WorldWideScience

Sample records for density social interaction

  1. Perceived Density, Social Interaction and Morale in New South Wales Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between population density, social interaction patterns, and morale in rural communities. It tests two apparently competing hypotheses concerning rural population density, social interaction patterns and overall levels of morale: one, that low (and rapidly declining) rural densities lead to feelings of…

  2. The Effects of Spatial Density on the Social Interaction of Preschool Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Coralie; Carter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the effects of spatial density on the social interaction of preschool children, particularly those with disabilities. Further, findings of existing studies need to be viewed cautiously due to a number of methodological difficulties including contrived small groupings of children and atypical intervention…

  3. Social interaction of juvenile Japanese quail classified by their permanence in proximity to a high or low density of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, D A; Pellegrini, S; Kembro, J M; Marin, R H

    2013-10-01

    One challenge faced by ethologists in poultry welfare is helping birds to form functionally successful groups over time through the expression of appropriate behaviors. Searching for phenotypic variability, we developed in Japanese quail a density-related permanence (DRP) test that enables us to classify young birds (while in groups) according to their individual permanence in boxes containing a high or low density of confined conspecifics (HD or LD, respectively). This study addressed the question of whether contrasting DRP quail behavior may reflect underlying differences in social responses. Birds were classified at 11 d of age in an apparatus consisting of 2 boxes interconnected by a central region delimited by sliding doors. Each box contained at its distal end either 12 or 3 conspecifics confined behind a glass (high or low density, respectively). The doors were closed 9 times every 1 h, and positioning of 36 experimental birds was registered. If birds were found in the box containing high density, low density, or in the central region, they received a 1, -1, or a 0 score, respectively. Birds with final summed scores of ≥3 or ≤-3 were categorized as HD or LD, respectively. Same category groups (HD or LD) were evaluated in their home box (undisturbed) and in a resident/intruder test when 38 d old. A higher proportion of LD than HD groups (5/6 vs. 1/6, respectively) showed at least one aggressive pecking event during a 1-h trial. The LD groups also showed a higher number of aggressive pecking events than HP groups. When an unfamiliar intruder (either HD or LD) was incorporated during 5 min in the HD or LD box, LD resident quail showed shorter latencies and a higher number of aggressive pecking events toward the intruder bird than their HD counterparts. The early individual permanence in the DRP test could be considered a consequence of a different adaptability strategy for group living. This novel test could be relevant for selection programs aiming to

  4. Multiactivity in Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doing more than one thing at the same time – a phenomenon that is often called ‘multitasking’ – is characteristic to many situations in everyday and professional life. Although we all experience it, its real time features remain understudied. Multiactivity in Social Interaction: Beyond multitasking...... by using video recordings of real-life interactions from a range of different contexts, such as medical settings, office workplaces and car driving. With the companion collection Interacting with Objects: Language, materiality, and social activity, the book advances understanding of the complex...... organisation and accomplishment of social interaction, especially the significance of embodiment, materiality, participation and temporality. A close appreciation of how people use language and interact for and during multiactivity will not only interest researchers in language and social interaction...

  5. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS SOCIAL INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Lima, Patricia; Olsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore how entrepreneurs work with innovation; to explore and develop attention points in understanding entrepreneurship as social processes of interaction between people. Through interviews and engagement with entrepreneurs and key stakeholders, their actual social practices...... and the influence on the progress as innovators are explored. It is focused on a new local activity in a Danish town, named the I-factory which has within a year gathered almost 40 entrepreneurs. As a part of the interaction, there were created activities to encourage even more collaboration. We see...... entrepreneurship as socially constructed through local interactions between players and identify key themes in these interactions within the organisation, such as leadership, becoming part of the initiative and trust/mistrust. By doing so, this paper contributes to an understanding of entrepreneurship as social...

  6. Relationality and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Wendy

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores Bourdieu's account of a relational social space, and his relative neglect of social interaction within this framework. Bourdieu includes social capital as one of the key relational elements of his social space, but says much less about it than economic or cultural capital, and levels of social capital are rarely measured in his work. Bourdieu is reluctant to focus on the content of social networks as part of his rejection of substantialist thinking. The neglect of substantive networks creates problems for Bourdieu's framework, because many of Bourdieu's core concepts rest upon assumptions about their interactional properties (in particular, the prevalence of homophilous differential association) which are left unexamined. It is argued here that Bourdieu's neglect of the substance of social networks is related to the criticisms that Bourdieu's framework often encounters, and that this neglect bears re-examination, since it is helpful to think of the ways in which differentiated social networks contribute to the development of habitus, help form fields, and so constitute the intersubjective social relations within which sociality, and practice more generally, occur.

  7. Social Interactions and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…

  8. Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available from www.springerlink.com. Sloep, P. (2009). Social Interaction in Learning Networks. In R. Koper (Ed.), Learning Network Services for Professional Development (pp 13-15). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.

  9. Capturing Order in Social Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    As humans appear to be literally wired for social interaction, it is not surprising to observe that social aspects of human behavior and psychology attract interest in the computing community as well. The gap between social animal and unsocial machine was tolerable when computers were nothing else than improved versions of old tools (e.g., word processors replacing typewriters), but nowadays computers go far beyond that simple role. Today, computers are the natural means for a wide spectrum o...

  10. Social Television and User Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Chorianopoulos, K.; Jensen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    At first glance, the notion of social interactive television seems to be a tautology. Television watching has always been a social activity. People watch television together in their living rooms, and outside their homes they talk about last night's football match; and even call each other to recomm

  11. Electron correlation by polarization of interacting densities

    CERN Document Server

    Whitten, Jerry L

    2016-01-01

    Coulomb interactions that occur in electronic structure calculations are correlated by allowing basis function components of the interacting densities to polarize, thereby reducing the magnitude of the interaction. Exchange integrals of molecular orbitals are not correlated. The modified Coulomb interactions are used in single-determinant or configuration interaction calculations. The objective is to account for dynamical correlation effects without explicitly introducing higher spherical harmonic functions into the molecular orbital basis. Molecular orbital densities are decomposed into a distribution of spherical components that conserve the charge and each of the interacting components is considered as a two-electron wavefunction embedded in the system acted on by an average field Hamiltonian plus . A method of avoiding redundancy is described. Applications to atoms, negative ions and molecules representing different types of bonding and spin states are discussed.

  12. Emotional intelligence and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo N; Brackett, Marc A; Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Sellin, Ina; Salovey, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Two studies found positive relationships between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social interactions, supporting the predictive and incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In a sample of 118 American college students (Study 1), higher scores on the managing emotions subscale of the MSCEIT were positively related to the quality of interactions with friends, evaluated separately by participants and two friends. In a diary study of social interaction with 103 German college students (Study 2), managing emotions scores were positively related to the perceived quality of interactions with opposite sex individuals. Scores on this subscale were also positively related to perceived success in impression management in social interactions with individuals of the opposite sex. In both studies, the main findings remained statistically significant after controlling for Big Five personality traits.

  13. Socially aware interactive playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro; Delden, van Robby; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Interactive playgrounds are technology-enhanced installations that aim to provide rich game experiences for children by combining the benefits of traditional playgrounds with those of digital games. These game experiences could be attained by addressing three design considerations: context-awareness

  14. Noncovalent Interactions in Density-Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DiLabio, Gino A

    2014-01-01

    Non-covalent interactions are essential in the description of soft matter, including materials of technological importance and biological molecules. In density-functional theory, common approaches fail to describe dispersion forces, an essential component in noncovalent binding interactions. In the last decade, great progress has been made in the development of accurate and computationally-efficient methods to describe noncovalently bound systems within the framework of density-functional theory. In this review, we give an account of the field from a chemical and didactic perspective, describing different approaches to the calculation of dispersion energies and comparing their accuracy, complexity, popularity, and general availability. This review should be useful to the newcomer who wants to learn more about noncovalent interactions and the different methods available at present to describe them using density-functional theory.

  15. Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...

  16. Street photography as social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  17. Teaching innovation is social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bente; Petersen, Monika Hoeck

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to explore how teaching practitioners teach innovation – by cross comparing the local nursing college innovation program and the innovation teaching at the bachelor program in Mechatronic engineering at the local University; to explore and develop attention points in understanding...... that emerging entrepreneurial attitudes are linked to the social processes of interaction between the participants of teachers and students....

  18. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  19. Self-Confidence & Social Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the interactions between an individual's self-esteem and his social environment - in the workplace, at school, and in personal relationships. Because a person generally has only imperfect knowledge of his own abilities, people who derive benefits from his performance (parent, spouse, friend, teacher, manager, etc.) have incentives to manipulate his self--confidence. We first study situations where an informed principal chooses an incentive structure, such as offering paymen...

  20. Oblique interactions of dust density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhelchui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yang - Fang [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Hou, Lujing [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Jiang, Ke [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Wu, De - Jin [CHINA; Thomas, Hubertus M [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Morfill, Gregor E [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE

    2010-01-01

    Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.

  1. Social Interaction and Labour Market Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Guangyi

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of social interaction on employment status and employment quality by using longitudinal data from BHPS (British Household Panel Survey). Active community membership is employed as the measurement of social Interaction. Various identification strategies provide robust evidence that a higher level of social interaction results in increased probability of being full-time employed. The effect of social interaction on employment status is also investigated among diffe...

  2. Computing dispersion interactions in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, V. R.; Kong, L.; Langreth, D. C.

    2010-02-01

    In this article techniques for including dispersion interactions within density functional theory are examined. In particular comparisons are made between four popular methods: dispersion corrected DFT, pseudopotential correction schemes, symmetry adapted perturbation theory, and a non-local density functional - the so called Rutgers-Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF). The S22 benchmark data set is used to evaluate the relative accuracy of these methods and factors such as scalability and transferability are also discussed. We demonstrate that vdW-DF presents an excellent compromise between computational speed and accuracy and lends most easily to full scale application in solid materials. This claim is supported through a brief discussion of a recent large scale application to H2 in a prototype metal organic framework material (MOF), Zn2BDC2TED. The vdW-DF shows overwhelming promise for first-principles studies of physisorbed molecules in porous extended systems; thereby having broad applicability for studies as diverse as molecular adsorption and storage, battery technology, catalysis and gas separations.

  3. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  4. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  5. Galaxy interactions II: High density environments

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Sol; Padilla, Nelson; Lambas, Diego G

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to assess the role of dense environments in galaxy interactions, properties we present an analysis of close galaxy pairs in groups and clusters, obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). We identified pairs that reside in groups by cross-correlating the total galaxy pair catalogue with the SDSS-DR7 group catalogue from Zapata et al. (2009). We classify pair galaxies according to the intensity of interaction. We analysed the effect of high density environments on different classes of galaxy-galaxy interactions and we have also studied the impact of the group global environment on pair galaxies. We find that galaxy pairs are more concentrated towards the group centres with respect to the other group galaxy members, and disturbed pairs show a preference to contain the brightest galaxy in the groups. The color-magnitude relation exhibits significant differences between pair galaxies and the control sample, consisting in color tails with a clear excess of extremely blue and...

  6. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    that social effects are strongly dependent on the definition of the reference group. It emerges that no social effects are found in distance based groups, exogenous social effects linked to group education exist in informal insurance groups, and only kinship related groups generate the endogenous social...

  7. Data Mining on Social Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Atzmueller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Social media and social networks have already woven themselves into the very fabric of everyday life. This results in a dramatic increase of social data capturing various relations between the users and their associated artifacts, both in online networks and the real world using ubiquitous devices. In this work, we consider social interaction networks from a data mining perspective - also with a special focus on real-world face-to-face contact networks: We combine data mining and social netwo...

  8. A tabletop interactive storytelling system: designing for social interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alofs, Thijs; Theune, Mariet; Swartjes, I.M.T.

    This paper presents the Interactive Storyteller, a multi-user interface for AI-based interactive storytelling, where stories emerge from the interaction of human players with intelligent characters in a simulated story world. To support face-to-face contact and social interaction, we position users

  9. [Assessment of anxiolytics (4)--Social interaction test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, H

    1995-08-01

    The rat social interaction test is based on spontaneous social interaction behaviors, such as sniffing and following between two rats, and thus does not necessitate noxious food or water deprivation, electric shocks and lengthy training. The amount of time that pairs of rats spent interacting with each other varied systematically with the environmental stimuli, such as the illumination and familiarity of the test arena. When tested under the most aversive high light: unfamiliar condition, control subjects exhibited low levels of social interaction. Acute treatment with benzodiazepine-related agents exerted anxiolytic effects, as measured by an increase in the time spent by pairs of rats engaged in social interaction, while anxiogenic agents decreased social interaction under the same high light: unfamiliar condition. The minimum effective doses of benzodiazepine-related agents in this paradigm corresponded well to their respective clinical dosages. Thus, the simple social interaction test is beneficial in assessing effects of agents on the anxiety states of animals in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Treatment with 5-HT-related anxiolytic agents also increased social interaction. However, there existed some differences in the magnitude of increases or characteristics of each behavioral component between benzodiazepine- and 5-HT-related agents, which were consistent with the clinical literature regarding their efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Therefore, the rat social interaction test is predictable for clinical anxiolytic effects of non-benzodiazepine agents in comparison with benzodiazepines.

  10. Social Interaction and Depression in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Hamel, Jocelyn

    1988-01-01

    Examined social interaction and depression among 42 elderly persons. Found depression was negatively correlated with measure of quantity of social interaction entailing frequent conversations and positively correlated with having reciprocally intimate relationships. Findings suggest that depression in older adults is negatively related to having…

  11. Dynamics of deceptive interactions in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Barrio, Rafael A; Dunbar, Robin; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of lies in human social relations by implementing some salient characteristics of deceptive interactions into an opinion formation model, so as to describe the dynamical behaviour of a social network more realistically. In this model we take into account such basic properties of social networks as the dynamics of the intensity of interactions, the influence of public opinion, and the fact that in every human interaction it might be convenient to deceive or withhold information depending on the instantaneous situation of each individual in the network. We find that lies shape the topology of social networks, especially the formation of tightly linked, small communities with loose connections between them. We also find that agents with a larger proportion of deceptive interactions are the ones that connect communities of different opinion, and in this sense they have substantial centrality in the network. We then discuss the consequences of these results for the social behaviou...

  12. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats reduces social interaction and social recognition performance and increases oxytocin receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Travis E; Baumbach, Jennet L; Marcolin, Marina L; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-09-17

    Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviors in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p=0.006). Furthermore, CTL rats showed a preference for novel over familiar conspecifics in a social recognition test whereas SS rats did not, which may reflect reduced recognition, impaired memory, or reduced preference for novelty in SS rats. The reward value of social interactions was not affected by SS based on conditioned place preference tests and based on the greater time SS rats spent investigating stimulus rats than did CTL rats when the stimulus rat was behind wire mesh (p=0.03). Finally, oxytocin receptor binding density was higher in the dorsal lateral septum and nucleus accumbens shell in SS rats compared with CTL rats (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). No effect of SS was found for vasopressin 1a receptor binding density in any of the brain regions analyzed. We discuss the extent to which the differences in social behavior exhibited after social instability in adolescence involve changes in social salience and social competency, and the possibility that changes in oxytocin signaling in the brain underlie the differences in social behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social Interactions Receive Priority to Conscious Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Humans are social animals, constantly engaged with other people. The importance of social thought and action is hard to overstate. However, is social information so important that it actually determines which stimuli are promoted to conscious experience and which stimuli are suppressed as invisible? To address this question, we used a binocular rivalry paradigm, in which the two eyes receive different action stimuli. In two experiments we measured the conscious percept of rival actions and found that actions engaged in social interactions are granted preferential access to visual awareness over non-interactive actions. Lastly, an attentional task that presumably engaged the mentalizing system enhanced the priority assigned to social interactions in reaching conscious perception. We also found a positive correlation between human identification of interactive activity and the promotion of socially-relevant information to visual awareness. The present findings suggest that the visual system amplifies socially-relevant sensory information and actively promotes it to consciousness, thereby facilitating inferences about social interactions.

  14. Social interaction in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Studies on natural long-term course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well as on treatment outcome suggest that social integration remains seriously unsatisfactory in the majority of the subjects concerned. Identification of typical borderline problems in social interaction should facilitate both, treatment development and elucidation of the related neuropsychological mechanisms and underpinnings. This review focuses on the experimental investigation of three core domains of social interaction: social affiliation, cooperation and hostility. Data converge, that patients meeting criteria for BPD show a tendency to misinterpret neutral situations, feel socially rejected during normative inclusion conditions and reveal difficulties in repairing cooperation after experiencing disappointment. While from a clinical perspective, most attention has been focused on relationships of BPD patients with their significant others, the literature suggests that encounters with unknown individuals also indicate impairments in interaction behavior, and that such impairments can be linked to altered cerebral processing. Considering these findings psychosocial treatments should extend the programs and develop trainings in normative behavior.

  15. Entangling mobility and interactions in social media

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowicz, Przemyslaw A; Goncalves, Bruno; Eguiluz, Victor M

    2013-01-01

    Daily interactions naturally define social circles. Individuals tend to be friends with the people they spend time with and they choose to spend time with their friends, inextricably entangling physical location and social relationships. As a result, it is possible to predict not only someone's location from their friends' locations but also friendship from spatial and temporal co-occurrence. While several models have been developed to separately describe mobility and the evolution of social networks, there is a lack of studies coupling social interactions and mobility. In this work, we introduce a new model that bridges this gap by explicitly considering the feedback of mobility on the formation of social ties. Data coming from three online social networks (Twitter, Gowalla and Brightkite) is used for validation. Our model reproduces various topological and physical properties of these networks such as: i) the size of the connected components, ii) the distance distribution between connected users, iii) the d...

  16. Interactive Lagrangian density between massive photons and gravitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yan-bin

    2006-01-01

    The interactive Lagrangian density of massive photons and gravitons is proposed after an investigation into the interaction between photons with or without mass under the influence of gravity either as classical field, gravitational wave, or gravitons from a perspective of quantum field. This interactive Lagrangian density can provide a step-stone for further research of gravitational wave and the possible rest mass of photon.

  17. Workplace surfaces as resource for social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; Nishida, T.

    2009-01-01

    Space and spatial arrangements play an important role in our everyday social interactions. The way we use and manage our surrounding space is not coincidental, on the contrary, it reflects the way we think, plan and act. Within collaborative contexts, its ability to support social activities makes

  18. Residential Group Size, Social Interaction, and Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valins, Stuart; Baum, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Social and psychological effects of residing in overloaded social environments are discussed. Data are presented suggesting that the interior architecture of the corridor-design dormitories requires residents to interact with too many others, leading residents to experience stress and develop potentially stress-reducing behavior. (JR)

  19. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members...

  20. Sense of social interaction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, M; Cajdler, A; Menzyk, K

    2008-12-01

    The intuit is that the need for social interaction increases in the elderly. The issue, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study we posed the following main questions: (i) does the need for social interaction indeed increase in older age? and (ii) is there a defined personality trait that would interact with the level of social interaction? The study was one of a self-reported group survey. A total of 50 women were enrolled, who were divided into two even contrasting age-groups: young, 20-30 years, and senior, 60-80 years old. The main exclusion criterion was depression, which was screened for before subject enrollment. The results demonstrate that the need for interpersonal meetings was similar in the young and old women; the mean score amounted to 15.4 +/-0.5 and 15.6 +/-0.6 points, respectively. The most frequent reason for the meetings in both young and old women was to socialize; 80 and 68% of women, respectively. The rarest, in turn, reason was to get help in everyday life matters; 8% young and 12% old women. Thus, we failed to show appreciable differences in the need, character, and goals of social interaction between the two age-groups of women. Social interaction had most often a free and selfless character. We also found that extraversion, independent of age, facilitated social interaction. In conclusion, although to the question asked of whether 'the older the person, the more he/she misses the interaction with others' 76-88% of the surveyed women in both age-groups answered affirmatively, the findings of the present study failed to confirm that.

  1. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  2. Mapping Social Interactions: The Science of Proxemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Cade

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal distance and gaze provide a wealth of information during face-to-face social interactions. These "proxemic" behaviors offer a window into everyday social cognition by revealing interactants' affective states (e.g., interpersonal attitudes) and cognitive responses (e.g., social attention). Here we provide a brief overview of the social psychological literature in this domain. We focus on new techniques for experimentally manipulating and measuring proxemics, including the use of immersive virtual environments and digital motion capture. We also discuss ways in which these approaches can be integrated with psychophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. Throughout, we argue that contemporary proxemics research provides psychology and neuroscience with a means to study social cognition and behavior as they naturally emerge and unfold in vivo.

  3. INTERACTION OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih ÖZTÜRK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through the end of the 20th century, with the emerging of internet, the developments in information technologies led to many changes in the ways communication and daily life. In human interaction, face to face communication gave way to the communication with technological devices. Social media takes place in the centre of this virtual platform. Social media represents all the applications, services and means that enables the users to communicate by using network technologies. The indivudals’ dialogues and sharings with each other form the social media. Social media reformed people’s communication, interaction, collaboration, studies an even learning process. Because it is flexible and userfriendly than other instructional management systems, social networking sites can be used more easily. By following these simple steps to create a community and the realization of shares among themselves provide a very convenience for the students in terms of communication and feedback. In addition to these features, social networking sites are also beneficial for the institutions due to the features such as enrichment of blended learning experiences and supporting students’learning process and teachers’ training and evaluation process. This study aims to reveal the importance of social media in education; education, social media and relationship between education and social media are discussed.

  4. Learning through social interaction in game technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waern, Annika (Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden); Raybourn, Elaine Marie

    2005-05-01

    The present ITSE journal special issue on 'Learning About Social Interaction through Gaming' is the result of an invitation to the attendees of a one-day workshop on 'Social Learning Through Gaming' co-organized by the guest editors and held at the Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) conference on April 26, 2004 in Vienna, Austria. CHI is one of the premiere conferences on human-computer interaction. CHI 2004 attracted hundreds of delegates from all over the world. The CHI workshop program results from a competitive selection process. The Social Learning through Gaming workshop was filled to capacity and attended by approximately 25 participants from Europe and North America who submitted position papers that were refereed and selected for participation based on the relevancy and innovativeness of the research. The participants came together to share research on play, learning, games, interactive technologies, and what playing and designing games can teach us about social behaviors. The present special issue focuses on learning about social aspects through gaming: learning to socialize through games and learning games through social behavior.

  5. Invisible excess of sense in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubová, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The question of visibility and invisibility in social understanding is examined here. First, the phenomenological account of expressive phenomena and key ideas of the participatory sense-making theory are presented with regard to the issue of visibility. These accounts plead for the principal visibility of agents in interaction. Although participatory sense-making does not completely rule out the existence of opacity and invisible aspects of agents in interaction, it assumes the capacity of agents to integrate disruptions, opacity and misunderstandings in mutual modulation. Invisibility is classified as the dialectical counterpart of visibility, i.e., as a lack of sense whereby the dynamics of perpetual asking, of coping with each other and of improvements in interpretation are brought into play. By means of empirical exemplification this article aims at demonstrating aspects of invisibility in social interaction which complement the enactive interpretation. Without falling back into Cartesianism, it shows through dramaturgical analysis of a practice called "(Inter)acting with the inner partner" that social interaction includes elements of opacity and invisibility whose role is performative. This means that opacity is neither an obstacle to be overcome with more precise understanding nor a lack of meaning, but rather an excess of sense, a "hiddenness" of something real that has an "active power" (Merleau-Ponty). In this way it contributes to on-going social understanding as a hidden potentiality that naturally enriches, amplifies and in part constitutes human participation in social interactions. It is also shown here that this invisible excess of sense already functions on the level of self-relationship due to the essential self-opacity and self-alterity of each agent of social interaction. The analysis consequently raises two issues: the question of the enactive ethical stance toward the alterity of the other and the question of the autonomy of the self

  6. Inter-brain synchronization during social interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dumas

    Full Text Available During social interaction, both participants are continuously active, each modifying their own actions in response to the continuously changing actions of the partner. This continuous mutual adaptation results in interactional synchrony to which both members contribute. Freely exchanging the role of imitator and model is a well-framed example of interactional synchrony resulting from a mutual behavioral negotiation. How the participants' brain activity underlies this process is currently a question that hyperscanning recordings allow us to explore. In particular, it remains largely unknown to what extent oscillatory synchronization could emerge between two brains during social interaction. To explore this issue, 18 participants paired as 9 dyads were recorded with dual-video and dual-EEG setups while they were engaged in spontaneous imitation of hand movements. We measured interactional synchrony and the turn-taking between model and imitator. We discovered by the use of nonlinear techniques that states of interactional synchrony correlate with the emergence of an interbrain synchronizing network in the alpha-mu band between the right centroparietal regions. These regions have been suggested to play a pivotal role in social interaction. Here, they acted symmetrically as key functional hubs in the interindividual brainweb. Additionally, neural synchronization became asymmetrical in the higher frequency bands possibly reflecting a top-down modulation of the roles of model and imitator in the ongoing interaction.

  7. INTERACTION OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Fatih ÖZTÜRK; TALAS, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Through the end of the 20th century, with the emerging of internet, the developments in information technologies led to many changes in the ways communication and daily life. In human interaction, face to face communication gave way to the communication with technological devices. Social media takes place in the centre of this virtual platform. Social media represents all the applications, services and means that enables the users to communicate by using network technologies. The indivudal...

  8. INTERACTION OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Fatih ÖZTÜRK; Mustafa TALAS

    2015-01-01

    Through the end of the 20th century, with the emerging of internet, the developments in information technologies led to many changes in the ways communication and daily life. In human interaction, face to face communication gave way to the communication with technological devices. Social media takes place in the centre of this virtual platform. Social media represents all the applications, services and means that enables the users to communicate by using network technologies. The indivudal...

  9. A fashion model with social interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki

    2004-06-01

    In general, it is difficult to investigate social phenomena mathematically or quantitatively due to non-linear interactions. Statistical physics can provide powerful methods for studying social phenomena with interactions, and could be very useful for them. In this study, we take a focus on fashion as a social phenomenon with interaction. The social interaction considered here are “bandwagon effect” and “snob effect.” In the bandwagon effect, the correlation between one's behavior and others is positive. People feel fashion weary or boring when it is overly popular. This is the snob effect. It is assumed that the fashion phenomenon is formed by the aggregation of individual's binary choice, that is, the fashion is adopted or not. We formulate the fashion phenomenon as the logit model, which is based on the random utility theory in social science, especially economics. The model derived here basically has the similarity with the pioneering model by Weidlich (Phys. Rep. 204 (1991) 1), which was derived from the master equation, the Langevin equation, or the Fokker-Planck equation. This study seems to give the behavioral or behaviormetrical foundation to his model. As a result of dynamical analysis, it is found that in the case that both the bandwagon effect and the snob effect work, periodic or chaotic behavior of fashion occurs under certain conditions.

  10. Social interaction, social competence, and friendship in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, J; Gonso, J; Rasmussen, B

    1975-09-01

    The relationship between social skills, social interaction, and popularity was examined. The subjects were 198 children in third and fourth grades in middle- and low-income schools. The relationships between number of friends, socioeconomic status, and grade level were studied in a 2 times 2 times 2 factorial design with 2 sets of dependent measures: (1) social skills were assessed by an experimenter testing each child individually on a set of tasks which included measures of the ability to label emotions in facial expressions, knowledge of how to make friends, giving help, and role-taking ability; and (2) social interaction in the classroom was assessed using a naturalistic observational system. Popular and unpopular children differed in their knowledge of how to make friends and on the referential-communication task. In the classroom, popular children distributed and received more positive reinforcement than unpopular children and spent less time daydreaming. Both grade and social class factors were significant. However, different patterns of results contributed to the main effect of friends and the grade-level main effect. The importance of assessing social skills which are first validated by reference to a criterion such as sociometric position was noted.

  11. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords

  12. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords

  13. The Division of Labor as Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidson, Eliot

    1976-01-01

    Three different principles and ideologies by which the division of labor can be organized are sketched, along with their consequences for variation in structure and content. It is noted that the reality of the division of labor lies in the social interaction of its participants. (Author/AM)

  14. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  15. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  16. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  17. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords affectiv

  18. Enriching Absorptive Capacity Through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper Jaap; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within MNEs. But how individual behaviour translates to absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and exactly how this is contingent on subsidiaries’ social context, remains under-addressed. This not only...... their organization’s capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer initiative at two subsidiaries of the same MNE. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a key requirement for subsidiary....... These insights contribute to the absorptive capacity literature by demonstrating the scale and scope of social interaction as the key link between individual- and organizational-level absorptive capacity....

  19. Measuring social interaction in music ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gualtiero; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Camurri, Antonio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2016-05-05

    Music ensembles are an ideal test-bed for quantitative analysis of social interaction. Music is an inherently social activity, and music ensembles offer a broad variety of scenarios which are particularly suitable for investigation. Small ensembles, such as string quartets, are deemed a significant example of self-managed teams, where all musicians contribute equally to a task. In bigger ensembles, such as orchestras, the relationship between a leader (the conductor) and a group of followers (the musicians) clearly emerges. This paper presents an overview of recent research on social interaction in music ensembles with a particular focus on (i) studies from cognitive neuroscience; and (ii) studies adopting a computational approach for carrying out automatic quantitative analysis of ensemble music performances.

  20. Coordinate transformation approach to social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W C Chang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A coordinate transformation framework for understanding how neurons compute sensorimotor behaviors has generated significant advances towards our understanding of basic brain function. This influential scaffold focuses on neuronal encoding of spatial information represented in different coordinate systems (e.g., eye-centered, hand-centered and how multiple brain regions partake in transforming these signals in order to ultimately generate a motor output. A powerful analogy can be drawn from the coordinate transformation framework to better elucidate how the nervous system computes cognitive variables for social behavior. Of particular relevance is how the brain represents information with respect to oneself and other individuals, such as in reward outcome assignment during social exchanges, in order to influence social decisions. In this article, I outline how the coordinate transformation framework can help guide our understanding of neural computations resulting in social interactions. Implications for numerous psychiatric disorders with impaired representations of self and others are also discussed.

  1. Nuclear shape transitions, level density, and underlying interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Karampagia, S

    2016-01-01

    The configuration interaction approach to nuclear structure uses the effective Hamiltonian in a finite orbital space. The various parts of this Hamiltonian and their interplay are responsible for specific features of physics including the shape of the mean field and level density. This interrelation is not sufficiently understood. We intend to study phase transitions between spherical and deformed shapes driven by different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian and to establish the presence of the collective enhancement of the nuclear level density by varying the shell-model matrix elements. Varying the interaction matrix elements we define, for nuclei in the sd and pf shells, the sectors with spherical and deformed shapes. Using the moments method that does not require the full diagonalization we relate the shape transitions with the corresponding level density. Enhancement of the level density in the low-energy part of the spectrum is observed in clear correlation with a deformation phase transition induced main...

  2. Electronic Density Approaches to the Energetics of Noncovalent Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Politzer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present an overview of procedures that have been developed to compute several energetic quantities associated with noncovalent interactions. These formulations involve numerical integration over appropriate electronic densities. Our focus is upon the electrostatic interaction between two unperturbed molecules, the effect of the polarization of each charge distribution by the other, and the total energy of interaction. The expression for the latter is based upon the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Applications to a number of systems are discussed; among them are dimers of uracil and interacting pairs of molecules in the crystal lattice of the energetic compound RDX.

  3. Saturating interactions in /sup 4/He with density dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S.D.; Resler, D.A.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1989-05-03

    With the advent of larger and faster computers, as well as modern shell model codes, nuclear structure calculations for the light nuclei (A<16) which include full 2/bar h/..omega.. model spaces are quite feasible. However, there can be serious problems in the mixing of 2/bar h/..omega.. and higher excitations into the low-lying spectra if the effective interaction is non-saturating. Furthermore, effective interactions which are both saturating and density dependent have not generally been used in previous nuclear structure calculations. Therefore, we have undertaken studies of /sup 4/He using two-body potential interactions which incorporate both saturation and density-dependence. Encouraging initial results in remedying the mixing of 0 and 2/bar h/..omega.. excitations have been obtained. We have also considered the effects of our interaction on the /sup 4/He compressibility and the centroid of the breathing mode strength. First indications are that a saturating effective interaction, with a short-range density dependent part and a long-range density independent part, comes close to matching crude predictions for the compressibility of /sup 4/He. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg; Gochev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell–cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure–distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces.

  5. Constructing literacy identity through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    2014-01-01

    by the language and literacy practices at his or her school, and by the social relationships and identities that are made possible here (e.g. Bartlett, 2007), in this paper, I explore how children, at an early stage in their schooling, invest in literacy, and how in their investments they draw on different......Constructing literacy identity through social interaction Helle Pia Laursen Department of Education, Aarhus University, Denmark In a discussion of policy claims about ”what literacy is” and ”what literacy does”, Bartlett (2008) notes that ” we should not consider literacy as an actor with some...... interactions, and by the way different individuals assign meaning to literacy in diverse sociolinguistic settings. Drawing on theories on investment in language learning (e.g. Peirce Norton, 1995; Norton & Toohey 2011) and recent studies focusing on how the educational trajectory of a student is shaped...

  6. Dispersion corrections to density functionals for water aromatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Urs; Parrinello, Michele; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2004-02-08

    We investigate recently published methods for extending density functional theory to the description of long-range dispersive interactions. In all schemes an empirical correction consisting of a C6r(-6) term is introduced that is damped at short range. The coefficient C6 is calculated either from average molecular or atomic polarizabilities. We calculate geometry-dependent interaction energy profiles for the water benzene cluster and compare the results with second-order Møller-Plesset calculations. Our results indicate that the use of the B3LYP functional in combination with an appropriate mixing rule and damping function is recommended for the interaction of water with aromatics.

  7. Self-Confidence and Social Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Benabou; Jean Tirole

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the interactions between an individual's self esteem and his social environment in the workplace, at school, and in personal relationships. Because a person generally has only imperfect knowledge of his own abilities, people who derive benefits from his performance (parent, spouse, friend, teacher, manager, etc.) have incentives to manipulate his self confidence. We first study situations where an informed principal chooses an incentive structure, such as offering payments ...

  8. Using sociometers to quantify social interaction patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Alex,; Pentland,; Schnorf, Sebastian; Lazer, David

    2014-01-01

    Research on human social interactions has traditionally relied on self-reports. Despite their widespread use, self-reported accounts of behaviour are prone to biases and necessarily reduce the range of behaviours, and the number of subjects, that may be studied simultaneously. The development of ever smaller sensors makes it possible to study group-level human behaviour in naturalistic settings outside research laboratories. We used such sensors, sociometers, to examine gender, talkativeness and interaction style in two different contexts. Here, we find that in the collaborative context, women were much more likely to be physically proximate to other women and were also significantly more talkative than men, especially in small groups. In contrast, there were no gender-based differences in the non-collaborative setting. Our results highlight the importance of objective measurement in the study of human behaviour, here enabling us to discern context specific, gender-based differences in interaction style.

  9. Density functionals for the strong-interaction limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Michael; Perdew, John P.; Kurth, Stefan

    2000-07-01

    The strong-interaction limit of density-functional (DF) theory is simple and provides information required for an accurate resummation of DF perturbation theory. Here we derive the point-charge-plus-continuum (PC) model for that limit, and its gradient expansion. The exchange-correlation (xc) energy Exc[ρ]≡∫10dαWα[ρ] follows from the xc potential energies Wα at different interaction strengths α>=0 [but at fixed density ρ(r)]. For small α~0, the integrand Wα is obtained accurately from perturbation theory, but the perturbation expansion requires resummation for moderate and large α. For that purpose, we present density functionals for the coefficients in the asymptotic expansion Wα-->W∞+W'∞α-1/2 for α-->∞ in the PC model. WPC∞ arises from strict correlation, and W'PC∞ from zero-point vibration of the electrons around their strictly correlated distributions. The PC values for W∞ and W'∞ agree with those from a self-correlation-free meta-generalized gradient approximation, both for atoms and for atomization energies of molecules. We also (i) explain the difference between the PC cell and the exchange-correlation hole, (ii) present a density-functional measure of correlation strength, (iii) describe the electron localization and spin polarization energy in a highly stretched H2 molecule, and (iv) discuss the soft-plasmon instability of the low-density uniform electron gas.

