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  1. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Show Altered Lipoprotein Profiles with Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoproteins that Can Exacerbate Inflammatory and Atherogenic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Jin Kyun; Song, Yeong Wook; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify putative biomarkers in lipoprotein, we compared lipid and lipoprotein properties between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and control with similar age. We analyzed four classes of lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL2, HDL3) from both male (n = 8, 69±4 year-old) and female (n = 25, 53±7 year-old) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients as well as controls with similar age (n = 13). Although RA group showed normal levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and glucose, however, the RA group showed significantly reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C level and ratio of HDL-C/TC. The RA group showed significantly elevated levels of blood triglyceride (TG), uric acid, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity. The RA group also showed elevated levels of advanced glycated end (AGE) products in all lipoproteins and severe aggregation of apoA-I in HDL. As CETP activity and TG contents were 2-fold increased in HDL from RA group, paraoxonase activity was reduced upto 20%. Electron microscopy revealed that RA group showed much less HDL2 particle number than control. LDL from the RA group was severely oxidized and glycated with greater fragmentation of apo-B, especially in female group, it was more atherogenic via phagocytosis. Lipoproteins from the RA patients showed severely altered structure with impaired functionality, which is very similar to that observed in coronary heart patients. These dysfunctional properties in lipoproteins from the RA patients might be associated with high incidence of cardiovascular events in RA patients.

  2. Density profiles of LCDM clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tasitsiomi, A; Gottlöber, S; Klypin, A A; Tasitsiomi, Argyro; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Klypin, Anatoly A.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the mass accretion histories (MAHs) and density profiles of cluster- size halos with virial masses of 0.6-2.5x10^14/h Msun in a flat LCDM cosmology. In agreement with previous studies,we find that the concentration of the density distribution is tightly correlated with the halo's MAH and its formation redshift.During the period of fast mass growth the concentration remains approximately constant and low c_v~3-4,while during the slow accretion stages it increases with decreasing redshift as c_v~(1+z)^-1.We consider fits of three widely discussed analytic density profiles to the simulated clusters focusing on the most relaxed inner regions.We find that there is no unique best fit analytic profile for all the systems.If,however,a cluster is best fit by a particular analytic profile at z=0,the same is usually true at earlier epochs out to z~1-2.The local logarithmic slope of the density profiles at 3% of the virial radius ranges from -1.2 to -2.0,a remarkable diversity for the relatively narrow mass ra...

  3. Electon density profiles of the topside ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bilitza

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing uncertainties about the electron density profiles in the topside ionosphere, i.e., in the height region from h m F 2 to ~ 2000 km, require the search for new data sources. The ISIS and Alouette topside sounder satellites from the sixties to the eighties recorded millions of ionograms but most were not analyzed in terms of electron density profiles. In recent years an effort started to digitize the analog recordings to prepare the ionograms for computerized analysis. As of November 2001 about 350 000 ionograms have been digitized from the original 7-track analog tapes. These data are available in binary and CDF format from the anonymous ftp site of the National Space Science Data Center. A search site and browse capabilities on CDAWeb assist the scientific usage of these data. All information and access links can be found at http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/space/isis/isis-status. html. This paper describes the ISIS data restoration effort and shows how the digital ionograms are automatically processed into electron density profiles from satellite orbit altitude (1400 km for ISIS-2 down to the F peak. Because of the large volume of data an automated processing algorithm is imperative. The TOPside Ionogram Scaler with True height algorithm TOPIST software developed for this task is successfully scaling ~ 70% of the ionograms. An «editing process» is available to manually scale the more difficult ionograms. The automated processing of the digitized ISIS ionograms is now underway, producing a much-needed database of topside electron density profiles for ionospheric modeling covering more than one solar cycle.

  4. Density profile of pyrolitic lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmyo, R.; Hirose, K.; Ohishi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Density profile of pyrolite at lower mantle high-pressure (P) and -temperature (T) conditions was investigated by using laser-heated diamond-anvil cell up to 117 GPa and 2800 K. The density was determined from chemical composition and unit-cell volume of each constituent mineral (MgSiO3-rich perovskite, ferropericlase and CaSiO3-rich perovskite). The chemical compositions of coexisting phases were analyzed by transmission electron microscope, and their volumes were obtained by in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements. To avoid extensive chemical segregation during laser-heating, sample was coated by gold that worked as a laser absorber (Sinmyo and Hirose 2010 PEPI). Results of chemical analyses show that Mg-Fe (total Fe) partitioning coefficient between MgSiO3-rich perovskite and ferropericlase [K* = (Fe*/Mg)Pv/(Fe*/Mg)Fp] is about 0.6, slightly higher than the value previously reported in the pyrolitic bulk composition (Murakami et al. 2005 GRL). The lower K* value in the previous study may be attributed to the chemical heterogeneity in the sample induced by strong temperature gradient during laser heating. The calculated density profile of pyrolite is indeed in good agreement with the PREM model within experimental errors, in contrast with the mismatch reported by the previous study (Ricolleau et al. 2009 GRL). Our results support the lower mantle has pyrolitic bulk composition, and thus it is not necessary to suppose the chemically stratification in the lower mantle.

  5. Scaling Evolution of Universal Dark-Matter Halo Density Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Raig, A; Salvador-Solé, E

    1998-01-01

    Dark-matter halos show a universal density profile with a scaling such that less massive systems are typically denser. This mass-density relation is well described by a proportionality between the characteristic density of halos and the mean cosmic density at halo formation time. It has recently been shown that this proportionality could be the result of the following simple evolutionary picture. Halos form in major mergers with essentially the same, cosmogony-dependent, dimensionless profile, and then grow inside-outside, as a consequence of accretion. Here we verify the consistency of this picture and show that it predicts the correct zero point of the mass-density relation.

  6. Galactic cannibalism and CDM density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nipoti, C; Ciotti, L; Stiavelli, M

    2004-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we show that the process of formation of the brightest cluster galaxy through dissipationless galactic cannibalism can affect the inner cluster dark matter density profile. In particular, we use as realistic test case the dynamical evolution of the galaxy cluster C0337-2522 at redshift z=0.59, hosting in its centre a group of five elliptical galaxies which are likely to be the progenitor of a central giant elliptical. After the formation of the brightest cluster galaxy, the inner cluster dark matter density profile is significantly flatter (logarithmic slope 0.48

  7. Convergence and scatter of cluster density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Diemand, J; Stadel, J; Diemand, Juerg; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    We present new results from a series of $\\Lambda$CDM simulations of cluster mass halos resolved with high force and mass resolution. These results are compared with recently published simulations from groups using various codes including PKDGRAV, ART, TPM, GRAPE and GADGET. Careful resolution tests show that with 25 million particles within the high resolution region we can resolve to about 0.3\\% of the virial radius and that convergence in radius is proportional to the mean interparticle separation. The density profiles of 28 high resolution clusters obtained with the different codes and from different initial conditions agree very well. The average logarithmic slope at one percent of the virial radius is $\\gamma = 1.29$ with a scatter of $\\pm 0.16$ at all radii. Over the entire resolved regions the density profiles are well fitted by a smooth function that asymptotes to a central cusp $\\rho \\propto r^{-\\gamma}$, where we find $\\gamma=1.16\\pm 0.14$ from the mean of the fits to our six highest resolution clus...

