on the site is completed by soil temperature measurement. The 12 m long transect is equipped with eight time domain reflectometry probes (TDR) to monitor soil water content. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, grain size distribution) and soil hydraulic characteristics (soil water retention curve) were obtained. The numerical modeling of transient soil water movement in the green roof substrate was performed using a two-dimensional model based on the Richards' equation. Results were compared with the soil water content data acquired. Six alternative scenarios were formulated to discuss possible improvement of green roof functioning and four selected scenarios were simulated. The study helped us to improve our understanding of the flow processes through the green roof soil system under study. The alternative scenario simulations allowed hydrological assessment of roof construction amendments. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  15. The Greening of Work: How Green Is Green Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Räikkönen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's constantly deepening environmental problems have brought about the need to remold current work cultures along the lines of green thinking. However, profound differences still prevail between the different strands of green thought and practice with regard to the greening of work. The main purpose of this paper is to look in more detail at the arguments and implications of two differing positions, namely `environmentalism´ and `ecologism´. The ideas of corporate social responsibility, green jobs, and downshifting are chosen as objects for closer scrutiny. A critical examination of these contemporary discourses leads to the conclusion that at least so far, they all remain within the confines of environmentalism: no radical changes are presupposed in the current ways of working or in our relationship with the non-human world. Viewed from the perspective of ecologism, the studied greening efforts remain too reformist and anthropocentric to be capable of making work truly `green´.

  16. Earth Observation of Vegetation Dynamics in Global Drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng

    and exploring the widely used long-term datasets and 2) mapping trends in woody vegetation. A highlight of the thesis is the mapping of trends in the non-green woody vegetation component in global tropical drylands, which is obtained for the first time from combing satellite optical and passive microwave...... trends in the woody cover between humid areas and drylands in Africa, which are explained by human activities and climate changes, respectively....

  17. Antimicrobial effect of Malaysian vegetables against enteric bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Al-Talib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Garlic had excellent antimicrobial effects against enteric bacteria and was recommended to be given to patients with gastroenteritis. The other vegetables (pennywort, mint, parsley and celery showed no inhibitory effects on enteric bacteria but still can be used for its richness in vitamins and fibers. The performance of the well diffusion method was better than that of the disc diffusion method in detecting the antibacterial effects of green vegetables.

  18. Green chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point.

  19. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  20. Strong impacts of daily minimum temperature on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-09-01

    Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with daily minimum temperature (Tmin ) than with maximum temperature (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P < 0.05). The stimulating effects of increasing Tmin were likely caused by reduced low temperature constraints, and the apparent negative effects of higher Tmax on greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  2. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  3. Total Vegetation 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are polygons that contain vegetated pixels in the May, 2002 imagery from aerial overflight of the Grand Canyon. Vegetation was mapped between stage elevations...

  4. Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis: a new multitemporal index of total vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, G. S.; Liu, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    High temporal resolution remote sensing provides an opportunity to monitor phenological variability and interannual changes in vegetation cover across diverse. A principal tool in multitemporal vegetation monitoring has been the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. NDVI provides an index of the depth of the red edge and is usually interpreted as a measure of vegetation greenness and/or green vegetation cover. NDVI as a measure of phenology has several failings, particularly when applied over large areas: 1) NDVI is sensitive to the spectra of the soil background, particularly in partially or seasonally vegetated areas, 2) NDVI does not provide information about the non-photosynthetic portion of standing biomass, and 3) NDVI is very sensitive to the presence of small amounts of snow in a pixel. A new method for measuring vegetation phenology has been developed called Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis. RSMA uses a linear spectral mixture analysis to provide an index of the relative cover of four landscape components: green vegetation (GV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil, and snow. RSMA uses generalized spectral for GV, NPV and snow, but does not require knowledge of the background soil spectra. This allows RSMA to be applied over very large areas (continental-scale) in which the soil background is highly diverse. RSMA has been implemented in the IDL language and used to analyze MODIS nadir-adjusted reflectance products from 2000 to the present. Our results show that RSMA GV index values are highly correlated with NDVI, except in regions with snow where RSMA outperforms NDVI. As a result RSMA GV indices and total vegetation indices (GV+NPV) can be used to extract information from spectral timeseries such as the onset of greenness, the termination of greenness, maximum vegetation cover, integrated vegetation cover (an index of NPP), length of the growing season, and duration of fodder availability. RSMA snow indices correlate well with other satellite