  10. Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: donev@courant.nyu.edu; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric, E-mail: eve2@courant.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    We derive a closed equation for the empirical concentration of colloidal particles in the presence of both hydrodynamic and direct interactions. The ensemble average of our functional Langevin equation reproduces known deterministic Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT) [M. Rex and H. Löwen, “Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions and colloids in unstable traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 148302 (2008)], and, at the same time, it also describes the microscopic fluctuations around the mean behavior. We suggest separating the ideal (non-interacting) contribution from additional corrections due to pairwise interactions. We find that, for an incompressible fluid and in the absence of direct interactions, the mean concentration follows Fick's law just as for uncorrelated walkers. At the same time, the nature of the stochastic terms in fluctuating DDFT is shown to be distinctly different for hydrodynamically-correlated and uncorrelated walkers. This leads to striking differences in the behavior of the fluctuations around Fick's law, even in the absence of pairwise interactions. We connect our own prior work [A. Donev, T. G. Fai, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, “A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick's law,” J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2014) P04004] on fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusion in liquids to the DDFT literature, and demonstrate that the fluid cannot easily be eliminated from consideration if one wants to describe the collective diffusion in colloidal suspensions.

  11. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    their organization's capacity to put new knowledge to use. To address this shortcoming we conduct an in-depth comparative case study of a headquarters-initiated knowledge transfer at two subsidiaries of the same multinational enterprise. The findings demonstrate that social interaction is a prerequisite...... for subsidiary absorptive capacity as it enables employees to participate in the transformation of new knowledge to the local context and the development of local applications. The findings also illustrate how organizational conditions at the subsidiary level can impact subsidiary absorptive capacity by enabling......Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under...

  12. Interacting Eigenmodes of a plasma diode with a density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, T.; Gunell, H.

    1997-08-01

    The formation of narrow high frequency electric field spikes in plasma density gradients is investigated using one-dimensional particle in cell simulations. It is found that the shape of the plasma density gradient is very important for the spike formation. The spike appears also in simulations with immobile ions showing that a coupling to the ion motion, as for example in wave interactions, is not necessary for the formation of HF spikes. However, the HF spike influences the ion motion, and ion waves are seen in the simulations. It has been found, in experiments and simulations, that the electron velocity distribution function deviates from the Maxwellian distribution. Dispersion relations are calculated using realistic distribution functions. The spike can be seen as a coupled system of two Eigenmodes of a plasma diode fed by the beam-plasma interaction. Based on a simplified fluid description of such Eigenmodes, explanations for the localization of the spike, spatially and in frequency, are given. The density amplitude is comparable with the DC density level close to the cathode. Space charge limits of waves in this region seem to determine the amplitude of the spike through the Poisson`s equation. 12 refs, 19 figs.

  13. Constructing literacy identity through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    2014-01-01

    interactions, and by the way different individuals assign meaning to literacy in diverse sociolinguistic settings. Drawing on theories on investment in language learning (e.g. Peirce Norton, 1995; Norton & Toohey 2011) and recent studies focusing on how the educational trajectory of a student is shaped...... by the language and literacy practices at his or her school, and by the social relationships and identities that are made possible here (e.g. Bartlett, 2007), in this paper, I explore how children, at an early stage in their schooling, invest in literacy, and how in their investments they draw on different...

  14. Dynamical and bursty interactions in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stehle, Juliette; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2010-01-01

    We present a modeling framework for dynamical and bursty contact networks made of agents in social interaction. We consider agents' behavior at short time scales, in which the contact network is formed by disconnected cliques of different sizes. At each time a random agent can make a transition from being isolated to being part of a group, or vice-versa. Different distributions of contact times and inter-contact times between individuals are obtained by considering transition probabilities with memory effects, i.e. the transition probabilities for each agent depend both on its state (isolated or interacting) and on the time elapsed since the last change of state. The model lends itself to analytical and numerical investigations. The modeling framework can be easily extended, and paves the way for systematic investigations of dynamical processes occurring on rapidly evolving dynamical networks, such as the propagation of an information, or spreading of diseases.

  15. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties.

  16. Predicting protein-protein interactions in the post synaptic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-shira, Ossnat; Chechik, Gal

    2013-09-01

    The post synaptic density (PSD) is a specialization of the cytoskeleton at the synaptic junction, composed of hundreds of different proteins. Characterizing the protein components of the PSD and their interactions can help elucidate the mechanism of long-term changes in synaptic plasticity, which underlie learning and memory. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the proteome and interactome of the PSD is still partial and noisy. In this study we describe a computational framework to improve the reconstruction of the PSD network. The approach is based on learning the characteristics of PSD protein interactions from a set of trusted interactions, expanding this set with data collected from large scale repositories, and then predicting novel interaction with proteins that are suspected to reside in the PSD. Using this method we obtained thirty predicted interactions, with more than half of which having supporting evidence in the literature. We discuss in details two of these new interactions, Lrrtm1 with PSD-95 and Src with Capg. The first may take part in a mechanism underlying glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. The second suggests an alternative mechanism to regulate dendritic spines maturation.

  17. Evidence of social niche construction: persistent and repeated social interactions generate stronger personalities in a social spider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laskowski, Kate L; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    .... The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that repeated social interactions among individuals may generate among-individual differences and reinforce within-individual consistency through...

  18. Multiple parton interactions in high-density QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, D K; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Geiger, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Multiple interactions of quarks and gluons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions may give rise to interesting phemomena of color charges propagating in high-density QCD matter. We study the dynamics of multi-parton systems produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies corresponding the the CERN SPS and the future BNL RHIC experiments. Due to the complexity of the multi-particle dynamics we choose to employ the parton cascade model in order to simulate the development of multiple parton scatterings and associated stimulated emision processes. Our results indicate a non-linear increase with nuclear mass A of, e.g., parton multiplicity, energy density, strangeness, and contrast a linear A-scaling as in Glauber-type approaches. If multiple interactions are suppressed and only single parton scatterings (no re-interactions) are considered, we recover such a linear behavior. It remains to be studied whether these results on the parton level can be experimentally seen in final-state observables, such as the charge...

  19. Body image and day-to-day social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B

    1999-10-01

    Participants maintained a social interaction diary and completed a measure of body image. Body image was found to have three factors, body attractiveness, social attractiveness (how attractive people believed others found them to be), and general attractiveness. For both men and women, self-perceptions of body attractiveness and of social attractiveness were positively related to the intimacy they found in interaction. Self-perceptions of social attractiveness were positively related to women's confidence in social interaction and their perceived influence over interaction, whereas for men, confidence and influence were unrelated to social attractiveness. For both men and women, body image was unrelated to how enjoyable people found interactions to be and was weakly related to how responsive they felt others were to them. For both men and women, body image was also unrelated to how socially active people were and to the relative distribution of same- and opposite-sex interactions.

  20. Which interactions to foster the social dimension of museum visit?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Yvan; Plénacoste, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Collaboration and social dimension are more and more recognised as a fundamental dimension of museum visits. In this article we review existing works to support social interactions between visitors and we present our proposals to foster group discussion during visits. This kind of support can provide a basis for the development of visitor communities around these social interactions.

  1. Self-interaction corrected local spin density calculations of actinides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z

    2010-01-01

    We use the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation in order to describe localization-delocalization phenomena in the strongly correlated actinide materials. Based on total energy considerations, the methodology enables us to predict the ground-state valency configuration...... of the actinide ions in these compounds from first principles. Here we review a number of applications, ranging from electronic structure calculations of actinide metals, nitrides and carbides to the behaviour under pressure of intermetallics, and O vacancies in PuO2....

  2. Dynamical density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions in confined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, B. D.; Nold, A.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-12-01

    We study the dynamics of colloidal fluids in both unconfined geometries and when confined by a hard wall. Under minimal assumptions, we derive a dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) which includes hydrodynamic interactions (HI; bath-mediated forces). By using an efficient numerical scheme based on pseudospectral methods for integro-differential equations, we demonstrate its excellent agreement with the full underlying Langevin equations for systems of hard disks in partial confinement. We further use the derived DDFT formalism to elucidate the crucial effects of HI in confined systems.

  3. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  4. Self-Consciousness and Bias in Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelands, Lloyd E.; Stablein, Ralph E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether trait differences in self-consciousness would account for egocentric attribution bias in social interaction. Bias was greater for high public self-consciousness. Public self-consciousness had no effect in the Interaction Unimportant Condition where social interaction was not salient. Contrary to prediction, however, the…

  5. Interaction between afternoon aeration and tilapia stocking density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roberto dos Santos Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining the effects of the interaction between afternoon aeration and stocking density of Nile tilapia on variables of water and soil quality, growth performance and effluent quality. The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial randomized block design, with three stocking densities (8, 12 and 16 fish per tank or 43.5, 65.3, and 87.0 g m-3 under two mechanical aeration regimes, absence (control; three replicates and afternoon aeration (four replicates. The afternoon aeration was carried out from 12.00 a.m. up to 18.00 p.m. from the 3rd week until the end of the experiment. Except for the 16-fish tanks, the lowest concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen were found in the tanks with higher density of fish provided with afternoon aeration. Nitrite concentrations were lower in the 8-fish aerated tanks. In intensive system, the afternoon aeration of the fish culture water is an efficient management of water quality to remove gaseous ammonia and nitrite from water, but it is not appropriate to remove hydrogen sulfide from water.

  6. Social Interaction and Stock Market Participation: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research on the impact of social interaction on the stock market participation only involves the traditional way of social interaction, and this paper further investigates the modern social interaction effects on the stock market participation and its activeness. The sample containing 150 Chinese counties is selected, and we apply grouping analysis and linear regression to conclude that social interaction has positive influence on the stock market participation and its activeness. Both traditional and modern social interaction ways affect the stock market participation and its activeness to the similar extent, so modern social interaction is of the same importance. Controlling for the respondents’ age, wealth, and education level, the above conclusion still holds.

  7. Parameters of social existence and social functioning of lesbians: Lesbian body in processes of social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of characteristics of a lesbian body in processes of social interaction is a method of analysis social relations of lesbians, their relationships with the heterosexual world and revealing specific lesbian practices, outlooks, habits and customs, behavior and general characteristics of lesbian sub culture. Making somebody different than a "normal human", meaning less human, is the main way of making the whole group target of justified discrimination, violence and hate crime. Therefore...

  8. The Digital Economy: Social Interaction Technologies – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Redondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction technologies (SIT is a very broad field that encompasses a large list of topics: interactive and networked computing, mobile social services and the Social Web, social software and social media, marketing and advertising, various aspects and uses of blogs and podcasting, corporate value and web-based collaboration, e-government and online democracy, virtual volunteering, different aspects and uses of folksonomies, tagging and the social semantic cloud of tags, blog-based knowledge management systems, systems of online learning, with their ePortfolios, blogs and wikis in education and journalism, legal issues and social interaction technology, dataveillance and online fraud, neogeography, social software usability, social software in libraries and nonprofit organizations, and broadband visual communication technology for enhancing social interaction. The fact is that the daily activities of many businesses are being socialized, as is the case with Yammer (https://www.yammer.com/, the social enterprise social network. The leitmotivs of social software are: create, connect, contribute, and collaborate.

  9. Perceived Social Support, Social Interaction and Nutrition among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, William; Heller, Kenneth

    Despite evidence that levels of social support can affect health, there has been little work isolating the factors which actually mediate the relationship between social support and health. In an attempt to analyze the role of nutrition as a mediating factor of health and social support among the elderly, female older adults (N=43) responded to an…

  10. Dynamics of social positioning patterns in group-robot interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vroon, Jered; Joosse, Michiel; Lohse, Manja; Kolkmeier, Jan; Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet; Englebienne, Gwenn; Heylen, Dirk; Evers, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    When a mobile robot interacts with a group of people, it has to consider its position and orientation. We introduce a novel study aimed at generating hypotheses on suitable behavior for such social positioning, explicitly focusing on interaction with small groups of users and allowing for the temporal and social dynamics inherent in most interactions. In particular, the interactions we look at are approach, converse and retreat. In this study, groups of three participants and a telepresence r...

  11. Superdeformed rotational bands with density dependent pairing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasaki, J. [Service de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Heenen, P.H. [Service de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Bonche, P. [SPhT - CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dobaczewski, J. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Flocard, H. [Division de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1995-10-09

    The cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method, applied in a previous study to SD bands of even Hg and Pb isotopes, is extended by including pairing correlations described by a zero-range density-dependent interaction. This more realistic description of the pairing channel modifies the balance between the neutron and proton pairing energies and introduces an orbital variation of the pairing gaps. This results in a retarded alignment, significantly improving the agreement with data in both the A=150 and 190 mass regions. The behavior expected for SD bands in odd-N or odd-Z nuclei is discussed on the basis of the quasiparticle routhians calculated for the even-even isotopes. (orig.).

  12. Superdeformed rotational bands with density dependent pairing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, J.; Heenen, P.-H.; Bonche, P.; Dobaczewski, J.; Flocard, H.

    1995-02-01

    The cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method, applied in a previous study to SD bands of even Hg and Pb isotopes, is extended by including pairing correlations described by a zero-range density-dependent interaction. This more realistic description of the pairing channel modifies the balance between the neutron and proton pairing energies and introduces an orbital variation of the pairing gaps. This results in a retarded alignment, significantly improving the agreement with data in both the A = 150 and 190 mass regions. The behavior expected for SD bands in odd- N or odd- Z nuclei is discussed on the basis of the quasiparticle routhians calculated for the even-even isotopes.

  13. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  14. Dyadic social interaction as an alternative reward to cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eZernig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals suffering from substance use disorders often show severely impaired social interaction, preferring drugs of abuse to the contact with others. Their impaired social interaction is doubly harmful for them as (1 therapy itself is based and dependent on social interaction and as (2 social interaction is not available to them as an "alternative", i.e., non-drug reward, decreasing their motivation to stop drug use. We therefore developed an animal experimental model to investigate the neurobiology of dyadic social interaction- vs cocaine reward. We took care to avoid (a engaging sexual attraction-related aspects of such a social interaction and (b hierarchical difference as confounding stimuli. The cocaine- or social interaction stimulus was offered - in a mutually exclusive setting - within the confines of a conditioned place preference (CPP apparatus. In our paradigm, only four 15-min episodes of social interaction proved sufficient to (i switch the rats' preference from cocaine-associated contextual stimuli to social interaction CPP and (ii inhibit the subsequent reacquisition/reexpression of cocaine CPP. The behavioral effect was paralleled by a reversal of brain activation (i.e., EGR1 expression in the nucleus accumbens, the central and basolateral amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. Of relevance for the psychotherapy of addictive disorders, the most rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus 'social interaction' was touch. To test our hypothesis that motivation is encoded in neuron ensembles dedicated to specific reward scenarios, we are currently (1 mapping the neural circuits involved in cocaine- vs social interaction reward and (2 adapting our paradigm for C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this species.

  15. INTERACTION OF SOCIAL MEDIA AND EDUCATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehmet Fatih ÖZTÜRK; Mustafa TALAS

    2015-01-01

    .... Social media takes place in the centre of this virtual platform. Social media represents all the applications, services and means that enables the users to communicate by using network technologies. The indivudals...

  16. Strongly interacting matter at high densities with a soliton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Webster

    1998-12-01

    One of the major goals of modern nuclear physics is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. The study of these 'extreme' conditions is the primary motivation for the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory which will accelerate nuclei to a center of mass (c.m.) energy of about 200 GeV/nucleon. From a theoretical perspective, a test of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) requires the expansion of the conditions examined from one phase point to the entire phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter. In the present work we focus attention on what happens when the density is increased, at low excitation energies. Experimental results from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) indicate that this regime may be tested in the 'full stopping' (maximum energy deposition) scenario achieved at the AGS having a c.m. collision energy of about 2.5 GeV/nucleon for two equal- mass heavy nuclei. Since the solution of QCD on nuclear length-scales is computationally prohibitive even on today's most powerful computers, progress in the theoretical description of high densities has come through the application of models incorporating some of the essential features of the full theory. The simplest such model is the MIT bag model. We use a significantly more sophisticated model, a nonlocal confining soliton model developed in part at Kent. This model has proven its value in the calculation of the properties of individual mesons and nucleons. In the present application, the many-soliton problem is addressed with the same model. We describe nuclear matter as a lattice of solitons and apply the Wigner-Seitz approximation to the lattice. This means that we consider spherical cells with one soliton centered in each, corresponding to the average properties of the lattice. The average density is then varied by changing the size of the Wigner-Seitz cell. To arrive at a solution, we need to solve a coupled set of

  17. Social interactions for economic value? A marketing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores emerging social interactions in relation to economic value, more specifically how social interactions at the organizational and individual levels may affect individual consumers and companies economically as well. To help shed light on this broad theme, it focuses on two

  18. A conceptual linkage between cognitive architectures and social interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, K.; Jager, W.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive representations are being shaped and determined by interaction with the environment. The social environment constitutes an important part of this environment. Yet in formal models of cognition, there is little attention for processes resulting from social interaction. On the other hand, in

  19. Social interactions for economic value? A marketing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores emerging social interactions in relation to economic value, more specifically how social interactions at the organizational and individual levels may affect individual consumers and companies economically as well. To help shed light on this broad theme, it focuses on two r

  20. Cheating for Problem Solving: A Genetic Algorithm with Social Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz-Beltra, Rafeal; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    We propose a variation of the standard genetic algorithm that incorporates social interaction between the individuals in the population. Our goal is to understand the evolutionary role of social systems and its possible application as a non-genetic new step in evolutionary algorithms. In biological populations, ie animals, even human beings and microorganisms, social interactions often affect the fitness of individuals. It is conceivable that the perturbation of the fitness via social interactions is an evolutionary strategy to avoid trapping into local optimum, thus avoiding a fast convergence of the population. We model the social interactions according to Game Theory. The population is, therefore, composed by cooperator and defector individuals whose interactions produce payoffs according to well known game models (prisoner's dilemma, chicken game, and others). Our results on Knapsack problems show, for some game models, a significant performance improvement as compared to a standard genetic algorithm.

  1. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  2. Social interaction, globalization and computer-aided analysis a practical guide to developing social simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Osherenko, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This thorough, multidisciplinary study discusses the findings of social interaction and social simulation using understandable global examples. Shows the reader how to acquire intercultural data, illustrating each step with descriptive comments and program code.

  3. Parameters of social existence and social functioning of lesbians: Lesbian body in processes of social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of characteristics of a lesbian body in processes of social interaction is a method of analysis social relations of lesbians, their relationships with the heterosexual world and revealing specific lesbian practices, outlooks, habits and customs, behavior and general characteristics of lesbian sub culture. Making somebody different than a "normal human", meaning less human, is the main way of making the whole group target of justified discrimination, violence and hate crime. Therefore, providing understanding of differences provides a ground for personal, political and legal sensitivity, understanding and tolerance towards both the "otherness" and the "others".

  4. Social training of autistic children with interactive intelligent agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakova, Emilia; Gillessen, Jan; Feijs, Loe

    2009-03-01

    The ability of autistic children to learn by applying logical rules has been used widely in behavioral therapies for social training. We propose to teach social skills to autistic children through games that simultaneously stimulate social behavior and include recognition of elements of social interaction. For this purpose we created a multi-agent platform of interactive blocks, and we created appropriate games that require shared activities leading to a common goal. The games included perceiving and understanding elements of social behavior that non-autistic children can recognize. We argue that the importance of elements of social interaction such as perceiving interaction behaviors and assigning metaphoric meanings has been overlooked, and that they are very important in the social training of autistic children. Two games were compared by testing them with users. The first game focused only on the interaction between the agents and the other combined interaction between the agents and metaphoric meanings that are assigned to them. The results show that most of the children recognized the patterns of interaction as well as the metaphors when they were demonstrated through embodied agents and were included within games having features that engage the interest of this user group. The results also show the potential of the platform and the games to influence the social behavior of the children positively.

  5. Towards multiactivity as a social and interactional phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Doing more than one thing at the same time – a phenomenon that is often called ‘multitasking’ – is characteristic to many situations in everyday and professional life. Although we all experience it, its real time features remain understudied. Multiactivity in Social Interaction: Beyond multitasking...... by using video recordings of real-life interactions from a range of different contexts, such as medical settings, office workplaces and car driving. With the companion collection Interacting with Objects: Language, materiality, and social activity, the book advances understanding of the complex...... organisation and accomplishment of social interaction, especially the significance of embodiment, materiality, participation and temporality. A close appreciation of how people use language and interact for and during multiactivity will not only interest researchers in language and social interaction...

  6. Social Interaction in Autism Spectrum Presentation: The Development of the Social Situation Stories Questionnaire (SSSQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Aysha

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum presentations are considered ‘lifelong developmental disabilities’ affecting the way individuals communicate and relate to others, thus significantly impacting on social interaction resulting in various social disadvantages.\\ud To date, the key psychological theory accepted, as an explanation for difficulties observed in autism presentations is the lack of ‘Theory of Mind’ (ToM), which is considered a facet of social cognition required in understanding how to interact socially...

  7. Social Dynamics in Web Page through Inter-Agent Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yugo; Katagiri, Yasuhiro

    Social persuasion abounds in human-human interactions. Attitudes and behaviors of people are invariably influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of other people as well as our social roles/relationships toward them. In the pedagogic scene, the relationship between teacher and learner produces one of the most typical interactions, in which the teacher makes the learner spontaneously study what he/she teaches. This study is an attempt to elucidate the nature and effectiveness of social persuasion in human-computer interaction environments. We focus on the social dynamics of multi-party interactions that involve both human-agent and inter-agent interactions. An experiment is conducted in a virtual web-instruction setting employing two types of agents: conductor agents who accompany and guide each learner throughout his/her learning sessions, and domain-expert agents who provide explanations and instructions for each stage of the instructional materials. In this experiment, subjects are assigned two experimental conditions: the authorized condition, in which an agent respectfully interacts with another agent, and the non-authorized condition, in which an agent carelessly interacts with another agent. The results indicate performance improvements in the authorized condition of inter-agent interactions. An analysis is given from the perspective of the transfer of authority from inter-agent to human-agent interactions based on social conformity. We argue for pedagogic advantages of social dynamics created by multiple animated character agents.

  8. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  9. Interactive design of probability density functions for shape grammars

    KAUST Repository

    Dang, Minh

    2015-11-02

    A shape grammar defines a procedural shape space containing a variety of models of the same class, e.g. buildings, trees, furniture, airplanes, bikes, etc. We present a framework that enables a user to interactively design a probability density function (pdf) over such a shape space and to sample models according to the designed pdf. First, we propose a user interface that enables a user to quickly provide preference scores for selected shapes and suggest sampling strategies to decide which models to present to the user to evaluate. Second, we propose a novel kernel function to encode the similarity between two procedural models. Third, we propose a framework to interpolate user preference scores by combining multiple techniques: function factorization, Gaussian process regression, autorelevance detection, and l1 regularization. Fourth, we modify the original grammars to generate models with a pdf proportional to the user preference scores. Finally, we provide evaluations of our user interface and framework parameters and a comparison to other exploratory modeling techniques using modeling tasks in five example shape spaces: furniture, low-rise buildings, skyscrapers, airplanes, and vegetation.

  10. Social network extraction and analysis based on multimodal dyadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people's lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times' Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links' weights are a measure of the "influence" a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  11. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Raducanu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  12. Designing Gender in Social Media: Unpacking Interaction Design as a Carrier of Social Norms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lundmark, Sofia; Normark, Maria

    2014-01-01

    .... Of interest in the area of interaction design is people’s use of designed things, which also makes it relevant to relate interaction design to the social norms present in society, such as gendered norms...

  13. Exact and LDA entanglement of tailored densities in an interacting one-dimensional electron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, J P; D' Amico, I, E-mail: jpc503@york.ac.u, E-mail: ida500@york.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the 'exact' potential corresponding to a one-dimensional interacting system of two electrons with a specific, tailored density. We use one-dimensional density-functional theory with a local-density approximation (LDA) on the same system and calculate densities and energies, which are compared with the 'exact' ones. The 'interacting-LDA system'[4] corresponding to the LDA density is then found and its potential compared with the original one. Finally we calculate and compare the spatial entanglement of the electronic systems corresponding to the interacting-LDA and original interacting system.

  14. Paradoxes of Deliberative Interactions on Government-Managed Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zhu, Demi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of government agencies on increasingly popular social media platforms potentially enables interactions that go beyond one-way government-to-citizen information or service provision, and include citizen-to-citizen open interactions. These interactions can either contribute...... on government-managed social media accounts. Drawing on a survey of 417 users of the Chinese social media platform Weibo, data show that, on the one hand, general conversations between users are characterized by homophily and polarization, even though participants tend to perceive their own interactions...... as deliberative in some key aspects; and, on the other hand, that participants in conversations on government-managed Weibo accounts -- which are used to a low extent -- perceive their interactions as less deliberative. Findings contribute to research and practice of government social media management aimed...

  15. Favouritism in the motor system: social interaction modulates action simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Dimitrios; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2010-12-23

    The ability to anticipate others' actions is crucial for social interaction. It has been shown that this ability relies on motor areas of the human brain that are not only active during action execution and action observation, but also during anticipation of another person's action. Recording electroencephalograms during a triadic social interaction, we assessed whether activation of motor areas pertaining to the human mirror-neuron system prior to action observation depends on the social relationship between the actor and the observer. Anticipatory motor activation was stronger when participants expected an interaction partner to perform a particular action than when they anticipated that the same action would be performed by a third person they did not interact with. These results demonstrate that social interaction modulates action simulation.

  16. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed "social physiology." Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals.

  17. Problems of social and communicative competence in preschoolers and junior schoolchildren with difficulties in social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilushkina O.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the review of foreign and national investigations concerning genesis and specificity of interactions in children with difficulties in social contacts at early stages of ontogenesis. The following aspects of the problem were regarded: specificity of social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorder and mental retardation; peculiarities of child social interaction as depending on ethnic and gender attributes; factors determining the quality of interaction and social interaction in various age groups; the role of early support in normalizing the further child development; positive dynamics of interaction in conditions of inclusive education and so on.The reviewed studies stress the most significant reasons for low level of social interaction: decrease in need for social interaction, isolation (deprivation, lack of socio-communicative skills, difficulties in utilizing symbolic means, unfavorable situation of development, etc. It is shown that in case of specially structured educational environment it is possible to achieve positive dynamics in development of social and communicative competences in children with difficulties in social interaction.

  18. Factors associated with social interaction anxiety among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z W; Lam, L T; Jin, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate potential risk factors for social anxiety, particularly social interaction anxiety among the Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of the Guangdong Province where high school students aged 13 to 18 years were recruited. The sample was selected from all high schools in the city using a 2-stage random cluster sampling technique. Social interaction anxiety was assessed using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Information collected in the survey included: demographics, self-perception on school performance, relationship with teachers and peers, satisfaction with self-image, achievements, and parenting style of the mother. The parent-child relationship, specifically the relationship between respondents and their mothers, was assessed using the mother attachment subscale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The multiple linear regression technique was applied to investigate associations between selected potential risk factors and social interaction anxiety, with adjustments for cluster sampling. Lower family income, lower self-esteem, and hostility were significantly associated with social interaction anxiety among adolescents. Variables identified as risk factors of anxiety disorder in the literature, such as gender, were not associated with social interaction anxiety in this sample. These results were consistent with those of other studies conducted mainly in the United States and Europe. Regarding non-significant results related to gender, they need viewing in the context of parenting styles of Chinese mothers.

  19. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  20. Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: Monogenean epidemics in guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mirelle B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata). Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria), and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density.

  1. Parasite transmission in social interacting hosts: monogenean epidemics in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle B Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection incidence increases with the average number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals. Contact rates are normally assumed to increase linearly with host density. However, social species seek out each other at low density and saturate their contact rates at high densities. Although predicting epidemic behaviour requires knowing how contact rates scale with host density, few empirical studies have investigated the effect of host density. Also, most theory assumes each host has an equal probability of transmitting parasites, even though individual parasite load and infection duration can vary. To our knowledge, the relative importance of characteristics of the primary infected host vs. the susceptible population has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we examine epidemics using a common ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting its guppy host (Poecilia reticulata. Hosts were maintained at different densities (3, 6, 12 and 24 fish in 40 L aquaria, and we monitored gyrodactylids both at a population and individual host level. Although parasite population size increased with host density, the probability of an epidemic did not. Epidemics were more likely when the primary infected fish had a high mean intensity and duration of infection. Epidemics only occurred if the primary infected host experienced more than 23 worm days. Female guppies contracted infections sooner than males, probably because females have a higher propensity for shoaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that in social hosts like guppies, the frequency of social contact largely governs disease epidemics independent of host density.

  2. Social interactions in urban parks: Stimulating social cohesion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.B.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Buijs, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    People from all ethnic backgrounds spend some of their leisure time in green areas. This study found that urban parks are more inclusive green places than non-urban green areas, and that urban parks can promote social cohesion. The objective of the research was to establish the extent to which urban

  3. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  4. Toward an Ontology of Simulated Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a general conceptual framework for the ontological classification of human-robot interaction. After arguing against fictionalist interpretations of human-robot interactions, I present five notions of simulation or partial realization, formally defined in terms of relationships...

  5. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  6. The Effect of Social Interaction on Learning Engagement in a Social Networking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of social interactions among a class of undergraduate students on their learning engagement in a social networking environment. Thirteen undergraduate students enrolled in a course in a university in Hong Kong used an Elgg-based social networking platform throughout a semester to develop their digital portfolios…

  7. Exploring and encouraging through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Rasmussen, Julie Midtgaard

    2003-01-01

    . It is concluded that when individualized care is supported through social practice and when personal issues are exchanged and negotiated, the nurse facilitates a milieu of togetherness in self-help groups for patients with cancer. The concept of self-help groups is a valuable contribution to new theories...... as a social networker and uses her contextual competence by consciously encouraging relationships between fellow patients. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the nurse's involvement with self-help groups for patients with cancer serves as a complementary dimension to the traditional nursing discourse...... and service development in psychosocial care and complies with the understanding of the postmodern individual, who viewed as primarily responsible for negotiating, socializing, and making his or her own decisions....

  8. Tips for Teachers Selecting Toys to Facilitate Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Cynthia O.; Elmore, Shannon Renee

    2011-01-01

    Toy selection is an important role for early childhood teachers. This research-to-practice article describes what research tells us about how toys can affect the social interactions and communication of young children including those with developmental delays.

  9. Social interactions model and adaptability of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eZhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to face interactions and mobile phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in whitin the model. This distribution in one limit is a power law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution.The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks.

  10. A Mobile Personal Informatics System with Interactive Visualizations of Mobility and Social Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2013-01-01

    We describe a personal informatics system for Android smartphones that provides personal data on mobility and social interactions through interactive visualization interfaces. The mobile app has been made available to N=136 first year university students as part of a study of social network...

  11. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one tem...

  12. Autism in action: Reduced bodily connectedness during social interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. (Lieke E. Peper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a lifelong disorder, defined by deficits in social interactions and flexibility. To date, diagnostic markers for autism primarily include limitations in social behavior and cognition. However, such tests have often shown to be inadequate for individuals with autism who are either more cognitively able or intellectually disabled. The assessment of the social limitations of autism would benefit from new tests that capture the dynamics of social initiative and reciprocity in interaction processes, and that are not dependent on intellectual or verbal skills. New entry points for the development of such assessments may be found in 'bodily connectedness', the attunement of bodily movement between two individuals. In typical development, bodily connectedness is related to psychological connectedness, including social skills and relation quality. Limitations in bodily connectedness could be a central mechanism underlying the social impairment in autism. While bodily connectedness can be minutely assessed with advanced techniques, our understanding of these skills in autism is limited. This Perspective provides examples of how the potential relation between bodily connectedness and specific characteristics of autism can be examined using methods from the coordination dynamics approach. Uncovering this relation is particularly important for developing sensitive tools to assess the tendency to initiate social interactions and the dynamics of mutual adjustments during social interactions, as current assessments are not suited to grasp ongoing dynamics and reciprocity in behavior. The outcomes of such research may yield valuable openings for the development of diagnostic markers for autism that can be applied across the lifespan.

  13. Heterogeneous social motives and interactions: the three predictable paths of capability development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Coeurderoy, R.; Durand, R.

    Research summary: Limited attention has been paid to the crucial role of individuals' motivation and social interactions in capability development. Building on literature in social psychology and behavioral economics that links heterogeneity in individual social motives to social interactions, we

  14. A method for detecting characteristic patterns in social interactions with an application to handover interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Andrew; Lacey, Lindsey; Fennell, John G.; Leonards, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Social interactions are a defining behavioural trait of social animals. Discovering characteristic patterns in the display of such behaviour is one of the fundamental endeavours in behavioural biology and psychology, as this promises to facilitate the general understanding, classification, prediction and even automation of social interactions. We present a novel approach to study characteristic patterns, including both sequential and synchronous actions in social interactions. The key concept in our analysis is to represent social interactions as sequences of behavioural states and to focus on changes in behavioural states shown by individuals rather than on the duration for which they are displayed. We extend techniques from data mining and bioinformatics to detect frequent patterns in these sequences and to assess how these patterns vary across individuals or changes in interaction tasks. To illustrate our approach and to demonstrate its potential, we apply it to novel data on a simple physical interaction, where one person hands a cup to another person. Our findings advance the understanding of handover interactions, a benchmark scenario for social interactions. More generally, we suggest that our approach permits a general perspective for studying social interactions. PMID:28280570

  15. Toys and Social Interaction between Infant Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerman, Carol O.; Whatley, Judith L.

    1977-01-01

    Results showed that infants as young as 10 months of age are responsive to the person and behavior of an unfamiliar peer and that they are no less responsive than older infants (22-24 months of age) to the social versus nonsocial aspects of a novel setting. (Author/JMB)

  16. Enriching Absorptive Capacity through Social Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Becker-Ritterspach, Florian; Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    Absorptive capacity is frequently highlighted as a key determinant of knowledge transfer within multinational enterprises. But how individual behaviour translates into absorptive capacity at the subsidiary level, and how this is contingent on subsidiaries' social context, remains under-addressed. Th

  17. Social Interaction in Advertising Directed to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Meagan; Desmond, Roger J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of including peer interaction in television advertising directed to children. Results suggest that this variable provides increased liking for commercials, but does not affect product desirability. Nine references are cited. (Author/MER)

  18. The social comfort of wearable technology and gestural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E; Profita, Halley; Zeagler, Clint; Clawson, James; Gilliland, Scott; Do, Ellen Yi-Luen; Budd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The "wearability" of wearable technology addresses the factors that affect the degree of comfort the wearer experiences while wearing a device, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. While the physical and psychological aspects of wearing technology have been investigated since early in the development of the field of wearable computing, the social aspects of wearability have been less fully-explored. As wearable technology becomes increasingly common on the commercial market, social wearability is becoming an ever-more-important variable contributing to the success or failure of new products. Here we present an analysis of social aspects of wearability within the context of the greater understanding of wearability in wearable technology, and focus on selected theoretical frameworks for understanding how wearable products are perceived and evaluated in a social context. Qualitative results from a study of social acceptability of on-body interactions are presented as a case study of social wearability.

  19. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis for Interaction Design Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Social media analytics is an emerging skill for organizations. Currently, developers are exploring ways to create tools for simplifying social media analysis. These tools tend to focus on gathering data, and using systems to make it meaningful. However, we contend that making social media data...... meaningful is by nature a human-computer interaction problem. We examine this problem around the emerging field of sentiment analysis, exploring criteria for designing sentiment analysis systems based in Human Computer interaction, HCI. We contend that effective sentiment analysis affects audience analysis...

  20. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis for Interaction Design Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Social media analytics is an emerging skill for organizations. Currently, developers are exploring ways to create tools for simplifying social media analysis. These tools tend to focus on gathering data, and using systems to make it meaningful. However, we contend that making social media data...... meaningful is by nature a human-computer interaction problem. We examine this problem around the emerging field of sentiment analysis, exploring criteria for designing sentiment analysis systems based in Human Computer interaction, HCI. We contend that effective sentiment analysis affects audience analysis......, and can serve as a basis for communication design choices that support strategic relationship goals for organizations....

  1. Googling social interactions: web search engine based social network construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-07-21

    Social network analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is "high-throughput" sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate social networks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks.