  8. Universal density profile for cosmic voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P M; Wandelt, Benjamin D

    2014-06-27

    We present a simple empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function is universal across void size and redshift, accurately describing a large radial range of scales around void centers with only two free parameters. In analogy to halo density profiles, these parameters describe the scale radius and the central density of voids. While we initially start with a more general four-parameter model, we find two of its parameters to be redundant, as they follow linear trends with the scale radius in two distinct regimes of the void sample, separated by its compensation scale. Assuming linear theory, we derive an analytic formula for the velocity profile of voids and find an excellent agreement with the numerical data as well. In our companion paper [Sutter et al., arXiv:1309.5087 [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (to be published)

  9. Characterization of Density Profile of Cylindrical Pulsed Gas Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Quan-Zhi; LI Yu-Tong; ZhANG Jie; ZHENG Jun; LI Han-Ming; PENG Xiao-Yu; LI Kun

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigated the characteristics of argon and helium gas jets produced by a cylindrical nozzle under pressures from I to 6 Mpa using a femtosecond laser interferometry. A radial parabolic distribution and an axial exponential distribution of the gas jet density profiles are identified. The results show that the density increases linearly with the backing pressure.

  10. Scattering length density profile of Ni film under controlled corrosion: A study in neutron reflectometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra Singh; A K Poswal; S K Ghosh; Saibal Basu

    2008-11-01

    We report the density depth profile of an as-deposited Ni film and density profile for the same film after controlled electrochemical corrosion by chloride ions, measured by unpolarized neutron reflectometry. The neutron reflectometry measurement of the film after corrosion shows density degradation along the thickness of the film. The density profile as a function of depth, maps the growth of pitting and void networks due to corrosion. The profile after corrosion shows an interesting peaking nature.

  11. ?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

    2012-12-10

    Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

  12. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, S; Diego, J M; Iliev, I T; Gottlöber, S; Watson, W A; Yepes, G

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or -- within the range of the simulated catalogue -- on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  13. Universal void density profiles from simulation and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Diego, J. M.; Iliev, I. T.; Gottlöber, S.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the universality and self-similarity of void density profiles, for voids in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. Voids are identified using a modified version of the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm, with additional selection cuts. We find that voids in simulation are self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size, or - within the range of the simulated catalogue - on the redshift. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  14. Creating steep density profile with a separatrix

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, Shun; Vasiliev, Alexei; Garbet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The mesoscopic properties of a plasma in a cylindrical magnetic field are investigated from the view point of test-particle dynamics. When the system has enough time and spatial symmetries, a Hamiltonian of a test particle is completely integrable and can be reduced to a single degree of freedom Hamiltonian for each initial state. The reduced Hamiltonian sometimes has an unstable fixed point (saddle point) and a separatrix. Using a maximum entropy principle we compute dynamically compatible equilibrium states of the one particle density function of these systems and discuss how the unstable fixed points affect the density profile or a local pressure gradient, and are able to create a so called internal transport barrier.

  15. Statistical ensembles of virialized halo matter density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, Julien

    2013-01-01

    We define and study statistical ensembles of matter density profiles describing spherically symmetric, virialized dark matter haloes of finite extent with a given mass and total gravitational potential energy. We provide an exact solution for the grand canonical partition functional, and show its equivalence to that of the microcanonical ensemble. We obtain analytically the mean profiles that correspond to an overwhelming majority of micro-states. All such profiles have an infinitely deep potential well, with the singular isothermal sphere arising in the infinite temperature limit. Systems with virial radius larger than gravitational radius exhibit a localization of a finite fraction of the energy in the very center. The universal logarithmic inner slope of unity of the NFW haloes is predicted at any mass and energy if an upper bound is set to the maximal depth of the potential well. In this case, the statistically favored mean profiles compare well to the NFW profiles. For very massive haloes the agreement b...

  16. Open-cluster density profiles derived using a kernel estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Seleznev, Anton F

    2016-01-01

    Surface and spatial radial density profiles in open clusters are derived using a kernel estimator method. Formulae are obtained for the contribution of every star into the spatial density profile. The evaluation of spatial density profiles is tested against open-cluster models from N-body experiments with N = 500. Surface density profiles are derived for seven open clusters (NGC 1502, 1960, 2287, 2516, 2682, 6819 and 6939) using Two-Micron All-Sky Survey data and for different limiting magnitudes. The selection of an optimal kernel half-width is discussed. It is shown that open-cluster radius estimates hardly depend on the kernel half-width. Hints of stellar mass segregation and structural features indicating cluster non-stationarity in the regular force field are found. A comparison with other investigations shows that the data on open-cluster sizes are often underestimated. The existence of an extended corona around the open cluster NGC 6939 was confirmed. A combined function composed of the King density pr...

  17. On the universality of density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A

    2010-01-01

    We use the secondary infall model described in Del Popolo (2009), which takes into account the effect of dynamical friction, ordered and random angular momentum, baryons adiabatic contraction and dark matter baryons interplay, to study how in- ner slopes of relaxed LCDM dark matter (DM) halos with and without baryons (baryons+DM, and pure DM) depend on redshift and on halo mass. We apply the quoted method to structures on galactic scales and clusters of galaxies scales. We find that the inner logarithmic density slope, of dark matter halos with baryons has a significant dependence on halo mass and redshift with slopes ranging from 0 for dwarf galaxies to 0.4 for objects of M = 10^13M_solar and 0.94 for M = 10^15M_solar clusters of galaxies. Structures slopes increase with increasing redshift and this trend reduces going from galaxies to clusters. In the case of density profiles constituted just of dark matter the mass and redshift dependence of slope is very slight. In this last case, we used the Merrit et al...

  18. Computing 1-D atomic densities in macromolecular simulations: the Density Profile Tool for VMD

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgino, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have a prominent role in biophysics and drug discovery due to the atomistic information they provide on the structure, energetics and dynamics of biomolecules. Specialized software packages are required to analyze simulated trajectories, either interactively or via scripts, to derive quantities of interest and provide insight for further experiments. This paper presents the Density Profile Tool, a package that enhances the Visual Molecular Dynamics environment with the ability to interactively compute and visualize 1-D projections of various density functions of molecular models. We describe how the plugin is used to perform computations both via a graphical interface and programmatically. Results are presented for realistic examples, all-atom bilayer models, showing how mass and electron densities readily provide measurements such as membrane thickness, location of structural elements, and how they compare to X-ray diffraction experiments.

  19. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with SDSS10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this article we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  20. Electron Density Profile Data Contains Virtual Height/Frequency Pairs from a Profile or Profiles (Composite Months) of Ionograms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Electron Density Profile, N(h), data set contains both individual profiles and composite months. The data consist of virtual height/frequency pairs from a...

  1. Particle confinement and density profile behaviour on HL-1M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Yi-Ming; Zhou Yan; Deng Zhong-Chao; Ding Xuan-Tong; Liu Yong; Wang En-Yao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the density profile behaviour and the particle confinement operation regime on HL-1M have been studied under the pellet injection (PI), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), gas puffing (GP) and lower hybrid current drive experimental situations. The relationships between density profile, particle confinement time and edge safe factor have been explored. The density profile, which is measured by six-channel far-infrared ray laser interferometer has been analysed by using the peaking coefficient calculation code. Changes of the outward and inward diffusion velocities before and after the peaking of the central density profile have been calculated using the global particle balance equations. The particle confinement operation regimes have been discussed. The peaking density profile can be easily obtained under the condition of efficient fuelling. In ohmic discharges, confinement time increases as the peaking density profile factor rises, and is saturated at a critical value related to the fuelling efficiency. The particle confinement time of SMBI lies between the values of GP and PI, and its value is about 3-5 times of the energy confinement time.

  2. Factors influencing the density profiles of granular flux in a two-dimensional inclined channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional dilute granular flow on a smooth incline bounded by rough sidewalls is investigated experimentally, and the transverse density profiles of granular flux (ξ = ρ v) across the channel are measured. The results show that the transverse density profiles of granular flux are symmetric about the channel center and that the density of granular flux near the boundary is clearly lower than that of the center. There is a critical width of channel Wc for the transition of the density of granular flux. The density of granular flux near the boundary decays with the increasing of inclination (sinθ ) of the channel.