  5. Evaluation of the New York City Green Carts program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Farley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is a concern, particularly among low-income populations. Mobile vending is one strategy to expand produce availability and access to increase consumption. In 2008, New York City launched a mobile vending initiative, Green Carts. We report on the evaluation. Three waves of cross-sectional observational surveys of produce availability, variety, and quality were conducted during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2011 in a stratified random sample of stores and carts comparing establishments in Green Cart neighborhoods (n = 13 with comparison neighborhoods (n = 3. Bivariate analyses for availability, variety, and quality comparing Green Cart and comparison neighborhoods were presented across years, and logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to test whether fruit and vegetable availability, variety, and quality increased in Green Cart compared with comparison neighborhoods, adjusting for clustering and neighborhood demographics. Establishments selling fruits and vegetables in Green Cart neighborhoods increased between 2008 and 2011 (50% to 69%, p <0.0001; there was no comparable increase in comparison neighborhoods. Establishments selling more than 10 fruits and vegetables types increased from 31% to 38% (p = 0.0414 in Green Cart neighborhoods; there was no change in comparison neighborhoods. Produce quality was high among comparison establishments, with 95% and 94% meeting the quality threshold in 2008 and 2011, while declining in Green Cart neighborhood establishments from 96% to 88% (p < 0.0001. Sustained produce availability was found in Green Cart neighborhoods between 2008–2011. Green Carts are one strategy contributing to improving produce access among New Yorkers.

  6. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  7. Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD) hosts information on all plant communities in the Netherlands. This substantial archive consists of over 600.000 recent and historic vegetation descriptions. The data provide information on more than 85 years of vegetation recording in various habitats covering te

  8. Determination of the nutrion components and pesticide residues of green vegetables North Mountainous region in Jinhua City%金华北山区部分绿色蔬菜的营养成分和有害物质测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕洪飞

    2001-01-01

    对马铃薯、菜豆、萝卜和番茄等4种绿色蔬菜进行营养成分和有害物质的全面测定。结果表明:绿色蔬菜具有高营养、无毒的特点。(1)4种绿色蔬菜的含钙量分别为一般蔬菜同一品种的240%、98.5%、163.7%和157.8%,含铁量分别为17.4倍、8.7倍、10.7倍和12.7倍,含磷量分别为118.2%、102%、163.6%和177.8%,并具有较高的镁、锌、铜和锰等元素的含量。(2)4种绿色蔬菜的镉、砷、汞、氟、六六六、DDT、敌敌畏、乐果、马拉硫磷、对硫磷、甲胺磷、杀螟硫磷和倍硫磷等13项有害物质全部符合绿色食品标准。(3)4种绿色蔬菜的VB1含量分别增加20%、22.2%、16.7%和6%,VB2分别增加30%、12%、135%和26.7%,Vc分别增加8.6%、68.9%、12.1%和18.1%,胡萝卜素分别为一般同种蔬菜的16倍、2.9倍、13.5倍和4.5倍。(4)其蛋白质含量也分别增加18.5%、13.9%、7.5%和30%,灰分分别为2.08倍、3.15倍、2.85倍和2.96倍,总糖分别为一般同种蔬菜的91%、101.1%、191.3%和95.2%,粗纤维分别为113.3%、89.2%、86.7%和105%%Determinated on nutrition components and pesticide residues of 4 green vegetables,such as potato、kidney bean、radish and tomato et al.The results show that:green vegetables have the characteristics of high nutrition and toxicless,(1) the contents of Ca of the 4 uncontaminaded vegetables are 240%、98.5%、163.7%,157.8% of those of the some species general vegetables,their Fe contents are 17.4、8.7、10.7、12.7 times of those of the same kinds,P contents are 118.2%、102%、163.6% and 177.8% of those of the same kinds,and their contents of elements of Mg、Zn、Cu、Mn et al are also higher.(2) the results of 13 pollutant of Cd、As、Hg、F、BHC、DDT,dichorvos,dimethoate,malation,arathion,methamidophos,fenitrothion and fenthion conform to the standards of green food.(3) The contents of VB1 are increased 20%、22.2%、16.7% and 6%,VB2 are increased 30%、12%、135

  9. Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.

  10. Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.

  11. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-02-12

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  12. Developing Remote Sensing Methodology to Characterize Savanna Vegetation Structure and Composition for Rangeland Monitoring and Conservation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalyuk, M.; Kelly, M.; Getz, W.