  2. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Alessio; Petri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Sinatra, Roberta; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito

    2014-11-01

    Cooperation among unrelated individuals is frequently observed in social groups when their members combine efforts and resources to obtain a shared benefit that is unachievable by an individual alone. However, understanding why cooperation arises despite the natural tendency of individuals toward selfish behavior is still an open problem and represents one of the most fascinating challenges in evolutionary dynamics. Recently, the structural characterization of the networks in which social interactions take place has shed some light on the mechanisms by which cooperative behavior emerges and eventually overcomes the natural temptation to defect. In particular, it has been found that the heterogeneity in the number of social ties and the presence of tightly knit communities lead to a significant increase in cooperation as compared with the unstructured and homogeneous connection patterns considered in classical evolutionary dynamics. Here, we investigate the role of social-ties dynamics for the emergence of cooperation in a family of social dilemmas. Social interactions are in fact intrinsically dynamic, fluctuating, and intermittent over time, and they can be represented by time-varying networks. By considering two experimental data sets of human interactions with detailed time information, we show that the temporal dynamics of social ties has a dramatic impact on the evolution of cooperation: the dynamics of pairwise interactions favors selfish behavior.

  4. Cannabis use vulnerability among socially anxious users: cannabis craving during a social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Ecker, Anthony H; Vinci, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Socially anxious individuals appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems. However, the nature of the social anxiety-cannabis relation remains unclear. The present study examined the timing and specificity of cannabis craving in response to a social anxiety induction task among 82 (71% female) cannabis users randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. Participants completed ratings of substance (cannabis, alcohol, cigarette) craving at baseline (prior to being informed of task assignment), before, during, and after task. The Time × Condition interaction was significant such that cannabis craving increased from before to during the task among participants in the social interaction condition, but not among those in the reading condition. This effect was specific to cannabis craving and was not observed for craving for alcohol or cigarettes. Data suggest that increases in state social anxiety may play a role in cannabis use behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Simulating social interactions for the experimental investigation of joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; McArthur, Genevieve; Woolgar, Alexandra; Brock, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al., 2013). The key question for researchers is how to distil a complex, intentional interaction between two individuals into a tightly controlled and replicable experimental paradigm. We explore these issues within the context of recent investigations of joint attention - the ability to coordinate a common focus of attention with another person. We review pioneering neurophysiology and eye-tracking studies that have begun to address these issues; offer recommendations for the optimal design and implementation of interactive tasks, and discuss the broader implications of interactive approaches for social cognitive neuroscience.

  6. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  7. Multiple identities in social perception and interaction: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sonia K; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-03

    Categorization plays a fundamental role in organizing daily interactions with the social world. However, there is increasing recognition that social categorization is often complex, both because category membership can be ambiguous (e.g., multiracial or transgender identities) and because different categorical identities (e.g., race and gender) may interact to determine the meaning of category membership. These complex identities simultaneously impact social perceivers' impressions and social targets' own experiences of identity, thereby shaping perceptions, experiences, and interactions in fundamental ways. This review examines recent research on the perception and experience of the complex, multifaceted identities that both complicate and enrich our lives. Although research has historically tended to focus more on difficulties and challenges associated with multiple identities, increasing attention is being paid to opportunities that emerge from the possession of identities that include multiple distinct or overlapping groups. We consider how these opportunities might benefit both perceivers and targets.

  8. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVerga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthen by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicate that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as it is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  9. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety.

  10. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  11. Communication and cognition: the social beyond language, interaction and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareño, Aldo

    2008-06-01

    Cognition theories describe the social with terms like language, interaction or culture, whose theoretical status has also been discussed in modern sociology. These concepts are not well-positioned to understand the emergence and autonomy of social orders. Sociological theory of self-referential systems can be useful to reconstruct the bottom-up process which contributes to the emergence of the social as communication as well as to describe the way in which society exerts downward causation upon cognitive phenomena. The core of this theory is the systemic category of meaning as a shared horizon for psychic and social systems.

  12. Playful user interfaces interfaces that invite social and physical interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book is about user interfaces to applications that have been designed for social and physical interaction. The interfaces are ‘playful’, that is, users feel challenged to engage in social and physical interaction because that will be fun. The topics that will be present in this book are interactive playgrounds, urban games using mobiles, sensor-equipped environments for playing, child-computer interaction, tangible game interfaces, interactive tabletop technology and applications, full-body interaction, exertion games, persuasion, engagement, evaluation, and user experience. Readers of the book will not only get a survey of state-of-the-art research in these areas, but the chapters in this book will also provide a vision of the future where playful interfaces will be ubiquitous, that is, present and integrated in home, office, recreational, sports and urban environments, emphasizing that in the future in these environments game elements will be integrated and welcomed.

  13. Virtual social interactions in social anxiety--the impact of sex, gaze, and interpersonal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Matthias J; Pauli, Paul; Grosseibl, Miriam; Molzow, Ina; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    In social interactions, interpersonal distance between interaction partners plays an important role in determining the status of the relationship. Interpersonal distance is an important nonverbal behavior, and is used to regulate personal space in a complex interplay with other nonverbal behaviors such as eye gaze. In social anxiety, studies regarding the impact of interpersonal distance on within-situation avoidance behavior are so far rare. Thus the present study aimed to scrutinize the relationship between gaze direction, sex, interpersonal distance, and social anxiety in social interactions. Social interactions were modeled in a virtual-reality (VR) environment, where 20 low and 19 high socially anxious women were confronted with approaching male and female characters, who stopped in front of the participant, either some distance away or close to them, and displayed either a direct or an averted gaze. Gaze and head movements, as well as heart rate, were measured as indices of avoidance behavior and fear reactions. High socially anxious participants showed a complex pattern of avoidance behavior: when the avatar was standing farther away, high socially anxious women avoided gaze contact with male avatars showing a direct gaze. Furthermore, they showed avoidance behavior (backward head movements) in response to male avatars showing a direct gaze, regardless of the interpersonal distance. Overall, the current study proved that VR social interactions might be a very useful tool for investigating avoidance behavior of socially anxious individuals in highly controlled situations. This might also be the first step in using VR social interactions in clinical protocols for the therapy of social anxiety disorder.

  14. Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-01-01

    nulliparous 100D animals, whereas 100D parous animals tended to spend 7.6±4.5 fewer minutes per day feeding than 80D parous animals. The 2 treatments were not different in the number of lying bouts or lying-bout duration; lying time was longer for 100D on d -33, -29, and -26 and shorter on d -7, -5, and 0 than 80D. The interaction between treatment, parity, and social rank was associated with lying and feeding times. In summary, animals in the 80D treatment had a lower number of displacements from the feed bunk and spent more time lying down near parturition than 100D animals, and 80D nulliparous animals had reduced daily feeding time compared with 100D nulliparous animals. Although these results showed some potential behavior benefits of a prepartum stocking density of 80% compared with 100%, observed changes were small. However, greater stocking density cannot be recommended; more research is needed to evaluate the effects of stocking densities greater than 100% and with other breeds of cattle besides Jersey.

  15. Sensing sociality in dogs: what may make an interactive robot social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Janiak, Mariusz; Malek, Lukasz; Muszynski, Robert; Konok, Veronika; Tchon, Krzysztof; Miklósi, A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated whether dogs would engage in social interactions with an unfamiliar robot, utilize the communicative signals it provides and to examine whether the level of sociality shown by the robot affects the dogs' performance. We hypothesized that dogs would react to the communicative signals of a robot more successfully if the robot showed interactive social behaviour in general (towards both humans and dogs) than if it behaved in a machinelike, asocial way. The experiment consisted of an interactive phase followed by a pointing session, both with a human and a robotic experimenter. In the interaction phase, dogs witnessed a 6-min interaction episode between the owner and a human experimenter and another 6-min interaction episode between the owner and the robot. Each interaction episode was followed by the pointing phase in which the human/robot experimenter indicated the location of hidden food by using pointing gestures (two-way choice test). The results showed that in the interaction phase, the dogs' behaviour towards the robot was affected by the differential exposure. Dogs spent more time staying near the robot experimenter as compared to the human experimenter, with this difference being even more pronounced when the robot behaved socially. Similarly, dogs spent more time gazing at the head of the robot experimenter when the situation was social. Dogs achieved a significantly lower level of performance (finding the hidden food) with the pointing robot than with the pointing human; however, separate analysis of the robot sessions suggested that gestures of the socially behaving robot were easier for the dogs to comprehend than gestures of the asocially behaving robot. Thus, the level of sociality shown by the robot was not enough to elicit the same set of social behaviours from the dogs as was possible with humans, although sociality had a positive effect on dog-robot interactions.

  16. Effects of group socialization procedures on the social interactions of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W H; Ragland, E U; Fox, J J

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group socialization procedures on the social behavior of preschool children in two studies. Group socialization procedures consisted of teachers using antecedent and consequent events to promote social interaction during children's games. During intervention, teachers discussed friendship with the children and then prompted and praised child-child social responding within the context of games. Children's social behavior was assessed during two sessions, group game periods (i.e., intervention sessions) and nonintervention play periods (i.e., generalization sessions). In both studies, a multiple baseline design across two target children and peers in their respective group was used to evaluate the effects of group socialization procedures. During group game periods, after intervention, target children increased their rates of both prompted and unprompted social interactions with peers. Also, in nonintervention play periods, target children improved both the rate and the duration of their social responding with peers. Results indicated that group socialization procedures were a practical and effective method for improving young children's social interaction during both structured games and unstructured play activities.

  17. Socioecological regime shifts in the setting of complex social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, Hendrik Santoso; Chung, Ning Ning; Lai, Choy Heng; Chew, Lock Yue

    2015-06-01

    The coupling between social and ecological system has become more ubiquitous and predominant in the current era. The strong interaction between these systems can bring about regime shifts which in the extreme can lead to the collapse of social cooperation and the extinction of ecological resources. In this paper, we study the occurrence of such regime shifts in the context of a coupled social-ecological system where social cooperation is established by means of sanction that punishes local selfish act and promotes norms that prescribe nonexcessive resource extraction. In particular, we investigate the role of social networks on social-ecological regimes shift and the corresponding hysteresis effects caused by the local ostracism mechanism under different social and ecological parameters. Our results show that a lowering of network degree reduces the hysteresis effect and also alters the tipping point, which is duly verified by our numerical results and analytical estimation. Interestingly, the hysteresis effect is found to be stronger in scale-free network in comparison with random network even when both networks have the same average degree. These results provide deeper insights into the resilience of these systems, and can have important implications on the management of coupled social-ecological systems with complex social interactions.

  18. Density matrix of two interacting particles with kinetic coupling derived in bipartite entangled state representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qin

    2007-01-01

    A density matrix is usually obtained by solving the Bloch equation, however only a few Hamiltonians' density matrices can be analytically derived. The density matrix for two interacting particles with kinetic coupling is hard to derive by the usual method due to this coupling; this paper solves this problem by using the bipartite entangled state representation.

  19. Density functional theory calculations on dipeptide gallic acid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan, B.; Parthasarathi, R.; Subramanian, V.; Raghava Rao, J.; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, T.

    2003-02-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of dipeptides with gallic acid, using Becke3 parameter Lee Yang Parr (B3LYP) method employing 3-21G*, 6-31G* and 6-31+G* basis sets. The interaction energies of the dipeptide-gallic acid complexes are in the range of -5 to -18 kcal/mol depending on the mode of intermolecular complexation. Calculated molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) for the various intermolecular complexes revealed the electrostatic nature of the interaction. Qualitative estimations based on chemical hardness and chemical potential demonstrated fractional electron transfer from dipeptide to gallic acid.

  20. Bayesian Social Learning with Local Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Ianni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We study social learning in a large population of agents who only observe the actions taken by their neighbours. Agents have to choose one, out of two, reversible actions, each optimal in one, out of two, unknown states of the world. Each agent chooses rationally, on the basis of private information and of the observation of his neighbours’ actions. Agents can repeatedly update their choices at revision opportunities that they receive in a random sequential order. We show that if agents receive equally informative signals and observe both neighbours, then actions converge exponentially fast to a configuration where some agents are permanently wrong. In contrast, if agents are unequally informed (in that some agents receive a perfectly informative signal and others are uninformed and observe one neighbour only, then everyone will eventually choose the correct action. Convergence, however, obtains very slowly, at rate √t.

  1. Interaction effects in high density magnetic particulate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerchez, Mihai; Stoleriu, Laurentiu; Stancu, Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a micromagnetic study of the particulate high density recording media. The main difference in the behavior of such a system is the appearance of magnetic clusters which lead to a different behavior of the system. New hypotheses for interpreting such systems are presented.

  2. Interaction of low density lipoproteins with rat liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Harkes (Leendert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe most marked conclusion is the establishment of the important role of non-parenchymal cells in the catabolism of the low density lipoproteins by the rat liver. Because the liver is responsible for 70-80% of the removal of LDL from blood this conclusion can be extended to total LDL tur

  3. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim de Greeff

    Full Text Available Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference; the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  4. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  5. Interactions Among Agent Variables and Evolution of Social Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shafee, Fariel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first review some basic concepts associated with a model for social interaction previously proposed by us. Each agent is seen as an array of variables that can be found in different states. The agents are then allowed to interact and form groups based on their variables. We discuss how spin-glass type physics may be appropriate for our model. Several types of variables and costs associated with flipping the variables are discussed. Then some simple graphs are presented to understand the formation of various levels of identities within social clusters. In the end, we analyze events from the French revolution and the Russian revolution to to understand how different variables and identities interact within a hierarchical social structure.

  6. Civility vs. incivility in online social interactions: an evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, Angelo; Delfino, Alexia; Paglieri, Fabio; Panebianco, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is growing that forms of incivility–e.g. aggressive and disrespectful behaviors, harassment, hate speech and outrageous claims–are spreading in the population of social networking sites’ (SNS) users. Online social networks such as Facebook allow users to regularly interact with known and unknown others, who can behave either politely or rudely. This leads individuals not only to learn and adopt successful strategies for using the site, but also to condition their own behavior on that...

  7. Civility vs. Incivility in Online Social Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, Angelo; Delfino, Alexia; Paglieri, Fabio; Panebianco, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is growing that forms of incivility–e.g. aggressive and disrespectful behaviors, harassment, hate speech and outrageous claims–are spreading in the population of social networking sites’ (SNS) users. Online social networks such as Facebook allow users to regularly interact with known and unknown others, who can behave either politely or rudely. This leads individuals not only to learn and adopt successful strategies for using the site, but also to condition their own behavior on that...

  8. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2016-07-27

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. THE SIMULATED SOCIAL-INTERACTION TEST - A PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION WITH DUTCH SOCIAL PHOBIC PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; BREUKERS, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The Simulated Social Interaction Test (SSIT) was translated and adjusted for use on a population of Dutch males and females. Seventy-four social phobic patients were assessed with the SSIT, a conversation test, and an interview with an independent observer. Results show that the SSIT is a relatively

  10. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Morina, N.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) d

  11. The Social Fabric of Elementary Schools: A Network Typology of Social Interaction among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Karsten, Sjoerd; Daly, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    While researchers are currently studying various forms of social network interaction among teachers for their impact on educational policy implementation and practice, knowledge on how various types of networks are interrelated is limited. The goal of this study is to understand the dimensionality that may underlie various types of social networks…

  12. THE SIMULATED SOCIAL-INTERACTION TEST - A PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION WITH DUTCH SOCIAL PHOBIC PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; BREUKERS, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The Simulated Social Interaction Test (SSIT) was translated and adjusted for use on a population of Dutch males and females. Seventy-four social phobic patients were assessed with the SSIT, a conversation test, and an interview with an independent observer. Results show that the SSIT is a relatively

  13. Social niche specialization under constraints: personality, social interactions and environmental heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Ferrari, Caterina; Réale, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Several personality traits are mainly expressed in a social context, and others, which are not restricted to a social context, can be affected by the social interactions with conspecifics. In this paper, we focus on the recently proposed hypothesis that social niche specialization (i.e. individuals in a population occupy different social roles) can explain the maintenance of individual differences in personality. We first present ecological and social niche specialization hypotheses. In particular, we show how niche specialization can be quantified and highlight the link between personality differences and social niche specialization. We then review some ecological factors (e.g. competition and environmental heterogeneity) and the social mechanisms (e.g. frequency-dependent, state-dependent and social awareness) that may be associated with the evolution of social niche specialization and personality differences. Finally, we present a conceptual model and methods to quantify the contribution of ecological factors and social mechanisms to the dynamics between personality and social roles. In doing so, we suggest a series of research objectives to help empirical advances in this research area. Throughout this paper, we highlight empirical studies of social niche specialization in mammals, where available. PMID:23569291

  14. Social niche specialization under constraints: personality, social interactions and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Ferrari, Caterina; Réale, Denis

    2013-05-19

    Several personality traits are mainly expressed in a social context, and others, which are not restricted to a social context, can be affected by the social interactions with conspecifics. In this paper, we focus on the recently proposed hypothesis that social niche specialization (i.e. individuals in a population occupy different social roles) can explain the maintenance of individual differences in personality. We first present ecological and social niche specialization hypotheses. In particular, we show how niche specialization can be quantified and highlight the link between personality differences and social niche specialization. We then review some ecological factors (e.g. competition and environmental heterogeneity) and the social mechanisms (e.g. frequency-dependent, state-dependent and social awareness) that may be associated with the evolution of social niche specialization and personality differences. Finally, we present a conceptual model and methods to quantify the contribution of ecological factors and social mechanisms to the dynamics between personality and social roles. In doing so, we suggest a series of research objectives to help empirical advances in this research area. Throughout this paper, we highlight empirical studies of social niche specialization in mammals, where available.

  15. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  16. Civility vs. Incivility in Online Social Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Delfino, Alexia; Paglieri, Fabio; Panebianco, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is growing that forms of incivility-e.g. aggressive and disrespectful behaviors, harassment, hate speech and outrageous claims-are spreading in the population of social networking sites' (SNS) users. Online social networks such as Facebook allow users to regularly interact with known and unknown others, who can behave either politely or rudely. This leads individuals not only to learn and adopt successful strategies for using the site, but also to condition their own behavior on that of others. Using a mean field approach, we define anevolutionary game framework to analyse the dynamics of civil and uncivil ways of interaction in online social networks and their consequences for collective welfare. Agents can choose to interact with others-politely or rudely-in SNS, or to opt out from online social networks to protect themselves from incivility. We find that, when the initial share of the population of polite users reaches a critical level, civility becomes generalized if its payoff increases more than that of incivility with the spreading of politeness in online interactions. Otherwise, the spreading of self-protective behaviors to cope with online incivility can lead the economyto non-socially optimal stationary states. JEL Codes: C61, C73, D85, O33, Z13. PsycINFO Codes: 2240, 2750.

  17. The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    on Language and Social Interaction from 1987-2013. I consider closely two areas where analysts have confronted challenges, and how they have responded: settling on precise and analytically helpful terminology for the body; and transcribing and representing the body, particularly its temporality and manner.......I use the term the embodied turn to mean the point when interest in the body became established among researchers on language and social interaction, exploiting the greater ease of video-recording. This review paper tracks the growth of "embodiment" in over 400 papers published in Research...

  18. The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    I use the term the embodied turn to mean the point when interest in the body became established among researchers on language and social interaction, exploiting the greater ease of video-recording. This review paper tracks the growth of "embodiment" in over 400 papers published in Research...... on Language and Social Interaction from 1987-2013. I consider closely two areas where analysts have confronted challenges, and how they have responded: settling on precise and analytically helpful terminology for the body; and transcribing and representing the body, particularly its temporality and manner....

  19. Job burnout, geographic location, and social interaction among educational audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ingrid M; Cohen, Lindsay; Blood, Gordon W

    2007-12-01

    Job stress of 332 educational audiologists, measured on the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was obtained. 84% of the sample rated their overall job burnout as lower than norms for educational personnel. Mean differences were significant among those participants working in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Participants in rural areas had a significantly higher mean on Emotional Exhaustion and a lower mean on Personal Accomplishment. Correlations between scores on Emotional Exhaustion and Social Interactions (r = -.36) and Personal Accomplishment and Social Interactions (r = .44) were significant but not strong. As predicted, job burnout for these educational audiologists is similar to that in other descriptive studies of sampled helping professions.

  20. Primary spaces of social interaction and insecurity in Matamoros, Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Jurado Montelongo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the importance of gathering places in strengthening the primary social groups of individuals over the age of 15 years within six families in Matamoros, Tamaulipas. The relationship between primary social groups and spaces of social interaction is contextualized in an environment of insecurity fostered by the existence and violence of criminal groups who have managed to involve themselves in a range of significant activities in the city. Together with structural factors, insecurity has helped lead to a reconfiguration of gathering places between young people and adults; private and semi-public spaces predominate, while the intensive use of certain public spaces in the city has diminished.

  1. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forbes Dorothy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203, including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical

  2. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly

    2009-05-14

    As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT) invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203), including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical construction, specifically, a participatory action KT (PAKT

  3. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Carol L; Kothari, Anita; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy; Leipert, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT) invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203), including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical construction, specifically, a

  4. Analysis of compaction shock interactions during DDT of low density HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined, low density granular HMX occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong combustion-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting dissipative heating within the microstructure during pore collapse. Inert meso-scale simulations of successive shock loading of low density HMX are performed to examine how dissipation and hot-spot formation are affected by the initial density, and the primary and secondary shock strengths. This information is used to formulate an ignition and burn model for low density HMX that accounts for the effect of shock densensitization on burn. Preliminary DDT predictions are presented that illustrate how primary shock strength affects the transition mechanism.

  5. Density-mediated, context-dependent consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Scott A; Holland, J Nathaniel

    2008-05-01

    Interspecific interactions are often mediated by the interplay between resource supply and consumer density. The supply of a resource and a consumer's density response to it may in turn yield context-dependent use of other resources. Such consumer-resource interactions occur not only for predator-prey and competitive interactions, but for mutualistic ones as well. For example, consumer-resource interactions between ants and extrafloral nectar (EFN) plants are often mutualistic, as EFN resources attract and reward ants which protect plants from herbivory. Yet, ants also commonly exploit floral resources, leading to antagonistic consumer-resource interactions by disrupting pollination and plant reproduction. EFN resources associated with mutualistic ant-plant interactions may also mediate antagonistic ant-flower interactions through the aggregative density response of ants on plants, which could either exacerbate ant-flower interactions or alternatively satiate and distract ants from floral resources. In this study, we examined how EFN resources mediate the density response of ants on senita cacti in the Sonoran Desert and their context-dependent use of floral resources. Removal of EFN resources reduced the aggregative density of ants on plants, both on hourly and daily time scales. Yet, the increased aggregative ant density on plants with EFN resources decreased rather than increased ant use of floral resources, including contacts with and time spent in flowers. Behavioral assays showed no confounding effect of floral deterrents on ant-flower interactions. Thus, ant use of floral resources depends on the supply of EFN resources, which mediates the potential for both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions by increasing the aggregative density of ants protecting plants, while concurrently distracting ants from floral resources. Nevertheless, only certain years and populations of study showed an increase in plant reproduction through herbivore protection or ant

  6. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    able to form human-dog relationships that are comparable to such interpersonal relationships. Human-dog interaction has been suggested to have various benefits for humans, but obviously the welfare of both humans and dogs depend on such interaction being successful. Unfor-tunately not all human...... developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also......-dog relationships are successful and every year a large number of dogs are relinquished because of failed dog-owner relationships. Therefore more knowledge is needed about the mechanisms of human-dog interaction and about factors related to successful as well as unsuc-cessful human-dog relationships. The aim...

  7. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2011-06-05

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  8. Social Security and the Interactions Between Aggregate and Idiosyncratic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harenberg, Daniel; Ludwig, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We ask whether a PAYG-financed social security system is welfare improving in an economy with idiosyncratic and aggregate risk. We argue that interactions between the two risks are important for this question. One is a direct interaction in the form of a countercyclical variance of idiosyncratic income risk. The other indirectly emerges over a household's life-cycle because retirement savings contain the history of idiosyncratic and aggregate shocks. We show that this leads to risk interactio...

  9. A multilevel path analysis of social networks and social interaction in the neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline van den Berg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of neighbourhood-based social interactions has gained attention in the last decades in the light of urban policies that aim to deal with problems regarding social segregation and exclusion, quality of life and liveability in urban areas. Social interactions are expected to play an important role in dealing with these problems. However, empirical studies investigating to which extent neighbourhood characteristics can improve social contacts among residents are scarce and inconclusive. Therefore, this paper studies the role of socio-demographics and neighbourhood characteristics in the formation of social network ties and social interactions with neighbours. Based on data collected in 2011 in 70 different neighbourhoods of Eindhoven in the Netherlands in a survey among 751 respondents these relationships are analysed using a multi-level path analysis approach. The results indicate that neighbourhood-based contacts are influenced by personal and household characteristics, such as education, income, work status, ethnicity, household composition, and years at the current address. Neighbourhood characteristics are not found to affect social network size, the share of neighbours in the network or the frequency of interaction with neighbours.

  10. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  11. The development of social learning in interactive and observational contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Heath; Moore, Chris; Akhtar, Nameera

    2013-02-01

    From the first year of life, imitative learning readily occurs in contexts where a demonstrator directly interacts with infants (i.e., "interactive contexts"), and at least by 18 months, imitation will also occur in third-party or observational contexts where infants witness a demonstration by another person that is not directed at them. However, it remains unclear whether imitation is differentially facilitated in these two contexts in young children. In the current experiment, we tested both imitation and emulation learning in younger (18 months) and older (24 months) infants in three different social learning conditions: interactive, social observational, and solitary observational. We found that the younger group imitated novel actions more after interactive demonstration than after solitary observational demonstration; older infants imitated equally in all conditions. Emulation occurred equally in all conditions for the younger group, but the older group emulated significantly less in the interactive condition than in the solitary observational condition. Furthermore, we found that mirror self-recognition was related to imitation in the solitary observational condition. These results suggest that imitation is initially facilitated by direct interaction but that by the end of the second year can occur just as easily in noninteractive contexts. This change may be dependent on developments in social cognition, in particular, the understanding of self-other equivalence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  13. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder.

  14. Social reality according to the interaction of the individuum with the social environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grega Repovš

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Every social group is composed of individuals and a complex interaction between them. Individuals with their perceptual, cognitive, emotional and personality features influence group processes and phenomena and form their "social reality", which in turn influences perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes of its members and shapes their personality. A comprehensive understanding of social phenomena is possible only through a combination of different levels of description and explanation. One has to take into account cognitive abilities, structures and processes that form a necessary basis for development of a social being. One also has to understand how perceptual and cognitive processes form the experience of social content and social behavior. Researches need to study how the interaction between individuals gives rise to social phenomena, know how these phenomena develop and which rules they follow. Through the analysis of the elements that form the interaction between an individual and his surroundings, the paper tries to present a more clear understanding of possible meanings of social reality, as well as propose some guidelines for its further study.

  15. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations.

  16. Social Media Enabled Interactions in Healthcare : Towards a Typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smailhodzic, Edin; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David

    2015-01-01

    Social media is increasingly used by healthcare users and providers to connect and communicate with each other. Such use is changing the interactions in healthcare and it is not clear what effects this may have for healthcare provision. Although it could be beneficial to both parties, it could also

  17. Social Media Enabled Interactions in Healthcare : Towards a Typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smailhodzic, Edin; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David

    2015-01-01

    Social media is increasingly used by healthcare users and providers to connect and communicate with each other. Such use is changing the interactions in healthcare and it is not clear what effects this may have for healthcare provision. Although it could be beneficial to both parties, it could also

  18. Boldness by habituation and social interactions : a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, Johanneke E.; Magnhagen, Carin; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    Most studies of animal personality attribute personality to genetic traits. But a recent study by Magnhagen and Staffan (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57:295-303, 2005) on young perch in small groups showed that boldness, a central personality trait, is also shaped by social interactions and by previous

  19. Introduction: Links between Social Interaction and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlie; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The term executive function is used increasingly within developmental psychology and is often taken to refer to unfolding brain processes. We trace the origins of research on executive function to show that the link with social interaction has a long history. We suggest that a recent frenzy of research exploring methods for studying individual…

  20. Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sereno, Bertrand; Boursinou, Eleni; Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Sereno, B., Boursinou, E., Maxwell, K., & Angehrn, A. A. (2007). Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop (pp. 29-35). January, 11-12, 2007, Manchester, United Kingdom.

  1. Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sereno, Bertrand; Boursinou, Eleni; Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Sereno, B., Boursinou, E., Maxwell, K., & Angehrn, A. A. (2007). Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop (pp. 29-35). January, 11-12, 2007, Manchester, United Kingdom.

  2. Desire for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, A.; Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Rinck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental clinical study, a first attempt was made to examine the desire for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children completed both an explicit measure (self-report) and an implicit measure (Face Turn Ap

  3. An Annotation Scheme for Social Interaction in Digital Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, Alejandro M.; Delden, van Robby; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new annotation scheme, designed specifically to study children's social interactions during play in digital playgrounds. The scheme is motivated by analyzing relevant literature, combined with observations from recordings of play sessions. The scheme allows us to analyze how

  4. [Self-perceived oral odour and social interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.; Wijk, A.J. van

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of self-perceived oral odour on social interaction. A representative sample of 1,082 people from the Dutch population of 16 years and older, were surveyed. On average, the participants graded their oral odour as 66.8 on a scale 0-100; 4.2% judged their oral odour as

  5. Price-setting behavior in the presence of social interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a market with a profit-maximizing monopolistic firm. Utility-maximizing consumers either buy one unit of the good or none at all. The demand for the good is influenced by local social interactions. That is, the utility which a consumer derives from the consumption of the good depends pos

  6. Introduction: Links between Social Interaction and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlie; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The term executive function is used increasingly within developmental psychology and is often taken to refer to unfolding brain processes. We trace the origins of research on executive function to show that the link with social interaction has a long history. We suggest that a recent frenzy of research exploring methods for studying individual…

  7. Researching Classroom Interaction in the light of social justice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof.Dr. Petra Ponte; Nicolina Montesano-Montessori

    2010-01-01

    A research into classroom interaction (behaviour and communication) between teachers and pupils in the light of social justice. The research is based on the concern that educational praxis, defined as 'practice which implies a conscious awareness of the practitioners that their actions are morally

  8. Overview of the INEX 2014 Interactive Social Book Search Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Mark Michael; Huurdemann, Hugo; Koolen, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Users looking for books online are confronted with both professional metadata and user-generated content. The goal of the Interactive Social Book Search Track was to investigate how users used these two sources of information, when looking for books in a leisure context. To this end participants...

  9. Toddlers' Social Interactions Regarding Moral and Conventional Trangressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1984-01-01

    Social interactions regarding moral and conventional transgressions were observed among two toddler groups. Each of 16 day care center classrooms, eight serving 13- to 27-month-olds and eight serving 18- to 40-month-olds, was observed for three 45-minute sessions. Implications of results concerned the developmental origins of distinctions between…

  10. Cortical response to social interaction is affected by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina; Guerreschi, Michele; Lutzenberger, Werner; Sokolov, Alexander N; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2010-04-15

    The ability of humans to predict and explain other people's actions is of immense value for adaptive behavior and nonverbal communication. Gender differences are often evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying neurobiological basis for these differences is unclear. Combining visual psychophysics with an analysis of neuromagnetic activity, we assessed gender effects on the induced oscillatory response to visual social interaction revealed by motion. A robust difference in the induced gamma response was found between females and males over the left prefrontal cortex, a region implicated in perceptual decision making. The induced gamma neuromagnetic response peaked earlier in females than in males. Moreover, it appears that females anticipate social interaction predicting others' actions ahead of their realization, whereas males require accumulation of more sensory evidence for proper social decisions. The findings reflect gender-dependent modes in cortical processing of visually acquired social information. Contrary to popular wisdom, the outcome of this study indicates that gender effects are not evident in the neural circuitry underpinning visual social perception, but in the regions engaged in perceptual decision making. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Realtime Interaction Analysis of Social Interplay in a Multimodal Musical-Sonic Interaction Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the analysis of social interplay among users in a multimodal interaction and musical performance situation. The approach consists of a combined method of realtime sensor data analysis for the description and interpretation of player gestures and video micro......-analysis methods used to describe the interaction situation and the context in which the social interplay takes place. This combined method is used in an iterative process, where the design of interactive games with musical-sonic feedback is improved according to newly discovered understandings and interpretations...

  12. Social playware for mediating teleplay interaction over distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Tumi

    2011-01-01

    and Asia. With the social playware, players would compete against each other simultaneously in the three continents, Africa, Europe and Asia, and feel the presence of the competitors on the other continents expressed through the playware. The playware game is set up to motivate players to engage......We suggest that novel playware technology can function as a mediator for playful social interaction over distance, where people are separated by physical distance but feel the presence of each other mediated through the interaction with the playware technology. In order to investigate such social...... playware, we developed the Playware Soccer game and tested this with more than 1,000 users during the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa. The test was conducted in townships, orphanages for HIV/AIDS children, markets, FIFA fan parks, etc. along with simultaneous tests with similar set-ups in Europe...

  13. Social playware for mediating tele-play interaction over distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Tumi

    2012-01-01

    to investigate such social playware, we developed the Playware Soccer game and tested it with more than 1000 users during the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa. The test was conducted in townships, orphanages for HIV/AIDS children, markets, FIFA fan parks, etc., along with simultaneous tests with similar set......-ups in Europe and Asia. With the social playware, players would compete against each other simultaneously in three continents, Africa, Europe, and Asia, and feel the presence of the competitors on the other continents expressed through the playware. The playware game is set up to motivate players to engage......We suggest that novel playware technology can function as a mediator for playful social interaction over long distances, such as where people are separated by physical distance but feel the presence of each other mediated through their interaction with the playware technology. In order...

  14. Interactive Environments: Opportunities for Social Innovation and Public Health Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag K. Nikolic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How to keep people in a “good health”, longer and healthier life is more than just a phrase listed in a sustainable strategies it became crucial issue for any future social innovation initiative and community needs. New technologies and its application in everyday living surrounding are affecting a way we are interacting between each other and with services around us. As a result, we are facing huge psychological and cultural shift in human behavior and raising of new social practices. We are in need of using new approaches and models in order to provoke human behavior change which is more than ever depending on content and context users can reach in interactive environments they are approaching through their devices or in a physical space. New powerful playground for social innovations is born.

  15. Perception of social interactions for spatially scrambled biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    It is vitally important for humans to detect living creatures in the environment and to analyze their behavior to facilitate action understanding and high-level social inference. The current study employed naturalistic point-light animations to examine the ability of human observers to spontaneously identify and discriminate socially interactive behaviors between two human agents. Specifically, we investigated the importance of global body form, intrinsic joint movements, extrinsic whole-body movements, and critically, the congruency between intrinsic and extrinsic motions. Motion congruency is hypothesized to be particularly important because of the constraint it imposes on naturalistic action due to the inherent causal relationship between limb movements and whole body motion. Using a free response paradigm in Experiment 1, we discovered that many naïve observers (55%) spontaneously attributed animate and/or social traits to spatially-scrambled displays of interpersonal interaction. Total stimulus motion energy was strongly correlated with the likelihood that an observer would attribute animate/social traits, as opposed to physical/mechanical traits, to the scrambled dot stimuli. In Experiment 2, we found that participants could identify interactions between spatially-scrambled displays of human dance as long as congruency was maintained between intrinsic/extrinsic movements. Violating the motion congruency constraint resulted in chance discrimination performance for the spatially-scrambled displays. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that scrambled point-light dancing animations violating this constraint were also rated as significantly less interactive than animations with congruent intrinsic/extrinsic motion. These results demonstrate the importance of intrinsic/extrinsic motion congruency for biological motion analysis, and support a theoretical framework in which early visual filters help to detect animate agents in the environment based on several fundamental

  16. Laser interaction with low-density carbon foam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chaurasia; S Tripathi; D S Munda; G Mishra; C G Murali; N K Gupta; L J Dhareshwar; A K Rossall; G J Tallents; Rashmi Singh; D K Kohli; R K Khardekar

    2010-12-01

    Experiments were performed with a 15 J/500 ps Nd:glass laser ( = 1064 nm) focussed to an intensity > 1014 W/cm2 . X-ray emissions from carbon foam and 5 % Pt-doped carbon foam of density 150–300 mg/cc were compared with that of the solid carbon targets. The thickness of the carbon foam was 15 m on a graphite substrate. X-ray emission was measured using semiconductor X-ray diodes covered with various filters having transmissions in different X-ray spectral ranges. It covered X-ray spectrum of 0.8–8.5 keV range. The X-ray emission in the soft X-ray region was observed to increase to about 1.8 times and 2.3 times in carbon foam and Pt-doped foam, respectively with respect to solid carbon. In hard X-rays, there was no measurable difference amongst the carbon foam, Pt-doped carbon foam and solid carbon. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis demonstrates that foam targets smoothens the crater formed by the laser irradiation.