  3. Factors influencing the density profiles of granular flux in a two-dimensional inclined channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO DeSong; ZHOU Ying; ZHANG XunSheng; TANG XiaoWei

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional dilute granular flow on a smooth incline bounded by rough sidewalls is investigated experimentally, and the transverse density profiles of granular flux (ξ=pv) across the channel are measured. The results show that the transverse density profiles of granular flux are symmetric about the channel center and that the density of granular flux near the boundary is clearly lower than that of the center. There is a critical width of channel Wc for the transition of the density of granular flux. The density of granular flux near the boundary decays with the increasing of inclination (sinθ) of the channel.

  4. A representative density profile of the North Greenland snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian Schaller, Christoph; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Laepple, Thomas; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Eisen, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    Along a traverse through North Greenland in May 2015 we collected snow cores up to 2 m depth and analyzed their density and water isotopic composition. A new sampling technique and an adapted algorithm for comparing data sets from different sites and aligning stratigraphic features are presented. We find good agreement of the density layering in the snowpack over hundreds of kilometers, which allows the construction of a representative density profile. The results are supported by an empirical statistical density model, which is used to generate sets of random profiles and validate the applied methods. Furthermore we are able to calculate annual accumulation rates, align melt layers and observe isotopic temperatures in the area back to 2010. Distinct relations of δ18O with both accumulation rate and density are deduced. Inter alia the depths of the 2012 melt layers and high-resolution densities are provided for applications in remote sensing.

  5. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberberger, D., E-mail: dhab@lle.rochester.edu; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.

  6. Why are Halo Density Profiles Stable at Formation?

    CERN Document Server

    González-Casado, G; Salvador-Solé, E

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the physical justification of the picture proposed by Salvador-Sole et al. in these proceedings for the time evolution of the universal density profile of dark-matter halos. According to this picture, halos have at formation a stable (i.e. independent of mass and time) dimensionless density profile, the characteristic length and density scales of the profile depending on the underlying cosmogony. Subsequent evolution is driven by mass accretion onto the outskirts of halos and can be characterized simply by the increment of halo radius with time and the corresponding decrease of the critical density of the universe. We find this picture to be a reasonable good description of the expected evolution of halos in hierarchical models of structure formation.

  7. Column Density Profiles of Multi-Phase Gaseous Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Cameron J; Agertz, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    We present a suite of high-resolution cosmological galaxy re-simulations of a Milky-Way size halo with variety of star-formation and feedback models to investigate the effects of the specific details of the star formation-feedback loop modeling on the observable properties of the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We show that properties of the CGM are quite sensitive to the details of star formation-feedback loop. The simulation which produces a very realistic late-type central galaxy fails to reproduce existing observations of CGM. At the same time, variations of parameters of star formation recipe or feedback modeling, such as cosmic rays feedback, brings predicted CGM in better agreement with observations. The simulations show that the column density profiles of ions arising in such gas are well described by an exponential function of the impact parameter. Ions with higher ionization energy have more extended profiles with the scale height of the exponential distribution scaling as a power law of the ionization...

  8. On the Density profile slope of Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A

    2012-01-01

    The present paper extends to clusters of galaxies the study of Del Popolo (2012), concerning how the baryon-dark matter (DM) interplay shapes the density profile of dwarf galaxies. Cluster density profiles are determined taking into account dynamical friction, random and ordered angular momentum and the response of dark matter halos to condensation of baryons. We find that halos containing only DM are characterized by Einasto's profiles, and that the profile flattens with increasing content of baryons, and increasing values of random angular momentum. The analytical results obtained in the first part of the paper were applied to well studied clusters whose inner profiles have slopes flatter than NFW predictions (A611, A383) or are characterized by profiles in agreement with the NFW model (MACS J1423.8+2404, RXJ1133). By using independently-measured baryonic fraction, a typical spin parameter value $\\lambda \\simeq 0.03$, and adjusting the random angular momentum, we re-obtain the mass and density profiles of t...

  9. Simulating confined particles with a flat density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkovas, Airidas

    2016-08-01

    Particle simulations confined by sharp walls usually develop an oscillatory density profile. For some applications, most notably soft matter liquids, this behavior is often unrealistic and one expects a monotonic density climb instead. To reconcile simulations with experiments, we propose mirror-and-shift boundary conditions where each interface is mapped to a distant part of itself. The main result is that the particle density increases almost monotonically from zero to bulk, over a short distance of about one particle diameter. The method is applied to simulate a polymer brush in explicit solvent, grafted on a flat silicon substrate. The simulated density profile agrees favorably with neutron reflectometry measurements and self-consistent field theory results.

  10. Simulating confined particles with a flat density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Korolkovas, Airidas

    2016-01-01

    Particle simulations confined by sharp walls usually develop an oscillatory density profile. For some applications, most notably soft matter liquids, this behavior is often unrealistic and one expects a monotonic density climb instead. To reconcile simulations with experiments, we propose mirror-and-shift boundary conditions where each interface is mapped to a distant part of itself. The main result is that the particle density increases almost monotonically from zero to bulk, over a short distance of about one particle diameter. The method is applied to simulate a polymer brush in explicit solvent, grafted on a flat silicon substrate. The simulated density profile agrees favorably with neutron reflectometry measurements and self-consistent field theory results.

  11. Dependence of the outer density profiles of halos on their mass accretion rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V., E-mail: bdiemer@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We present a systematic study of the density profiles of ΛCDM halos, focusing on the outer regions, 0.1 < r/R {sub vir} < 9. We show that the median and mean profiles of halo samples of a given peak height exhibit significant deviations from the universal analytic profiles discussed previously in the literature, such as the Navarro-Frenk-White and Einasto profiles, at radii r ≳ 0.5R {sub 200m}. In particular, at these radii the logarithmic slope of the median density profiles of massive or rapidly accreting halos steepens more sharply than predicted. The steepest slope of the profiles occurs at r ≈ R {sub 200m}, and its absolute value increases with increasing peak height or mass accretion rate, reaching slopes of –4 and steeper. Importantly, we find that the outermost density profiles at r ≳ R {sub 200m} are remarkably self-similar when radii are rescaled by R {sub 200m}. This self-similarity indicates that radii defined with respect to the mean density are preferred for describing the structure and evolution of the outer profiles. However, the inner density profiles are most self-similar when radii are rescaled by R {sub 200c}. We propose a new fitting formula that describes the median and mean profiles of halo samples selected by their peak height or mass accretion rate with accuracy ≲ 10% at all radii, redshifts, and masses we studied, r ≲ 9R {sub vir}, 0 < z < 6, and M {sub vir} > 1.7 × 10{sup 10} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. We discuss observational signatures of the profile features described above and show that the steepening of the outer profile should be detectable in future weak-lensing analyses of massive clusters. Such observations could be used to estimate the mass accretion rate of cluster halos.

  12. On the density profile of dark matter substructure in gravitational lens galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vegetti, Simona

    2014-01-01

    We consider three extensions of the Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) profile and investigate the intrinsic degeneracies among the density profile parameters on the gravitational lensing effect of satellite galaxies on highly magnified Einstein rings. In particular, we find that the gravitational imaging technique can be used to exclude specific regions of the considered parameter space, and therefore, models that predict a large number of satellites in those regions. By comparing the lensing degeneracy with the intrinsic density profile degeneracies, we show that theoretical predictions based on fits that are dominated by the density profile at larger radii may significantly over- or underestimate the number of satellites that are detectable with gravitational lensing. Finally, using the previously reported detection of a satellite in the gravitational lens system JVAS B1938+666 as an example, we derive for this detected satellite values of r_max and v_max that are, for each considered profile, consistent withi...