    2012-12-01

    Rangeland ecosystems cover more than fifty percent of earth's land surface, host considerable biodiversity and provide vital ecosystem services. However, rangelands around the world face degradation due to climate change, land use change and overgrazing. Human-driven changes to fire and grazing regimes enhance degradation processes. The purpose of this research is to develop a remote sensing methodology to characterize the structure and composition of savanna vegetation, in order to improve the ability of conservation managers to monitor and address such degradation processes. Our study site, Etosha National Park, is a 22,270 km^2 semi-arid savanna located in north-central Namibia. Fencing and provision of artificial water sources for wildlife have changed the natural grazing patterns, which has caused bush encroachment and vegetation degradation across the park. We used MODIS and Landsat ETM+ 7 satellite imagery to map the vegetation type, dominant species, density, cover and biomass of herbaceous and woody vegetation in Etosha. We used imagery for 2007-2012 together with extensive field sampling, both in the wet and the dry seasons. At each sampling point, we identified the dominant species and measured the density, canopy size, height and diameter of the trees and shrubs. At only 31% of the sampling points, the identified vegetation type matched the class assigned at the 1996 classification. This may indicate significant habitat modifications in Etosha. We used two parallel analytical approaches to correlate between radiometric and field data. First, we show that traditional supervised classification identifies well five classes: bare soil, grassland, steppe, shrub savanna and tree savanna. We then refined this classification to enable us to identify the species composition in an area utilizing the phenological differences in timing and duration of greenness of the dominant tree and shrub species in Etosha. Specifically, using multi-date images we were able to

  13. Adjustment to the Curve Number Nrcs-Cn to Account for the Vegetation Effect on the Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an approach that makes use of remotely sensed Greenness Fraction (GF) as a proxy for the vegetation density to automatically adjust the Curve Number model (NRCS-CN) to account for the effect of the changes in vegetation growth on hydrological processes. Daily gauged precipitation-runoff pairs (1948 to 2003) from the MOdel Parameter Estimation EXperiment dataset (MOPEX) over 26 watersheds across the U.S. were used to estimate monthly averaged CNs (CNsim) and then compared to the monthly GF. An adjustment factor was then proposed for the typical static CN inputs which do not account for the vegetation growth over time; the result was a vegetation-adjusted CN (CNveg adj). The improvement in the performance of the NRCS-CN methodology was assessed. The results evidence how the CNveg adj compensates the underestimation of the standard CN (CNstd). The ratio of the estimated runoff using the CNstd (Qstd) to the observed runoff (Qobs) was 0.36; while with the CNveg adj (Qveg adj) was 0.98. The correlation coefficient of simulated and observed runoff when using CNstd and CNveg adj, was 0.42 and 0.92, respectively. Likewise, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Qstd was -0.92 and 0.85 for Qveg adj. This implies that the adjustment to the CN is crucial for improved hydrological modeling and, therefore, for flood and flash flood monitoring and forecasting.

  14. Future oriented and more sustainable green roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appl, R.; Ansel, W. [Deutscher Dachgartnerverband, Nuertingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The contribution that green roofs make to sustainable urban Development were discussed with reference to the support that the industry has received in Germany. The German Roof Gardener Association (DDV) was established in the 1990s with an objective to replace the billions of square feet of bare or gravel flat roof surface area in Germany with ecological green roofs. The DDV created guidelines for the systems and components being used in green roof constructions, starting from the raw material to the production and transport of the material, and to the recycling of the material after demolition. Green roofs in Germany are now made mandatory by local authorities. Green roofs offer innovative technological features as well as additional use. Combined with extensive or intensive greening, these roofs reduce the use of building land. They must be built to last the lifetime of the building and given proper care and maintenance. In the twenty-first century, green roof systems will be made of recycled and environmentally sound material. The purpose of the green roof is to provide not only a permanent location for vegetation, but also offer further possibilities of utilization, such as additional thermal insulation, fall protection systems or even constructions for solar power facilities. This paper addressed issues regarding the extended life expectancy of a roof, savings on stormwater tax and thermal values for insulation calculations. Green roofs in Germany currently represent an important element in stormwater management by slowing down, filtering and diminishing rain water runoff. The excess water is guided into cisterns and used for the irrigation of the roof gardens and for flushing toilets. 5 figs.

  15. Exploring the role of green and blue infrastructure in reducing temperature in Iskandar Malaysia using remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; sheikhi, A.; Kang, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    Development of cities has led to various environmental problems as a consequence of non sustaibale town planning. One of the strategies to make cities a livable place and to achieve low levels of CO2 emissions (low carbon cities or LCC) is the integration of the blue and green infrastructure into the development and planning of new urban areas. Iskandar Malaysia (IM) located in the southern part of Malaysia is a special economic zone that has major urban centres. The planning of these urban centres will incorporate LCC strategies to achieve a sustainable development. The role of green (plants) and blue bodies (lakes and rivers) in moderating temperature in IM have been investigated in the current study. A remotely sensed satellite imagery was used to calculate the vegetation density and land surface temperature (LST). The effect of lakes in cooling the surrounding temperature was also investigated. Results show that increasing vegetation density by 1% can decrease the LST by 0.09°C. As for the water bodies we found as the distance increased from the lake side the temperature also increased about 1.7°C and the reduction in air humidity is 9% as the distance increased to 100 meter away from the lake.