  17. Dimensional Effects on Densities of States and Interactions in Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider electrons in the presence of interfaces with different effective electron mass, and electromagnetic fields in the presence of a high-permittivity interface in bulk material. The equations of motion for these dimensionally hybrid systems yield analytic expressions for Green’s functions and electromagnetic potentials that interpolate between the two-dimensional logarithmic potential at short distance, and the three-dimensional r−1 potential at large distance. This also yields results for electron densities of states which interpolate between the well-known two-dimensional and three-dimensional formulas. The transition length scales for interfaces of thickness L are found to be of order Lm/2m* for an interface in which electrons move with effective mass m*, and for a dielectric thin film with permittivity in a bulk of permittivity . We can easily test the merits of the formalism by comparing the calculated electromagnetic potential with the infinite series solutions from image charges. This confirms that the dimensionally hybrid models are excellent approximations for distances r ≳ L/2.

  18. Dimensional Effects on Densities of States and Interactions in Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Rainer

    2010-10-01

    We consider electrons in the presence of interfaces with different effective electron mass, and electromagnetic fields in the presence of a high-permittivity interface in bulk material. The equations of motion for these dimensionally hybrid systems yield analytic expressions for Green's functions and electromagnetic potentials that interpolate between the two-dimensional logarithmic potential at short distance, and the three-dimensional r(-1) potential at large distance. This also yields results for electron densities of states which interpolate between the well-known two-dimensional and three-dimensional formulas. The transition length scales for interfaces of thickness L are found to be of order Lm/2m(*) for an interface in which electrons move with effective mass m(*), and Lϵ(*)/2ϵ for a dielectric thin film with permittivity ϵ(*) in a bulk of permittivity ϵ. We can easily test the merits of the formalism by comparing the calculated electromagnetic potential with the infinite series solutions from image charges. This confirms that the dimensionally hybrid models are excellent approximations for distances r ≳ L/2.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of time-resolved social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Alessio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Sinatra, Roberta; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation among unrelated individuals is frequently observed in social groups when their members join efforts and resources to obtain a shared benefit which is unachievable by singles. However, understanding why cooperation arises despite the natural tendency of individuals towards selfish behaviors is still an open problem and represents one of the most fascinating challenges in volutionary dynamics. Very recently, the structural characterization of the networks upon which social interactions take place has shed some light on the mechanisms by which cooperative behaviours emerge and eventually overcome the individual temptation to defect. In particular, it has been found that the heterogeneity in the number of social ties and the presence of tightly-knit communities lead to a significant increase of cooperation as compared with the unstructured and homogeneous connection patterns considered in classical evolutionary dynamics. Here we investigate the role of social ties dynamics for the emergence of coopera...

  20. Quantitative sociodynamics stochastic methods and models of social interaction processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioural changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics but they have very often proved their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces the most important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches a very fundamental dynamic model is obtained which seems to open new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models as special cases, e.g. the log...

  1. Quantitative Sociodynamics Stochastic Methods and Models of Social Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This new edition of Quantitative Sociodynamics presents a general strategy for interdisciplinary model building and its application to a quantitative description of behavioral changes based on social interaction processes. Originally, the crucial methods for the modeling of complex systems (stochastic methods and nonlinear dynamics) were developed in physics and mathematics, but they have very often proven their explanatory power in chemistry, biology, economics and the social sciences as well. Quantitative Sociodynamics provides a unified and comprehensive overview of the different stochastic methods, their interrelations and properties. In addition, it introduces important concepts from nonlinear dynamics (e.g. synergetics, chaos theory). The applicability of these fascinating concepts to social phenomena is carefully discussed. By incorporating decision-theoretical approaches, a fundamental dynamic model is obtained, which opens new perspectives in the social sciences. It includes many established models a...

  2. Characterizing interactions in online social networks during exceptional events

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, millions of people interact on a daily basis on online social media like Facebook and Twitter, where they share and discuss information about a wide variety of topics. In this paper, we focus on a specific online social network, Twitter, and we analyze multiple datasets each one consisting of individuals' online activity before, during and after an exceptional event in terms of volume of the communications registered. We consider important events that occurred in different arenas that range from policy to culture or science. For each dataset, the users' online activities are modeled by a multilayer network in which each layer conveys a different kind of interaction, specifically: retweeting, mentioning and replying. This representation allows us to unveil that these distinct types of interaction produce networks with different statistical properties, in particular concerning the degree distribution and the clustering structure. These results suggests that models of online activity cannot discard the...

  3. On the phase diagram of the extended Hubbard model with intersite density-density interactions in the atomic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy; Robaszkiewicz, Stanisław

    2016-11-01

    The charge ordering is a phenomenon associated with inhomogeneous distribution of electron density occurring mostly in strongly correlated materials such as transition metal oxides or organic conductors. The extended Hubbard model (EHM) is one of the simplest model for description of this phenomenon. The full phase diagram of the EHM with intersite density-density interactions W1 and W2 (nearest- and next-nearest-neighbour, respectively) in the atomic limit as a function of the chemical potential has been derived in the variational approach, which treats the on-site interaction exactly and the intersite interactions within mean-field approximation. The results for arbitrary values of model parameters (in the two-sublattice assumption) reveal that the diagram has very complex structure including various (multi-)critical points. A variety of the transitions between different phases, in particular with long-range charge-order, has been found to occur on the diagram. The results presented are rigorous ones in the high-dimension limit for any W1 and W2 ≤ 0.

  4. Reliability and validity of nonverbal thin slices in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nora A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A; Frauendorfer, Denise; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Roter, Debra L; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (a) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (b) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (c) how long a slice is necessary to sufficiently represent the entirety of a behavior within an interaction; (d) which slices best capture the entirety of behavior, across different behaviors; and (e) which behaviors (of six measured behaviors) are best captured by slices. Notable findings included strong reliability and validity for thin slices of gaze and nods, and that a 1.5-min slice from the start of an interaction may adequately represent some behaviors. Results provide useful information to researchers making decisions about slice measurement of behavior.

  5. Stress response, gut microbial diversity and sexual signals correlate with social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Iris I; Zonana, David M; Fosdick, Bailey K; Song, Se Jin; Knight, Rob; Safran, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that social interactions are dynamically linked to phenotype. Yet because social interactions are difficult to quantify, little is known about the precise details on how interactivity is linked to phenotype. Here, we deployed proximity loggers on North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) to examine intercorrelations among social interactions, morphology and features of the phenotype that are sensitive to the social context: stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) and gut microbial diversity. We analysed relationships at two spatial scales of interaction: (i) body contact and (ii) social interactions occurring between 0.1 and 5 m. Network analysis revealed that relationships between social interactions, morphology, CORT and gut microbial diversity varied depending on the sexes of the individuals interacting and the spatial scale of interaction proximity. We found evidence that body contact interactions were related to diversity of socially transmitted microbes and that looser social interactions were related to signalling traits and CORT.

  6. The Oak Ridges Moraine as a Social Innovation: Strategic Vision as a Social-Ecological Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. P. McCarthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM case is unique in that it represents a social innovation in Canadian, if not North American, ecosystem-based land-use planning. A social innovation is an initiative, product, process, or program that profoundly changes the basic routines, resources, and authority flows or beliefs of any social system. Successful social innovations have durability and broad impact. We interpret the narrative of the ORM conservation process to explore the utility of an emerging social innovation conceptual model, the 'vision as social interaction' framework using resilience thinking and the role of vision in social change within complex social-ecological systems. Qualitative data from two interrelated studies of the moraine were reinterpreted and include 38 in-depth, semistructured interviews conducted between 2004-2006, as well as extensive participant observation at over 50 moraine conservation meetings, workshops, and events. The results of our study indicate that emerging model of social innovation can be linked with other models of 'radical change' such as those that employ concepts like 'policy windows' to describe opportunities for continued innovation once an initiative has reached the routinized phase. Just as with the panarchy cycle, when a social-ecological system reaches the conservation phase, the system has a propensity to collapse and reorganize. Rather than seeing this as the end of an initiative or program, such as is the case with the ORM, stakeholders can see it as an opportunity for reorganization with newly released resources and new opportunities.

  7. The influence of third-order interactions on the density profile of associating hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D.; Sokolowski, S.; Zagorski, R.; Trokhymchuk, A.

    Canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and the non-uniform Percus-Yevick (NPY) equation for the local density are used to study the influence of surface mediated thirdorder interactions on the adsorption of associating hard spheres on a hard wall. A comparison of the NPY density profiles with the computer simulations data indicates that this approximation predicts the fluid structure reasonably well.

  8. Neighborhoods and mental health: exploring ethnic density, poverty, and social cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N = 2095 Asian Americans living in N = 259 neighborhoods; N = 2554 Latinos living in N = 317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. Social cohesion partially mediates that structural relationship, but is positively related to ethnic density among Latinos and negatively related to ethnic density among Asian Americans. Although higher neighborhood poverty is negatively associated with mental health for both groups, the relationship does not hold in the path models after accounting for social cohesion and covariates. Furthermore, social cohesion fully mediates the association between neighborhood poverty and mental health among Latinos. This study highlights the necessity of reconceptualizing existing theories of social relationships to reflect complex and nuanced mechanisms linking neighborhood structure and mental health for diverse racial and ethnic groups.

  9. The dutch social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale: reliability, validity, and clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, Edwin; Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients.

  10. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  11. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  12. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress.

  13. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  14. Positive interaction of social comparison and personal responsibility for outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygolec, Jaroslaw; Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We formulate and test a model that allows sharp separation between two different ways in which environment affects evaluation of outcomes, by comparing social vs. private and personal responsibility vs. chance. In the experiment, subjects chose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (they could observe the outcome of the chosen lottery and the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen) and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject) we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. When we focus on the outcome evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity) between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.

  15. Positive Interaction of Social Comparison and Personal Responsibility for Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw eGrygolec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and test a model that allows a sharp separation between social versus private and personal responsibility versus chance in the evaluation of outcomes. In the experiment, subjects choose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (in which they could only observe the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. Focusing on outcomes evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.

  16. Comparing the teaching interaction procedure to social stories for people with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L; Call, Nikki A; Sheldon, Jan B; Sherman, James A; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Dayharsh, Jamison; Leaf, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This study compared social stories and the teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 6 children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder. Researchers taught 18 social skills with social stories and 18 social skills with the teaching interaction procedure within a parallel treatment design. The teaching interaction procedure resulted in mastery of all 18 skills across the 6 participants. Social stories, in the same amount of teaching sessions, resulted in mastery of 4 of the 18 social skills across the 6 participants. Participants also displayed more generalization of social skills taught with the teaching interaction procedure to known adults and peers.

  17. Interaction-Induced Oscillations of the Tunneling Density of States in a Nonquantizing Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, A.; Aleiner, I.; Glazman, L. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We study tunneling into an interacting disordered two-dimensional electron gas in a nonquantizing magnetic field, which does not cause the standard de Haasvan Alphen oscillations. Interaction induces a new type of oscillation in the tunneling density of states with the characteristic period of cyclotron quantum {h_bar}{omega}{sub c}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INAPPROPRIATE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN STUDENTS WITH ASPERGER'S SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropr...

  19. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  20. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  1. The evolution of generalized reciprocity in social interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Generalized reciprocity has been proposed as a mechanism for enabling continued cooperation between unrelated individuals. It can be described by the simple rule "help somebody if you received help from someone", and as it does not require individual recognition, complex cognition or extended memory capacities, it has the potential to explain cooperation in a large number of organisms. In a panmictic population this mechanism is vulnerable to defection by individuals who readily accept help but do not help themselves. Here, I investigate to what extent the limitation of social interactions to a social neighborhood can lead to conditions that favor generalized reciprocity in the absence of population structuring. It can be shown that cooperation is likely to evolve if one assumes certain sparse interaction graphs, if strategies are discrete, and if spontaneous helping and reciprocating are independently inherited.

  2. High resolution dynamical mapping of social interactions with active RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Broeck, Wouter Van den; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental framework to gather data on face-to-face social interactions between individuals, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess contacts with one another by exchanging low-power radio packets. When individuals wear the beacons as a badge, a persistent radio contact between the RFID devices can be used as a proxy for a social interaction between individuals. We present the results of a pilot study %recently performed during a conference, and a subsequent preliminary data analysis, that provides an assessment of our method and highlights its versatility and applicability in many areas concerned with human dynamics.

  3. BlogWall: Social and Cultural Interaction for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian David Cheok

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Short message service (SMS is extremely popular today. Currently, it is being mainly used for peer-to-peer communication. However, SMS could be used as public media platform to enhance social and public interactions in an intuitive way. We have developed BlogWall to extend the SMS to a new level of self-expression and public communication by combining art and poetry. Furthermore, it will provide a means of expression in the language that children can understand, and the forms of social communication. BlogWall can also be used to educate the children while they interact and play with the system. The most notable feature of the system is its ability to mix up and generate poetry in multiple languages such as English, Korean, Chinese poems, or Japanese “Haiku” all based on the SMS. This system facilitates a cultural experience to children unknowingly, thus it is a step into new forms of cultural computing.

  4. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  5. 'Eavesdropping' on social interactions biases threat perception in visuospatial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Donna M; Morrison, C India

    2008-01-15

    Using fMRI, we measured brain activity while participants viewed photographs in which one person posed a potential threat to another. Visuospatial areas, specifically temporal-occipital junction, extrastriate, and fusiform cortices and right superior parietal lobe (BA7), responded when a threatening person was close to the personal space of another. Strikingly, this selectivity was absent when the people were further apart. Furthermore, posterior parietal areas, which code the space surrounding one's own body, responded when the individual was close to the other person's body space, regardless of whether he appeared threatening. We suggest that the spatial dimension of social interactions contributes to an observer's understanding of potentially dangerous social situations, and that higher level visual cortices play a role in distinguishing social categories based on a person's features.

  6. Yamove! A Movement Synchrony Game That Choreographs Social Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Isbister

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design case study of Yamove!, a well-received dance battle game. The primary aim for the project was to design a mobile-based play experience that enhanced in-person social interaction and connection. The game emphasized the pleasures of mutual, improvised amateur movement choreography at the center of the experience, achieved through a core mechanic of synchronized movement. The project team engaged techniques from the independent ("indie" game development community that proved valuable in tempering the constraints to which technologically driven design can sometimes fall prey. Contributions of this work include (a presentation and discussion of a polished digital game that embodies design knowledge about engaging players in mutual physical improvisation that is socially supported by technology, and (b a case study of a design process influenced by indie game development that may help others interested in creating technologies that choreograph pleasurable intentional human movement in social contexts.

  7. Bullying a manifestation of deterioration in social interaction among peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Guadalupe Delgadillo Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the psycho-social dynamics of bullying on individuals aggressors and victims from individual psychology, considering the role of family, school and culture in general. Exposure to violence among peers in, around and beyond the school, has become a recurring theme that has finally normalized (Ceron, 2011, becoming a pattern of interaction tolerated, even encouraged as a desirable style of conduct. Thus, relationships between students, on many occasions, set up through intimidation, thereby, the aggressor has the conviction that has earned respect, without identifying that what it has gained is only distrust and the eventual victim’s subjugation. In this sense, it is proposed the school as axis of action as a social institution in which the student’s behavior discloses the parenting deficiencies. The schools have positive conditions and educational elements to act in order to increase the peace and social harmony among classmates.

  8. Medium-Density Mixed Housing: sustainable design and construction of South African social housing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Medium-Density Mixed Housing (MDMH), of which social housing (SH) is one component, is perceived to have the capacity to contribute to the transformation of fragmented South African cities more than the massive roll-out of government subsidised ‘one...

  9. Half lives of spherical proton emitters using density dependent M3Y interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P R; Basu, D N

    2005-01-01

    The proton radioactivity lifetimes of spherical proton emitters from the ground and the isomeric states are calculated using the microscopic nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The daughter nuclei density distributions are folded with a realistic density dependent M3Y effective interaction supplemented by a zero-range pseudo-potential. The density dependence parameters of the interaction are extracted from the nuclear matter calculations. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The quantum mechanical tunneling probability is calculated within the WKB approximation. Spherical charge distributions are used for calculating the Coulomb interaction potentials. These calculations provide good estimates for the observed pro...

  10. Competitive effects of nuclear deformation and density dependence of $\\Lambda\\!N$ interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Isaka, M; Rijken, T h A

    2016-01-01

    Competitive effects of nuclear deformation and density dependence of $\\Lambda\\!N$-interaction in $\\Lambda$ binding energies $B_\\Lambda$ of hypernuclei are studied systematically on the basis of the baryon-baryon interaction model ESC including many-body effects. By using the $\\Lambda\\!N$ G-matrix interaction derived from ESC, we perform microscopic calculations of $B_\\Lambda$ in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei within the framework of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics under the averaged-density approximation. The calculated values of $B_\\Lambda$ reproduce experimental data within a few hundred keV in the wide mass regions from 9 to 51. It is found that competitive effects of nuclear deformation and density dependence of $\\Lambda\\!N$-interaction work decisively for fine tuning of $B_\\Lambda$ values.

  11. Emotion regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo N; Salovey, Peter; Coté, Stéphane; Beers, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Emotion regulation abilities, measured on a test of emotional intelligence, were related to several indicators of the quality of individuals' social interactions with peers. In a sample of 76 college students, emotion regulation abilities were associated with both self-reports and peer nominations of interpersonal sensitivity and prosocial tendencies, the proportion of positive vs. negative peer nominations, and reciprocal friendship nominations. These relationships remained statistically significant after controlling for the Big Five personality traits as well as verbal and fluid intelligence.

  12. Group Rumination: Social Interactions Around Music in People with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014

  13. The evolution of generalized reciprocity on social interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Gerrit Sander; Taborsky, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Generalized reciprocity (help anyone, if helped by someone) is a minimal strategy capable of supporting cooperation between unrelated individuals. Its simplicity makes it an attractive model to explain the evolution of reciprocal altruism in animals that lack the information or cognitive skills needed for other types of reciprocity. Yet, generalized reciprocity is anonymous and thus defenseless against exploitation by defectors. Recognizing that animals hardly ever interact randomly, we investigate whether social network structure can mitigate this vulnerability. Our results show that heterogeneous interaction patterns strongly support the evolution of generalized reciprocity. The future probability of being rewarded for an altruistic act is inversely proportional to the average connectivity of the social network when cooperators are rare. Accordingly, sparse networks are conducive to the invasion of reciprocal altruism. Moreover, the evolutionary stability of cooperation is enhanced by a modular network structure. Communities of reciprocal altruists are protected against exploitation, because modularity increases the mean access time, that is, the average number of steps that it takes for a random walk on the network to reach a defector. Sparseness and community structure are characteristic properties of vertebrate social interaction patterns, as illustrated by network data from natural populations ranging from fish to primates.

  14. Benchmarks for electronically excited states: Time-dependent density functional theory and density functional theory based multireference configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Schreiber, Marko; Sauer, Stephan P. A.;

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations are reported for a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules. Vertical excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole...... moments are computed using the same geometries (MP2/6-31G*) and basis set (TZVP) as in our previous ab initio benchmark study on electronically excited states. The results from TD-DFT (with the functionals BP86, B3LYP, and BHLYP) and from DFT/MRCI are compared against the previous high-level ab initio...

  15. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with

  16. Interactivity in Second Language via Social Identity and Group Cohesiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojas Alfaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y analizan la influencia de la identidad y la unión de grupo como factores que facilitan o dificultan los procesos interactivos en el aprendizaje del inglés como segunda lengua. Se señala la conexión entre el aprendizaje interactivo de un idioma y factores como identidad social, personal, y unión de grupo. El efecto de la integración del grupo y la identidad en el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma son esenciales dado que pocos estudios se han referido al efecto de tales variables en la interacción de grupo. Con el estudio de un caso realizado en dos grupos de estudiantes adultos se diagnosticó el estado de cohesión del grupo y su impacto en el aprendizaje interactivo. This research explores the influence of identity and group cohesion as factors that facilitate or hinder interactive processes in ESL classrooms. In particular, this paper addresses the connection between interactive language learning, social and personal identity, and group cohesiveness. The effect of group cohesion and identity in second language learning has been addressed in relatively few studies on the impact of those membership variables in determining interactivity in communicative language teaching. A case study carried out in two college level classes diagnosed the status of group membership and its impact on interactivity.

  17. Exploring the Peer Interaction Effects on Learning Achievement in a Social Learning Platform Based on Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Ming-Puu; Chang, Chia-Hu; Chang, Pu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of social learning have been recognized by existing research. To explore knowledge distribution in social learning and its effects on learning achievement, we developed a social learning platform and explored students' behaviors of peer interactions by the proposed algorithms based on social network analysis. An empirical study was…

  18. Lightweight Interactions for Reciprocal Cooperation in a Social Network Game

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The construction of reciprocal relationships requires cooperative interactions during the initial meetings. However, cooperative behavior with strangers is risky because the strangers may be exploiters. In this study, we show that people increase the likelihood of cooperativeness of strangers by using lightweight non-risky interactions in risky situations based on the analysis of a social network game (SNG). They can construct reciprocal relationships in this manner. The interactions involve low-cost signaling because they are not generated at any cost to the senders and recipients. Theoretical studies show that low-cost signals are not guaranteed to be reliable because the low-cost signals from senders can lie at any time. However, people used low-cost signals to construct reciprocal relationships in an SNG, which suggests the existence of mechanisms for generating reliable, low-cost signals in human evolution.

  19. Study on the impact of pair production interaction on D-T controllable neutron density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huawei; Zhang, Li; Hou, Boran

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of pair production on the precision of D-T controllable neutron source density logging. Firstly, the principle of the traditional density logging and pulsed neutron density logging are analyzed and then gamma ray cross sections as a function of energy for various minerals are compared. In addition, the advantageous areas of Compton scattering and pair production interactions on high-energy gamma ray pulse height spectrum and the errors of a controllable source density measurement are studied using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The results indicate that density logging mainly utilizes the Compton scattering of gamma rays, while the attenuation of neutron induced gamma rays and the precision of neutron gamma density measurements are affected by pair production interactions, particularly in the gamma rays with energy higher than 2MeV. By selecting 0.2-2MeV energy range and performing proper lithology correction, the effect of pair production can be eliminated effectively and the density measurement error can be rendered close to the precision of chemical source density logging.

  20. Interacting Cannabinoid and Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Control Adolescent Social Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manduca, Antonia; Lassalle, Olivier; Sepers, Marja; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Kieffer, Brigitte; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana; Manzoni, Olivier J J

    2016-01-01

    Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of so

  1. Authoritarianism as an element of social character and a factor of gendered social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovančević Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.

  2. Automated quantification of locomotion, social interaction, and mate preference in Drosophila mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Atulya; Imoehl, Jordan; Ueda, Atsushi; Nirschl, Jeffery; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-09-01

    Automated tracking methods facilitate screening for and characterization of abnormal locomotion or more complex behaviors in Drosophila. We developed the Iowa Fly Locomotion and Interaction Tracker (IowaFLI Tracker), a MATLAB-based video analysis system, to identify and track multiple flies in a small arena. We report altered motor activity in the K(+) and Na(+) channel mutants, Hk(1) and para(ts1), which had previously been shown to display abnormal larval locomotion. Environmental factors influencing individual behavior, such as available "social space," were studied by using IowaFLI Tracker to simultaneously track multiple flies in the same arena. We found that crowding levels affect individual fly activity, with the total movement of individual flies attenuated around a particular density. This observation may have important implications in the design of activity chambers for studying particular kinds of social interactions. IowaFLI Tracker also directly quantifies social interactions by tracking the amount of time individuals are in proximity to one another-visualized as an "interactogram." This feature enables the development of a "target-preference" assay to study male courtship behavior where males are presented with a choice between two immobilized, decapitated females, and their locomotion and interactions quantified. We used this assay to study the chemosensory mutants olf D (para(olfD), sbl(2)) and Gr32a and their preferences towards virgin or mated females. Male olf D flies showed reduced courtship levels, with no clear preference towards either, whereas Gr32a males preferentially courted with virgin females over mated females in this assay. These initial results demonstrate that IowaFLI Tracker can be employed to explore motor coordination and social interaction phenomena in behavioral mutants of Drosophila.

  3. Terminology for the body in social interaction, as appearing in papers published in the journal 'Research on Language and Social Interaction', 1987-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a list of terms referring generally to the body in descriptions and analyses of social interaction, as used by authors in papers published in ROLSI. The list includes over 200 items, grouped according to common phrasing and within alphabetical order. The list was compiled in preparation...... for the review paper: Nevile, M. (2015) The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction,48(2): 121-151....

  4. Audiovisual integration of emotional signals from others’ social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz ePiwek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual perception of emotions has been typically examined using displays of a solitary character (e.g. the face-voice and/or body-sound of one actor. However, in real life humans often face more complex multisensory social situations, involving more than one person. Here we ask if the audiovisual facilitation in emotion recognition previously found in simpler social situations extends to more complex and ecological situations. Stimuli consisting of the biological motion and voice of two interacting agents were used in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with visual, auditory, auditory filtered/noisy, and audiovisual congruent and incongruent clips. We asked participants to judge whether the two agents were interacting happily or angrily. In Experiment 2, another group of participants repeated the same task, as in Experiment 1, while trying to ignore either the visual or the auditory information. The findings from both experiments indicate that when the reliability of the auditory cue was decreased participants weighted more the visual cue in their emotional judgments. This in turn translated in increased emotion recognition accuracy for the multisensory condition. Our findings thus point to a common mechanism of multisensory integration of emotional signals irrespective of social stimulus complexity.

  5. Heterogeneous social motives and interactions: the three predictable paths of capability development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Coeurderoy, R.; Durand, R.

    2017-01-01

    Research summary: Limited attention has been paid to the crucial role of individuals' motivation and social interactions in capability development. Building on literature in social psychology and behavioral economics that links heterogeneity in individual social motives to social interactions, we ex

  6. Interacting Cannabinoid and Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Control Adolescent Social Play

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Manduca; Olivier Lassalle; Marja Sepers; Patrizia Campolongo; Vincenzo Cuomo; Marsicano Giovanni; Brigitte Kieffer; Louk Vanderschuren; Viviana Trezza; olivier Jacques José MANZONI

    2016-01-01

    Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play,...

  7. Interactions between the developmental and adult social environments mediate group dynamics and offspring traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Juliano; Ponton, Fleur; Tychsen, Ilona; Cassar, Jason; Wigby, Stuart

    2017-06-15

    Developmental conditions can strongly influence adult phenotypes and social interactions, which in turn affect key evolutionary processes such as sexual selection and sexual conflict. While the implications of social interactions in phenotypically mixed populations at the individual level are increasingly well known, how these effects influence the fate of groups remains poorly understood, which limits our understanding of the broader ecological implications. To address this problem we manipulated adult phenotypes and social composition in Drosophila melanogaster - by experimentally manipulating the larval density of the group-members - and measured a range of group-level outcomes across the lifespan of groups. Adult groups composed of exclusively low larval-density individuals showed high courtship levels, and low early reproductive rates, group growth rates, offspring mass and offspring eclosion success, relative to high larval-density or mixed larval-density groups. Furthermore, high larval-density groups had lower survival. Offspring mass increased with time, but at a reduced rate in groups when male group members (but not females) were from a mixture of larval-densities; peak reproductive rates were also earlier in these groups. Our results suggest that that variation in developmental conditions experienced by adult group members can modify the reproductive output of groups.

  8. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  9. Islands of Loneliness: Exploring Social Interaction through the Autobiographies of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Ashby, Christine; Cosier, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Assumptions of difficulties with social interaction, or lack of interest in social interaction, are central to many definitions and conventional understandings of autism. However, many individuals with autism describe a strong craving social interaction. This article uses autobiographical accounts written by individuals who identified as autistic…

  10. Exploring effective interactions through transition charge density study of 70,72,74,76Ge nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Shukla; P K Raina; P K Rath

    2005-02-01

    Transition charge densities (TCD) for $0^{+} → 2_{1}^{+}$ excitation have been calculated for 70, 72, 74, 76Ge nuclei within microscopic variational framework employing 23/2, 15/2, 21/2 and 19/2 valence space. The calculated TCDs for different monopole variants of Kuo interaction are compared with available experimental results. Other systematics like reduced transition probabilities (2) and static quadrupole moments (2) are also presented. It is observed that the transition density study acts as a sensitive probe for discriminating the response of different parts of effective interactions.

  11. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  12. Modulation of social interactions by immune stimulation in honey bee, Apis mellifera, workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubert A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune response pathways have been relatively well-conserved across animal species, with similar systems in both mammals and invertebrates. Interestingly, honey bees have substantially reduced numbers of genes associated with immune function compared with solitary insect species. However, social species such as honey bees provide an excellent environment for pathogen or parasite transmission with controlled environmental conditions in the hive, high population densities, and frequent interactions. This suggests that honey bees may have developed complementary mechanisms, such as behavioral modifications, to deal with disease. Results Here, we demonstrate that activation of the immune system in honey bees (using bacterial lipopolysaccharides as a non-replicative pathogen alters the social responses of healthy nestmates toward the treated individuals. Furthermore, treated individuals expressed significant differences in overall cuticular hydrocarbon profiles compared with controls. Finally, coating healthy individuals with extracts containing cuticular hydrocarbons of immunostimulated individuals significantly increased the agonistic responses of nestmates. Conclusion Since cuticular hydrocarbons play a critical role in nestmate recognition and other social interactions in a wide variety of insect species, modulation of such chemical profiles by the activation of the immune system could play a crucial role in the social regulation of pathogen dissemination within the colony.

  13. Social anxiety in online and real-life interaction and their associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chang, Yi-Hsin; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety was compared between online and real-life interaction in a sample of 2,348 college students. Severity of social anxiety in both real-life and online interaction was tested for associations with depression, Internet addiction, Internet activity type (gaming versus chatting), and scores on Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales. The results showed that social anxiety was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. Depression, Internet addiction, and high BIS and BAS scores were associated with high social anxiety. The social anxiety decreased more in online interaction among subjects with high social anxiety, depression, BIS, and BAS. This result suggests that the Internet has good potential as an alternative medium for delivering interventions for social anxiety. Further, the effect of BIS on social anxiety is decreased in online interaction. More attention should be paid for BIS when the treatment for social anxiety is delivered online.

  14. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  15. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  16. Interaction of density flow and geochemical processes on islands in the Okavanga Delta, Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Langer, T.; Prommer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the interactions of density driven flow and geochemical reactions under evapo-concentration. A multi-species hydrodynamic flow and transport simulation model (SEAWAT) is coupled to a batch reaction model (PHREEQC) to analyze densitydriven flow on islands in the Okavango Delta......, Botswana. Evapo-concentration on the islands leads to steadily increasing concentrations until the onset of density-driven flow against the evaporation-induced upward gradient. Lag times to the onset of density-driven flow are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions. Mineral precipitation and carbon...

  17. New parameterization of Skyrme's interaction for regularized multi-reference energy density functional calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Washiyama, K; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P -H; Hellemans, V

    2012-01-01

    [Background] Symmetry restoration and configuration mixing in the spirit of the generator coordinate method based on energy density functionals have become widely used techniques in low-energy nuclear structure physics. Recently, it has been pointed out that these techniques are ill-defined for standard Skyrme functionals, and a regularization procedure has been proposed to remove the resulting spuriosities from such calculations. This procedure imposes an integer power of the density for the density dependent terms of the functional. At present, only dated parameterizations of the Skyrme interaction fulfill this condition. [Purpose] To construct a set of parameterizations of the Skyrme energy density functional for multi-reference energy density functional calculations with regularization using the state-of-the-art fitting protocols. [Method] The parameterizations were adjusted to reproduce ground state properties of a selected set of doubly magic nuclei and properties of nuclear matter. Subsequently, these ...

  18. Social isolation increases aggressive behaviour and alters the effects of diazepam in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongwitdecha, N; Marsden, C A

    1996-02-01

    Isolation rearing in the early stages of life has been shown to modify a variety of behaviours in many animals and the responsitivity to psychotropic drugs. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of isolation rearing on anxiety using the social interaction paradigm and to compare the effects of diazepam on social interaction behaviours in isolation and socially reared rats. Male Lister hooded rats were reared from weaning either alone (isolation reared) or in groups of four (socially reared) for 6 weeks and then were tested for social interaction. Both isolation and socially reared rats were exposed to the social interaction test either without drug treatment or following saline or diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before testing). The results demonstrate that under high light in an unfamiliar arena, the isolation compared to the socially reared rats showed a significantly (P < 0.01) higher level of social interaction, manifested as increases in aggressive and avoidance behaviours, and that this interaction occur for a greater length of time during the test period (10 min). However, when the light level was decreased or when the arena was familiar, active social interaction of isolation reared rats decreased but increased in the socially reared rats. In both conditions the isolation reared rats displayed more aggressive behaviours, in particular biting and boxing the partners which did not occur with the socially reared rats. Pretreatment of diazepam (1 and 2.5 mg/kg., i.p.) caused a dose-related reduction in aggressive behaviours in rats reared under both conditions but increased passive interactions in the socially reared rats. In contrast diazepam (2.5 mg/kg) reduced active interaction in the isolation reared rats but had no effect on passive interaction. These results indicate that isolation rearing increases aggressive behaviours and alters the effects of diazepam.

  19. Sociability trait and serotonin metabolism in the rat social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnissaar, Margus; Philips, Mari-Anne; Eller, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2004-09-01

    Social behaviour is the basis of one of the most generally accepted independent dimensions of personality. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the social activity of individual rats, expressed in the social interaction test of anxiety, is consistent, and associated with monoamine levels. Four social interaction tests with 10 days intervals were carried out in 20 rats, and the animals were decapitated 4 days after the last test. There was no consistent correlation between performances in single tests, but the social interaction time in each test correlated strongly with the mean values of social activity in all or the other three tests. Social interaction time of rats correlated moderately but significantly with their partner's social activity in the test. The average social interaction time correlated strongly with 5-HIAA levels in the frontal cortex (r = -0.67, P social interaction test box nor the test procedure had any effect on monoamine levels. When animals were decapitated immediately after a single social interaction test, there was a negative correlation between the social interaction time and 5-HIAA and 5-HT levels in the septum, but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. Thus, social behaviour is a stable trait, expression of which depends in part upon the partner's social behaviour. This trait is negatively associated with 5-HT metabolism in the frontal cortex. Social activity of rats in a particular test situation may rather be related to 5-HT metabolism in the septum.

  20. Benchmarking Fermi orbital self-interaction corrected density functional theory on molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Torsten; Kortus, Jens; Pederson, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    The correction of the self-interaction error (SIE) that is inherent to all standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations is an object of increasing interest. In this article we apply the very recently developed Fermi-orbital based approach for the self-interaction correction (FOSIC) to a set of different molecular systems. Our study covers systems ranging from simple diatomic to large organic molecules. We focus our analysis on the direct estimation of the ionization potential from orbital eigenvalues.