  13. New signal processing technique for density profile reconstruction using reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ricaud, B. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CPT UMR 6207, Campus de Luminy, case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); Briolle, F. [CPT UMR 6207, Campus de Luminy, case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France); CReA, BA 701, F-13306 Salon de Provence (France); Heuraux, S. [IJL-P2M, UMR-CNRS 7198, Universite Henri Poincare, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France)

    2011-08-15

    Reflectometry profile measurement requires an accurate determination of the plasma reflected signal. Along with a good resolution and a high signal to noise ratio of the phase measurement, adequate data analysis is required. A new data processing based on time-frequency tomographic representation is used. It provides a clearer separation between multiple components and improves isolation of the relevant signals. In this paper, this data processing technique is applied to two sets of signals coming from two different reflectometer devices used on the Tore Supra tokamak. For the standard density profile reflectometry, it improves the initialization process and its reliability, providing a more accurate profile determination in the far scrape-off layer with density measurements as low as 10{sup 16} m{sup -1}. For a second reflectometer, which provides measurements in front of a lower hybrid launcher, this method improves the separation of the relevant plasma signal from multi-reflection processes due to the proximity of the plasma.

  14. Profiling compact toroid plasma density on CTIX with laser deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel Joseph Erwin

    A laser deflectometer measures line-integrated plasma density gradient using laser diodes and amplified point detectors. A laser passing through an optically thin plasma is refracted by an amount proportional to the line-integrated electron density gradient. I have designed, installed, and operated a deflection diagnostic for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX), a plasma rail gun which can create compact toroid (CT) plasmas of controllable density and velocity. The diagnostic design and motivation are discussed, as well as three experiments performed with deflectometry. Thus, my thesis consists of the design of the deflectometer diagnostic, a comparison of its accuracy to interferometer density measurements, and finally a survey of compact toroid density profiles in two dimensions conducted with an array of detectors.

  15. Ionospheric topside models compared with experimental electron density profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Radicella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently an increasing number of topside electron density profiles has been made available to the scientific community on the Internet. These data are important for ionospheric modeling purposes, since the experimental information on the electron density above the ionosphere maximum of ionization is very scarce. The present work compares NeQuick and IRI models with the topside electron density profiles available in the databases of the ISIS2, IK19 and Cosmos 1809 satellites. Experimental electron content from the F2 peak up to satellite height and electron densities at fixed heights above the peak have been compared under a wide range of different conditions. The analysis performed points out the behavior of the models and the improvements needed to be assessed to have a better reproduction of the experimental results. NeQuick topside is a modified Epstein layer, with thickness parameter determined by an empirical relation. It appears that its performance is strongly affected by this parameter, indicating the need for improvements of its formulation. IRI topside is based on Booker's approach to consider two parts with constant height gradients. It appears that this formulation leads to an overestimation of the electron density in the upper part of the profiles, and overestimation of TEC.

  16. Understanding the core density profile in TCV H-mode plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wágner, Dávid; Pitzschke, Andreas; Sauter, Olivier; Weisen, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Results from a database analysis of H-mode electron density profiles on the Tokamak \\`a Configuration Variable (TCV) in stationary conditions show that the logarithmic electron density gradient increases with collisionality. By contrast, usual observations of H-modes showed that the electron density profiles tend to flatten with increasing collisionality. In this work it is reinforced that the role of collisionality alone, depending on the parameter regime, can be rather weak and in these, dominantly electron heated TCV cases, the electron density gradient is tailored by the underlying turbulence regime, which is mostly determined by the ratio of the electron to ion temperature and that of their gradients. Additionally, mostly in ohmic plasmas, the Ware-pinch can significantly contribute to the density peaking. Qualitative agreement between the predicted density peaking by quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations and the experimental results is found. Quantitative comparison would necessitate ion temperature meas...

  17. Determination of coronal temperatures from electron density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, J F

    2011-01-01

    The most popular method for determining coronal temperatures is the scale-height-method (shm). It is based on electron density profiles inferred from White Light (WL) brightness measurements of the corona during solar eclipses. This method has been applied to several published coronal electron density models. The calculated temperature distributions reach a maximum at r > 1.3 RS, and therefore do not satisfy one of the conditions for applying the shm method. Another method is the hydrostatic equilibrium method (hst), which enables coronal temperature distributions to be determined, providing solutions to the hydrostatic equilibrium equation. The temperature maximas using the hst method are almost equal to those obtained using the shm method, but the temperature peak is always at significantly lower altitude when the hst-method is used than when the shm-method is used. A third and more recently developed method, dyn, can be used for the same published electron density profiles. The temperature distributions ob...

  18. Self-similarity and universality of void density profiles in simulation and SDSS data

    CERN Document Server

    Nadathur, S; Diego, J M; Iliev, I T; Gottlöber, S; Watson, W A; Yepes, G

    2014-01-01

    The stacked density profile of cosmic voids in the galaxy distribution provides an important tool for the use of voids for precision cosmology. We study the density profiles of voids identified using the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. We compare different methods for reconstructing density profiles scaled by the void radius and show that the most commonly used method based on counts in shells and simple averaging is statistically flawed as it underestimates the density in void interiors. We provide two alternative methods that do not suffer from this effect; one based on Voronoi tessellations is also easily able to account from artefacts due to finite survey boundaries and so is more suitable when comparing simulation data to observation. Using this method we show that voids in simulation are exactly self-similar, meaning that their avera...

  19. On the physical origin of dark matter density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Ascasibar, Y; Gottlöber, S; Müller, V

    2003-01-01

    The radial mass distribution of dark matter haloes is investigated within the framework of the spherical infall model. We present a new formulation of spherical collapse including non-radial motions, and compare the analytical profiles with a set of high-resolution N-body simulations ranging from galactic to cluster scales. We argue that the dark matter density profile is entirely determined by the initial conditions, which are described by only two parameters: the height of the primordial peak and the smoothing scale. These are physically meaningful quantities in our model, related to the mass and formation time of the halo. Angular momentum is dominated by velocity dispersion, and it is responsible for the shape of the density profile near the centre. The phase-space density of our simulated haloes is well described by a power-law profile, rho/sigma^3 = 10^{1.46\\pm0.04} (rho_c/Vvir^3) (r/Rvir)^{-1.90\\pm0.05}. Setting the eccentricity of particle orbits according to the numerical results, our model is able t...

  20. Midplane neutral density profiles in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D. P., E-mail: dstotler@pppl.gov; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ross, P. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Atomic and molecular density data in the outer midplane of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are inferred from tangential camera data via a forward modeling procedure using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. The observed Balmer-β light emission data from 17 shots during the 2010 NSTX campaign display no obvious trends with discharge parameters such as the divertor Balmer-α emission level or edge deuterium ion density. Simulations of 12 time slices in 7 of these discharges produce molecular densities near the vacuum vessel wall of 2–8 × 10{sup 17 }m{sup −3} and atomic densities ranging from 1 to 7 × 10{sup 16 }m{sup −3}; neither has a clear correlation with other parameters. Validation of the technique, begun in an earlier publication, is continued with an assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated camera image and neutral densities to uncertainties in the data input to the model. The simulated camera image is sensitive to the plasma profiles and virtually nothing else. The neutral densities at the vessel wall depend most strongly on the spatial distribution of the source; simulations with a localized neutral source yield densities within a factor of two of the baseline, uniform source, case. The uncertainties in the neutral densities associated with other model inputs and assumptions are ≤50%.

  1. Density profiles of dark matter halos with anisotropic velocity tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Hiotelis, N

    2002-01-01

    We present density profiles, that are solutions of the spherical Jeans equation, derived under the following two assumptions: (i) the coarse grained phase-density follows a power-law of radius, rho/(sigma^3) proportional to r^{-alpha}, and (ii) the velocity anisotropy parameter is given by the relation beta_a(r) = beta_1 + 2 beta_2 {(r/r_*)/(1+(r/r_*)^2)} where beta_1, beta_2 are parameters and r_* equals twice the virial radius, r_{vir}, of the system. These assumptions are well motivated by the results of N-body simulations. Density profiles have increasing logarithmic slopes gamma, defined by gamma = - {(d ln rho)/(d ln r)}. The values of gamma at r = 10^{-2.5}r_{vir}, a distance where the systems could be resolved by large N-body simulations, lie in the range 1. - 1.6. These inner values of gamma increase for increasing beta_1 and for increasing concentration of the system. On the other hand, slopes at r = r_{vir} lie in the range 2.42 - 3.82. A model density profile that fits well the results at radial d...