  16. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  17. Estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters by remote sensing using radial basis function neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hua; HUANG Jing-feng; WANG Jian-wen; WANG Xiu-zhen; LIU Zhan-yu

    2007-01-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) data were recorded at two different sites of rice in two experiment fields including two cultivars, and three levels of nitrogen (N) application. Twenty-five Vegetation Indices (VIs) were used to predict the rice agronomic parameters including Leaf Area Index (LAI, m2 green leaf/m2 soil) and Green Leaf Chlorophyll Density (GLCD,mg chlorophyll/m2 soil) by the traditional regression models and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF). RBF emerged as a variant of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the late 1980's. A large variety of training algorithms has been tested for training RBF networks. In this study, Original RBF (ORBF), Gradient Descent RBF (GDRBF), and Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) were employed. Results showed that green waveband Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVIgreen) and TCARI/OSAVI have the best prediction power for LAI by exponent model and ORBF respectively, and that TCARI/OSAVI has the best prediction power for GLCD by exponent model and GDRBF. The best performances of RBF are compared with the traditional models, showing that the relationship between VIs and agronomic variables are further improved when RBF is used.Compared with the best traditional models, ORBF using TCARI/OSAVI improves the prediction power for LAI by lowering the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for 0.1119, and GDRBF using TCARI/OSAVI improves the prediction power for GLCD by lowering the RMSE for 26.7853. It is concluded that RBF provides a useful exploratory and predictive tool when applied to the sensitive VIs.

  18. Time-varying trends of global vegetation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, N.; Feng, X.; Fu, B.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the energy change, water cycle and biochemical cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Monitoring the dynamics of vegetation activity and understanding their driving factors have been an important issue in global change research. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of vegetation activity, has been widely used in investigating vegetation changes at regional and global scales. Most studies utilized linear regression or piecewise linear regression approaches to obtain an averaged changing rate over a certain time span, with an implicit assumption that the trend didn't change over time during that period. However, no evidence shows that this assumption is right for the non-linear and non-stationary NDVI time series. In this study, we adopted the multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) method to extract the time-varying trends of NDVI from original signals without any a priori assumption of their functional form. Our results show that vegetation trends are spatially and temporally non-uniform during 1982-2013. Most vegetated area exhibited greening trends in the 1980s. Nevertheless, the area with greening trends decreased over time since the early 1990s, and the greening trends have stalled or even reversed in many places. Regions with browning trends were mainly located in southern low latitudes in the 1980s, whose area decreased before the middle 1990s and then increased at an accelerated rate. The greening-to-browning reversals were widespread across all continents except Oceania (43% of the vegetated areas), most of which happened after the middle 1990s. In contrast, the browning-to-greening reversals occurred in smaller area and earlier time. The area with monotonic greening and browning trends accounted for 33% and 5% of the vegetated area, respectively. By performing partial correlation analyses between NDVI and climatic elements (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover

  19. STUDY OF THE FLOW THROUGH NON-SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NEHAL Laounia; YAN Zhong-min; XIA Ji-hong

    2005-01-01

    Vegetation is an important feature of many rivers. Vegetation along rivers produces high resistance to flow and, as a result, has a large impact on water levels in rivers and lakes. The effects of instream-unsubmerged vegetation (such as the reed-similar Kalmus) on flow resistance and velocity distributions is studied in the paper. Artificial vegetation is used in the experimental study to simulate the Acorus Calmus L. As shown in experimental tests the resistance depends strongly on vegetation density and the Manning resistance coefficient varies with the depth of flow. A simplified model based on concepts of drag is developed to evaluate the roughness coefficient (Manning's n) for non-submerged vegetation. In vegetated channels the overall flow resistance is influenced significantly by the distribution pattern of the vegetated beds. Within vegetation, vertical variation in velocity is different from that in the non-vegetated bed, which reflects the variation in vegetation density. Vertical turbulent transport of momentum is negligible as demonstrated by experiments.

  20. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  1. Green Roofs and Green Building Rating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw; Chao-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    The environmental benefits for green building from the Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) and Ecology, Energy, Waste, and Health (EEWH) rating systems have been extensively investigated; however, the effect of green roofs on the credit-earning mechanisms is relatively unexplored. This study is concerned with the environmental benefits of green roofs with respect to sustainability, stormwater control, energy savings, and water resources. We focused on the relationsh...