  1. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of tri-trophic interactions: Spatial variation and effects of plant density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Moreira, Xoaquín; Ramos-Zapata, José

    2017-02-01

    The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora. We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant. We established common gardens at two sites in Yucatan, Mexico, and planted R. nudiflora at two densities in each garden. We recorded fruit output and SP and parasitoid attack; calculated relative fitness (seed number) under scenarios of three trophic levels (accounting for SP and parasitoid effects), two trophic levels (accounting for SP but not parasitoid effects), and one trophic level (no consumer effects); and compared selection strength on fruit number under these scenarios across sites and densities. There was spatial variation in SP recruitment, whereby the SP functional response was negatively density-dependent at one site but density-independent at the other; parasitoid responses were density-independent and invariant across sites. Site variation in SP attack led, in turn, to differences in SP selection on fruit output, and parasitoids did not alter SP selection. There were no significant effects of density at either site. Our results provide a link between consumer functional responses and consumer selection on plants, which deepens our understanding of geographic variation in the evolutionary outcomes of multitrophic interactions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. The interactive roles of Aedes aegypti super-production and human density in dengue transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A. aegypti production and human density may vary considerably in dengue endemic areas. Understanding how interactions between these factors influence the risk of transmission could improve the effectiveness of the allocation of vector control resources. To evaluate the combined impacts of variation in A. aegypti production and human density we integrated field data with simulation modeling. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from seven censuses of A. aegypti pupae (2007-2009 and from demographic surveys, we developed an agent-based transmission model of the dengue transmission cycle across houses in 16 dengue-endemic urban 'patches' (1-3 city blocks each of Armenia, Colombia. Our field data showed that 92% of pupae concentrated in only 5% of houses, defined as super-producers. Average secondary infections (R(0 depended on infrequent, but highly explosive transmission events. These super-spreading events occurred almost exclusively when the introduced infectious person infected mosquitoes that were produced in super-productive containers. Increased human density favored R(0, and when the likelihood of human introduction of virus was incorporated into risk, a strong interaction arose between vector production and human density. Simulated intervention of super-productive containers was substantially more effective in reducing dengue risk at higher human densities. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS: These results show significant interactions between human population density and the natural regulatory pattern of A. aegypti in the dynamics of dengue transmission. The large epidemiological significance of super-productive containers suggests that they have the potential to influence dengue viral adaptation to mosquitoes. Human population density plays a major role in dengue transmission, due to its potential impact on human-A. aegypti contact, both within a person's home and when visiting others. The large variation in population density

  3. Social interactions can affect feeding behaviour of fish in tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    Fish from the same clutch of eggs, so of the same age and family, can differ substantially in size after some time in a tank as result of social interactions. On the basis of computer simulation studies I here demonstrate that it is possible to mimic this empirical observation using the rules of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, supplemented with a simple stochastic module for interaction between individuals that have identical parameters. The remarkable result is that length-at-age of two individuals in a tank where the number of food particles is kept constant closely follows von Bertalanffy growth curves with very different parameters, while in reality the individuals have identical parameters. The empirical observation demonstrates that fish are close to the supply end of the supply-demand spectrum and that age-based models for growth don't apply to supply systems. The significance of the result is discussed.

  4. A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Stance on Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminade Thierry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices, thanks to the controlled variations in their appearance and behaviors, provide useful tools to test hypotheses pertaining to social interactions. These agents were used to investigate one theoretical framework, resonance, which is defined, at the behavioral and neural levels, as an overlap between first- and third- person representations of mental states such as motor intentions or emotions. Behaviorally, we found a reduced, but significant, resonance towards a humanoid robot displaying biological motion, compared to a human. Using neuroimaging, we've reported that while perceptual processes in the human occipital and temporal lobe are more strongly engaged when perceiving a humanoid robot than a human action, activity in areas involved in motor resonance depends on attentional modulation for artificial agent more strongly than for human agents. Altogether, these studies using artificial agents offer valuable insights into the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of artificial agents.

  5. Interaction of high-power laser radiation with low-density polymer aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ch; Chaurasia, Sh; Borisenko, N. G.; Orekhov, A. S.; Leshma, P.; Pimenov, V. G.; Sklizkov, G. V.; Akunets, A. A.; Deo, M. N.

    2017-06-01

    The interaction of high-power subnanosecond laser pulses with low-density targets of cellulose triacetate polymer is considered. An Nd-glass laser setup provides a focal spot intensity of over 1014 W cm-2. An investigation is made of absorption of laser radiation, laser-to-X-ray energy conversion, spectra of ions emitted from the plasma, transmission of laser radiation through the target and plasma, as well as volume heating of the target material. It is experimentally determined that the laser energy conversion efficiency to X-rays with photon energies of a few kiloelectronvolts decreases with increasing target material density. With the use of targets of density 10 mg cm-3 this efficiency is two times lower in comparison to 2 mg cm-3 density targets. The duration and amplitude of laser pulses transmitted through the target decreases with increasing column target density (the product of target material density and its thickness). The spectra of ions emitted from low-density target plasmas are recorded using ion collectors positioned at different angles relative to the direction of laser beam propagation as well as a high-resolution Thomson mass spectrometer. The ion flux and ion energies are found to increase with increasing target material density. The peak of the ion energy spectrum is shifted towards higher energies with increasing laser radiation intensity.

  6. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  7. Interaction effects on galaxy pairs with Gemini/GMOS- I: Electron density

    CERN Document Server

    Krabbe, A C; Dors, O L; Pastoriza, M G; Winge, C; Hagele, G F; Cardaci, M V; Rodrigues, I

    2013-01-01

    We present an observational study about the impacts of the interactions in the electron density of \\ion{H}{ii} regions located in 7 systems of interacting galaxies. The data consist of long-slit spectra in the range 4400-7300 A, obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini South (GMOS). The electron density was determined using the ratio of emission lines [SII]6716/6731. Our results indicate that the electron density estimates obtained of HII regions from our sample of interacting galaxies are systematically higher than those derived for isolated galaxies. The mean electron density values of interacting galaxies are in the range of $N_{\\rm e}=24-532$\\,$ \\rm cm^{-3}$, while those obtained for isolated galaxies are in the range of $N_{\\rm e}=40-137\\: \\rm cm^{-3}$. Comparing the observed emission lines with predictions of photoionization models, we verified that almost all the \\ion{H}{ii} regions of the galaxies AM\\,1054A, AM\\,2058B, and AM\\,2306B, have emission lines excited by shock gas. For th...

  8. Do networks of social interactions reflect patterns of kinship?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joah R. MADDEN; Johanna F. NIEL SEN; Tim H. CLUTTON-BROCK

    2012-01-01

    The underlying kin structure of groups of animals may be glimpsed from patterns of spatial position or temporal association between individuals,and is presumed to facilitate inclusive fitness benefits.Such structure may be evident at a finer,behavioural,scale with individuals preferentially interacting with kin.We tested whether kin structure within groups of meerkats Suricata suricatta matched three forms of social interaction networks:grooming,dominance or foraging competitions.Networks of dominance interactions were positively related to networks of kinship,with close relatives engaging in dominance interactions with each other.This relationship persisted even after excluding the breeding dominant pair and when we restricted the kinship network to only include links between first order kin,which are most likely to be able to discern kin through simple rules of thumb.Conversely,we found no relationship between kinship networks and either grooming networks or networks of foraging competitions.This is surprising because a positive association between kin in a grooming network,or a negative association between kin in a network of foraging competitions offers opportunities for inclusive fitness benefits.Indeed,the positive association between kin in a network of dominance interactions that we did detect does not offer clear inclusive fitness benefits to group members.We conclude that kin structure in behavioural interactions in meerkats may be driven by factors other than indirect fitness benefits,and that networks of cooperative behaviours such as grooming may be driven by direct benefits accruing to individuals perhaps through mutualism or manipulation [Current Zoology 58 (2):319-328,2012].

  9. Do networks of social interactions reflect patterns of kinship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joah R. MADDEN, Johanna F. NIELSEN, Tim H. CLUTTON-BROCK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The underlying kin structure of groups of animals may be glimpsed from patterns of spatial position or temporal association between individuals, and is presumed to facilitate inclusive fitness benefits. Such structure may be evident at a finer, behavioural, scale with individuals preferentially interacting with kin. We tested whether kin structure within groups of meerkats Suricata suricatta matched three forms of social interaction networks: grooming, dominance or foraging competitions. Networks of dominance interactions were positively related to networks of kinship, with close relatives engaging in dominance interactions with each other. This relationship persisted even after excluding the breeding dominant pair and when we restricted the kinship network to only include links between first order kin, which are most likely to be able to discern kin through simple rules of thumb. Conversely, we found no relationship between kinship networks and either grooming networks or networks of foraging competitions. This is surprising because a positive association between kin in a grooming network, or a negative association between kin in a network of foraging competitions offers opportunities for inclusive fitness benefits. Indeed, the positive association between kin in a network of dominance interactions that we did detect does not offer clear inclusive fitness benefits to group members. We conclude that kin structure in behavioural interactions in meerkats may be driven by factors other than indirect fitness benefits, and that networks of cooperative behaviours such as grooming may be driven by direct benefits accruing to individuals perhaps through mutualism or manipulation [Current Zoology 58 (2: 319-328, 2012].

  10. A microscopic "social norm" model to obtain realistic macroscopic velocity and density pedestrian distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Zanlungo

    Full Text Available We propose a way to introduce in microscopic pedestrian models a "social norm" in collision avoiding and overtaking, i.e. the tendency, shared by pedestrians belonging to the same culture, to avoid collisions and perform overtaking in a preferred direction. The "social norm" is implemented, regardless of the specific collision avoiding model, as a rotation in the perceived velocity vector of the opponent at the moment of computation of the collision avoiding strategy, and justified as an expectation that the opponent will follow the same "social norm" (for example a tendency to avoid on the left and overtake on the right, as proposed in this work for Japanese pedestrians. By comparing with real world data, we show that the introduction of this norm allows for a better reproduction of macroscopic pedestrian density and velocity patterns.

  11. Thermoelectric transport and spin density of graphene nanoribbons with Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xinjun; Sun, Guo-Ya

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, we have theoretically investigated thermoelectric transport properties of armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons with Rashba spin-orbit interaction, as well as dephasing scattering processes by applying the nonequilibrium Green function method. Behaviors of electronic and thermal currents, as well as thermoelectric coefficients are studied. It is found that both electronic and thermal currents decrease, and thermoelectric properties been suppressed, with increasing strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. We have also studied spin split and spin density induced by Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the graphene nanoribbons.

  12. Comparative study of fusion barriers using Skyrme interactions and the energy density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Torabi, F.

    2015-12-01

    Using different Skyrme interactions, we have carried out a comparative analysis of fusion barriers for a wide range of interacting nuclei in the framework of semiclassical Skyrme energy density formalism. The results of our calculations reveal that SVI, SII, and SIII Skyrme forces are able to reproduce the empirical values of barrier heights with higher accuracy than the other considered forces in this formalism. It is also shown that the calculated nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from such Skyrme interactions are able to explain the fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barrier.

  13. Comparative study of fusion barriers using Skyrme interactions and the energy density functional

    CERN Document Server

    Ghodsi, O N

    2015-01-01

    Using different Skyrme interactions, we have carried out a comparative analysis of fusion barriers for a wide range of interacting nuclei in the framework of semiclassical Skyrme energy density formalism. The results of our calculations reveal that SVI, SII, and SIII Skyrme forces are able to reproduce the empirical values of barrier heights with higher accuracy than the other considered forces in this formalism. It is also shown that the calculated nucleus-nucleus potentials derived from such Skyrme interactions are able to explain the fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barrier.

  14. Simulating market dynamics: interactions between consumer psychology and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marco A; Jager, Wander

    2003-01-01

    Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. In a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation model. The main results indicated that the behavioral rules dominating the artificial consumer's decision making determine the resulting market dynamics, such as fashions, lock-in, and unstable renewal. Results also show the importance of psychological variables like social networks, preferences, and the need for identity to explain the dynamics of markets. In this article we extend this work in two directions. First, we will focus on a more systematic investigation of the effects of different network structures. The previous article was based on Watts and Strogatz's approach, which describes the small-world and clustering characteristics in networks. More recent research demonstrated that many large networks display a scale-free power-law distribution for node connectivity. In terms of market dynamics this may imply that a small proportion of consumers may have an exceptional influence on the consumptive behavior of others (hubs, or early adapters). We show that market dynamics is a self-organized property depending on the interaction between the agents' decision-making process (heuristics), the product characteristics (degree of satisfaction of unit of consumption, visibility), and the structure of interactions between agents (size of network and hubs in a social network).

  15. Cortical oscillatory dynamics in a social interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Slobodskoj-Plusnin, Jaroslav Y; Bocharov, Andrey V; Pylkova, Liudmila V

    2013-03-15

    In this study we sought to investigate cortical oscillatory dynamics accompanying three major kinds of social behavior: aggressive, friendly, and avoidant. Behavioral and EEG data were collected in 48 participants during a computer game modeling social interactions with virtual 'persons'. 3D source reconstruction and independent component analysis were applied to EEG data. Results showed that social behavior was partly reactive and partly proactive with subject's personality playing an important role in shaping this behavior. Most salient differences were found between avoidance and approach behaviors, whereas the two kinds of approach behavior (i.e., aggression and friendship) did not differ from each other. Comparative to avoidance, approach behaviors were associated with higher induced responses in most frequency bands which were mostly observed in cortical areas overlapping with the default mode network. The difference between approach- and avoidance-related oscillatory dynamics was more salient in subjects predisposed to approach behaviors (i.e., in aggressive or sociable subjects) and was less pronounced in subjects predisposed to avoidance behavior (i.e., in high trait anxiety scorers). There was a trend to higher low frequency phase-locking in motor area in approach than in avoid condition. Results are discussed in light of the concept linking induced responses with top-down and evoked responses with bottom-up processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Revisiting the density scaling of the non-interacting kinetic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoo, Alex; Teale, Andrew M; Tozer, David J

    2014-07-28

    Scaling relations play an important role in the understanding and development of approximate functionals in density functional theory. Recently, a number of these relationships have been redefined in terms of the Kohn-Sham orbitals [Calderín, Phys. Rev. A: At., Mol., Opt. Phys., 2013, 86, 032510]. For density scaling the author proposed a procedure involving a multiplicative scaling of the Kohn-Sham orbitals whilst keeping their occupation numbers fixed. In the present work, the differences between this scaling with fixed occupation numbers and that of previous studies, where the particle number change implied by the scaling was accommodated through the use of the grand canonical ensemble, are examined. We introduce the terms orbital and ensemble density scaling for these approaches, respectively. The natural ambiguity of the density scaling of the non-interacting kinetic energy functional is examined and the ancillary definitions implicit in each approach are highlighted and compared. As a consequence of these differences, Calderín recovered a homogeneity of degree 1 for the non-interacting kinetic energy functional under orbital scaling, contrasting recent work by the present authors [J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136, 034101] where the functional was found to be inhomogeneous under ensemble density scaling. Furthermore, we show that the orbital scaling result follows directly from the linearity and the single-particle nature of the kinetic energy operator. The inhomogeneity of the non-interacting kinetic energy functional under ensemble density scaling can be quantified by defining an effective homogeneity. This quantity is shown to recover the homogeneity values for important approximate forms that are exact for limiting cases such as the uniform electron gas and one-electron systems. We argue that the ensemble density scaling provides more insight into the development of new functional forms.

  17. The Effectiveness of Using a Social Story Intervention to Improve Social Interaction Skills of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al zyoudi, Mohammed; Al Murhairi, Oshua; Sartaiwi, AbedAlziz; Olimat, Enas; Al zyoudi, Abedsalm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a social story intervention to improve social interaction skills in three students with autism aged between 7-8 years. A multiple-baseline-across participants design was used. To achieve the purpose of the study, the social stories were implemented. The intervention included reading…

  18. Solution to urn models of pairwise interaction with application to social, physical, and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, William; Lim, Chjan

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a family of urn models that correspond to one-dimensional random walks with quadratic transition probabilities that have highly diverse applications. Well-known instances of these two-urn models are the Ehrenfest model of molecular diffusion, the voter model of social influence, and the Moran model of population genetics. We also provide a generating function method for diagonalizing the corresponding transition matrix that is valid if and only if the underlying mean density satisfies a linear differential equation and express the eigenvector components as terms of ordinary hypergeometric functions. The nature of the models lead to a natural extension to interaction between agents in a general network topology. We analyze the dynamics on uncorrelated heterogeneous degree sequence networks and relate the convergence times to the moments of the degree sequences for various pairwise interaction mechanisms.

  19. DSMC Simulation and Experimental Validation of Shock Interaction in Hypersonic Low Density Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow is developed. Three collision molecular models, including hard sphere (HS, variable hard sphere (VHS, and variable soft sphere (VSS, are employed in the DSMC study. The simulations of double-cone and Edney’s type IV hypersonic shock interactions in low density flow are performed. Comparisons between DSMC and experimental data are conducted. Investigation of the double-cone hypersonic flow shows that three collision molecular models can predict the trend of pressure coefficient and the Stanton number. HS model shows the best agreement between DSMC simulation and experiment among three collision molecular models. Also, it shows that the agreement between DSMC and experiment is generally good for HS and VHS models in Edney’s type IV shock interaction. However, it fails in the VSS model. Both double-cone and Edney’s type IV shock interaction simulations show that the DSMC errors depend on the Knudsen number and the models employed for intermolecular interaction. With the increase in the Knudsen number, the DSMC error is decreased. The error is the smallest in HS compared with those in the VHS and VSS models. When the Knudsen number is in the level of 10−4, the DSMC errors, for pressure coefficient, the Stanton number, and the scale of interaction region, are controlled within 10%.

  20. DSMC simulation and experimental validation of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Shang, Yuhe; Wu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow is developed. Three collision molecular models, including hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS), and variable soft sphere (VSS), are employed in the DSMC study. The simulations of double-cone and Edney's type IV hypersonic shock interactions in low density flow are performed. Comparisons between DSMC and experimental data are conducted. Investigation of the double-cone hypersonic flow shows that three collision molecular models can predict the trend of pressure coefficient and the Stanton number. HS model shows the best agreement between DSMC simulation and experiment among three collision molecular models. Also, it shows that the agreement between DSMC and experiment is generally good for HS and VHS models in Edney's type IV shock interaction. However, it fails in the VSS model. Both double-cone and Edney's type IV shock interaction simulations show that the DSMC errors depend on the Knudsen number and the models employed for intermolecular interaction. With the increase in the Knudsen number, the DSMC error is decreased. The error is the smallest in HS compared with those in the VHS and VSS models. When the Knudsen number is in the level of 10(-4), the DSMC errors, for pressure coefficient, the Stanton number, and the scale of interaction region, are controlled within 10%.

  1. Social Interaction with Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Having Fun and Hanging Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…

  2. User-Centric Secure Cross-Site Interaction Framework for Online Social Networking Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moo Nam

    2011-01-01

    Social networking service is one of major technological phenomena on Web 2.0. Hundreds of millions of users are posting message, photos, and videos on their profiles and interacting with other users, but the sharing and interaction are limited within the same social networking site. Although users can share some content on a social networking site…

  3. Use of Feedback from Sighted Peers in Promoting Social Interaction Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2005-01-01

    A boy who was visually impaired was trained to self-evaluate his social interaction, and a sighted peer was trained to provide relevant feedback to the boy through verbal reinforcement by the researcher. This feedback enhanced the boy's social interaction with his sighted peers, improved certain aspects of his social behavior, and increased the…

  4. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.

    2010-12-01

    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  5. Predicting the glass transition temperature as function of crosslink density and polymer interactions in rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Escamard, Gabriella; De Rosa, Claudio; Auriemma, Finizia

    2016-05-01

    Crosslink sulfur density in rubber compounds and interactions in polymer blends are two of the composition elements that affect the rubber compound properties and glass transition temperature (Tg), which is a marker of polymer properties related to its applications. Natural rubber (NR), butadiene rubber (BR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds were investigated using calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicate that the Di Marzio's and Schneider's Models predict with accuracy the dependence of Tg on crosslink density and composition in miscible blends, respectively, and that the two model may represent the base to study the relevant "in service" properties of real rubber compounds.

  6. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  7. First-order density matrix as a functional of the ground-state electron density for harmonic confinement of two electrons which also interact harmonically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March, N.H

    2002-12-30

    The first-order density matrix {gamma}(r{sub 1},r{sub 2}) for the ground-state of a model two-electron atom is explicitly constructed from the electron density {rho}(r). The model has harmonic confinement plus interparticle harmonic interactions. {gamma}(r{sub 1},r{sub 2}) and {rho}(r) are related non-locally, even though no density gradients and no quadratures appear.

  8. Oxytocin receptor density is associated with male mating tactics and social monogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Alexander G; Gessel, Ana; Zheng, Da-Jiang; Phelps, Steven M

    2012-03-01

    Despite its well-described role in female affiliation, the influence of oxytocin on male pairbonding is largely unknown. However, recent human studies indicate that this nonapeptide has a potent influence on male behaviors commonly associated with monogamy. Here we investigated the distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) throughout the forebrain of the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Because males vary in both sexual and spatial fidelity, we explored the extent to which OTR predicted monogamous or non-monogamous patterns of space use, mating success and sexual fidelity in free-living males. We found that monogamous males expressed higher OTR density in the nucleus accumbens than non-monogamous males, a result that mirrors species differences in voles with different mating systems. OTR density in the posterior portion of the insula predicted mating success. Finally, OTR in the hippocampus and septohippocampal nucleus, which are nuclei associated with spatial memory, predicted patterns of space use and reproductive success within mating tactics. Our data highlight the importance of oxytocin receptor in neural structures associated with pairbonding and socio-spatial memory in male mating tactics. The role of memory in mating systems is often neglected, despite the fact that mating tactics impose an inherently spatial challenge for animals. Identifying mechanisms responsible for relating information about the social world with mechanisms mediating pairbonding and mating tactics is crucial to fully appreciate the suite of factors driving mating systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  9. Self-Organized Societies: On the Sakoda Model of Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the behavior and the social structures appearing from a model of general social interaction proposed by Sakoda. The model consists of two interacting populations in a two-dimensional periodic lattice with empty sites. It contemplates a set of simple rules that combine attitudes, ranges of interactions, and movement decisions. We analyze the evolution of the 45 different interaction rules via a Potts-like energy function which drives the system irreversibly to an equilibrium or a steady state. We discuss the robustness of the social structures, dynamical behaviors, and the existence of spatial long range order in terms of the social interactions and the equilibrium energy.

  10. On the interaction between drugs of abuse and adolescent social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Viviana; Baarendse, Petra J J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2014-04-01

    Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is altered. This study aimed to provide an overview of our current understanding of the interaction between drugs of abuse and juvenile/adolescent social behavior. We first provide evidence that a characteristic form of juvenile and adolescent social behavior, i.e., social play behavior, has reinforcing properties and is affected by drugs of abuse. Next, social risk factors for drug use and addiction are described, including antisocial personality traits and early social insults. Last, we discuss research that investigates social influences on drug use, as well as the consequences of perinatal drug exposure on later social interactions. Social play behavior is highly rewarding in laboratory animals, and it is affected by low doses of opioids, cannabinoids, ethanol, nicotine, and psychostimulants. In humans, antisocial personality traits, most prominently in the form of conduct disorder, are a prominent risk factor for drug addiction. Preclinical studies have consistently shown altered sensitivity to drugs as a result of social isolation during post-weaning development. The social environment of an individual has a profound, but complex, influence on drug use, and perinatal drug exposure markedly alters later social interactions. The studies reviewed here provide a framework to understand the interaction between drugs of abuse and adolescent social interaction, at the preclinical and the clinical level.

  11. A review of 25 years of the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Sandra E; Seth, Pallab

    2003-02-28

    The social interaction test of anxiety was developed 25 years ago to provide an ethologically based test that was sensitive to both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects. It is sensitive to a number of environmental and physiological factors that can affect anxiety. It has detected anxiogenic effects of peptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and anxiolytic effects of neuropeptide Y and substance P receptor antagonists. It has successfully identified neuropharmacological sites of action of anxiogenic compounds and drug withdrawal. Effects of compounds acting on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems have been extensively investigated after both systemic administration and microinjection into specific brain regions. The use of this test has, thus, played a crucial role in unravelling the neural basis of anxiety. It is hoped that in the next 25 years, the test will play a crucial role in determining the genetic basis of anxiety disorders.

  12. Dorsomedial hypothalamic GABA regulates anxiety in the social interaction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, A; Katner, J S

    1995-02-01

    Blockade of GABAA function in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats is known to elicit a constellation of physiologic responses including increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate, and plasma catecholamine levels, as well as behavioral responses such as increases in locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like effects as measured in a conflict test and the elevated plus-maze test. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of microinjecting GABAA antagonists bicuculline methiodide (BMI) and picrotoxin, as well as the GABAA agonist muscimol, into the DMH of rats placed in the social interaction (SI) test. Muscimol decreased HR and BP but increased SI, whereas the GABA antagonists increased HR and BP but decreased SI time. Blocking the HR changes elicited by GABAergic drugs injected into the DMH with systemic injections of atenolol and atropine methylbromide did not block their effects on SI.

  13. Interactive Social Media and (de-reformation processes of citizenships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel GARCÍA DEL DUJO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Are new technologies encouraging a (reconstruction of the concept and phenomenon of citizenship? This work gives a reading of the ways on how these technologies can contribute to some shaping processes and citizen empowerment that our time requires. The article proposes the concept of relationship as a bridge to transit between the two pillars of reflection, new technologies and (de-reconstruction processes of citizenship, then describing the context of international research which the results belong to –the project Interactive Media for Social Integration. Skilss Bartering, Empowerment and Informal Learning– as well as the methodology used –Community Reporting. The results are finally submitted to theoretical and pedagogical discussion from technologically emerging civic values.

  14. When perspective taking increases taking: reactive egoism in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Nicholas; Caruso, Eugene; Bazerman, Max H

    2006-11-01

    Group members often reason egocentrically, believing that they deserve more than their fair share of group resources. Leading people to consider other members' thoughts and perspectives can reduce these egocentric (self-centered) judgments such that people claim that it is fair for them to take less; however, the consideration of others' thoughts and perspectives actually increases egoistic (selfish) behavior such that people actually take more of available resources. A series of experiments demonstrates this pattern in competitive contexts in which considering others' perspectives activates egoistic theories of their likely behavior, leading people to counter by behaving more egoistically themselves. This reactive egoism is attenuated in cooperative contexts. Discussion focuses on the implications of reactive egoism in social interaction and on strategies for alleviating its potentially deleterious effects.

  15. Interaction between stocking density and settlement on population dynamics in suspended mussel culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillo, Alhambra M.; Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío

    2015-01-01

    Population dynamics on mussels growing on suspended culture depend mainly on the balance of several processes: mortality and/or dislodgements from the ropes, recruitment and growth. The negative effect of overcrowding on mussel growth and survival has been widely studied. Other works have addressed the effect of population size on recruitment on bottom beds. This study aims to provide insight into the processes underlying population dynamics. To this purpose, we analyzed the effect of stocking density on mussel growth, survival and seed settlement, and the post-settlement interaction between adults and recruits in suspended culture. The temporal pattern of the variables involved in population dynamics was fitted by GAM models, which in contrast with parametric models does not assume any prior relationships between variables. Our results show that mussel growth and survival depend on a trade-off between competition for resources at high densities and the risk of great settlements in less crowded adult mussel populations. Intracohort competition increased with stocking density, while seed settlement, which increases the risk of mussel dislodgements and leads to intercohort competition, was higher at moderate stocking densities. Post-settlement competitive pressures were driven by total population density and size composition. Both intracohort competition in adults and asymmetric competition between adults and recruits increase with higher adult-recruit ratios. All these density-dependent processes should be considered in future management strategies and research experimental designs.

  16. Exploring the Interaction Natures in Plutonyl (VI Complexes with Topological Analyses of Electron Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction natures between Pu and different ligands in several plutonyl (VI complexes are investigated by performing topological analyses of electron density. The geometrical structures in both gaseous and aqueous phases are obtained with B3LYP functional, and are generally in agreement with available theoretical and experimental results when combined with all-electron segmented all-electron relativistic contracted (SARC basis set. The Pu– O y l bond orders show significant linear dependence on bond length and the charge of oxygen atoms in plutonyl moiety. The closed-shell interactions were identified for Pu-Ligand bonds in most complexes with quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM analyses. Meanwhile, we found that some Pu–Ligand bonds, like Pu–OH−, show weak covalent. The interactive nature of Pu–ligand bonds were revealed based on the interaction quantum atom (IQA energy decomposition approach, and our results indicate that all Pu–Ligand interactions is dominated by the electrostatic attraction interaction as expected. Meanwhile it is also important to note that the quantum mechanical exchange-correlation contributions can not be ignored. By means of the non-covalent interaction (NCI approach it has been found that some weak and repulsion interactions existed in plutonyl(VI complexes, which can not be distinguished by QTAIM, can be successfully identified.

  17. Uncertainty quantification for mean field games in social interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Dia, Ben Mansour

    2016-01-09

    We present an overview of mean field games formulation. A comparative analysis of the optimality for a stochastic McKean-Vlasov process with time-dependent probability is presented. Then we examine mean-field games for social interactions and we show that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize couple (marriage). However , if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. Finally we introduce the Wiener chaos expansion for the construction of solution of stochastic differential equations of Mckean-Vlasov type. The method is based on the Cameron-Martin version of the Wiener Chaos expansion and allow to quantify the uncertainty in the optimality system.

  18. Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

  19. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  20. Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

  1. The Effects of Social Skills Training on the Peer Interactions of a Nonnative Toddler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Hursh, Daniel E.; Walls, Richard T.; Stack, Samuel F., Jr.; Lin, I-An

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to increase peer interactions of a toddler who is nonnative. A 30-month old boy evidenced social withdrawal when playing at playgrounds. Social skills training served as the intervention to increase social initiations by this participant. Targeted social skills included greeting peers, gesturing to peers,…

  2. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  3. Applying the Density Matrix Expansion with Coordinate-Space Chiral Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dyhdalo, A; Furnstahl, R J

    2016-01-01

    We apply the density matrix expansion (DME) at Hartree-Fock level with long-range chiral effective field theory interactions defined in coordinate space up to next-to-next-to-leading order. We consider chiral potentials both with and without explicit Delta isobars. The challenging algebra associated with applying the DME to three-nucleon forces is tamed using a new organization scheme, which will also facilitate generalizations. We include local regulators on the interactions to mitigate the effects of singular potentials on the DME couplings and simplify the optimization of generalized Skyrme-like functionals.

  4. Social interactions between people with dementia: pilot evaluation of an observational instrument in a nursing home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabire, J.B.; Gay, M.C.; Vrignaud, P.; Garitte, C.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In dementia, cognitive and psychological disorders might interfere with maintaining social interactions. We have little information about the nature of these interactions of people with dementia in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to investigate social interactions between people

  5. Density, structure, and dynamics of water: the effect of van der Waals interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Román-Pérez, G; Soler, Jose M; Artacho, Emilio; Fernández-Serra, M-V

    2011-01-14

    It is known that ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of liquid water at ambient conditions, based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT), with commonly used functionals fail to produce structural and diffusive properties in reasonable agreement with experiment. This is true for canonical, constant temperature simulations where the density of the liquid is fixed to the experimental density. The equilibrium density, at ambient conditions, of DFT water has recently been shown by Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B, 113, 11959 (2009)] to be underestimated by different GGA functionals for exchange and correlation, and corrected by the addition of interatomic pair potentials to describe van der Waals (vdW) interactions. In this contribution we present a DFT-AIMD study of liquid water using several GGA functionals as well as the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) of Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)]. As expected, we find that the density of water is grossly underestimated by GGA functionals. When a vdW-DF is used, the density improves drastically and the experimental diffusivity is reproduced without the need of thermal corrections. We analyze the origin of the density differences between all the functionals. We show that the vdW-DF increases the population of non-H-bonded interstitial sites, at distances between the first and second coordination shells. However, it excessively weakens the H-bond network, collapsing the second coordination shell. This structural problem is partially associated to the choice of GGA exchange in the vdW-DF. We show that a different choice for the exchange functional is enough to achieve an overall improvement both in structure and diffusivity.

  6. New parametrization of Skyrme's interaction for regularized multireference energy density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiyama, K.; Bennaceur, K.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.; Hellemans, V.

    2012-11-01

    Background: Symmetry restoration and configuration mixing in the spirit of the generator coordinate method based on energy density functionals have become widely used techniques in low-energy nuclear structure physics. Recently, it has been pointed out that these techniques are ill defined for standard Skyrme functionals, and a regularization procedure has been proposed to remove the resulting spuriosities from such calculations. This procedure imposes an integer power of the density for the density-dependent terms of the functional. At present, only dated parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction fulfill this condition.Purpose: To construct a set of parametrizations of the Skyrme energy density functional for multireference energy density functional calculations with regularization using the state-of-the-art fitting protocols.Method: The parametrizations were adjusted to reproduce ground-state properties of a selected set of doubly magic nuclei and properties of nuclear matter. Subsequently, these parameter sets were validated against properties of spherical and deformed nuclei.Results: Our parameter sets successfully reproduce the experimental binding energies and charge radii for a wide range of singly magic nuclei. Compared to the widely used SLy5 and to the SIII parametrization that has integer powers of the density, a significant improvement of the reproduction of the data is observed. Similarly, a good description of the deformation properties at A˜80 was obtained.Conclusions: We have constructed new Skyrme parametrizations with integer powers of the density and validated them against a broad set of experimental data for spherical and deformed nuclei. These parametrizations are tailor-made for regularized multireference energy density functional calculations and can be used to study correlations beyond the mean field in atomic nuclei.

  7. Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-25

    Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

  8. The Van der Waals interaction of the hydrogen molecule an exact local energy density functional

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, T C

    1999-01-01

    We verify that the van der Waals interaction and hence all dispersion interactions for the hydrogen molecule given by: W''= -{A/R^6}-{B/R^8}-{C/R^10}- ..., in which R is the internuclear separation, are exactly soluble. The constants A=6.4990267..., B=124.3990835 ... and C=1135.2140398... (in Hartree units) first obtained approximately by Pauling and Beach (PB) [1] using a linear variational method, can be shown to be obtainable to any desired accuracy via our exact solution. In addition we shall show that a local energy density functional can be obtained, whose variational solution rederives the exact solution for this problem. This demonstrates explicitly that a static local density functional theory exists for this system. We conclude with remarks about generalising the method to other hydrogenic systems and also to helium.

  9. Interactions in 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ion pair: Spectroscopic and density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, James X; Lee, Anita S; Kitchin, John R; Nulwala, Hunaid B; Luebke, David R; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-04-24

    Density Functional Theory is used to investigate a weakly coordinating room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetracyanoborate ([Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -}). Four locally stable conformers of the ion pair were located. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM) and electron density analysis indicated the existence of several hydrogen bonds. Further investigation through the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Natural Energy Decomposition Analysis (NEDA) calculations provided insight into the origin of interactions in the [Emim]{sup +}[TCB]{sup -} ion pair. Strength of molecular interactions in the ionic liquid was correlated with frequency shifts of the characteristic vibrations of the ion pair. Harmonic vibrations of the ion pair were also compared with the experimental Raman and Infrared spectra. Vibrational frequencies were assigned by visualizing displacements of atoms around their equilibrium positions and through Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis.

  10. Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators on prey combine. Intraguild predation, for instance, was observed to dampen the effects of predators on prey in many ecosystems. In marine systems, species at high trophic levels are particularly susceptible to extinction (at least functionally). The loss of such species, which is mainly attributed to human activities (mostly fishing), is presently decreasing the diversity of marine predators in many areas of the world. Experimental studies that manipulate predator diversity and investigate the effects of this on strongly interactive consumers (i.e. those potentially capable of causing community-wide effects) in marine systems are scant, especially in the rocky sublittoral. I established an experiment that utilised cage enclosures to test whether the diversity and density of fish predators (two sea breams and two wrasses) would affect predation upon juvenile and adult sea urchins, the most important grazers in Mediterranean sublittoral rocky reefs. Changes in species identity (with sea breams producing major effects) and density of predators affected predation upon sea urchins more than changes in species richness per se. Predation upon adult sea urchins decreased in the presence of multiple predators, probably due to interference competition between sea breams and wrasses. This study suggests that factors that influence both fish predator diversity and density in Mediterranean rocky reefs (e.g. fishing and climate change) may have the potential to affect the predators' ability to control sea urchin population density, with possible repercussions for the whole benthic community structure.

  11. High density ultrashort relativistic positron beam generation by laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y. J.; Klimo, O.; Weber, S.; Korn, G.