  2. Flat Central Density Profile and Constant DM Surface Density in Galaxies from Scalar Field Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Robles, Victor H

    2012-01-01

    The scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model proposes that galaxies form by condensation of a scalar field (SF) very early in the universe forming Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) drops, i.e., in this model haloes of galaxies are gigantic drops of SF. Here big structures form like in the LCDM model, by hierarchy, thus all the predictions of the LCDM model at big scales are reproduced by SFDM. This model predicts that all galaxies must be very similar and exist for bigger redshifts than in the LCDM model. In this work we show that BEC dark matter haloes fit high-resolution rotation curves of a sample of thirteen low surface brightness galaxies. We compare our fits to those obtained using a Navarro-Frenk-White and Pseudo-Isothermal (PI) profiles and found a better agreement with the SFDM and PI profiles. The mean value of the logarithmic inner density slopes is -0.27 +/- 0.18. As a second result we find a natural way to define the core radius with the advantage of being model-independent. Using this new definition ...

  3. Anti-Viral Antibody Profiling by High Density Protein Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xiaofang; Wiktor, Peter; Kahn, Peter; Brunner, Al; Khela, Amritpal; Karthikeyan, Kailash; Barker, Kristi; Yu, Xiaobo; Magee, Mitch; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Gibson, David; Rooney, Madeleine E; Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections elicit anti-viral antibodies and have been associated with various chronic diseases. Detection of these antibodies can facilitate diagnosis, treatment of infection and understanding of the mechanisms of virus associated diseases. In this work, we assayed anti-viral antibodies using a novel high density-nucleic acid programmable protein array (HD-NAPPA) platform. Individual viral proteins were expressed in situ directly from plasmids encoding proteins in an array of microscopic reaction chambers. Quality of protein display and serum response was assured by comparing intra- and inter- array correlation within or between printing batches with average correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. HD-NAPPA showed higher signal to background (S/B) ratio compared with standard NAPPA on planar glass slides and ELISA. Antibody responses to 761 antigens from 25 different viruses were profiled among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Common as well as unique antibody reactivity patterns were detected between patients and healthy controls. We believe HD-viral-NAPPA will enable the study of host-pathogen interactions at unprecedented dimensions and elucidate the role of pathogen infections in disease development. PMID:25758251

  4. Measuring protoplanetary disk gas surface density profiles with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Jonathan P Williams Conor

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best (2014) to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, Mgas = 0.048 solar masse, and accretion disk characteristic size Rc = 213au and gradient gamma = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2--1 image and indicates an abundance ratio [13CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2--1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 Jupiter masses at 150pc, ALMA observations with a resolutio...

  5. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  6. LPWA using supersonic gas jet with tailored density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, O.; Bohlen, S.; Dale, J.; D'Arcy, R.; Dinter, M.; Erbe, J. H.; Indorf, G.; di Lucchio, L.; Goldberg, L.; Gruse, J. N.; Karstensen, S.; Libov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Martinez de La Ossa, A.; Marutzky, F.; Niroula, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Quast, M.; Schaper, L.; Schwinkendorf, J.-P.; Streeter, M.; Tauscher, G.; Weichert, S.; Palmer, C.; Horbatiuk, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is possible to provide good access for plasma diagnostics while also producing sharp density gradients for density down-ramp injection. OpenFOAM hydrodynamic simulations were used to investigate the possibility of producing tailored density targets in a supersonic gas jet. Particle-in-cell simulations of the resulting density profiles modelled the effect of the tailored density on the properties of the accelerated electron bunch. Here, we present the simulation results together with preliminary experimental measurements of electron and x-ray properties from LPWA experiments using gas jet targets and a 25 TW, 25 fs Ti:Sa laser system at DESY.

  7. Comparison of density cutters for snow profile observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Steven M.; McClung, David M.

    An investigation was made to estimate the variance, measurement errors and sampling error in currently accepted practices for manual snow density measurement carried out as part of snow profile observations using the available variety of density cutters. A field experiment in dry snow conditions was conducted using a randomized block design to account for layer spatial variability. Cutter types included a 500 cm3 aluminium tube, 200 and 100 cm3 stainless-steel box types, 200 cm3 stainless-steel wedge types and a 100 cm3 stainless-steel tube. Without accounting for variation due to weighing devices, the range of values for 'accepted practice' determined in this study included variation within individual cutters of 0.8-6.2%, variation between cutters of 3-12%, variation between cutter means and layer means of 2-7%, and under-sampling errors of 0-2%. The results of a statistical analysis suggest that snow density measurements taken using various density cutters are significantly different from each other. Without adjustment for under-sampling, and given that the mean of all measurements is the accepted true value of the layer density, variation exclusively between cutter types provides 'accepted practice' measurements that are within 11% of the true density.

  8. Proton Stopping Power of Different Density Profile Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, David; Andreev, Alexander A; Schnürer, Matthias; Morales, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first one, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of an ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  9. PROTON STOPPING POWER OF DIFFERENT DENSITY PROFILE PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first instance, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of a ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as a function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  10. Earth-mass haloes and the emergence of NFW density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Angulo, Raul E; Ludlow, Aaron; Bonoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We report results from simulations of neutralino dark matter ($\\chi$DM) haloes. We follow them from their emergence at one earth mass to a final mass of a few percent solar. We show that the density profiles of the first haloes are well described by a $\\sim r^{-1.5}$ power-law. As haloes grow in mass, their density profiles evolve significantly. In the central regions, they become shallower and reach on average $\\sim r^{-1}$, the asymptotic form of an NFW profile. However, the profile of individual haloes can show non-monotonic density slopes, and be shallower than $-1$ in some cases. We investigate the transformation of cuspy power-law profiles using a series of non-cosmological simulations of equal-mass mergers. Contrary to previous findings, we observe that temporal variations in the gravitational potential caused by mergers lead to a shallowing of the inner profile, an effect which is stronger for shallower initial profiles and for mergers that involve a higher number of systems. Depending on the merger d...

  11. Seasonal Variations In Density Profiles And Densification Process At Mts. Logan And Wrangell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, S.; Shiraiwa, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Benson, C. S.; Naruse, R.

    2004-12-01

    Detailed density measurements were carried out for ice cores which were drilled at Mt. Logan (60° 35'20"N, 140° 36'15"W; 4135m a.s.l.; Shiraiwa et al., 2003) and Mt. Wrangell (62° 00'N, 140° 03'W; 4100m a.s.l.; Shiraiwa et al., 2004). The detailed density profiles show periodic fluctuations which seem to indicate seasonal cycles. In Mt. Logan, the number of annual layers which are estimated from the density profile agrees well with that estimated from the oxygen isotope data (Goto-Azuma et al., 2003) and the age of the ice core estimated from tritium peaks. On the other hand, in Mt. Wrangell, the number of annual layers from the density profile is quite different from that of the hydrogen isotope profile. The accumulation time series reconstructed from the density profile in Mt. Wrangell shows significant correlations with precipitation data of weather stations that locate near Mt. Wrangell. Accumulation rate and mean annual temperature at both sites are estimated to be almost the same (Benson & Motyka, 1978; Shiraiwa et al., 2003; Goto-Azuma et al., 2003; Shiraiwa et al., 2004). However, their firn/ice transition depths (Mt. Logan: 50m, Mt. Wrangell: 90m) are considerably different. This difference cannot be explained only from the difference in initial densities. Densification rate in Mt. Logan is higher than in Mt. Wrangell, i.e. compactive viscosity coefficient calculated from depth-density profile in Mt. Wrangell is more than double of the value in Mt. Logan.