  2. The Benefits and Functions of Green Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnush Khoshmanesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green architecture or sustainable architecture is one of the new architectural approaches receiving much attention in recent years by many contemporary designers around the world. This architecture is based on the concepts of sustainable development and attempts to coordinate with environment as one of the basic needs in the present world. Now, 2% of dry area of the world is dedicated to cities and city dwellers apply ¾ of natural resources. By development of urbanization, natural resources are reduced considerably. Therefore, green roof technology as one of the advanced techniques of green space with the problems of application of vegetation units, they are economical and can be a good alternative for urban parks. Green roof is not only a surface covered with green, but also it is a live surface of growing plants in soil layer above roof. This covering is with root barrier and a drainage layer under it and dry resistant plants grow in it. Green roofs are also called “living roofs”.

  3. Teleconnection between ENSO and Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, F.

    Since 1980s strong ENSO disturbed weather environment economy and human lives worldwide Total impact of these events on society is estimated in billions of dollars and consequences include famine human health problems loss of life property damage and destruction of the environment Areas sensitive to ENSO have been identified in some world areas from climatic records and recently from 15-year satellite data This presentation examines teleconnection between ENSO and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide using 24-year satellite and in situ data records ENSO events were characterized by monthly sea surface temperature SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific They were collected from the improved SST analysis data set Reynolds and Smith 1994 Average anomalies were calculated for the region 5 r N - 5 r S and 170 r - 120 r E 3 4 area Terrestrial ecosystems were presented by the vegetation health condition indices VHI Kogan 1997 The VHIs derived from AVHRR-based NDVI and 10-11 Phi m thermal radiances were designed to monitor moisture and thermal impacts on vegetation health greenness and vigor Two types of responses were identified In boreal winter ecosystems of northern South America southern Africa and Southeast Asia experienced severe moisture and thermal stress during El Ni n o and favorable conditions during La Ni n a years In central South America and the Horn of Africa regions the response was opposite World ecosystems are less sensitive to SSTs during boreal summer except for the areas in northern Brazil

  4. A study of community design, greenness, and physical activity in children using satellite, GPS and accelerometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Estela; Jerrett, Michael; Dunton, Genevieve; Seto, Edmund; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relationships between greenness exposure and free-living physical activity behavior of children in smart growth and conventionally designed communities. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify children's (n=208) greenness exposure at 30-s epoch accelerometer and GPS data points. A generalized linear mixed model with a kernel density smoothing term for addressing spatial autocorrelation was fit to analyze residential neighborhood activity data. Excluding activity at home and during school-hours, an epoch-level analysis found momentary greenness exposure was positively associated with the likelihood of contemporaneous moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This association was stronger for smart growth residents who experienced a 39% increase in odds of MVPA for a 10th to 90th percentile increase in exposure to greenness (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.36-1.44). An individual-level analysis found children who experienced >20 min of daily exposure to greener spaces (>90th percentile) engaged in nearly 5 times the daily rate of MVPA of children with nearly zero daily exposure to greener spaces (95% CI 3.09-7.20).

  5. Human-induced greening of the northern extratropical land surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jiafu; Ribes, Aurélien; Yan, Binyan; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Séférian, Roland; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B.; Douville, Hervé; Piao, Shilong; Zhu, Zaichun; Dickinson, Robert E.; Dai, Yongjiu; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Jin, Mingzhou; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Wang, Bin; Huang, Mengtian; Lian, Xu

    2016-10-01

    Significant land greening in the northern extratropical latitudes (NEL) has been documented through satellite observations during the past three decades. This enhanced vegetation growth has broad implications for surface energy, water and carbon budgets, and ecosystem services across multiple scales. Discernible human impacts on the Earth's climate system have been revealed by using statistical frameworks of detection-attribution. These impacts, however, were not previously identified on the NEL greening signal, owing to the lack of long-term observational records, possible bias of satellite data, different algorithms used to calculate vegetation greenness, and the lack of suitable simulations from coupled Earth system models (ESMs). Here we have overcome these challenges to attribute recent changes in NEL vegetation activity. We used two 30-year-long remote-sensing-based leaf area index (LAI) data sets, simulations from 19 coupled ESMs with interactive vegetation, and a formal detection and attribution algorithm. Our findings reveal that the observed greening record is consistent with an assumption of anthropogenic forcings, where greenhouse gases play a dominant role, but is not consistent with simulations that include only natural forcings and internal climate variability. These results provide the first clear evidence of a discernible human fingerprint on physiological vegetation changes other than phenology and range shifts.