    2016-11-01

    A mechanism of high energy and high density positron beam creation is proposed in ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interaction. Longitudinal electron self-injection into a strong laser field occurs in order to maintain the balance between the ponderomotive potential and the electrostatic potential. The injected electrons are trapped and form a regular layer structure. The radiation reaction and photon emission provide an additional force to confine the electrons in the laser pulse. The threshold density to initiate the longitudinal electron self-injection is obtained from analytical model and agrees with the kinetic simulations. The injected electrons generate γ-photons which counter-propagate into the laser pulse. Via the Breit-Wheeler process, well collimated positron bunches in the GeV range are generated of the order of the critical plasma density and the total charge is about nano-Coulomb. The above mechanisms are demonstrated by particle-in-cell simulations and single electron dynamics.

  12. Interaction of pyroclastic density currents with human settlements: Evidence from ancient Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Lucia; Pareschi, M. Teresa; Zanella, Elena; Lanza, Roberto; Deluca, Enrico; Bisson, Marina

    2005-06-01

    Integrating field observations and rock-magnetic measurements, we report how a turbulent pyroclastic density current interacted with and moved through an urban area. The data are from the most energetic, turbulent pyroclastic density current of the A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy, which partially destroyed the Roman city of Pompeii. Our results show that the urban fabric was able to divide the lower portion of the current into several streams that followed the city walls and the intracity roads. Vortices, revealed by upstream particle orientations and decreases in deposit temperature, formed downflow of obstacles or inside cavities. Although these perturbations affected only the lower part of the current and were localized, they could represent, in certain cases, cooler zones within which chances of human survival are increased. Our integrated field data for pyroclastic density current temperature and flow direction, collected for the first time across an urban environment, enable verification of coupled thermodynamic numerical models and their hazard simulation abilities.

  13. Social top-down response modulation (STORM): a model of the control of mimicry in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-01-01

    As a distinct feature of human social interactions, spontaneous mimicry has been widely investigated in the past decade. Research suggests that mimicry is a subtle and flexible social behavior which plays an important role for communication and affiliation. However, fundamental questions like why and how people mimic still remain unclear. In this paper, we evaluate past theories of why people mimic and the brain systems that implement mimicry in social psychology and cognitive neuroscience. By reviewing recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the control of mimicry by social signals, we conclude that the subtlety and sophistication of mimicry in social contexts reflect a social top-down response modulation (STORM) which increases one's social advantage and this mechanism is most likely implemented by medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We suggest that this STORM account of mimicry is important for our understanding of social behavior and social cognition, and provides implications for future research in autism.

  14. Social Top-down Response Modulation (STORM: A model of the control of mimicry in social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin eWang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a distinct feature of human social interactions, spontaneous mimicry has been widely investigated in the past decade. Research suggests that mimicry is a subtle and flexible social behaviour which plays an important role for communication and affiliation. However, fundamental questions like why and how people mimic still remain unclear. In this paper, we evaluate past theories of why people mimic and the brain systems that implement mimicry in social psychology and cognitive neuroscience. By reviewing recent behavioural and neuroimaging studies on the control of mimicry by social signals, we conclude that the subtlety and sophistication of mimicry in social contexts reflect a social top-down response modulation (STORM which increases one’s social advantage and this mechanism is most likely implemented by medial prefrontal cortex. We suggest that this STORM account of mimicry is important for our understanding of social behaviour and social cognition, and provides implications for future research in autism.

  15. Energy Quantization and Probability Density of Electron in Intense-Field-Atom Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 付盘铭

    2003-01-01

    We find that, due to the quantum correlation between the electron and the field, the electronic energy becomes quantized also, manifesting the particle aspect of light in the electron-light interaction. The probability amplitude of finding electron with a given energy is given by a generalized Bessel function, which can be represented as a coherent superposition of contributions from a few electronic quantum trajectories. This concept is illustrated by comparing the spectral density of the electron with the laser assisted recombination spectrum.

  16. Interaction of copernicium with gold: Assessment of applicability of simple density functional theories

    CERN Document Server

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi V

    2012-01-01

    Interactions of Cn (element 112) atoms with small Au clusters are studied using accurate ab initio scalar relativistic coupled cluster method for correlation treatment and two-component relativistic density functional theory (RDFT) to account for spin-dependent relativistic effect. The results demonstrate the failure of RDFT with simple generalized-gradient and hybrid functionals in describing Cn--Au bonds in complex systems.

  17. Digital Social Media: An Interactive Technology Incorporated as a Competitive Advantage for Business

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correia, Pedro Pereira; Medina, Irene García

    2014-01-01

    ... with socialization, the sharing of interests and the interaction with the audience. This is associated with the incorporation of digital technologies to business, specifically the use of social media...

  18. Illuminating the Dark Matter of Social Neuroscience: Considering the Problem of Social Interaction from Philosophical, Psychological, and Neuroscientific Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa ePrzyrembel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people’s mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despites its importance to the human condition, there are still quite a few debates about how we actually solve the problem of understanding other peoples’ actions, feelings and thoughts. Here we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review we show that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary levels of analysis are premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to simulation theories, online social cognition or shared neural networks underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto theory-theory accounts of other agents mental states, offline social cognition or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind. We further propose that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interaction of two independent agents whose unpredictable behaviour requires a continual updating of models of their partner internal state. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behaviour and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the unpredictability of their partners behaviour. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect the processes unique to social interaction because much real social behaviour may reflect the use of basic cognitive and emotional process in a novel and unique manner. Given the role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of social interaction will help to shed new light on the dark matter of social

  19. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition

  20. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The inner dynamics of the multiple actors of the informations systems - i.e, T.V., newspapers, blogs, social network platforms, - play a fundamental role on the evolution of the public opinion. Coherently with the recent history of the information system (from few main stream media to the massive diffusion of socio-technical system), in this work we investigate how main stream media signed interaction might shape the opinion space. In particular we focus on how different size (in the number of media) and interaction patterns of the information system may affect collective debates and thus the opinions' distribution. We introduce a sophisticated computational model of opinion dynamics which accounts for the coexistence of media and gossip as separated mechanisms and for their feedback loops. The model accounts also for the effect of the media communication patterns by considering both the simple case where each medium mimics the behavior of the most successful one (to maximize the audience) and the case where there is polarization and thus competition among media memes. We show that plurality and competition within information sources lead to stable configurations where several and distant cultures coexist.

  1. Coevolving complex networks in the model of social interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducha, Tomasz; Gubiec, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    We analyze Axelrod's model of social interactions on coevolving complex networks. We introduce four extensions with different mechanisms of edge rewiring. The models are intended to catch two kinds of interactions-preferential attachment, which can be observed in scientists or actors collaborations, and local rewiring, which can be observed in friendship formation in everyday relations. Numerical simulations show that proposed dynamics can lead to the power-law distribution of nodes' degree and high value of the clustering coefficient, while still retaining the small-world effect in three models. All models are characterized by two phase transitions of a different nature. In case of local rewiring we obtain order-disorder discontinuous phase transition even in the thermodynamic limit, while in case of long-distance switching discontinuity disappears in the thermodynamic limit, leaving one continuous phase transition. In addition, we discover a new and universal characteristic of the second transition point-an abrupt increase of the clustering coefficient, due to formation of many small complete subgraphs inside the network.

  2. Opinion dynamics on interacting networks: media competition and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrociocchi, Walter; Caldarelli, Guido; Scala, Antonio

    2014-05-27

    The inner dynamics of the multiple actors of the informations systems - i.e, T.V., newspapers, blogs, social network platforms, - play a fundamental role on the evolution of the public opinion. Coherently with the recent history of the information system (from few main stream media to the massive diffusion of socio-technical system), in this work we investigate how main stream media signed interaction might shape the opinion space. In particular we focus on how different size (in the number of media) and interaction patterns of the information system may affect collective debates and thus the opinions' distribution. We introduce a sophisticated computational model of opinion dynamics which accounts for the coexistence of media and gossip as separated mechanisms and for their feedback loops. The model accounts also for the effect of the media communication patterns by considering both the simple case where each medium mimics the behavior of the most successful one (to maximize the audience) and the case where there is polarization and thus competition among media memes. We show that plurality and competition within information sources lead to stable configurations where several and distant cultures coexist.

  3. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  4. Hispanic residential ethnic density and depression in post-ACS patients: Re-thinking the role of social support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Ellen-ge D.; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Alcantara, Carmela; Clemow, Lynn; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ethnic density hypothesis suggests that ethnic density confers greater social support and consequently protects against depressive symptoms in ethnic minority individuals. However, the potential benefits of ethnic density have not been examined in individuals who are facing a specific and salient life stressor. We examined the degree to which the effects of Hispanic ethnic density on depressive symptoms are explained by socioeconomic resources and social support. Methods Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, N = 472) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and measures of demographics, ACS clinical factors and disease severity, and perceived social support. Neighborhood characteristics, including median income, number of single-parent households, and Hispanic ethnic density, were extracted from the American Community Survey Census (2005 – 2009) for each patient using his/her geocoded address. Results In a linear regression analysis adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, Hispanic ethnic density was positively associated with depressive symptoms (β = .09, SE = .04, p = .03). However, Hispanic density was no longer a significant predictor of depressive symptoms when measures of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were controlled. In addition, the effects of Hispanic density were not the same for all groups. The relationship of Hispanic density on depressive symptoms was moderated by nativity status. Among US-born patients with ACS, there was a significant positive relationship between Hispanic density and depressive symptoms, and social support significantly mediated this effect. There was no observed effect of Hispanic density to depressive symptoms for foreign-born ACS patients. Discussion Although previous research suggests that ethnic density may be protective against depression, our data suggest that among patients with ACS, living in a community with a high concentration of Hispanic individuals is associated with

  5. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field

    CERN Document Server

    de Lira, Cesar Huete Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role at the early stages of the mixing process in the compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in 2D results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity, and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulas are further simpl...

  6. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  7. Direct assessment of preferences for social interactions in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Nathan A; Shillingsburg, M Alice; Bowen, Crystal N; Reavis, Andrea R; Findley, Addie J

    2013-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative differences in social interactions are core symptoms of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria, although there is heterogeneity among individuals with ASDs. This study used a concurrent operants arrangement to evaluate whether social interactions functioned as positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, or as neutral stimuli for 6 individuals with autism. Data suggest that clinicians who work with individuals with ASD should ascertain the functional properties of social interactions prior to using them as a consequence in interventions.

  8. A longitudinal study of the adoption of online interactive and social media by luxury fashion brands

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rina

    2011-01-01

    Most luxury fashion brands have yet to develop a clear and focused integrated online strategy, as they have struggled with the dilemma of interacting with fans and customers online. We observed how 35 luxury fashion brands utilized social and interactive online technologies since 2006 by formulating a framework for assessing fashion websites and brand controlled social media sites. Our findings illustrate that the observed luxury brands have increased their adoption of social and interactive ...

  9. Interactive effects of predation risk and conspecific density on the nutrient stoichiometry of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariento, Rafael D; Carneiro, Luciana S; Jorge, Jaqueiuto S; Borges, Angélica N; Esteves, Francisco A; Caliman, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    The mere presence of predators (i.e., predation risk) can alter consumer physiology by restricting food intake and inducing stress, which can ultimately affect prey-mediated ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. However, many environmental factors, including conspecific density, can mediate the perception of risk by prey. Prey conspecific density has been defined as a fundamental feature that modulates perceived risk. In this study, we tested the effects of predation risk on prey nutrient stoichiometry (body and excretion). Using a constant predation risk, we also tested the effects of varying conspecific densities on prey responses to predation risk. To answer these questions, we conducted a mesocosm experiment using caged predators (Belostoma sp.), and small bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) as prey. We found that L. catesbeianus tadpoles adjust their body nutrient stoichiometry in response to predation risk, which is affected by conspecific density. We also found that the prey exhibited strong morphological responses to predation risk (i.e., an increase in tail muscle mass), which were positively correlated to body nitrogen content. Thus, we pose the notion that in risky situations, adaptive phenotypic responses rather than behavioral ones might partially explain why prey might have a higher nitrogen content under predation risk. In addition, the interactive roles of conspecific density and predation risk, which might result in reduced perceived risk and physiological restrictions in prey, also affected how prey stoichiometry responded to the fear of predation.

  10. Interactive Effects of Sowing Date and Planting Density on Dry Matter Accumulation and Partitioning of Chicory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MADANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is considered one of the alternatives crops that can be used in crop rotation and contains many phytochemicals that can be used in medicine. In addition, lengthening the growing season by early sowing may increase root chicory yield potential, and thus increase its competitiveness with traditional crops. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether early sowing date risks can be decreased by higher sowing density and also to study the effect of sowing date and sowing density on dry matter accumulation and partitioning of chicory. Growing season did not affect any of the characteristics that were studied. Also plant density affected the flowers biomass, root biomass per plant and the respective yield together with the plant height and essence yield and total yield. The sowing date affected the leaf, flower and stem biomass on a plant basis. However, the interaction between plant density and sowing date affected the total biomass per plant, the flower biomass per plant, the root biomass per plant, the flower yield, the root yield and the essence yield. These results indicate that for higher production it is important to determine the right plant density and sowing date which can affect growth, dry matter accumulation and essence yield.

  11. Triggering social interactions: chimpanzees respond to imitation by a humanoid robot and request responses from it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Hutchinson, Johanna; Russell, Jamie L; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Billard, Aude; Hopkins, William D; Bard, Kim A

    2014-05-01

    Even the most rudimentary social cues may evoke affiliative responses in humans and promote social communication and cohesion. The present work tested whether such cues of an agent may also promote communicative interactions in a nonhuman primate species, by examining interaction-promoting behaviours in chimpanzees. Here, chimpanzees were tested during interactions with an interactive humanoid robot, which showed simple bodily movements and sent out calls. The results revealed that chimpanzees exhibited two types of interaction-promoting behaviours during relaxed or playful contexts. First, the chimpanzees showed prolonged active interest when they were imitated by the robot. Second, the subjects requested 'social' responses from the robot, i.e. by showing play invitations and offering toys or other objects. This study thus provides evidence that even rudimentary cues of a robotic agent may promote social interactions in chimpanzees, like in humans. Such simple and frequent social interactions most likely provided a foundation for sophisticated forms of affiliative communication to emerge.

  12. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  13. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Luo

    Full Text Available Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins.In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC, based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID, of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification.Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC.LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods.

  14. Density-dependent effective baryon-baryon interaction from chiral three-baryon forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschauer, Stefan; Haidenbauer, Johann; Kaiser, Norbert; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Weise, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    A density-dependent effective potential for the baryon-baryon interaction in the presence of the (hyper)nuclear medium is constructed, based on the leading (irreducible) three-baryon forces derived within SU(3) chiral effective field theory. We evaluate the contributions from three classes: contact terms, one-pion exchange and two-pion exchange. In the strangeness-zero sector we recover the known result for the in-medium nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explicit expressions for the ΛN in-medium potential in (asymmetric) nuclear matter are presented. Our results are suitable for implementation into calculations of (hyper)nuclear matter. In order to estimate the low-energy constants of the leading three-baryon forces we introduce the decuplet baryons as explicit degrees of freedom and construct the relevant terms in the minimal non-relativistic Lagrangian. With these, the constants are estimated through decuplet saturation. Utilizing this approximation we provide numerical results for the effect of the three-body force in symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter on the ΛN interaction. A moderate repulsion that increases with density is found in comparison to the free ΛN interaction.

  15. Interaction between electromagnetic waves and energetic particles by a realistic density model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using a realistic density model,we present a first study on the interactions between electromagnetic waves and energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere.Numerical calculations show that as the latitude λ increases,the number density ne increases,and resonant frequency range moves to lower pitch angles.During L-mode/electron and L-mode/proton interactions,the pitch angle diffusion dominates over the momentum diffusion.This indicates that L-mode waves are primarily responsible for pitch angle scattering.For R-mode/electron interaction,the momentum diffusion is found to be comparable to the pitch angle diffusion,implying that R-mode waves can play an important role in both pitch angle scattering and stochastic acceleration of electrons.For R-mode/proton interaction,diffusion coefficients locate primarily below pitch angle 60° and increase as kinetic energy increases,suggesting that R-mode waves have potential for pitch angle scattering of highly energetic (~1 MeV) protons but cannot efficiently accelerate protons.

  16. Identification of Essential Proteins Based on a New Combination of Local Interaction Density and Protein Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiawei; Qi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational approaches aided by computer science have been used to predict essential proteins and are faster than expensive, time-consuming, laborious experimental approaches. However, the performance of such approaches is still poor, making practical applications of computational approaches difficult in some fields. Hence, the development of more suitable and efficient computing methods is necessary for identification of essential proteins. Method In this paper, we propose a new method for predicting essential proteins in a protein interaction network, local interaction density combined with protein complexes (LIDC), based on statistical analyses of essential proteins and protein complexes. First, we introduce a new local topological centrality, local interaction density (LID), of the yeast PPI network; second, we discuss a new integration strategy for multiple bioinformatics. The LIDC method was then developed through a combination of LID and protein complex information based on our new integration strategy. The purpose of LIDC is discovery of important features of essential proteins with their neighbors in real protein complexes, thereby improving the efficiency of identification. Results Experimental results based on three different PPI(protein-protein interaction) networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli showed that LIDC outperformed classical topological centrality measures and some recent combinational methods. Moreover, when predicting MIPS datasets, the better improvement of performance obtained by LIDC is over all nine reference methods (i.e., DC, BC, NC, LID, PeC, CoEWC, WDC, ION, and UC). Conclusions LIDC is more effective for the prediction of essential proteins than other recently developed methods. PMID:26125187

  17. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as moderators. Method The sample consisted of 397 children and adolescents (M = 10.11 years; 53.4% boys; 74.8% Hispanic Latino) referred to an anxiety disorders clinic. Anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills were assessed using youth and parent ratings. Results Structural equation modeling results indicated that for youth ratings only, youth anxiety symptoms were negatively related to positive peer interactions controlling for primary social phobia and comorbid depressive disorders. For both youth and parent ratings, youth anxiety symptoms were positively related to negative peer interactions and negatively related to social skills. Also for both youth and parent ratings, social skills mediated the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. For parent ratings only, the effects of youth anxiety symptoms and social skills on peer interactions were significantly moderated by youth age. Youth sex was not a significant moderator using youth and parent ratings. Conclusions Findings suggest difficulties with social skills and peer interactions are problematic features of youth referred for anxiety problems. Findings highlight the need to improve understanding of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and peer interactions in this population. PMID:22471319

  18. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory for aromatic interactions in complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stephan; Moellmann, Jonas; Grimme, Stefan

    2013-04-16

    Aromatic interactions play a key role in many chemical and biological systems. However, even if very simple models are chosen, the systems of interest are often too large to be handled with standard wave function theory (WFT). Although density functional theory (DFT) can easily treat systems of more than 200 atoms, standard semilocal (hybrid) density functional approximations fail to describe the London dispersion energy, a factor that is essential for accurate predictions of inter- and intramolecular noncovalent interactions. Therefore dispersion-corrected DFT provides a unique tool for the investigation and analysis of a wide range of complex aromatic systems. In this Account, we start with an analysis of the noncovalent interactions in simple model dimers of hexafluorobenzene (HFB) and benzene, with a focus on electrostatic and dispersion interactions. The minima for the parallel-displaced dimers of HFB/HFB and HFB/benzene can only be explained when taking into account all contributions to the interaction energy and not by electrostatics alone. By comparison of saturated and aromatic model complexes, we show that increased dispersion coefficients for sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms play a major role in aromatic stacking. Modern dispersion-corrected DFT yields accurate results (about 5-10% error for the dimerization energy) for the relatively large porphyrin and coronene dimers, systems for which WFT can provide accurate reference data only with huge computational effort. In this example, it is also demonstrated that new nonlocal, density-dependent dispersion corrections and atom pairwise schemes mutually agree with each other. The dispersion energy is also important for the complex inter- and intramolecular interactions that arise in the molecular crystals of aromatic molecules. In studies of hexahelicene, dispersion-corrected DFT yields "the right answer for the right reason". By comparison, standard DFT calculations reproduce intramolecular distances quite

  19. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  20. Elevated elephant density does not improve ecotourism opportunities: convergence in social and ecological objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-07-01

    In order to sustainably conserve biodiversity, many protected areas, particularly private protected areas, must find means of self-financing. Ecotourism is increasingly seen as a mechanism to achieve such financial sustainability. However, there is concern that ecotourism operations are driven to achieve successful game-viewing, influencing the management of charismatic species. An abundance of such species, including the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), has been stocked in protected areas under the assumption that they will increase ecotourism value. At moderate to high densities, the impact of elephants is costly; numerous studies have documented severe changes in biodiversity through the impacts of elephants. Protected areas that focus on maintaining high numbers of elephants may therefore face a conflict between socioeconomic demands and the capacity of ecological systems. We address this conflict by analyzing tourist elephant-sighting records from six private and one statutory protected area, the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP), in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, in relation to elephant numbers. We found no relationship between elephant density and elephant-viewing success. Even though elephant density in the AENP increased over time, a hierarchical partitioning analysis indicated that elephant density was not a driver of tourist numbers. In contrast, annual tourist numbers for the AENP were positively correlated with general tourist numbers recorded for South Africa. Our results indicate that the socioeconomic and ecological requirements of protected areas in terms of tourism and elephants, respectively, converge. Thus, high elephant densities and their associated ecological costs are not required to support ecotourism operations for financial sustainability. Understanding the social and ecological feedbacks that dominate the dynamics of protected areas, particularly within private protected areas, can help to elucidate the management

  1. Corticosterone may interact with peripubertal development to shape adult resistance to social defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latsko, Maeson S; Farnbauch, Laure A; Gilman, T Lee; Lynch, Joseph F; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    Studies of social stress in adult mice have revealed two distinct defeat-responsive behavioral phenotypes; "susceptible" and "resistant," characterized by social avoidance and social interaction, respectively. Typically, these phenotypes are observed at least 1day after the last defeat in adults, but may extend up to 30days later. The current study examined the impact of peripubertal social defeat on immediate (1day) and adult (30day) social stress phenotypes and neuroendocrine function in male C57BL/6 mice. Initially, peripubertal (P32) mice were resistant to social defeat. When the same mice were tested for social interaction again as adults (P62), two phenotypes emerged; a group of mice were characterized as susceptible evidenced by significantly lower social interaction, whereas the remaining mice exhibited normal social interaction, characteristic of resistance. A repeated analysis of corticosterone revealed that the adult (P62) resistant mice had elevated corticosterone following the social interaction test as juveniles. This was when all mice, regardless of adult phenotype, displayed equivalent levels of social interaction. Peripubertal corticosterone was positively correlated with adult social interaction levels in defeated mice, suggesting early life stress responsiveness impacts adult social behavior. In addition, adult corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was elevated in all defeated mice, but there were no differences in CRF mRNA expression between the phenotypes. Thus, there is a delayed appearance of social stress-responsive phenotypes suggesting that early life stress exposure, combined with the resultant physiological responses, may interact with pubertal development to influence adult social behavior.

  2. Functional interactivity in social media: an examination of Chinese health care organizations' microblog profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai

    2017-09-08

    Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Impact of Interactive Corporate Social Responsibility Communication on Corporate Reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Eberle (David); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); T. Li (Ting)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Companies increasingly communicate about corporate social responsibility (CSR) through interactive online media. We examine whether using such media is beneficial to a company's reputation. We conducted an online experiment to examine the impacts of interactivity in

  4. Analyzing Social Interactions: Promises and Challenges of Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Konvalinka, Ivana; Wallot, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The scientific investigation of social interactions presents substantial challenges: interacting agents engage each other at many different levels and timescales (motor and physiological coordination, joint attention, linguistic exchanges, etc.), often making their behaviors interdependent in non...

  5. The Impact of Interactive Corporate Social Responsibility Communication on Corporate Reputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Eberle (David); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); T. Li (Ting)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Companies increasingly communicate about corporate social responsibility (CSR) through interactive online media. We examine whether using such media is beneficial to a company's reputation. We conducted an online experiment to examine the impacts of interactivity in CSR

  6. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  7. Evolution in response to social selection: the importance of interactive effects of traits on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, David F

    2012-03-01

    Social interactions have a powerful effect on the evolutionary process. Recent attempts to synthesize models of social selection with equations for indirect genetic effects (McGlothlin et al. 2010) provide a broad theoretical base from which to study selection and evolutionary response in the context of social interactions. However, this framework concludes that social selection will lead to evolution only if the traits carried by social partners are nonrandomly associated. I suggest this conclusion is incomplete, and that traits that do not covary between social partners can nevertheless lead to evolution via interactive effects on fitness. Such effects occur when there are functional interactions between traits, and as an example I use the interplay in water striders (Gerridae) between grasping appendages carried by males and spines by females. Functional interactive effects between traits can be incorporated into both the equations for social selection and the general model of social evolution proposed by McGlothlin et al. These expanded equations would accommodate adaptive coevolution in social interactions, integrate the quantitative genetic approach to social evolution with game theoretical approaches, and stimulate some new questions about the process of social evolution.

  8. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (ploss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short

  9. Seasons and planting densities interaction on forage production of eight hybrids maize, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Cañadas L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the interaction effect of the season and planting densities on the production of eight INIAP corn hybrids. Materials and methods. A research process was conducted in 2013. It was applied a split - split plot design with three replication and Tukey test was used. It was evaluated two planting seasons (28 January and 8 April, they were placed in large plots. Two planting densities (65,500 y 125,000 plants/ha, that were located in the subplots and eight INIAP corn hybrids arranged in the sub- subplots. The evaluated variables were Fresh Matter, Dry Matter, Plant Height and Crude Protein Results. Fresh Matter and Crude Protein productions were influenced by planting seasons. Plant densities affected the production of Fresh Matter, Dry Matter and Plant Height, as well as the interaction season by corn INIAP hybrids. While INIAP corn hybrids showed statistical differences in the production of Fresh, Dry Matter, Plant Height and Crude Protein. The eight INIAP hybrids productions were: Fresh Matter (58.86 ton/ha ±5.19; Dry Matter (21.45 ton/ha ±4.71; Plant Height (2.46 m ±0.16 and Crude Protein (10.6±1.12. Conclusions. The performance showed by hybrids INIAP CML-172, INIAP 6021 and INIAP 551 were very acceptable forage material and could be used for silage purposes.

  10. Assessing Group Interaction with Social Language Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  11. Digging for answers: contributions of density- and frequency-dependent factors on ectoparasite burden in a social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Elizabeth K; Bennett, Nigel C; Faulkes, Chris G; Lutermann, Heike

    2016-02-01

    Due to the density-dependent nature of parasite transmission parasites are generally assumed to constrain the evolution of sociality. However, evidence for a correlation between group size and parasite burden is equivocal, particularly for mammals. Host contact rates may be modified by mobility of the host and parasite as well as social barriers. In the current study, we used the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus), a social subterranean rodent, as a model system to investigate the effect of host density and frequency of contact rates on ectoparasite burdens. To address these factors we used a study species that naturally varies in population densities and intergroup contact rates across its geographic range. We found that ectoparasite prevalence, abundance and species richness decreased with increasing host density at a regional scale. At the same time, measures of parasite burden increased with intergroup contact rates. Ectoparasite burdens decreased with colony size at the group level possibly as a result of increased grooming rates. Equating group size with population density might be too simplistic an approach when assessing parasite distributions in social mammals. Our data suggest that frequency-dependent mechanisms may play a much greater role at a population level than density-dependent mechanisms in determining parasite distributions in social species. We suggest that future studies should explicitly consider behavioural mechanisms that may affect parasite distribution.

  12. The facilitation of social-emotional understanding and social interaction in high-functioning children with autism: intervention outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit

    2002-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-month cognitive behavioral intervention for the facilitation of the social-emotional understanding and social interaction of 15 high-functioning children (8 to 17 years old) with autism. Intervention focused on teaching interpersonal problem solving, affective knowledge, and social interaction. Preintervention and postintervention measures included observations of social interaction, measures of problem solving and of emotion understanding, and teacher-rated social skills. Results demonstrated progress in three areas of intervention. Children were more likely to initiate positive social interaction with peers after treatment; in particular, they improved eye contact and their ability to share experiences with peers and to show interest in peers. In problem solving after treatment, children provided more relevant solutions and fewer nonsocial solutions to different social situations. In emotional knowledge, after treatment, children provided more examples of complex emotions, supplied more specific rather then general examples, and included an audience more often in the different emotions. Children also obtained higher teacher-rated social skills scores in assertion and cooperation after treatment. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of the current model of intervention for high-functioning children with autism.

  13. Effects of Isolate and Social Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschoolers in an Inclusive Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shannon Renee; Vail, Cynthia O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulating toy sets on the social verbal interaction that occurs between preschool-age children with disabilities and their typically developing peers. A single-subject alternating-treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of manipulating social toy sets and isolate toy sets on…

  14. Young People's Preferences for Social Interaction in Terms of Homophily and Social Inclusion: A Critical Discussion about Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouris, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study about young people's preferences for social interaction with similar and different others, in terms of a tension between social inclusion and homophily--the concept that similarity breeds connection. The issue was explored empirically using moral dilemmas scenarios to conduct in-depth semi-structured…

  15. Young People's Preferences for Social Interaction in Terms of Homophily and Social Inclusion: A Critical Discussion about Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouris, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study about young people's preferences for social interaction with similar and different others, in terms of a tension between social inclusion and homophily--the concept that similarity breeds connection. The issue was explored empirically using moral dilemmas scenarios to conduct in-depth semi-structured…

  16. Timing interactions in social simulations: The voter model

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Miguel, Maxi San

    2013-01-01

    The recent availability of huge high resolution datasets on human activities has revealed the heavy-tailed nature of the interevent time distributions. In social simulations of interacting agents the standard approach has been to use Poisson processes to update the state of the agents, which gives rise to very homogeneous activity patterns with a well defined characteristic interevent time. As a paradigmatic opinion model we investigate the voter model and review the standard update rules and propose two new update rules which are able to account for heterogeneous activity patterns. For the new update rules each node gets updated with a probability that depends on the time since the last event of the node, where an event can be an update attempt (exogenous update) or a change of state (endogenous update). We find that both update rules can give rise to power law interevent time distributions, although the endogenous one more robustly. Apart from that for the exogenous update rule and the standard update rules...

  17. Timing Interactions in Social Simulations: The Voter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gracia, Juan; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Miguel, Maxi San

    The recent availability of huge high resolution datasets on human activities has revealed the heavy-tailed nature of the interevent time distributions. In social simulations of interacting agents the standard approach has been to use Poisson processes to update the state of the agents, which gives rise to very homogeneous activity patterns with a well defined characteristic interevent time. As a paradigmatic opinion model we investigate the voter model and review the standard update rules and propose two new update rules which are able to account for heterogeneous activity patterns. For the new update rules each node gets updated with a probability that depends on the time since the last event of the node, where an event can be an update attempt (exogenous update) or a change of state (endogenous update). We find that both update rules can give rise to power law interevent time distributions, although the endogenous one more robustly. Apart from that for the exogenous update rule and the standard update rules the voter model does not reach consensus in the infinite size limit, while for the endogenous update there exist a coarsening process that drives the system toward consensus configurations.

  18. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  19. Self-Consistent Density Functional Including Long-Range van der Waals Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Car, Roberto; Scheffler, Matthias; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) interactions are significant for a wide variety of systems, from noble-gas dimers to organic/inorganic interfaces. The long-range vdW energy is a tiny fraction (0.001%) of the total energy, hence it is typically assumed not to change electronic properties. Although the vdW-DF functional includes the effect of vdW energy on electronic structure, the influence of ``true'' long-range vdW interactions is difficult to assess since a significant part of vdW-DF energy arises from short distances. Here, we present a self-consistent (SC) implementation of the long-range Tkatchenko-Scheffler (TS) functional, including its extension to surfaces. The analysis of self-consistency for rare-gas dimers allows us to reconcile two different views on vdW interactions: (i) Feynman's view that claims changes in the electron density and (ii) atoms separated by infinite barrier. In agreement with previous work, we find negligible contribution from self-consistency in the structure and stability of vdW-bound complexes. However, a closer look at organic/inorganic interfaces reveals notable modification of energy levels when using the SC-TS vdW density functional.

  20. Relationship between electron density and effective densities of body tissues for stopping, scattering and nuclear interaction of proton and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    In treatment planning of charged-particle radiotherapy, patient heterogeneity is normally modeled as variable-density water to best reproduce the stopping power. This water-based model would cause substantial errors in multiple scattering and nuclear interaction as body tissues may deviate from water in elemental compositions. In this study, we physically defined distinctive effective densities for stopping, scattering, and nuclear interactions of proton and ions and constructed their conversion functions to correct the water-based model, using the standard elemental composition data for body tissues. As we took the electron density for the reference in the formulation, these conversion functions are generally valid for treatment planning systems that normally have a function to convert CT number to electron density or stopping-power ratio. The proposed extension in heterogeneity correction will enable accurate beam dose calculation without seriously sacrificing simplicity or efficiency of the water-based mod...

  1. Interaction, Social Structure, and Second Language Use: A Response to Firth and Wagner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Argues that not only is the study of interaction in second language acquisition (SLA) predicated on a socially impoverished view of interaction, but also that the types of data frequently used for investigating questions of interaction in a second language may not be adequate for determining what really occurs in such interactions. (15 references)…

  2. Quadrupole Collective Dynamics from Energy Density Functionals: Collective Hamiltonian and the Interacting Boson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, K; Otsuka, T; Shimizu, N; Vretenar, D

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic energy density functionals (EDF) have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this work we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations, and the Interacting Boson Model. The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of non-axial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of $^{192,194,196}$Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM-2 Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for t...

  3. Density-functional theory cannot be constrained to completely overcome self-interaction error

    CERN Document Server

    Moynihan, Glenn; O'Regan, David D

    2016-01-01

    In approximate density functional theory (DFT), the self-interaction error is a pervasive electron delocalization associated with underestimated insulating gaps. It exhibits a predominantly quadratic energy-density curve that is amenable to correction using computationally efficient, constraint-resembling methods such as DFT + Hubbard U (DFT+U). Constrained DFT (cDFT) exactly enforces conditions on DFT by means of self-consistently optimized Lagrange multipliers, and its use to automate DFT+U type corrections is a compelling possibility. We show that constraints beyond linear order are incompatible with cDFT. For DFT+U, we overcome this by separating its Hubbard U parameters into linear and quadratic terms. For a one-electron system, the resulting generalized DFT+U method can recover the exact subspace occupancy and free-energy, but neither the exact total-energy nor the exact ionization potential, for reasonable parameters. Approximate functionals thus cannot be systematically corrected by constraining their...

  4. One-dimensional transport of interacting particles: currents, density profiles, phase diagrams, and symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierl, Marcel; Einax, Mario; Maass, Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Driven lattice gases serve as canonical models for investigating collective transport phenomena and properties of nonequilibrium steady states. Here we study one-dimensional transport with nearest-neighbor interactions both in closed bulk systems and in open channels coupled to two particle reservoirs at the ends of the channel. For the widely employed Glauber rates we derive an exact current-density relation in the bulk for unidirectional hopping. An approach based on time-dependent density functional theory provides a good description of the kinetics. For open systems, the system-reservoir couplings are shown to have a striking influence on boundary-induced phase diagrams. The role of particle-hole symmetry is discussed, and its consequence for the topology of the phase diagrams. It is furthermore demonstrated that systems with weak bias can be mapped onto systems with unidirectional hopping.

  5. Attentional focus in social anxiety disorder: potential for interactive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Luke T; Heimberg, Richard G

    2008-10-01

    The two preeminent cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety [Clark, D.M., & Wells, A., (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In Heimberg, R.G., Liebowitz, M., Hope, D.A., and Schneier, F.R. (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment (pp. 69-93). New York: Guilford Press.; Rapee, R.M., & Heimberg, R.G., (1997). A cognitive behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741-756.] suggest that attention to threat stimuli is critical in the maintenance of social fear. However, Clark and Wells assert that socially anxious persons attend almost exclusively to negative thoughts and self-imagery during social situations, whereas Rapee and Heimberg contend that socially anxious persons simultaneously attend to these internal cues and external stimuli potentially indicative of negative evaluation, such as an audience member's facial expressions. Rapee and Heimberg further suggest that attention to external and internal cues during social situations should be interdependent, such that focus on one has causal implications for the experience of the other. The current review examines the nature of the literature as it supports the assertions of each of these models of social anxiety, with particular attention to differing predictions regarding attentional focus. We conclude that socially anxious persons engage in both internal and external focus throughout the course of a social situation; however, there are a number of significant limitations to the literature. Accordingly, directions for future research are considered.