  12. Determination of the vertical electron-density profile in ionospheric tomography: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Mitchell

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the vertical electron-density profile is a fundamental problem in ionospheric tomography. Lack of near-horizontal ray paths limits the information available on the vertical profile, so that the resultant image of electron density is biased in a horizontal sense. The vertical profile is of great importance as it affects the authenticity of the entire tomographic image. A new method is described whereby the vertical profile is selected using relative total-electron-content measurements. The new reconstruction process has been developed from modelling studies. A range of background ionospheres, representing many possible peak heights, scale heights and electron densities are formed from a Chapman profile on the bottomside with a range of topside profiles. The iterative reconstruction process is performed on all of these background ionospheres and a numerical selection criterion employed to select the final image. The resulting tomographic images show excellent agreement in electron density when compared with independent verification provided by the EISCAT radar.

  13. Density profiles of dark matter halos in an improved Secondary Infall model

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A; Recami, E; Spedicato, E

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the density profiles of virialized halos both in the case of structure evolving hierarchically from a scale-free Gaussian delta-field having a power spectrum P(k)=A k^n in a Omega=1 Universe and in the case of the CDM model, by using a modified version of Hoffman & Shaham's (1985) (hereafter HS) and Hoffman's (1988) model. We suppose that the initial density contrast profile around local maxima is given by the mean peak profile introduced by Bardeen et al. (1986) (hereafter BBKS), and is not just proportional to the two-point correlation function, as assumed by HS. We show that the density profiles, both for scale-free Universes and the CDM model, are not power-laws but have a logarithmic slope that increases from the inner halo to its outer parts. Both scale-free, for n >=-1, and CDM density profiles are well approximated by Navarro et al. (1995, 1996, 1997) profile. The radius a, at which the slope alpha=-2, is a function of the mass of the halo and in the scale-free models al...

  14. Isotope and density profile effects on pedestal neoclassical transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, S.; Pusztai, I.

    2017-10-01

    Cross-field neoclassical transport of heat, particles and momentum is studied in sharp density pedestals, with a focus on isotope and profile effects, using a radially global approach. Global effects—which tend to reduce the peak ion heat flux, and shift it outward—increase with isotope mass for fixed profiles. The heat flux reduction exhibits a saturation with a favorable isotopic trend. A significant part of the heat flux can be convective even in pure plasmas, unlike in the plasma core, and it is sensitive to how momentum sources are distributed between the various species. In particular, if only ion momentum sources are allowed, in global simulations of pure plasmas the ion particle flux remains close to its local value, while this may not be the case for simulations with isotope mixtures or electron momentum sources. The radial angular momentum transport that is a finite orbit width effect, is found to be strongly correlated with heat sources.

  15. Element-specific density profiles in interacting biomembrane models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Emanuel; Rodriguez-Loureiro, Ignacio; Bertinetti, Luca; Marin, Egor; Novikov, Dmitri; Konovalov, Oleg; Gochev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    Surface interactions involving biomembranes, such as cell–cell interactions or membrane contacts inside cells play important roles in numerous biological processes. Structural insight into the interacting surfaces is a prerequisite to understand the interaction characteristics as well as the underlying physical mechanisms. Here, we work with simplified planar experimental models of membrane surfaces, composed of lipids and lipopolymers. Their interaction is quantified in terms of pressure–distance curves using ellipsometry at controlled dehydrating (interaction) pressures. For selected pressures, their internal structure is investigated by standing-wave x-ray fluorescence (SWXF). This technique yields specific density profiles of the chemical elements P and S belonging to lipid headgroups and polymer chains, as well as counter-ion profiles for charged surfaces.

  16. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  17. Computing 1-D atomic densities in macromolecular simulations: the Density Profile Tool for VMD

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgino, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have a prominent role in biophysics and drug discovery due to the atomistic information they provide on the structure, energetics and dynamics of biomolecules. Specialized software packages are required to analyze simulated trajectories, either interactively or via scripts, to derive quantities of interest and provide insight for further experiments. This paper presents the Density Profile Tool, a package that enhances the Visual Molecular Dynamics environment w...

  18. Low-grade meningioma showing nearly equal density with spinal fluid on radiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ryota; Tomita, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi

    2013-06-21

    A 61-year-old woman had an intracranial tumour that was located on the falx. Meningioma was suspected and the tumour rapidly grew over 1 year. It showed nearly equal density with spinal fluid showing almost no enhancement on radiographic images, like microcystic meningioma. Successful removal of the tumour was achieved. Histopathologically, the tumour was diagnosed as low-grade meningioma. The meningioma had variable sized microcysts and the appearance of solid area was meningothelial meningioma. This is a rare radiographic image for meningothelial meningioma.

  19. Density profile of nitrogen in cylindrical pores of MCM-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alan K.; Bowron, Daniel T.

    2017-09-01

    A straightforward approach using radiation scattering (X-ray or neutron) combined with atomistic modelling is used to accurately assess the pore dimensions in the porous silica, MCM-41. The method is used to calculate the density profile of nitrogen absorbed in this material at a variety of fractional pressures, p/p0, where p0 is the saturated vapour pressure, up to p/p0 = 0.36 at T = 87 K in the present instance. At this pressure two distinct layers of liquid nitrogen occur on the silica surface, with a relatively sharp gas-liquid interface. It is suggested surface tension effects at this interface strongly influence the growth of further layers.

  20. Dwarf Galaxy Dark Matter Density Profiles Inferred from Stellar and Gas Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Joshua J; Fabricius, Maximilian H; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Barentine, John C; Bender, Ralf; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J; Murphy, Jeremy D; Swaters, R A; Thomas, Jens; van de Ven, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We present new constraints on the density profiles of dark matter (DM) halos in seven nearby dwarf galaxies from measurements of their integrated stellar light and gas kinematics. The gas kinematics of low mass galaxies frequently suggest that they contain constant density DM cores, while N-body simulations instead predict a cuspy profile. We present a data set of high resolution integral field spectroscopy on seven galaxies and measure the stellar and gas kinematics simultaneously. Using Jeans modeling on our full sample, we examine whether gas kinematics in general produce shallower density profiles than are derived from the stars. Although 2/7 galaxies show some localized differences in their rotation curves between the two tracers, estimates of the central logarithmic slope of the DM density profile, gamma, are generally robust. The mean and standard deviation of the logarithmic slope for the population are gamma=0.67+/-0.10 when measured in the stars and gamma=0.58+/-0.24 when measured in the gas. We als...

  1. Theory for planetary exospheres: II. Radiation pressure effect on exospheric density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I.; Mazelle, C.

    2016-03-01

    The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989). In this second part of our work, we present here the density profiles of atomic Hydrogen in planetary exospheres subject to the radiation pressure. We first provide the altitude profiles of ballistic particles (the dominant exospheric population in most cases), which exhibit strong asymmetries that explain the known geotail phenomenon at Earth. The radiation pressure strongly enhances the densities compared with the pure gravity case (i.e. the Chamberlain profiles), in particular at noon and midnight. We finally show the existence of an exopause that appears naturally as the external limit for bounded particles, above which all particles are escaping.

  2. Fingerprinting using extrolite profiles and physiological data shows sub-specific groupings of Penicillium crustosum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    by previous amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) study. We thus demonstrate here for the first time that combined qualitative and quantitative extrolite profiles can be used as a tool for phenotypic fingerprinting, to complement, or replace, molecular fingerprinting techniques....... water activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using micromorphological data, temperature- and water-dependent growth rates, and extrolite profiles obtained by HPLC analysis. The micromorphological data were less informative, while the growth-rate data were informative only...... if the strains investigated already showed slight adaptations to the selected external parameter. In contrast, PCA analyses of the extrolite data showed groupings of the strains according to their origins and known physiological differences. These groupings are in full agreement with the clustering obtained...