  6. Advances in Remote Sensing for Vegetation Dynamics and Agricultural Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Compton; Puma, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing has led to great advances in the global monitoring of vegetation. For example, the NASA Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group has developed widely used datasets from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors as well as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) map imagery and normalized difference vegetation index datasets. These data are valuable for analyzing vegetation trends and variability at the regional and global levels. Numerous studies have investigated such trends and variability for both natural vegetation (e.g., re-greening of the Sahel, shifts in the Eurasian boreal forest, Amazonian drought sensitivity) and crops (e.g., impacts of extremes on agricultural production). Here, a critical overview is presented on recent developments and opportunities in the use of remote sensing for monitoring vegetation and crop dynamics.

  7. Preparation of protoplasts from the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, P A; Callow, M E; Evans, L V

    1979-12-01

    Protoplasts have been obtained from vegetative thallus of the green seaweed Enteromorpha following enzymic digestion with driselase and pectinase. The viability of purified protoplast fractions was assessed by staining and measurements of O2 uptake and evolution.

  8. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The results show clearly that the daily urban dietary intake of copper and zinc, from protein foods and .... Green vegetables sold in Dar-es-Salaam have been previously shown to be contaminated with ... in open spaces close to the roads and.

  9. 78 FR 45907 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the Department... greens with turnips, and frozen mixed vegetables. DATES: Effective Date: August 29, 2013. FOR FURTHER...

  10. The physico-chemical characteristics and some nutritional values of vegetable amaranth sold in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Shibairo, S.I.; Imungi, J.K.; Harbinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy vegetabl

  11. Pesticide governance in export supply chains: the case of vegetable and fruit production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van Hoi,; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of international agrofood supply chains in greening vegetable and fruit products and production in Vietnam. Mainly through contract-based procurement, the export- oriented vegetable and fruit supply chain is better structured and organized than the domestic supply chain. Exporter

  12. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  13. Evapotranspiration estimation in heterogeneous urban vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nouri, H.; Beecham, S.; Anderson, S.; Sutton, P.; Chavoshi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Finding a valid approach to measure the water requirements of mixed urban vegetation is a challenge. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main component of a plant's water requirement. A better understanding of the ET of urban vegetation is essential for sustainable urbanisation. Increased implementation of green infrastructure will be informed by this work. Despite promising technologies and sophisticated facilities, ET estimation of urban vegetation remains insufficiently characterized. We reviewed the common field, laboratory and modelling techniques for ET estimation, mostly agriculture and forestry applications. We opted for 3 approaches of ET estimation: 1) an observational-based method using adjustment factors applied to reference ET, 2) a field-based method of Soil Water Balance (SWB) and 3) a Remote Sensing (RS)-based method. These approaches were applied to an experimental site to evaluate the most suitable ET estimation approach for an urban parkland. To determine in-situ ET, 2 lysimeters and 4 Neutron Moisture Meter probes were installed. Based on SWB principles, all input water (irrigation, precipitation and upward groundwater movements) and output water (ET, drainage, soil moisture and runoff) were measured monthly for 14 months. The observation based approach and the ground-based approach (SWB) were compared. Our predictions were compared to the actual irrigation rates (data provided by the City Council). Results suggest the observational-based method is the most appropriate urban ET estimation. We examined the capability of RS to estimate ET for urban vegetation. Image processing of 5 WorldView2 satellite images enabled modelling of the relationship between urban vegetation and vegetation indices derived from high resolution images. Our results indicate that an ETobservational-based -NDVI modelling approach is a reliable method of ET estimation for mixed urban vegetation. It also has the advantage of not depending on extensive field data collection.

  14. Phenological Characterization of Desert Sky Island Vegetation Communities with Remotely Sensed and Climate Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are expected to impact the synchronicity and interactions between the Sonoran Desert and the forested sky islands which represent steep biological and environmental gradients. The main objectives were to examine how well satellite greenness time series data and derived phenological metrics (e.g., season start, peak greenness can characterize specific vegetation communities across an elevation gradient, and to examine the interactions between climate and phenological metrics for each vegetation community. We found that representative vegetation types (11, varying between desert scrub, mesquite, grassland, mixed oak, juniper and pine, often had unique seasonal and interannual phenological trajectories and spatial patterns. Satellite derived land surface phenometrics (11 for each of the vegetation communities along the cline showed numerous distinct significant relationships in response to temperature (4 and precipitation (7 metrics. Satellite-derived sky island vegetation phenology can help assess and monitor vegetation dynamics and provide unique indicators of climate variability and patterns of change.

  15. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  16. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    - while at seasonal scales the vegetative response is dominated by solar radiation in most regions. At the higher latitudes, the trends in all vegetation diagnostics agree with the hypothesis of a greening pattern explained by the increase in temperature. At the same time, substantial differences can be observed between the responses of the different vegetation indices as well. As an example, the VOD - thought to be a close proxy for vegetation water content - shows a larger sensitivity to precipitation than traditional optical indices like the NDVI. Our findings help to further understand the physical attributes of vegetation that each remotely-sensed vegetation index is responding to in order to optimize their use in global bio-geoscience research.