  6. Optical Probing of CO2 Laser-Plasma Interactions at Near Critical Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao

    The interaction of a high-power laser beam with plasma has been explored extensively in the context of laser-driven fusion, plasma-based acceleration of ions and electrons and high energy-density physics. One of the fundamental processes common to all these studies is the penetration of intense light into a dense matter through the hole boring effect and self-induced transparency. Light with a given wavelength lambda will be reflected once the electron density equals the critical electron plasma density nc = 1.1x 1021cm -3 /[lambda(mum)]2. The radiation pressure exerted on the critical density layer is characterized by the ponderomotive force of a focused laser pulse which scales with a laser intensity, I as Ilambda2 Wmum2/cm 2. At Ilambda2 ˜1017 Wmum2/cm2 and above, it becomes possible for the laser pulse not only to steepen the plasma profile but to push the overcritical plasma with ne > nc creating a cavity or a hole in the target. The phenomenon of hole boring, whereby a laser pulse propagates through a reduced density cavity to reach and push the critical density layer, is of importance in fast-ignition fusion because it may allow the laser pulse to deliver its energy closer to the compressed fuel where it can be converted into fast electrons that are needed to ignite a small portion of the fuel. The layer of plasma pushed by the radiation pressure can reflect and accelerate ions via the so called Hole Boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration mechanism. Also the density pile- up in combination with the strong electron heating at the critical density layer can facilitate the formation of a collisionless shock. This shock wave acceleration can produce high energy ion beams with a narrow energy spread. Numerous experiments have been carried out to study dynamics of laser plasma interaction indirectly using solid state targets that are opaque for 1?m laser. However, by using a longer wavelength CO2 laser, lambda = 10.6mum, the critical plasma density is decreased

  7. The Two Faces of Social Interaction Reward in Animal Models of Drug Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rawas, Rana; Saria, Alois

    2016-03-01

    Drug dependence is a serious health and social problem. Social factors can modify vulnerability to developing drug dependence, acting as risk factors or protective factors. Whereas stress and peer environment that encourage substance use may increase drug taking, strong attachments between family members and peer environment that do not experience drug use may protect against drug taking and, ultimately, drug dependence. The rewarding effects of drug abuse and social interaction can be evaluated using animal models. In this review we focus on evaluating social interaction reward in the conditioned place preference paradigm. We give an overview of how social interaction, if made available within the drug context, may facilitate, promote and interact with the drug's effects. However, social interaction, if offered alternatively outside the drug context, may have pronounced protective effects against drug abuse and relapse. We also address the importance of the weight difference parameter between the social partners in determining the positive or "agonistic" versus the hostile or "antagonistic" social interaction. We conclude that understanding social interaction reward and its subsequent effects on drug reward is sorely needed for therapeutic interventions against drug dependence.

  8. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  9. The Two Faces of Social Interaction Reward in Animal Models of Drug Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawas, Rana El

    2016-01-01

    Drug dependence is a serious health and social problem. Social factors can modify vulnerability to developing drug dependence, acting as risk factors or protective factors. Whereas stress and peer environment that encourage substance use may increase drug taking, strong attachments between family members and peer environment that do not experience drug use may protect against drug taking and, ultimately, drug dependence. The rewarding effects of drug abuse and social interaction can be evaluated using animal models. In this review we focus on evaluating social interaction reward in the conditioned place preference paradigm. We give an overview of how social interaction, if made available within the drug context, may facilitate, promote and interact with the drug’s effects. However, social interaction, if offered alternatively outside the drug context, may have pronounced protective effects against drug abuse and relapse. We also address the importance of the weight difference parameter between the social partners in determining the positive or “agonistic” versus the hostile or “antagonistic” social interaction. We conclude that understanding social interaction reward and its subsequent effects on drug reward is sorely needed for therapeutic interventions against drug dependence. PMID:26088685

  10. Personality Traits and Social Media Use in 20 Countries: How Personality Relates to Frequency of Social Media Use, Social Media News Use, and Social Media Use for Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Diehl, Trevor; Huber, Brigitte; Liu, James

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between peoples' personality traits and social media uses with data from 20 societies (N = 21,314). A measure of the "Big Five" personality traits is tested on key social media dimensions: frequency of use, social interaction, and news consumption. Across diverse societies, findings suggest that while extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are all positive predictors of different types of social media use, emotional stability and openness are negatively related to them.

  11. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  12. On the change of density of states in two-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We derive a general relation in two-body scattering theory that more directly relates the change of density of states (DDOS) due to interaction to the shape of the potential. The relation allows us to infer certain global properties of the DDOS from the global properties of the potential. In particular, we show that DDOS is negative at all energies and for all partial waves, for potentials that are more repulsive than $+1/r^2$ everywhere. This behavior represents a different class of global properties of DDOS from that described by the Levinson's theorem.

  13. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with anthracene and polyacene from density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.; Belelli, Patricia G.

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of atomic hydrogen with two linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), anthracene and polyacene (the polymer of benzene), was studied within the density functional theory (DFT). Using a proper dispersion-corrected method (DFT-D) the preferential physisorption sites were explored. The activation barrier for the bond formation between a peripheral C and the incoming H was calculated to be 58.5 and 34.1 meV with pure DFT on anthracene and polyacene at its antiferromagnetic ground state, respectively. DFT-D, although improves the description of the physisorbed state, tends to underestimate the chemisorption barriers due an artifact arising from the dispersion correction.

  14. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  15. Mentor-Mentee Interaction and Laboratory Social Environment: Do They Matter in Doctoral Students' Publication Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Ynalvez, Ruby A.; Ramírez, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We explored the social shaping of science at the micro-level reality of face-to-face interaction in one of the traditional places for scientific activities--the scientific lab. We specifically examined how doctoral students' perception of their: (i) interaction with doctoral mentors (MMI) and (ii) lab social environment (LSE) influenced…

  16. Developing the Second Language Writing Process through Social Media-Based Interaction Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Julian Esteban Zapata

    2015-01-01

    This paper depicts the results from a qualitative research study focused on finding out the effect of interaction through social media on the development of second language learners' written production from a private school in Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia. The study was framed within concepts such as "social interaction," "digital…

  17. Exploration of Problematic Internet Use and Social Interaction Anxiety among Turkish Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhadar, Cem

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between problematic Internet use and social interaction anxiety among pre-service teachers. Participants were 1235 students attending teacher training programs at a Turkish state university. The "Problematic Internet Use Scale" and "Social Interaction Anxiety Scale" were used to…

  18. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as…

  19. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI): A Screening Measure for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Jaswinder K.; Leone, Sarah L.; Lecavalier, Luc; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the preliminary validity and utility of the "Ghuman-Folstein Screen for Social Interaction" ("SSI"), a measure of social interaction that can serve to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in clinical samples of young high-risk children. Caregivers of 350 children (176 younger participants, ages 24-42 months, mean age = 34.1…

  20. Interoception and Autonomic Correlates during Social Interactions. Implications for Anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ambrosecchia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the bodily-self in Restrictive Anorexia, focusing on two basic aspects related to the bodily self: autonomic strategies in social behavior, in which others' social desirability features, and social cues (e.g., gaze are modulated, and interoception (i.e., the sensitivity to stimuli originating inside the body. Furthermore, since previous studies carried out on healthy individuals found that interoception seems to contribute to the autonomic regulation of social behavior, as measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA, we aimed to explore this link in anorexia patients, whose ability to perceive their bodily signal seems to be impaired. To this purpose, we compared a group of anorexia patients (ANg; restrictive type with a group of Healthy Controls (HCg for RSA responses during both a resting state and a social proxemics task, for their explicit judgments of comfort in social distances during a behavioral proxemics task, and for their Interoceptive Accuracy (IA. The results showed that ANg displayed significantly lower social disposition and a flattened autonomic reactivity during the proxemics task, irrespective of the presence of others' socially desirable features or social cues. Moreover, unlike HCg, the autonomic arousal of ANg did not guide behavioral judgments of social distances. Finally, IA was strictly related to social disposition in both groups, but with opposite trends in ANg. We conclude that autonomic imbalance and its altered relationship with interoception might have a crucial role in anorexia disturbances.

  1. Providing Children and Adolescents Opportunities for Social Interaction as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather L; Bingen, Kristin; Hoag, Jennifer A; Karst, Jeffrey S; Velázquez-Martin, Blanca; Barakat, Lamia P

    2015-12-01

    Experiences with peers constitute an important aspect of socialization, and children and adolescents with cancer may experience reduced social interaction due to treatment. A literature review was conducted to investigate the evidence to support a standard of care evaluating these experiences. Sixty-four articles were reviewed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Moderate quality of evidence suggest that social interaction can be beneficial to increase knowledge, decrease isolation, and improve adjustment and constitute an important, unmet need. The evidence supports a strong recommendation for youth with cancer to be provided opportunities for social interaction following a careful assessment of their unique characteristics and preferences.

  2. Le role de l'interaction sociale dans l'enseignement des langues etrangeres (Social Interaction Role in Foreign Language Instruction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffler, L.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that a lively and balanced social interaction among students is essential for successful second language instruction. Suggests that teachers receive training in interpersonal relationships and group dynamics and that they plan activities promoting effective classroom interaction. Defines communication rules and describes procedures intended…

  3. Covariation of Social Stimuli and Interaction Rates in the Natural Preschool Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Hyman

    An intensive longitudinal investigation was conducted on the social behavior of two three-year old boys in a nursery school setting over a four-month period to analyze observable stimuli in each subject's immediate social environment for the main determinants of his social interactive behavior. It was hypothesized that the daily rate of social…

  4. Designing Robot Embodiments for Social Interaction: Affordances Topple Realism and Aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauwe, R.A.; Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Keyson, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the near future, human-like social robots will become indispensable for providing support in various social tasks, in particular for healthcare (e.g., assistance, coaching). The perception of realism, in particular human-like features, can help facilitate mediated social interaction. The current

  5. Social Presence and Interaction in Learning Environments: The Effect on Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kožuh, Ines; Jeremic, Zoran; Sarjaš, Andrej; Bele, Julija Lapuh; Devedžic, Vladan; Debevc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    With the increased use of social media there is a growing interest in using social interaction and social presence in education. Despite this phenomenon, no appropriate methodology was found on effective integrating of both concepts into online learning. In this study, we propose integrating two different kinds of learning tools to provide social…

  6. Round-Robin Analysis of Social Interaction: Exact and Estimated Standard Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Lashley, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    The Social Relations model of D. A. Kenny estimates variances and covariances from a round-robin of two-person interactions. This paper presents a matrix formulation of the Social Relations model, using the formulation to derive exact and estimated standard errors for round-robin estimates of Social Relations parameters. (SLD)

  7. Effects of muscle dysmorphia, social comparisons and body schema priming on desire for social interaction: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Agthe, Maria; Yanagida, Takuya; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2017-06-15

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It goes along with a risk for social withdrawal to maintain rigid exercise and dietary regimen. The aim of the current study was thus, to explore differences in men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia regarding their desire for social interaction. Furthermore, we investigated potential effects of individual social comparison tendencies (the tendency to compare oneself with persons who are perceived to be superior or inferior to oneself on a certain dimension) and of one's own body schema on the desire for social interaction. One hundred physically active, college aged Austrian men were recruited via social media and flyers at fitness centers and the sports department of the University of Vienna. Participants were randomly assigned to a priming condition evoking their own body schema or a control condition and had to state their desire for social interaction with male or female stimulus persons of high or average attractiveness. We conducted a 2 (group of participant; men with vs. without a risk for MD) × 2 (priming condition; priming vs. non-priming) × 2 (attractiveness of stimulus person; highly attractive vs. less attractive) experimental design with different social comparison tendencies as covariates. Men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia showed lesser desire for social interaction than men without this risk, which can be seen as a risk factor for psychopathological outcomes. Generally, men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia did not differ with regard to their preferences for attractive stimulus persons as subjects for social interaction. We confirmed the notion that a tendency for downward social comparisons goes along with a diminished desire for social interaction. This study showed that men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia

  8. Density Functional Theory Study of the Interaction between Thymine and Luteolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岚; 蔡皖飞; 郑妍; 李来才; 田安民

    2012-01-01

    The density function B3LYP method has been used to optimize the geometries of the luteolin, thymine and lute- olin-thymine complexes at 6-31+G* basis. The vibrational frequencies have been studied at the same level to ana- lyze these seventeen complexes, respectively. Theories of atoms in molecules (AIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) have been utilized to investigate the hydrogen bonds involved in all the systems. The interaction energies of the complexes corrected by basis set superposition error are between -93.00-76.69 kJ/mol. The calculating results indicate that strong hydrogen bonding interactions have been found in the luteolin-thymine complexes.

  9. Characteristics of the molecular electron density, delocalization effect and hydrogen bonding interaction of nitroxoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Sasi, B. S.; Twinkle, A. R.; James, C.

    2017-08-01

    The density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory for nitroxoline monomer and dimer molecule. The dimer molecule formed between two nitroxoline subunits has the largest stability, and is held together by two Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interaction and intra/inter molecular charge transfer has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The topological analysis of electron localization function (ELF) provides effect of delocalization. Quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM) has been applied to gain deep understanding to the existence of intra- and inter-molecular interaction.

  10. Solving the self-interaction problem in Kohn-Sham density functional theory: Application to atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Däne, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2015-04-01

    In previous work, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In this paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. We present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.

  11. Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdagi Ozlem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans. Methods We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors. Results In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP

  12. Exchange-Correlation Effects for Noncovalent Interactions in Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A; DiLabio, Gino A; Johnson, Erin R

    2016-07-12

    In this article, we develop an understanding of how errors from exchange-correlation functionals affect the modeling of noncovalent interactions in dispersion-corrected density-functional theory. Computed CCSD(T) reference binding energies for a collection of small-molecule clusters are decomposed via a molecular many-body expansion and are used to benchmark density-functional approximations, including the effect of semilocal approximation, exact-exchange admixture, and range separation. Three sources of error are identified. Repulsion error arises from the choice of semilocal functional approximation. This error affects intermolecular repulsions and is present in all n-body exchange-repulsion energies with a sign that alternates with the order n of the interaction. Delocalization error is independent of the choice of semilocal functional but does depend on the exact exchange fraction. Delocalization error misrepresents the induction energies, leading to overbinding in all induction n-body terms, and underestimates the electrostatic contribution to the 2-body energies. Deformation error affects only monomer relaxation (deformation) energies and behaves similarly to bond-dissociation energy errors. Delocalization and deformation errors affect systems with significant intermolecular orbital interactions (e.g., hydrogen- and halogen-bonded systems), whereas repulsion error is ubiquitous. Many-body errors from the underlying exchange-correlation functional greatly exceed in general the magnitude of the many-body dispersion energy term. A functional built to accurately model noncovalent interactions must contain a dispersion correction, semilocal exchange, and correlation components that minimize the repulsion error independently and must also incorporate exact exchange in such a way that delocalization error is absent.

  13. Symmetry breaking induced by charge density and the entropy of interacting fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Guendelman, E. I.

    1987-01-01

    We study interacting complex scalar field theories with global U(1) symmetry and concave potentials. It is usually assumed that spontaneous symmetry breaking is excluded for such interaction. However, we show that degenerate ground states appear when the system is considered as a charged medium, which we take to be so large that it makes sense to speak of a uniform, finite, charge density. This of course implies that we are considering as ground states solutions that select a particular Lorentz frame. The consequent symmetry breaking is accompanied by the usual Goldstone modes. It makes topological solitons possible in 1+1 dimensions. Further, a new kind of nontopological solitons appears, again in 1+1 dimensions. These are embedded in a uniformly charged background. Unlike the Friedberg-Lee-Sirlin solitons, those studied here do not require a complicatedly shaped potential to exist. Although Derrick's theorem, which forbids higher-dimensional solitons, cannot be proved in the present context, it appears that such solitons are still forbidden in the presence of finite charge density. When the field is confined to a box, the frequency spectrum is, classically, a continuum. This is in sharp contrast to the situation for linear fields. However, semiclassical quantization, or the requirement that charge be quantized, both make the spectrum discrete. We show by general arguments that the energy spectrum (distinct from the frequency spectrum for nonlinear fields) for the interacting field in a box must have widely spaced levels. For the case of a quartic potential we compute the energy levels exactly in 1+1 dimensions, and verify this conclusion directly. The interacting scalar field thus complies in detail with the bound on specific entropy proposed by one of us earlier as applicable to all finite physical systems.

  14. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  15. Self-care actions of chronic schizophrenics associated with meeting solitude and social interaction requisites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J L

    1990-10-01

    Solitude becomes a way of life and social interaction a scarce commodity for many chronic schizophrenics who are in institutional settings. This article describes the self-care actions associated with meeting solitude and social interaction requisites as reported by 10 institutionalized chronic schizophrenics. Eighteen solitude self-care actions and 10 social interaction self-care actions emerged from the interview data. The solitude self-care actions clustered around two distinct categories: distancing and organizing. The social interaction self-care actions clustered around one category, managing situations. The implications of this study extend to anyone who is in the position of providing care and support to an individual diagnosed as a chronic schizophrenic. Additional research is suggested to increase the generalizability of the findings of this study and to isolate conditions related to Orem's (1985) sets of actions for maintenance of a balance between solitude and social interaction.

  16. The early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eMoriguchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF refers to the ability to execute appropriate actions and to inhibit inappropriate actions for the attainment of a specific goal. Research has shown that this ability develops rapidly during the preschool years. Recently, it has been proposed that research on executive function should consider the importance of social interaction. In this article, recent evidence regarding the early development of executive function and its relation to social interaction has been reviewed. Research consistently showed that social interaction can influence executive function skills in young children. However, the development of executive function may facilitate the cognitive skills that are important for social interaction. Taken together, there might be functional dependency between the development of executive function and social interaction.

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment of social functioning in schizophrenia: impact of performance appraisals and affect on social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia.

  18. Social world interactions: how company connects to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collip, D; Oorschot, M; Thewissen, V; Van Os, J; Bentall, R; Myin-Germeys, I

    2011-05-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that social contact, even when it is neutral, triggers paranoid thinking in people who score high on clinical or subclinical paranoia. We investigated whether contextual variables are predictive of momentary increases in the intensity of paranoid thinking in a sample of participants ranging across a psychometric paranoia continuum. The sample (n=154) consisted of 30 currently paranoid patients, 34 currently non-paranoid patients, 15 remitted psychotic patients, 38 high-schizotypy participants, and 37 control subjects. Based on their total score on Fenigstein's Paranoia Scale (PS), three groups with different degrees of paranoia were defined. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a structured diary technique, was used to assess momentary social context, perceived social threat and paranoia in daily life. There were differences in the effect of social company on momentary levels of paranoia and perceived social threat across the range of trait paranoia. The low and medium paranoia groups reported higher levels of perceived social threat when they were with less-familiar compared to familiar individuals. The medium paranoia group reported more paranoia in less-familiar company. The high paranoia group reported no difference in the perception of social threat or momentary paranoia between familiar and unfamiliar contacts. Paranoid thinking is context dependent in individuals with medium or at-risk levels of trait paranoia. Perceived social threat seems to be context dependent in the low paranoia group. However, at high levels of trait paranoia, momentary paranoia and momentary perceived social threat become autonomous and independent of social reality.

  19. Noncovalent interactions from electron density topology and solvent effects on spectral properties of Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, S.; Balakrishnan, C.; Theetharappan, M.; Neelakantan, M. A.; Venkataraman, R.

    2017-03-01

    Two Schiff bases were prepared by the condensation of o-allyl substituted 2,4-dihydroxy acetophenone with 1,2-diaminopropane (L1) and ethanediamine (L2) and characterized by elemental analysis, and ESI-MS, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectral techniques. The effect of solvents with respect to different polarities on UV-Vis and emission spectra of L1 and L2 was investigated at room temperature show that the compounds exist in keto and enol forms in solution and may be attributed to the intramolecular proton transfer in the ground state. The solute-solvent interactions, change in dipole moment and solvatochromic properties of the compounds were studied based on the solvent polarity parameters. For L1 and L2, the ground and excited state electronic structure calculations were carried out by DFT and TD-DFT at B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level, respectively. The IR, NMR and electronic absorption spectra computed were compared with the experimental observations. The intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule is evidenced from the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and surface analysis. The noncovalent interactions like hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions were identified from the molecular geometry and electron localization function. These interactions in molecules have been studied by using reduced density gradient and graphed by Multiwfn.

  20. Collective interaction by design collective controllers for social navigation on digital photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Mortensen, Morten Boye;

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to attract attention to the possibilities for designing for collaborative control and social negotiation in everyday interaction design. This work is starts out from the interaction model of collective interaction, which is a model depicting strong social connection between people...... interacting on a shared digital material with a shared goal. We adopt a research through design approach where we develop an exemplar collective interaction prototype for collective exploration of digital photos in the home and we evaluate the prototype in use. The exemplar prototype and experiences from...... trial use serves to refine the collective interaction model and identify qualities and shortcommings of collective interaction applications. In this way we wish to point to a design space, which can lead to new interaction techniques and -designs supporting shared social experiences around digital...

  1. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: A proof-of-concept pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p group with low levels of social anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.

  2. Social interactions and their connection to aggression and ovarian development in orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, E D; Plowright, C M S

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the social dynamics of reproductive conflict. Orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) with comparatively high or low levels of social activity were paired to determine whether aggression and reproduction could be traced to earlier social interactions. The workers were paired according to their levels of social activity (a socially active+another socially active worker, socially active+socially inactive, and two socially inactive workers). The presence or absence of brood was also manipulated. The absence of brood increased both aggression and ovarian development, suggesting that aggression and reproduction are associated or that there is a third variable that affects both. Socially active pairs were significantly more aggressive: here, social activity can be taken as an early indicator of aggression. No such effect, however, was obtained on ovarian development as the socially active pairs did not differ on their degree of ovarian development compared to the others. Within the socially active+socially inactive pairs, the socially active worker did not have more developed ovaries and was not more aggressive than her socially inactive partner. Results highlight that environmental conditions (the absence of brood) can predict ovarian development and although social activity can be observed prior to aggression, differences in aggression do not translate into differences in ovarian development under these conditions.

  3. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Xiao; Zhang, Xiang-Fei; Chen, Da-Song; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate that Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), increases host fecundity, but has no effects on the longevity of females and the mating competitiveness of males in T. urticae. Most importantly, host mating pattern was found to affect Wolbachia density dynamics during host aging. Mating of an uninfected mite of either sex with an infected mite attenuates the Wolbachia density in the infected mite. According to the results of Wolbachia localization, this finding may be associated with the tropism of Wolbachia for the reproductive tissue in adult spider mites. Our findings describe a new interaction between Wolbachia and their hosts.

  4. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A;

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low densit...... to receptor-covered sensor chips. Our results indicate that apolipoprotein A-V may influence plasma lipid homeostasis by enhancing receptor-mediated endocytosis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-27......Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low density...... lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited...

  5. Dual-EEG of joint finger tapping: what can two interacting brains teach us about social interaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana

    The underlying neural mechanisms of real-time social interactions remain largely unknown. Only a small number of recent studies have explored what goes on in brains of two people simultaneously as they interact. The question still remains whether such quantification can better reveal the neural...... signatures of social cognition. In our study, we wanted to address this question by quantifying whether we gain more information about the interaction from the two brains. We measured dual-EEG from pairs of participants as they engaged in an interactive finger-tapping task. They were asked to synchronize......-frequency analysis revealed a left-motor and right-frontal suppression at 10 Hz during task execution, when carrying the task out interactively in contrast with the uncoupled computer-driven task. We used machine-learning approaches to identify the brain signals driving the interaction. The raw-power at 10 Hz during...

  6. Electronic Zero-Point Oscillations in the Strong-Interaction Limit of Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Vignale, Giovanni; Seidl, Michael

    2009-04-14

    The exchange-correlation energy in Kohn-Sham density functional theory can be expressed exactly in terms of the change in the expectation of the electron-electron repulsion operator when, in the many-electron Hamiltonian, this same operator is multiplied by a real parameter λ varying between 0 (Kohn-Sham system) and 1 (physical system). In this process, usually called adiabatic connection, the one-electron density is kept fixed by a suitable local one-body potential. The strong-interaction limit of density functional theory, defined as the limit λ→∞, turns out to be like the opposite noninteracting Kohn-Sham limit (λ→0) mathematically simpler than the physical (λ = 1) case and can be used to build an approximate interpolation formula between λ→0 and λ→∞ for the exchange-correlation energy. Here we extend the systematic treatment of the λ→∞ limit [Phys. Rev. A 2007, 75, 042511] to the next leading term, describing zero-point oscillations of strictly correlated electrons, with numerical examples for small spherical atoms. We also propose an improved approximate functional for the zero-point term and a revised interpolation formula for the exchange-correlation energy satisfying more exact constraints.

  7. Modelling social interaction as perceptual crossing: an investigation into the dynamics of the interaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper continues efforts to establish a mutually informative dialogue between psychology and evolutionary robotics in order to investigate the dynamics of social interaction. We replicate a recent simulation model of a minimalist experiment in perceptual crossing and confirm the results with significantly simpler artificial agents. A series of psycho-physical tests of their behaviour informs a hypothetical circuit model of their internal operation. However, a detailed study of the actual internal dynamics reveals this circuit model to be unfounded, thereby offering a tale of caution for those hypothesising about sub-personal processes in terms of behavioural observations. In particular, it is shown that the behaviour of the agents largely emerges out of the interaction process itself rather than being an individual achievement alone. We also extend the original simulation model in two novel directions in order to test further the extent to which perceptual crossing between agents can self-organise in a robust manner. These modelling results suggest new hypotheses that can become the basis for further psychological experiments.

  8. Interacting with Users in Social Networks: The Follow-back Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    National Defense Motivation With its rapid growth, social media has gained the interst of national defense policy makers and strategists. In January of... Motivation Social networks have rapidly risen in size over the past decade and today represent one of the main platforms through which social interactions...occur. Current estimates are that 74% of adult Internet users are on social media and in many other parts of the world, including emerging markets, this

  9. A non-verbal turing test: Differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich J Pfeiffer; Bert Timmermans; Gary Bente; Kai Vogeley; Leonhard Schilbach

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to ...

  10. The management of interaction networks. The ???in-between??? concept within social work and counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Hern??ndez-Aristu, Jes??s

    2015-01-01

    We are familiar with the field of group interaction through the traditional work of Kurt Lewin and also systemic thinking talks about network interaction that builds up the system. Martin Buber also discusses the ???in-between??? concept as the third element.The therapist or counselor, social worker and clients are part of an interaction network, representing therapeutic and social working situations. Success in treatment and reflective processes, depends on the perception and managemen...

  11. A Density Functional Approach to Polarizable Models: A Kim-Gordon-Response Density Interaction Potential for Molecular Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabacchi, G; Hutter, J; Mundy, C

    2005-04-07

    A combined linear response--frozen electron density model has been implemented in a molecular dynamics scheme derived from an extended Lagrangian formalism. This approach is based on a partition of the electronic charge distribution into a frozen region described by Kim-Gordon theory, and a response contribution determined by the instaneous ionic configuration of the system. The method is free from empirical pair-potentials and the parameterization protocol involves only calculations on properly chosen subsystems. They apply this method to a series of alkali halides in different physical phases and are able to reproduce experimental structural and thermodynamic properties with an accuracy comparable to Kohn-Sham density functional calculations.

  12. Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piezon, Sherry L.; Donaldson, Robin L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the psycho-social aspects of social loafing and free riding in a traditional and distance learning environment. A brief literature review and summaries of frequently cited antecedents and their mitigating factors are reviewed for application by instructors, designers, and administrators in distance education.…

  13. The reciprocal interaction between serotonin and social behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiser, D.; Steemers, B.; Branchi, I.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an ancient molecule directing behavioural responses to environmental stimuli. The social environment is the most powerful environmental factor. It is well recognized that 5-HT plays a key role in shaping social responses, and that the serotonergic system itself is highly responsi

  14. Mobile Inverted Constructivism: Education of Interaction Technology in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jia-Xiang; Fan, Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    The combination of social media and invert teaching is a new path to inverting interation technology education and reconstructing the curriculum of context. In this paper, based on the theory of constructivism learning, a model named Mobile Inverted Constructivism (MIC) is provided. Moreover, in view of the functional quality of social media in…

  15. Sizing Up a Situation: LD Children's Understanding of Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Ruth; Cosden, Merith

    1982-01-01

    After viewing short segments from soap operas revealing subtle emotional and social relationships, the children were questioned to determine their comprehension of the scenarios. The LD group consistently made more social comprehension errors than did their non-LD peers. (Author/SEW)

  16. Mobile Inverted Constructivism: Education of Interaction Technology in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jia-Xiang; Fan, Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    The combination of social media and invert teaching is a new path to inverting interation technology education and reconstructing the curriculum of context. In this paper, based on the theory of constructivism learning, a model named Mobile Inverted Constructivism (MIC) is provided. Moreover, in view of the functional quality of social media in…

  17. Sex differences in social interaction behavior following social defeat stress in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Trainor

    Full Text Available Stressful life experiences are known to be a precipitating factor for many mental disorders. The social defeat model induces behavioral responses in rodents (e.g. reduced social interaction that are similar to behavioral patterns associated with mood disorders. The model has contributed to the discovery of novel mechanisms regulating behavioral responses to stress, but its utility has been largely limited to males. This is disadvantageous because most mood disorders have a higher incidence in women versus men. Male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus aggressively defend territories, which allowed us to observe the effects of social defeat in both sexes. In two experiments, mice were exposed to three social defeat or control episodes. Mice were then behaviorally phenotyped, and indirect markers of brain activity and corticosterone responses to a novel social stimulus were assessed. Sex differences in behavioral responses to social stress were long lasting (4 wks. Social defeat reduced social interaction responses in females but not males. In females, social defeat induced an increase in the number of phosphorylated CREB positive cells in the nucleus accumbens shell after exposure to a novel social stimulus. This effect of defeat was not observed in males. The effects of defeat in females were limited to social contexts, as there were no differences in exploratory behavior in the open field or light-dark box test. These data suggest that California mice could be a useful model for studying sex differences in behavioral responses to stress, particularly in neurobiological mechanisms that are involved with the regulation of social behavior.

  18. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  19. Age effects on the social interaction test in early adulthood male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, A; Martí, M A; Sala, J; Balada, F

    2000-01-01

    The effects of age on active and passive social interaction were studied in Wistar rats using the social interaction test (S.I.T.). Individual behaviors such as ambulation, rearing, and defecation were also studied. Despite the widespread use of the S.I.T. in anxiety research, the effects of age on the S.I.T. have not been studied thoroughly. Male Wistar rats of 75, 135, and 180 days old were used. Our results showed age effects on active social contact, passive social contact, ambulation, rearing, and defecation. At 135 days old, animals presented the lowest scores on active social behavior and the highest scores on defecation. Moreover, exploratory behavior measured by ambulation and rearing decreased with age. These results suggest that age could be a relevant variable in the social interaction test.

  20. Social behavior, interaction appraisals, and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: The dangers of being alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A; Moore, Raeanne C; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Holden, Jason L; Swendsen, Joel; Granholm, Eric L

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing attention to social appraisals in suicide risk, the interpersonal correlates of suicidal thoughts and behavior in schizophrenia are not well understood. Ecological momentary assessment could reveal whether dysfunctional social appraisals and behavior are evident in people with schizophrenia with suicidal ideation. A total of 93 outpatients with diagnoses of schizophrenia with (n=18, 19%) and without (N=75; 81%) suicidal ideation participated in one week of intensive daily monitoring via mobile devices, generating real-time reports on the quantity of social interactions and appraisals about them, as well as information concerning concurrent affect and symptoms. The presence of suicidal ideation was not associated with the quantity of social interactions or time spent alone, but it was associated with the anticipation of being alone as well as greater negative and lower positive affect when alone. Despite this aversive experience of being alone, people with suicidal ideation reported negative appraisals about the value of recent and potential social interactions. These findings suggest that suicidal ideation in schizophrenia may not be associated with the quantity of social interactions, but with negative expectations about the quality of social interactions coupled with an aversive experience of being alone. Cognitive therapy interventions that address negative expectations and pleasure about social interactions, especially when alone, may reduce suicidal ideation.

  1. Hydrogen bonding interactions between ethylene glycol and water: density, excess molar volume, and spectral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianBin; ZHANG PengYan; MA Kai; HAN Fang; CHEN GuoHua; WEI XiongHui

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the density and the excess molar volume of ethylene glycol (EG)-water mixtures were carried out to illustrate the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water at different temperatures, The re-sults suggest that a likely complex of 3 ethylene glycol molecules bonding with 4 water molecules in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (EGW) is formed at the maximal excess molar volume, which displays stronger absorption capabilities for SO2 when the concentration of SO2 reaches 400×106 (volume ratio) in the gas phase. Meanwhile, FTIR and UV spectra of EGWs were recorded at various EG concentra-tions to display the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water. The FTIR spectra show that the stretching vibrational band of hydroxyl in the EGWs shifts to a lower frequency and the bending vibra-tional band of water shifts to a higher frequency with increasing the EG concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the UV spectra show that the electron transferring band of the hydroxyl oxygen in EG shows red shift with increasing the EG concentration. The frequency shifts in FTIR spectra and the shifts of absorption bands in UV absorption spectra of EGWs are interpreted as the strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the hydrogen atoms in water with the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EG.

  2. Density functional theory studies of interactions of ruthenium-arene complexes with base pair steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Shaun T; Platts, James A

    2011-10-20

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to determine the strength and geometry of intermolecular interactions of "piano-stool" ruthenium arene complexes, which show potential as anticancer treatments. Model complexes with methane and benzene indicate that the coordinated arene has C-H···π acceptor ability similar to that of free benzene, whereas this arene acts as a much stronger C-H donor or partner in π-stacking than free benzene. The source of these enhanced interactions is identified as a combination of electrostatic and dispersion effects. Complexes of Ru-arene complexes with base-pair step fragments of DNA, in which the arene has the potential to act as an intercalator, have also been investigated. Binding energies are found to be sensitive to the size and nature of the arene, with larger and more flexible arenes having stronger binding. π-stacking and C-H···π interactions between arene and DNA bases and hydrogen bonds from coordinated N-H to DNA oxygen atoms, as well as covalent Ru-N bonding, contribute to the overall binding. The effect of complexation on DNA structure is also examined, with larger rise and more negative slide values than canonical B-DNA observed in all cases.

  3. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  4. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  5. Increasing social interaction using prelinguistic milieu teaching with nonverbal school-age children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jessica H; Davis, Barbara L; Davis, John L

    2013-08-01

    Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in social interaction within salient play routines. Prelinguistic milieu teaching (PMT) techniques were used to teach the children to communicate intentionally during these routines. Intervention focused on the children's social interaction with an adult. The effects of intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. At study onset, the participants demonstrated few consistent interaction with others. With intervention, all of the children improved their ability to sustain social interactions, as evidenced by an increase in the number of communicative interactions during play routines. Participants also increased their overall rate of initiated intentional communication. Development of intentional prelinguistic communication within salient social routines creates opportunities for an adult to teach social and communication skills to young school-age children with autism who function at a nonverbal level.

  6. Conditioned place preference for social interaction in rats: contribution of sensory components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eKummer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge in the therapy of drug dependent individuals is to help them reactivate interest in non-drug-associated activities. We previously developed a rat experimental model based on the conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley rat (i reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training and (ii prevented the reinstatement of cocaine CPP. In the present study, we investigated which of the sensory modalities of the composite stimulus 'social interaction' contributes most to the rats’ preference for it. If touch was limited by steel bars spaced at a distance of 2 cm and running across the whole length of a partitioning, CPP was still acquired, albeit to a lesser degree. If both rats were placed on the same side of a partitioning, rats did not develop CPP for social interaction. Thus, decreasing the available area for social interaction from 750 to 375 cm² prevented the acquisition of CPP to social interaction despite the fact that animals could touch each other more intensely than through the bars of the partitioning. When touch was fully restricted by a glass screen dividing the conditioning chambers, and the only sensory modalities left were visual and olfactory cues, place preference shifted to place aversion. Overall, our findings indicate that the major rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus 'social interaction' is touch (tactition.