  3. Density Profiles in Molecular Cloud Cores Associated with High-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Pirogov, Lev E

    2009-01-01

    Radial density profiles for the sample of dense cores associated with high-mass star-forming regions from southern hemisphere have been derived using the data of observations in continuum at 250 GHz. Radial density profiles for the inner regions of 16 cores (at distances $\\la 0.2-0.8$ pc from the center) are close on average to the $\\rho\\propto r^{-\\alpha}$ dependence, where $\\alpha=1.6\\pm 0.3$. In the outer regions density drops steeper. An analysis with various hydrostatic models showed that the modified Bonnor-Ebert model, which describes turbulent sphere confined by external pressure, is preferable compared with the logotrope and polytrope models practically in all cases. With a help of the Bonnor-Ebert model, estimates of central density in a core, non-thermal velocity dispersion and core size are obtained. The comparison of central densities with the densities derived earlier from the CS modeling reveals differences in several cases. The reasons of such differences are probably connected with the presen...

  4. Evolution of density profiles in high-z galaxies: compaction and quenching inside-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Dekel, Avishai; Carollo, C. Marcella; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Lapiner, Sharon; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-05-01

    Using cosmological simulations, we address the interplay between structure and star formation in high-redshift galaxies via the evolution of surface density profiles. Our sample consists of 26 galaxies evolving in the redshift range z = 7 - 1, spanning the stellar mass range (0.2-6.4) × 1010 M⊙ at z = 2. We recover the main trends by stacking the profiles in accordance to their evolution phases. Following a wet compaction event that typically occurs when the stellar mass is ˜109.5 M⊙ at z ˜ 2-4, the gas develops a cusp inside the effective radius, associated with a peak in star formation rate (SFR). The SFR peak and the associated feedback, in the absence of further gas inflow to the centre, marks the onset of gas depletion from the central 1 kpc, leading to quenching of the central SFR. An extended, star-forming ring that forms by fresh gas during the central quenching process shows as a rising specific SFR (sSFR) profile, which is interpreted as inside-out quenching. Before quenching, the stellar density profile grows self-similarly, maintaining its log-log shape because the sSFR is similar at all radii. During the quenching process, the stellar density saturates to a constant value, especially in the inner 1 kpc. The stellar mass and SFR profiles deduced from observations show very similar shapes, consistent with the scenario of wet compaction leading to inside-out quenching and the subsequent saturation of a dense stellar core. We predict a cuspy gas profile during the blue nugget phase, and a gas-depleted core, sometimes surrounded by a ring, in the post-blue nugget phase.

  5. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Klypin, Anatoly; Gottlober, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Hess, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Accurately predicting structural properties of dark matter halos is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the new suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. The MultiDark simulations cover a large range of masses 1e10-1e15Msun and volumes upto 50Gpc**3. The total number of dark matter halos in all the simulations exceeds 60 billion. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter halos and to make ~1% accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the traditional ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the NFW profile. For massive halos the averge density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter alpha in the Einasto approximation. Combining results from different redshifts, masses and cosmologies, we show that halos progress thr...

  6. Evolution of Characteristic Quantities for Dark Matter Halo Density Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Romano-Diaz, E; Heller, C; Faltenbacher, A; Jones, D; Shlosman, I; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Hoffman, Yehuda; Heller, Clayton; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Jones, Daniel; Shlosman, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an assembly history on the evolution of dark matter (DM) halos of 10^{12} Msun/h using Constrained Realizations of random Gaussian fields. Five different realizations of a DM halo with distinct merging histories were constructed and evolved. Our main results are: A halo evolves via a sequence of quiescent phases of a slow mass accretion intermitted by violent episodes of major mergers. In the quiescent phases, the density is well fitted by an NFW profile, the inner scale radius Rs and the mass enclosed within it remain constant, and the virial radius (Rvir) grows linearly with the expansion parameter "a". Within each quiescent phase the concentration parameter ("c") scales as "a", and the mass accretion history (Mvir) is well described by the Tasitsiomi etal. fitting formula. In the violent phases the halos are not in a virial equilibrium and both Rs and Rvir grow discontinuously. The violent episodes drive the halos from one NFW dynamical equilibrium to another. The final structu...

  7. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  8. Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Sonu Sen; Meenu Asthana Varshney; Dinesh Varshney

    2014-01-01

    In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have num...

  9. Ground-State Density Profiles of One-Dimensional Bose Gases with Anisotropic Transversal Confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ya-Jiang

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the ground-state density distributions of interacting one-dimensional Bose gases with anisotropic transversal confinement.Combining the exact ground state energy density of homogeneous bose gases with local density approximation,we determine the density distribution in each interacting regime for different anisotropic parameters.It is shown that the transversal anisotropic parameter changes the density distribution obviously,and the observed density profiles on each orientation exhibit a difference of a factor.

  10. MultiDark simulations: the story of dark matter halo concentrations and density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Prada, Francisco; Heß, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Predicting structural properties of dark matter haloes is one of the fundamental goals of modern cosmology. We use the suite of MultiDark cosmological simulations to study the evolution of dark matter halo density profiles, concentrations, and velocity anisotropies. We find that in order to understand the structure of dark matter haloes and to make 1-2 per cent accurate predictions for density profiles, one needs to realize that halo concentration is more complex than the ratio of the virial radius to the core radius in the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. For massive haloes, the average density profile is far from the NFW shape and the concentration is defined by both the core radius and the shape parameter α in the Einasto approximation. We show that haloes progress through three stages of evolution. They start as rare density peaks and experience fast and nearly radial infall that brings mass closer to the centre, producing a highly concentrated halo. Here, the halo concentration increases with increasing halo mass and the concentration is defined by the α parameter with a nearly constant core radius. Later haloes slide into the plateau regime where the accretion becomes less radial, but frequent mergers still affect even the central region. At this stage, the concentration does not depend on halo mass. Once the rate of accretion and merging slows down, haloes move into the domain of declining concentration-mass relation because new accretion piles up mass close to the virial radius while the core radius is staying constant. Accurate analytical fits are provided.

  11. Sperm fractions obtained following density gradient centrifugation in human ejaculates show differences in sperm DNA longevity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime Goslvez; Stephen Johnston; Carmen Lpez-Fernndez; Altea Goslbez; Francisca Arroyo; Jose Lus Fernndez; Juan G lvarez

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the DNA longevity characteristics associated with each resultant fraction following density gradient centrifugation (DGC) in comparison to that of the original neat ejaculated sample. Methods:An aliquot of neat semen (NSS) collected from 7 patients was processed using DGC resulting in 3 fractions;Fraction 1:seminal plasma/40%gradient interface (GI);Fraction 2:40%GI/80%GI;Fraction 3:80%GI/pellet. An aliquot of each fraction and NSS was cryopreserved, thawed and incubated at 37 ℃for 24h;the increase of sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the Dyn-Halosperm assay following 0, 3, 6 and 24h of incubation. Results:While there was a significant reduction in the incidence of baseline sperm DNA fragmentation following DGC in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity was shown to be higher in the NSS than in any other sub-population following incubation. The highest levels of baseline DNA damage were found in Fractions 1 and 2;these fractions also showed the highest rate DNA fragmentation following incubation, subsequently exhibiting the lowest DNA longevity. Conclusion:1) Unnecessary incubation of spermatozoa prior to artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, should be avoided, since sperm DNA longevity is significantly reduced after ex vivo sperm handling and 2) Although sperm selection by DCG significantly reduces the baseline levels of SDF of sperm in Fraction 3, sperm DNA longevity in this fraction was ultimately lower following 24 h incubation when compared to sperm recovered from non-centrifuged NSS.