  17. 城市绿量的遥感估算与热岛效应的相关分析——以北京市五环区域为例%The Correlationship between Urban Greenness and Heat Island Effect with RS Technology:A Case Study within 5th Ring Road in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸苏闯; 吴文勇; 刘洪禄; 杨胜利; 潘兴瑶

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing technology was used to estimate the interrelationship between urban green land development and land surface temperature in Beijing. The processes involved green land identification, greenness evaluation, land surface temperature retrieval, and analysis of relationship between land surface temperature and greenness. The decision tree for hierarchical classification was built up to identify the green vegetation area according to reflectance value in different bands for land covers in urban area: water, built-ups, bare soil, high-density vegetation and low density vegetation. NDVI value was used to specify the vegetation area, for high-density vegetation area it was between 0. 27 and 1. 0, and for low-density area it was between 0. land 0. 26. With the help of Rapid Eye remote sensing image and on site investigation, the green land area was evaluated and it was 197, 3 km2 accounting for 29. 6% of total urban area, 50 investigated quadrates were distributed in 10 parks, such as Summer Palace, Olympic Park, and so on. The correlation coefficient for greenness and NDVI is 0, 73 based on Rapid Eye imagines, while it is 0. 60 based on Landsat 5 TM imagines. The estimated greenness is 2450. 7 km2 within 5th ring road of Beijing. The land surface temperature was retrieved from the Landsat 5 TM 6 remote sensing image, and it was between 31℃ to 46. 2℃. The land surface temperature for water body and vegetation area was 4-6℃ lower than nearby built-ups. The proportion for low temperature region, middle temperature region, sub heat island region, and heat island region were 12. 3%, 34. 7%, 40. 4%, and 12. 6%, respectively. It shown a negative correlation between land surface temperature and greenness as y= -1278. 7x+60650 (x represented land surface temperature(℃) ; y represented greenness(m2). The green land declined the land surface temperature by 2. 6℃ in Beijing.%本研究以遥感分析北京城市绿地对地表温度的影响,研究包括绿地

  18. Consistent response of vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in tropical mountain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; John, Robert; Joseph, Shijo

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has emerged as a major driver of ecosystem change. Here, we present evidence for globally consistent responses in vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in the world's mountain ecosystems located in the pan-tropical belt (30°N-30°S). We analyzed decadal-scale trends and seasonal cycles of vegetation greenness using monthly time series of satellite greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climate data for the period 1982-2006 for 47 mountain protected areas in five biodiversity hotspots. The time series of annual maximum NDVI for each of five continental regions shows mild greening trends followed by reversal to stronger browning trends around the mid-1990s. During the same period we found increasing trends in temperature but only marginal change in precipitation. The amplitude of the annual greenness cycle increased with time, and was strongly associated with the observed increase in temperature amplitude. We applied dynamic models with time-dependent regression parameters to study the time evolution of NDVI-climate relationships. We found that the relationship between vegetation greenness and temperature weakened over time or was negative. Such loss of positive temperature sensitivity has been documented in other regions as a response to temperature-induced moisture stress. We also used dynamic models to extract the trends in vegetation greenness that remain after accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation. We found residual browning and greening trends in all regions, which indicate that factors other than temperature and precipitation also influence vegetation dynamics. Browning rates became progressively weaker with increase in elevation as indicated by quantile regression models. Tropical mountain vegetation is considered sensitive to climatic changes, so these consistent vegetation responses across widespread regions indicate persistent global-scale effects of climate warming and associated moisture

  19. Study on Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Mostoophi, A; Shemshadi, B

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, an increase in the number of cases of food-borne illnesses linked to fresh vegetables has been reported. One of the causative agents of these infections is Cryptosporidium and it appears that one route of transmission to humans is food-borne, so fruits and vegetables have important roles. The goal of this study was to determine the level of Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran, Iran. A total of 496 samples from 115 vegetable farms in different regions around Tehran (Capital city of Iran) were collected and different types of vegetables were investigated for the parasite in June and July, 2012. A sediment concentration method followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen's acid-fast staining was used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Our findings revealed that 6.6% of studied samples were contaminated with Cryptosporidium species. The highest rate of contamination was reported in Bagher Abad (South of Tehran) (11.1%), and green onions were more commonly contaminated (14.8%) than any other vegetables tested. Furthermore, when waste water was used to irrigate vegetable farms, the contamination rate was (33.3%). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and studied risk factors including: different regions around Tehran, type of vegetables, and type of water used for farm irrigation. Therefore, vegetables may provide a route by which Cryptosporidium can be transmitted to humans, and control strategies should be considered.