  7. Diazepam withdrawal responses measured in the social interaction test of anxiety and their reversal by baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Mabbutt, P S; Andrews, N

    1991-01-01

    After 21 days of treatment with diazepam (0.5 or 2 mg/kg/day) rats were tolerant to the effects of diazepam to increase social interaction in the low light unfamiliar test condition of the social interaction test of anxiety. When they were tested 24 h after the last of 21 injections they showed significant decreases in social interaction, indicating an anxiogenic withdrawal response. However, the social interaction scores of rats tested 48 h after withdrawal from diazepam treatment were no longer different from those of the control group. The decreased social interaction, indicating increased anxiety, detected 24 h after withdrawal of diazepam (21 daily injections of 0.5 or 2 mg/kg), could be reversed by the usual daily diazepam dose (0.5 or 2 mg/kg, respectively) or by baclofen (0.5 or 1 mg/kg). Baclofen (2 mg/kg) was sedative in both control treated and diazepam-dependent rats, but was ineffective at reversing the decrease in social interaction seen after diazepam withdrawal. Possible sites of action mediating these effects of baclofen are discussed, and it is suggested that either post-synaptic GABAB sites in the hippocampus are involved or that the reversal of the decreased social interaction detected on withdrawal of diazepam treatment is due to a baclofen-mediated inhibition of 5-HT release in the hippocampus.

  8. Gaze Aversion during Social Style Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa; Riby, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    During face-to-face interactions typically developing individuals use gaze aversion (GA), away from their questioner, when thinking. GA is also used when individuals with autism (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) are thinking during question-answer interactions. We investigated GA strategies during face-to-face social style interactions with…

  9. Social Network Analysis to Examine Interaction Patterns in Knowledge Building Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes use of social network analysis to examine student interaction patterns in a Grade 5/6 Knowledge Building class. The analysis included face-to-face interactions and interactions in the Knowledge Forum[R] Knowledge Building environment. It is argued that sociogram data are useful to reveal group processes; in sociological terms,…

  10. Social Peer Interactions in Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…

  11. Interaction of boron with graphite: A van der Waals density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Chen [Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang, Tongxiang, E-mail: txliang@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lai, Wensheng [Advanced Material Laboratory, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • A van der Waals density-functional approach is applied to study the interaction of boron with graphite. • VdW-DF functionals give fair agreement of crystal parameters with experiments. • The π electron approaches boron while adsorbing on graphite surface. • The hole introduced by boron mainly concentrates on boron and the nearest three carbon atoms. • PBE cannot describe the interstitial boron in graphite because of the ignoring binding of graphite sheets. - Abstract: Boron doping has been widely investigated to improve oxidation resistance of graphite. In this work the interaction of boron with graphite is investigated by a van der Waals density-functional approach (vdW-DF). The traditional density-functional theory (DFT) is well accounted for the binding in boron-substituted graphite. However, to investigate the boron atom on graphite surface and the interstitial impurities require use of a description of graphite interlayer binding. Traditional DFT cannot describe the vdW physics, for instance, GGA calculations show no relevant binding between graphite sheets. LDA shows some binding, but they fail to provide an accurate account of vdW forces. In this paper, we compare the calculation results of graphite lattice constant and cohesive energy by several functionals, it shows that vdW-DF such as two optimized functionals optB88-vdW and optB86b-vdW give much improved results than traditional DFT. The vdW-DF approach is then applied to study the interaction of boron with graphite. Boron adsorption, substitution, and intercalation are discussed in terms of structural parameters and electronic structures. When adsorbing on graphite surface, boron behaves as π electron acceptor. The π electron approaches boron atom because of more electropositive of boron than carbon. For substitution situation, the hole introduced by boron mainly concentrates on boron and the nearest three carbon atoms. The B-doped graphite system with the hole has less

  12. Potential job facilitation benefits of "water cooler" conversations: the importance of social interactions in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Iris Y; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2015-01-01

    This study looked at the extent to which personality and cultural factors predicted participants' perceptions of the importance private interactions played in the workplace. The 134 participants read a vignette (where a new employee socially interacted at low or high levels with co-workers) and completed the Big Five Inventory, Social Axioms Survey, and questions concerning expected workplace experiences. Results indicated employees who engaged in high levels of private interaction with co-workers were expected to be better liked, to receive better performance evaluations, were more likely to receive co-worker assistance, and were thought to be more likely chosen for future projects. However, the personality and social axiom variables studied did not significantly interact with social interaction to influence expectations of workplace outcomes.

  13. Understanding Situated Social Interactions: A Case Study of Public Places in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    of a physical place providing an understanding of peoples’ situated social interactions in public places of the city derived through a grounded analysis of small groups of friends socialising out on the town. Informed by this, we describe the design and evaluation of a mobile prototype system facilitating...... these and their situated interactions. In response, this paper addresses the challenge of informing design of mobile services for fostering social connections by using the concept of place for studying and understanding peoples’ social activities in a public built environment. We present a case study of social experience...

  14. The "Wedding-Ring": An agent-based marriage model based on social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Prskawetz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop an agent-based marriage model based on social interaction. We build an population of interacting agents whose chances of marrying depend on the availability of partners, and whose willingness to marry depends on the share of relevant others in their social network who are already married. We then let the typical aggregate age pattern of marriage emerge from the bottom-up. The results of our simulation show that micro-level hypotheses founded on existing theory and evidence on social interaction can reproduce age-at-marriage patterns with both realistic shape and realistic micro-level dynamics.

  15. The effect of social media interactions on customer relationship management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maecker, Olaf; Barrot, Christian; Becker, Jan U

    2016-01-01

    .... However, companies struggle to assess whether their investments in establishing and maintaining brand pages in social media actually meet their high expectations with respect to developing and retaining customers...

  16. Deflating Autonomy: Human Interactivity in the Emerging Social World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This article critiques recent enactivist attempts to bridge an epistemological divide between the individual and the social (i.e. to fill in the posited macro-micro gap). Its central claim is that an inflated view of ‘autonomy’ leads to error. Scrutinising two contributions, we find that methodol...... that methodological solipsism taints Varela’s model: It induces De Jaegher & Di Paolo to ascribe social knowledge to perturbances – contingencies whose logic arises from the closed organization of an individual (De Jaegher & Di Paolo, 2007) and Steiner & Stewart to posit that the pre.......) with on-going social and environmental activity. This human kind of heteronomy links social processes to agent-environment systems that sustain – and are sustained by – historically positioned modes of life. Far from being organisationally closed, human subjects depend on using sensorimotoric prompts...

  17. Civility vs. Incivility in Online Social Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoci, Angelo; Delfino, Alexia; Paglieri, Fabio; Panebianco, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Fabio

    2016-01-01

      Evidence is growing that forms of incivility-e.g. aggressive and disrespectful behaviors, harassment, hate speech and outrageous claims-are spreading in the population of social networking sites' (SNS) users...

  18. Eating Behavior and Social Interactions from Adolescence to Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrado, Luisa; Distante, Roberta

    This paper analyzes the importance of social ties for eating behavior of US youth. We propose a novel approach that addresses identi…cation of social endogenous e¤ects. We overcome the problem of measuring the separate impact of endogenous and contextual e¤ects on individual Body Mass Index (BMI)...... during adolescence. Obese adolescents, instead, become future obese adults through wrong habits enforced by imitative behavior....

  19. Interaction of electromagnetic and plasma waves in warm motional plasma: Density and thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Mohassel, P.; Hasanbeigi, A.; Hajisharifi, K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic-electrostatic coupling instability excited in the two-dimensional planar-layered plasma medium with median temperature (warm motional plasma beam) is investigated by applying the initial fluctuation propagating along the planar surfaces. The dielectric tensor, obtained by the Maxwell-fluid model, is used to find the dispersion relation (DR) and different excited modes in the system. Interacting modes are investigated, in detail, by focusing on the effect of temperature on the plasma beam instability aroused by coupling the thermal excited modes (thermal-extraordinary and electron plasma modes) in the systems with various amounts of beam density. The numerical analysis of the obtained DR shows that even though the temperature effect of the plasma beam has an important role on the suppression of streaming instabilities, it does not have a considerable effect on the behavior of the coupling instability in the fluid limitation.

  20. Density of states of two-dimensional systems with long-range logarithmic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, Andrés M.; Ortuño, Miguel; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2015-08-03

    We investigate a single-particle density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered two- dimensional high dielectric permittivity systems with logarithmic Coulomb interaction between particles. We derive self-consistent DOS at zero temperature and show that it is appreciably suppressed as compared to the DOS expected from the Efros-Shklovskii approach.We carry out zero- and finite-temperature Monte Carlo numerical studies of the DOS and find the perfect agreement between the numerical and analytical results at zero temperature, observing, in particular, a hardening of the Coulomb gap with the increasing electrostatic screening length. At finite temperatures, we reveal a striking scaling of the DOS as a function of energy normalized to the temperature of the system.

  1. Charge density A probe for the nuclear interaction in microscopic transport models

    CERN Document Server

    Galíchet, E; Lecolley, J F; Bougault, R; Butà, A; Colin, J; Cussol, D; Durand, D; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; Rivet, M F; Borderie, B; Auger, G; Bouriquet, B; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Guiot, B; Hudan, S; Charvet, J L; Dayras, R; Lavaud, F; Neindre, N L; López, O; Manduci, L; Marie, J; Nalpas, L; Normand, J; Pârlog, M; Pawlowski, P; Plagnol, E; Rosato, E; Steckmeyer, J C; Tamain, B; Lauwe, A V; Vient, E; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2003-01-01

    The transport properties of the sup 3 sup 6 Ar+ sup 5 sup 8 Ni system at 95 A .MeV measured with the INDRA array, are studied within the BNV kinetic equation. A general protocol of comparison between the N-body experimental fragment information and the one-body distribution function is developed using global variables, with a special focus on charge density. This procedure avoids any definition of sources and any use of an afterburner in the simulation. We shall discuss the feasibility of such an approach and the distortions induced by the finite detection efficiency and the completeness requirements of the data selection. The sensitivity of the different global observables to the macroscopic parameters of the effective nuclear interaction will be studied in detail.

  2. Low density lipoprotein: structure, dynamics, and interactions of apoB-100 with lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murtola, T.; Vuorela, T. A.; Hyvonen, M. T.;

    2011-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis. Despite its importance to health, the structure of LDL is not known in detail. This is worrying since the lack of LDL......'s structural information makes it more difficult to understand its function. In this work, we have combined experimental and theoretical data to construct LDL models comprised of the apoB-100 protein wrapped around a lipid droplet of about 20 nm in size. The models are considered by near-atomistic multi......-microsecond simulations to unravel structural as well as dynamical properties of LDL, with particular attention paid to lipids and their interactions with the protein. We find that the distribution and the ordering of the lipids in the LDL particle are rather complex. The previously proposed 2- and 3- layer models turn...

  3. Proton acceleration using doped Argon plasma density gradient interacting with relativistic CO2 -laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Aakash; Ettlinger, Oliver; Hicks, George; Ditter, Emma-Jane; Najmudin, Zulfikar

    2016-10-01

    We investigate proton and light-ion acceleration driven by the interaction of relativistic CO2 laser pulses with overdense Argon or other heavy-ion gas targets doped with lighter-ion species. Optically shaping the gas targets allows tuning of the pre-plasma scale-length from a few to several laser wavelengths, allowing the laser to efficiently drive a propagating snowplow through the bunching in the electron density. Preliminary PIC-based modeling shows that the lighter-ion species is accelerated even without any significant motion of the heavier ions which is a signature of the Relativistically Induced Transparency Acceleration mechanism. Some outlines of possible experiments at the TW CO2 laser at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented.

  4. Decision-Theoretic Bidding Based on Learned Density Models in Simultaneous, Interacting Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Csirik, J A; McAllester, D; Schapire, R E; Stone, P; 10.1613/jair.1200

    2011-01-01

    Auctions are becoming an increasingly popular method for transacting business, especially over the Internet. This article presents a general approach to building autonomous bidding agents to bid in multiple simultaneous auctions for interacting goods. A core component of our approach learns a model of the empirical price dynamics based on past data and uses the model to analytically calculate, to the greatest extent possible, optimal bids. We introduce a new and general boosting-based algorithm for conditional density estimation problems of this kind, i.e., supervised learning problems in which the goal is to estimate the entire conditional distribution of the real-valued label. This approach is fully implemented as ATTac-2001, a top-scoring agent in the second Trading Agent Competition (TAC-01). We present experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of our boosting-based price predictor relative to several reasonable alternatives.

  5. Interaction potential for water dimer from symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on density functional description of monomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukowski, R.; Szalewicz, K.; Groenenboom, G.C.; Avoird, A. van der

    2006-01-01

    A new six-dimensional interaction potential for the water dimer has been obtained by fitting interaction energies computed at 2510 geometries using a variant of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) based on density functional theory (DFT) description of monomers, referred to as SAPT(DFT). The

  6. Interactions between causal models, theories, and social cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Buchanan, David W; Butterfield, Jesse; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model of social cognitive development based not on a single modeling framework or the hypothesis that a single model accounts for children's developing social cognition. Rather, we advocate a Causal Model approach (cf. Waldmann, 1996), in which models of social cognitive development take the same position as theories of social cognitive development, in that they generate novel empirical hypotheses. We describe this approach and present three examples across various aspects of social cognitive development. Our first example focuses on children's understanding of pretense and involves only considering assumptions made by a computational framework. The second example focuses on children's learning from "testimony". It uses a modeling framework based on Markov random fields as a computational description of a set of empirical phenomena, and then tests a prediction of that description. The third example considers infants' generalization of action learned from imitation. Here, we use a modified version of the Rational Model of Categorization to explain children's inferences. Taken together, these examples suggest that research in social cognitive development can be assisted by considering how computational modeling can lead researchers towards testing novel hypotheses.

  7. Social prophylaxis: group interaction promotes collective immunity in ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2007-11-20

    Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behaviors risk infecting themselves, suggesting a high direct cost of helping. Our work instead indicates the opposite for garden ants. Social contact with individual workers, which were experimentally exposed to a fungal parasite, provided a clear survival benefit to nontreated, naive group members upon later challenge with the same parasite. This first demonstration of contact immunity in Social Hymenoptera and complementary results from other animal groups and plants suggest its general importance in both antiparasite and antiherbivore defense. In addition to this physiological prophylaxis of adult ants, infection of the brood was prevented in our experiment by behavioral changes of treated and naive workers. Parasite-treated ants stayed away from the brood chamber, whereas their naive nestmates increased brood-care activities. Our findings reveal a direct benefit for individuals to perform hygienic behaviors toward others, and this might explain the widely observed maintenance of social cohesion under parasite attack in insect societies.

  8. Interaction of boron with graphite: A van der Waals density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Chen; Liang, Tongxiang; Lai, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Boron doping has been widely investigated to improve oxidation resistance of graphite. In this work the interaction of boron with graphite is investigated by a van der Waals density-functional approach (vdW-DF). The traditional density-functional theory (DFT) is well accounted for the binding in boron-substituted graphite. However, to investigate the boron atom on graphite surface and the interstitial impurities require use of a description of graphite interlayer binding. Traditional DFT cannot describe the vdW physics, for instance, GGA calculations show no relevant binding between graphite sheets. LDA shows some binding, but they fail to provide an accurate account of vdW forces. In this paper, we compare the calculation results of graphite lattice constant and cohesive energy by several functionals, it shows that vdW-DF such as two optimized functionals optB88-vdW and optB86b-vdW give much improved results than traditional DFT. The vdW-DF approach is then applied to study the interaction of boron with graphite. Boron adsorption, substitution, and intercalation are discussed in terms of structural parameters and electronic structures. When adsorbing on graphite surface, boron behaves as π electron acceptor. The π electron approaches boron atom because of more electropositive of boron than carbon. For substitution situation, the hole introduced by boron mainly concentrates on boron and the nearest three carbon atoms. The B-doped graphite system with the hole has less ability to offer electrons to oxygen, ultimately resulted in the inhibition of carbon oxidation. For interstitial doping, vdW-DFs show more accurate formation energy than LDA. PBE functional cannot describe the interstitial boron in graphite reasonably because of the ignoring binding of graphite sheets. The investigation of electron structures of boron doped graphite will play an important role in understanding the oxidation mechanism in further study.

  9. Factor solutions of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2017-06-01

    Culturally validated rating scales for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are of significant importance when screening for the disorder, as well as for evaluating treatment efficacy. This study examined construct validity and additional psychometric properties of two commonly used scales, the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, in a clinical SAD population (n = 180) and in a normal population (n = 614) in Sweden. Confirmatory factor analyses of previously reported factor solutions were tested but did not reveal acceptable fit. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the joint structure of the scales in the total population yielded a two-factor model (performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety), whereas EFA in the clinical sample revealed a three-factor solution, a social interaction anxiety factor and two performance anxiety factors. The SPS and SIAS showed good to excellent internal consistency, and discriminated well between patients with SAD and a normal population sample. Both scales showed good convergent validity with an established measure of SAD, whereas the discriminant validity of symptoms of social anxiety and depression could not be confirmed. The optimal cut-off score for SPS and SIAS were 18 and 22 points, respectively. It is concluded that the factor structure and the additional psychometric properties of SPS and SIAS support the use of the scales for assessment in a Swedish population.

  10. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing handicapped preschoolers' peer social interactions: cross-setting and component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, S L; Hoyson, M; Jamieson, B; Strain, P S

    1985-01-01

    The purposes of our study were: (a) to train a set of observationally determined social behaviors via peer initiation; (b) to determine if effects generalized across classroom settings and to directly intervene if generalization did not occur; and (c) to analyze components of the peer-initiation intervention. After baseline, nonhandicapped preschool children (confederates) were taught to direct social initiations to the three handicapped preschool-aged students. Teachers prompted the confederates to engage the students in social interaction when necessary and rewarded the confederates with tokens. Confederates' initiations to the students resulted in increased frequencies of positive social interaction. There was no generalization to other classroom settings, and the intervention was subsequently implemented in a second and third classroom. Next, the confederates' token reinforcement system was withdrawn, with no apparent deleterious effects on the confederates' or students' social interactions. When teachers substantially reduced their prompts to the confederates, students' social interactions decreased. Finally, reinstatement of teacher prompts resulted in increases in the confederates' social initiations and, consequently, the positive social interactions of the students.

  12. Islamic Educational Transformation through Inmate Social Interaction at Palu Correctional Facility Class II A, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.

  13. Intermolecular Interaction Potentials of CH4-Ne Complex Calculated with Local Density Approximation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-Lin; CHENG Xiao-Hong; CHEN Xiang-Rong; YANG Xiang-Dong; ZHU Jun

    2004-01-01

    @@ The intermolecular interactions potentials for two configurations of CH4-Ne complex are calculated with local density approximation methods in the frame of density functional theory. It is found that the calculated potentials have two minima when the distance between the carbon atom of CH4 and the Ne atom takes R = 5.80 a.u.and 6.20a. u. for both the two configurations. For the edge configuration, the corresponding depth of the potential is 0.0669536 eV and 0.0671416 eV. For the face configuration, the corresponding depth of the potential is 0.0737956 eV and 0.0645506 eV. The global minimum occurs at R = 5.80 a.u. for the face configuration with a depth of the potential 0.0737956 eV. The depths of our calculation are in better agreement with the experimental data than the quantum chemical calculation approach, while the position of minimum potential for our calculation is underestimated.

  14. A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-06-01

    We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4]3-, determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.

  15. A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-06-21

    We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4](3-), determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.

  16. Efficient basis sets for non-covalent interactions in XDM-corrected density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin R; Otero-de-la-Roza, Alberto; Dale, Stephen G; DiLabio, Gino A

    2013-12-07

    In the development and application of dispersion-corrected density-functional theory, the effects of basis set incompleteness have been largely mitigated through the use of very large, nearly-complete basis sets. However, the use of such large basis sets makes application of these methods inefficient for large systems. In this work, we examine a series of basis sets, including Pople-style, correlation-consistent, and polarization-consistent bases, for their ability to efficiently and accurately predict non-covalent interactions when used in conjunction with the exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) dispersion model. We find that the polarization-consistent 2 (pc-2) basis sets, and two modifications thereof with some diffuse functions removed, give performance of comparable quality to that obtained with aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets, while being roughly 12 to 23 times faster computationally. The behavior is explained, in part, by the role of diffuse functions in recovering small density changes in the intermolecular region. The general performance of the modified basis sets is tested by application of XDM to standard intermolecular benchmark sets at, and away from, equilibrium.

  17. Particle Density in Zero Temperature Symmetry Restoring Phase Transitions in Four-Fermion Interaction Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bang-Rong

    2004-01-01

    By means of critical behaviors of the dynamical fermion mass in four-fermion interaction models, we show by explicit calculations that when T = 0 the particle density will have a discontinuous jumping across the critical chemical potential μc in 2D and 3D Gross-Neveu (GN) model and these physically explain the first-order feature of the corresponding symmetry restoring phase transitions. For the second-order phase transitions in the 3D GN model when T → 0 and in 4D Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model when T = 0, it is proven that the particle density itself will be continuous across μc but its derivative over the chemical potential μ will have a discontinuous jumping. The results give a physical explanation of implications of the tricritical point (T, μ) = (0,μc) in the 3D GN model. The discussions also show effectiveness of the critical analysis approach of phase transitions.

  18. A Comparison of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Measures: Unique Associations With Social Interaction Anxiety and Social Observation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Sam L; Rodriguez, Benjamin F

    2016-06-24

    Evidence suggests that the behavior inhibition system (BIS) and fight-flight-freeze system play a role in the individual differences seen in social anxiety disorder; however, findings concerning the role of the behavior approach system (BAS) have been mixed. To date, the role of revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) subsystems underlying social anxiety has been measured with scales designed for the original RST. This study examined how the BIS, BAS, and fight, flight, freeze components of the fight-flight-freeze system uniquely relate to social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety using both a measure specifically designed for the revised RST and a commonly used original RST measure. Comparison of regression analyses with the Jackson-5 and the commonly used BIS/BAS Scales revealed important differences in the relationships between RST subsystems and social anxiety depending on how RST was assessed. Limitations and future directions for revised RST measurement are discussed.

  19. Social innovation through disruptive interactions based on new media as a design strategy for empowering socially challenged communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    This article explores potential roles of social media in community upliftment and empowement, based on a study of a non-profit NGO in a socially challenged suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. In particular, it focuses on the relation between online and offline behaviour, and how the use of social...... media can counteract negative influences in the community, e.g. drug abuse and gangsterism. Interviews with staff and participants reveal that social media use differ from what is reported in earlier research, in particular regarding how people connect, and relations between online and offline...... activities. These differences may arguably inform design for disruptive interaction to address negative influences, such as drugs and gangsterism, in socially challenged communities....

  20. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Competing effects of nuclear deformation and density dependence of the Λ N interaction in BΛ values of hypernuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Rijken, Th. A.

    2016-10-01

    Competitive effects of nuclear deformation and density dependence of Λ N interaction in Λ binding energies BΛ of hypernuclei are studied systematically on the basis of the baryon-baryon interaction model ESC (extended soft core) including many-body effects. By using the Λ N G -matrix interaction derived from ESC, we perform microscopic calculations of BΛ in Λ hypernuclei within the framework of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics under the averaged-density approximation. The calculated values of BΛ reproduce experimental data within a few hundred keV in the wide mass regions from 9 to 51. It is found that competitive effects of nuclear deformation and density dependence of Λ N interaction work decisively for fine-tuning of BΛ values.

  2. Classroom-Level Predictors of the Social Status of Aggression: Friendship Centralization, Friendship Density, Teacher-Student Attunement, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated moderating effects of classroom friendship network structures (centralization and density), teacher-student attunement on aggression and popularity, and gender on changes in the social status of aggression over 1 school year. Longitudinal multilevel analyses with 2 time points (fall and spring) were conducted on a sample of…

  3. Theoretical Electron Density Distributions for Fe- and Cu-Sulfide Earth Materials: A Connection between Bond Length, Bond Critical Point Properties, Local Energy Densities, and Bonded Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Ross, Nancy L.; Downs, R. T.; Spackman, M. A.

    2007-03-01

    Bond critical point and local energy density properties together with net atomic charges were calculated for theoretical electron density distributions, F(r), generated for a variety of Fe and Cu metal-sulfide materials with high- and low-spin Fe atoms in octahedral coordination and high-spin Fe atoms in tetrahedral coordination. The electron density, F(rc), the Laplacian, 32F(rc), the local kinetic energy, G(rc), and the oxidation state of Fe increase as the local potential energy density, V(rc), the Fe-S bond lengths, and the coordination numbers of the Fe atoms decrease. The properties of the bonded interactions for the octahedrally coordinated low-spin Fe atoms for pyrite and marcasite are distinct from those for high-spin Fe atoms for troilite, smythite, and greigite. The Fe-S bond lengths are shorter and the values of F(rc) and 32F(rc) are larger for pyrite and marcasite, indicating that the accumulation and local concentration of F(r) in the internuclear region are greater than those involving the longer, high-spin Fe-S bonded interactions. The net atomic charges and the bonded radii calculated for the Fe and S atoms in pyrite and marcasite are also smaller than those for sulfides with high-spin octahedrally coordinated Fe atoms. Collectively, the Fe-S interactions are indicated to be intermediate in character with the low-spin Fe-S interactions having greater shared character than the highspin interactions. The bond lengths observed for chalcopyrite together with the calculated bond critical point properties are consistent with the formula Cu+Fe3+S2. The bond length is shorter and the F(rc) value is larger for the FeS4 tetrahedron displayed by metastable greigite than those displayed by chalcopyrite and cubanite, consistent with a proposal that the Fe atom in greigite is tetravalent. S-S bond paths exist between each of the surface S atoms of adjacent slabs of FeS6 octahedra comprising the layer sulfide smythite, suggesting that the neutral Fe3S4 slabs are

  4. Interactions Between Body and Social Awareness in Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Francesca; Aglioti, Salvatore M; David, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    Bodily processes have been intimately linked to social-cognitive and affective functions, such as compassion and empathy. Yet, little is known about how awareness of bodily processes influences social awareness and vice versa, especially in nonobservational but experiential investigations. This study investigated the relationship between psychometrically reported body and social awareness (including altruism, empathy, perspective-taking, and compassion) in 90 yoga and yoga-/mediation-naive control participants. In modern postural yoga, advanced practitioners claim both increased compassion and inner focus. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict (1) the level of yoga practice from body awareness and social awareness skills in the yoga group and (2) body awareness from social skills in both groups. Body awareness and compassion were significant positive and independent predictors of yoga expertise. This finding supports practitioners' anecdotal claims but also implies that both functions tap into different aspects of yoga expertise. When body awareness was predicted, altruism emerged as a significant negative predictor in the yoga group (but not control group) as a function of yoga practice. These results might compellingly suggest that, despite high compassion, heightened bodily self-awareness might increase a self-centred perspective and limit altruistic acts in advanced yoga practitioners.

  5. Density-dependent effective baryon-baryon interaction from chiral three-baryon forces

    CERN Document Server

    Petschauer, Stefan; Kaiser, Norbert; Meißner, Ulf-G; Weise, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    A density-dependent effective potential for the baryon-baryon interaction in the presence of the (hyper)nuclear medium is constructed, based on the leading (irreducible) three-baryon forces derived within SU(3) chiral effective field theory. We evaluate the contributions from three classes: contact terms, one-pion exchange and two-pion exchange. In the strangeness-zero sector we recover the known result for the in-medium nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explicit expressions for the Lambda-nucleon in-medium potential in (asymmetric) nuclear matter are presented. Our results are suitable for implementation into calculations of (hyper)nuclear matter. In order to estimate the low-energy constants of the leading three-baryon forces we introduce the decuplet baryons as explicit degrees of freedom and construct the relevant terms in the minimal non-relativistic Lagrangian. With these, the constants are estimated through decuplet saturation. Utilizing this approximation we provide numerical results for the effect of the ...

  6. Density functional studies of endosulphan and its interaction with glycine and GABA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C N Ramachandran; Brijesh Kumar Mishra; Ashwani Kumar Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theoretic (DFT) methods are employed to study the interactions between endosulphan and two amino acids, namely glycine and -aminobutyric acid (GABA). Two conformers of each isomer - and -endosulphan are considered in the study. The DFT methods B3LYP, M05, M05-2X, M06 and M06-2X in conjunction with the basis set 6-31++G∗∗ are used. The complexes of - and -endosulphan with amino acids are stabilized by a strong hydrogen bond. In addition, there are several weak C-H…O interactions present between the two moieties. Among the DFT methods used, M06-2X method shows the highest stabilization energy for all the complexes. The M06-2X/6-31++G∗∗ method predicts that among the four conformers of endosulphan, the conformer in which the S=O points up, forms the most stable complex with both glycine and GABA, with stabilization energies −15.24 kcal/mol and −14.39 kcal/mol, respectively. The conformer in which the S=O points down, forms the least stable complex with both amino acids with stabilization energies −7.14 and −7.85 kcal/mol, respectively.

  7. Specific interaction of postsynaptic densities with membrane rafts isolated from synaptic plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Yao, Wei-Dong; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2013-06-01

    Postsynaptic membrane rafts are believed to play important roles in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. We recently demonstrated the presence, at the electron microscopic level, of complexes consisting of membrane rafts and postsynaptic densities (PSDs) in detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) prepared from synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) ( Suzuki et al., 2011 , J Neurochem, 119, 64-77). To further explore these complexes, here we investigated the nature of the binding between purified SPM-DRMs and PSDs in vitro. In binding experiments, we used SPM-DRMs prepared after treating SPMs with n-octyl-β-d-glucoside, because at concentrations of 1.0% or higher it completely separates SPM-DRMs and PSDs, providing substantially PSD-free unique SPM-DRMs as well as DRM-free PSDs. PSD binding to PSD-free DRMs was identified by mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and electron microscopy. PSD proteins were not incorporated into SPMs, and significantly less PSD proteins were incorporated into DRMs prepared from liver membranes, providing in vitro evidence that binding of PSDs to DRMs is specific and suggestion of the presence of specific interacting molecules. These specific interactions may have important roles in synaptic development, function, and plasticity in vivo. In addition, the binding system we developed may be a good tool to search for binding molecules and binding mechanisms between PSDs and rafts.

  8. Structure of krypton isotopes within the interacting boson model derived from the Gogny energy density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Humadi, Y. M.; Robledo, L. M.; Abusara, H.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution and coexistence of the nuclear shapes as well as the corresponding low-lying collective states and electromagnetic transition rates are investigated along the krypton isotopic chain within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM). The IBM Hamiltonian is determined through mean-field calculations based on the several parametrizations of the Gogny energy density functional and the relativistic mean-field Lagrangian. The mean-field energy surfaces, as functions of the axial β and triaxial γ quadrupole deformations, are mapped onto the expectation value of the interacting-boson Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the particle-hole excitations. The resulting boson Hamiltonian is then used to compute low-energy excitation spectra as well as E 2 and E 0 transition probabilities for Kr-10070. Our results point to a number of examples of prolate-oblate shape transitions and coexistence both on the neutron-deficient and neutron-rich sides. A reasonable agreement with the available experimental data is obtained for the considered nuclear properties.

  9. Interaction of Motivation and Social Support on Abstinence among Recovery Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcha, Rachael A; Polcin, Douglas L; Bond, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    The impetus to abstain from alcohol and drugs is especially robust when individuals seek help. However, motivation to continue abstinence during ongoing recovery is less understood. The present study assessed how social support interacted with motivation to affect abstinence over an 18-monthe time period. A sample of 289 residents entering residential recovery homes were recruited and followed at 6-, 12-, and 18-months. Motivation was measured as the perceived costs and benefits of abstinence. Five social influence measures were used to assess interactive effects with costs and benefits on abstinence. Perceived costs and benefits of abstinence were robust predictors of abstinence over the 18 month assessment period. Two social support factors interacted with perceived benefits to influence abstinence: 12-step involvement and number of persons in the social network. Suggestions are made for recovery services to influence perceived costs, benefits, and social network characteristics.

  10. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  11. Enhancing the Social Interaction Skills of Preschoolers with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Allura, Tana

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 9 preschool children with visual impairments found that following a cooperative learning strategy intervention in an integrated preschool, the children with visual impairments interacted with peers at levels comparable to those of sighted children, while those in the self-contained class maintained the same rate of interactions.…

  12. Social services as the system of interaction with customer

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, I.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses implementation of the principle of interaction with the client as a basis for servicing system. The quality of customer service is provided through the development and ongoing adjustment model of care, including standards and regulations. The mechanism of interaction is a procedure of servicing, which connects the study of customer needs and accordingly service procedures.

  13. The Factors Influencing Young Children's Social Interaction in Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Mee

    2015-01-01

    When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…

  14. Asymmetries of Knowledge and Epistemic Change in Social Gaming Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen-Marsh, Arja; Tainio, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    While a growing number of studies investigate the role of knowledge and interactional management of knowledge asymmetries in conversation analysis, the epistemic organization of multilingual and second language interactions is still largely unexplored. This article addresses this issue by investigating how knowledge asymmetries and changing…

  15. 2nd Workshop on Design for Social Interaction through Physical Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Tilde; Sturm, Janienke; Barakova, Emilia

    We aim to stimulate social interaction by designing and creating interactive objects for physical play for diverse user groups, such as children, elderly or people with special needs. With this workshop we aim to bring researchers and practitioners together to share and explore issues and opportunities for technology-enhanced physical play for stimulating face-to-face social interaction (as opposed to virtual interaction through a computer). The focus of this workshop is on sharing theories that are valuable for the design and research of products and applications in this field.

  16. The management of interaction network. The “In-between” concept within Social Work and Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Hernández-Aristu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We are familiar with the field of group interaction through the traditional work of Kurt Lewin and also systemic thinking talks about network interaction that builds up the system. Martin Buber also discusses the “in-between” concept as the third element.The therapist or counselor, social worker and clients are part of an interaction network, representing therapeutic and social working situations. Success in treatment and reflective processes, depends on the perception and management of the situation by  experts.  Painting the moment of interaction offers the possibility to know what happens between professional and client. Afterwards it is possible to reflect on this experience.

  17. Mouse Social Interaction Test (MoST): a quantitative computer automated analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Restif, Christophe; O'Rourke, Joseph R; Lam, Chiu Yin; Metaxas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used preclinical model of human disease assessing the mechanism(s) involved as well as the role of genetics, epigenetics, and pharmacotherapy on this disease as well as identifying vulnerability factors and risk assessment for disease critical in the development of improved treatment strategies. Unfortunately, the majority of rodent preclinical studies utilize single housed approaches where animals are either entirely housed and tested in solitary environments or group housed but tested in solitary environments. This approach, however, ignores the important contribution of social interaction and social behavior. Social interaction in rodents is found to be a major criterion for the ethological validity of rodent species-specific behavioral characteristics (Zurn et al. 2007; Analysis 2011). It is also well established that there is significant and growing number of reports, which illustrates the important role of social environment and social interaction in all diseases, with particularly significance in all neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, it is imperative that research studies be able to add large-scale evaluations of social interaction and behavior in mice and benefit from automated tracking of behaviors and measurements by removing user bias and by quantifying aspects of behaviors that cannot be assessed by a human observer. Single mouse setups have been used routinely, but cannot be easily extended to multiple-animal studies where social behavior is key, e.g., autism, depression, anxiety, substance and non-substance addictive disorders, aggression, sexual behavior, or parenting. While recent efforts are focusing on multiple-animal tracking alone, a significant limitation remains the lack of insightful measures of social interactions. We present a novel, non-invasive single camera-based automated tracking method described as Mouse Social Test (MoST) and set of measures designed for estimating the interactions of multiple mice at the

  18. HIV-related stigma in social interactions: Approach and avoidance behaviour in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toppenberg, H.L.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Pryor, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV are a stigmatized group in our society, especially homosexual people living with HIV. One of the behavioural manifestations of stigmatization is an increased interpersonal distance kept during social interactions. Immersive virtual environment technology enables the experiment

  19. ANSIBLE: A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ANSIBLE (A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement) can be used pre, during, and post flight to connect the flight crew with their family,...

  20. Children's Use of Television Commercials to Initiate Social Interaction in Family Viewing Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    1980-01-01

    Reports research that investigated whether children use television commercials in family viewing situations to initiate, control, and manipulate social interaction with other family group members, especially their parents. Observational data are presented and discussed. (Author/JD)