  20. Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Threlfall, Caragh G; Williams, Nicholas S G; Hahs, Amy K; Malipatil, Mallik; Stork, Nigel E; Livesley, Stephen J

    2017-01-19

    Insects are key components of urban ecological networks and are greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, few studies have examined how insect functional groups respond to changes to urban vegetation associated with different management actions. We investigated the response of herbivorous and predatory heteropteran bugs to differences in vegetation structure and diversity in golf courses, gardens and parks. We assessed how the species richness of these groups varied amongst green space types, and the effect of vegetation volume and plant diversity on trophic- and species-specific occupancy. We found that golf courses sustain higher species richness of herbivores and predators than parks and gardens. At the trophic- and species-specific levels, herbivores and predators show strong positive responses to vegetation volume. The effect of plant diversity, however, is distinctly species-specific, with species showing both positive and negative responses. Our findings further suggest that high occupancy of bugs is obtained in green spaces with specific combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. The challenge for managers is to boost green space conservation value through actions promoting synergistic combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. Tackling this conservation challenge could provide enormous benefits for other elements of urban ecological networks and people that live in cities.

  1. Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Luis; Threlfall, Caragh G.; Williams, Nicholas S. G.; Hahs, Amy K.; Malipatil, Mallik; Stork, Nigel E.; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are key components of urban ecological networks and are greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, few studies have examined how insect functional groups respond to changes to urban vegetation associated with different management actions. We investigated the response of herbivorous and predatory heteropteran bugs to differences in vegetation structure and diversity in golf courses, gardens and parks. We assessed how the species richness of these groups varied amongst green space types, and the effect of vegetation volume and plant diversity on trophic- and species-specific occupancy. We found that golf courses sustain higher species richness of herbivores and predators than parks and gardens. At the trophic- and species-specific levels, herbivores and predators show strong positive responses to vegetation volume. The effect of plant diversity, however, is distinctly species-specific, with species showing both positive and negative responses. Our findings further suggest that high occupancy of bugs is obtained in green spaces with specific combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. The challenge for managers is to boost green space conservation value through actions promoting synergistic combinations of vegetation structure and diversity. Tackling this conservation challenge could provide enormous benefits for other elements of urban ecological networks and people that live in cities. PMID:28102333

  2. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  3. Vegetation dynamics in response to water inflow rates and fire in a brackish Typha domingensis Pers. marsh in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexicano, Lourdes; Nagler, Pamela L.; Zamora-Arroyo, Francisco; Glenn, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    The Cienega de Santa Clara is a 5600 ha, anthropogenic wetland in the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico. It is the inadvertent creation of the disposal of brackish agricultural waste water from the U.S. into the intertidal zone of the river delta in Mexico, but has become an internationally important wetland for resident and migratory water birds. We used high resolution Quickbird and WorldView-2 images to produce seasonal vegetation maps of the Cienega before, during and after a test run of the Yuma Desalting Plant, which will remove water from the inflow stream and replace it with brine. We also used moderate resolution, 16-day composite NDVI imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra satellite to determine the main factors controlling green vegetation density over the years 2000–2011. The marsh is dominated by Typha domingensis Pers. with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steud. as a sub-dominant species in shallower marsh areas. The most important factor controlling vegetation density was fire. Spring fires in 2006 and 2011 were followed by much more rapid green-up of T. domingensis in late spring and 30% higher peak summer NDVI values compared to non-fire years (P < 0.001). Fires removed thatch and returned nutrients to the water, resulting in more vigorous vegetation growth compared to non-fire years. The second significant (P < 0.01) factor controlling NDVI was flow rate of agricultural drain water from the U.S. into the marsh. Reduced summer flows in 2001 due to canal repairs, and in 2010 during the YDP test run, produced the two lowest NDVI values of the time series from 2000 to 2011 (P < 0.05). Salinity is a further determinant of vegetation dynamics as determined by greenhouse experiments, but was nearly constant over the period 2000–2011, so it was not a significant variable in regression analyses. It is concluded that any reduction in inflow volumes will result in a linear decrease in green foliage

  4. Technology Drives Vegetable Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Arobot for vegetable planting is able to examine growing conditions, detect disease of the vegetables and pick up the ripe ones through identifying the color; a tomato tree is able to produce up to 3,000kgs of tomatoes; sweet potatoes are growing in the air; fish and vegeta-bles are living together harmoniously...Viewing these, you may doubt that you were in a fancy world.Actually, you are here at the 12th China (Shouguang) International Vegetable Sci-tech Fair.

  5. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  6. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  7. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  8. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  9. What Is Green Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  10. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  11. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a f