  12. Data showing phenotypic profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from sepsis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Verma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virulence factors (VFs influence the site and severity of urinary tract infections (UTI and further leading to sepsis infection. Phenotypic characterisation of VFs specific to sepsis Escherichia coli strains has not been characterized in Indian population till date. In this data article, we have described important VFs of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC that is P fim, Type-1 fim, cell surface hydrophobicity, mannose resistant haemagglutination/mannose sensitive haemagglutination (MRHA/MSHA expression and α-haemolysin production. The data includes a profile of the five VFs investigated in E. coli isolates from sepsis patients (N=78 and control group (N=50 from non-sepsis subjects. We found that P fim phenotype was expressed in 25.3% of E. coli isolates from sepsis patients, whereas Type-1 fimbriae was detected in 30.5%. Cell surface hydrophobicity phenotype was present in 30.5%, α-haemolysin in 26.3% and MRHA/MSHA in 22.1% of sepsis E. coli isolates. None of the control E. coli isolates showed presence of these phenotypes. The combined phenotypic profile of all the five VFs was significantly higher in sepsis patients as compared to the control group.

  13. Statistics of cosmic density profiles from perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Codis, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    The joint probability distribution function (PDF) of the density within multiple concentric spherical cells is considered. It is shown how its cumulant generating function can be obtained at tree order in perturbation theory as the Legendre transform of a function directly built in terms of the initial moments. In the context of the upcoming generation of large-scale structure surveys, it is conjectured that this result correctly models such a function for finite values of the variance. Detailed consequences of this assumption are explored. In particular the corresponding one-cell density probability distribution at finite variance is computed for realistic power spectra, taking into account its scale variation. It is found to be in agreement with $\\Lambda$-CDM simulations at the few percent level for a wide range of density values and parameters. Related explicit analytic expansions at the low and high density tails are given. The conditional (at fixed density) and marginal probability of the slope -- the de...

  14. Radial Surface Density Profiles of Gas and Dust in the Debris Disk Around 49 Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Daley, Cail M.; Roberge, Aki; Kospal, Agnes; Moor, Attila; Kamp, Inga; Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present approximately 0".4 resolution images of CO(3-2) and associated continuum emission from the gas-bearing debris disk around the nearby A star 49 Ceti, observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We analyze the ALMA visibilities in tandem with the broadband spectral energy distribution to measure the radial surface density profiles of dust and gas emission from the system. The dust surface density decreases with radius between approximately 100 and 310 au, with a marginally significant enhancement of surface density at a radius of approximately 110 au. The SED requires an inner disk of small grains in addition to the outer disk of larger grains resolved by ALMA. The gas disk exhibits a surface density profile that increases with radius, contrary to most previous spatially resolved observations of circumstellar gas disks. While approximately 80% of the CO flux is well described by an axisymmetric power-law disk in Keplerian rotation about the central star, residuals at approximately 20% of the peak flux exhibit a departure from axisymmetry suggestive of spiral arms or a warp in the gas disk. The radial extent of the gas disk (approx. 220 au) is smaller than that of the dust disk (approx. 300 au), consistent with recent observations of other gasbearing debris disks. While there are so far only three broad debris disks with well characterized radial dust profiles at millimeter wavelengths, 49 Ceti's disk shows a markedly different structure from two radially resolved gas-poor debris disks, implying that the physical processes generating and sculpting the gas and dust are fundamentally different.

  15. Kernel density estimation of a multidimensional efficiency profile

    CERN Document Server

    Poluektov, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Kernel density estimation is a convenient way to estimate the probability density of a distribution given the sample of data points. However, it has certain drawbacks: proper description of the density using narrow kernels needs large data samples, whereas if the kernel width is large, boundaries and narrow structures tend to be smeared. Here, an approach to correct for such effects, is proposed that uses an approximate density to describe narrow structures and boundaries. The approach is shown to be well suited for the description of the efficiency shape over a multidimensional phase space in a typical particle physics analysis. An example is given for the five-dimensional phase space of the $\\Lambda_b^0\\to D^0p\\pi$ decay.

  16. Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopiczko Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bone tissue is metabolically active. Throughout the entire life, it undergoes changes in the form of bone resorption processes which are successive, with the participation of the resorbing cells and bone formation processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate mineral density and bone mass tissue and the lipid profile, BMI, total body fat in young females and males. The study involved 100 people (50 females and 50 males studying in Warsaw at the age of 23,2 ± 4,0 years. The densitometry method of the forearm was used for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD and bone mass (BMC. The method of bioelectrical impedance was used for the assessment of body components. Basic body dimensions and indicators were assessed using anthropometric measurements. Body height, body mass and the needs for the densitometry study of the forearm were measured. The total cholesterol concentration was determined in the blood serum using diagnostic kits, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and triglycerides. The concentration of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C was calculated. While in men the occurrence of a significant, positive correlation was stated between the concentration of the HDL cholesterol fraction and the mineral density and T-score index in the ultra-distal point, the analysis of the compounds of mineral density (BMD, bone mass (BMC of the forearm, T-score index with somatic features in women showed a significant, positive relation between the body weight and the bone mass mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. Also, a significant weak, positive correlation was observed between the BMI, the mineral density and T-score indicator in the proximal point. In men, the occurrence of significant, positive correlations was stated between the body weight and BMC, BMD, T-score indicator in the proximal point of the forearm bone and ultra-distal point. Similar relations were observed between the BMI, mineral density, T

  17. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.

    2016-11-01

    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas.

  18. Electron number density profiles derived from radio occultation on the CASSIOPE spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shume, E. B.; Vergados, P.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-01-01

    good agreement with density profiles estimated from ionosonde data, measured over nearby stations to the latitude and longitude of the RO tangent points, (2) in good agreement with density profiles inferred from GPS RO measured by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere......, and Climate (COSMIC), and (3) in general agreement with density profiles estimated using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) climatological model. Using both CASSIOPE and COSMIC RO observations, we identify, for the first time, that there exist differences in the characteristics of the electron...

  19. Metabolic profiles show specific mitochondrial toxicities in vitro in myotube cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiuwei, E-mail: qiuwei_xu@merck.com; Vu, Heather; Liu Liping; Wang, Ting-Chuan; Schaefer, William H. [Merck Research Laboratories (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Mitochondrial toxicity has been a serious concern, not only in preclinical drug development but also in clinical trials. In mitochondria, there are several distinct metabolic processes including fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and each process contains discrete but often intimately linked steps. Interruption in any one of those steps can cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Detection of inhibition to OXPHOS can be complicated in vivo because intermediate endogenous metabolites can be recycled in situ or circulated systemically for metabolism in other organs or tissues. Commonly used assays for evaluating mitochondrial function are often applied to ex vivo or in vitro samples; they include various enzymatic or protein assays, as well as functional assays such as measurement of oxygen consumption rate, membrane potential, or acidification rates. Metabolomics provides quantitative profiles of overall metabolic changes that can aid in the unraveling of explicit biochemical details of mitochondrial inhibition while providing a holistic view and heuristic understanding of cellular bioenergetics. In this paper, we showed the application of quantitative NMR metabolomics to in vitro myotube cells treated with mitochondrial toxicants, rotenone and antimycin A. The close coupling of the TCA cycle to the electron transfer chain (ETC) in OXPHOS enables specific diagnoses of inhibition to ETC complexes by discrete biochemical changes in the TCA cycle.

  20. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of dark matter and dark energy in spherical voids

    CERN Document Server

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Kulinich, Yurij

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large isolated voids in the Universe. We assume that initial perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe (radiation, matter and dark energy) are continuous media with perfect fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations for every component in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame are obtained from equations of energy and momentum conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated numerically. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is much larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter and dark energy are formed and how they depend on parameters of dark energy and initial conditions. In particular, it is shown that final matter density and velocity amplitudes change within range $\\sim$4-7...

  1. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2015-09-16

    subsequently with cytotoxicity. In conclusion, we show that L. monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles, due to a high diversity in the amino acid sequence of main virulence factors.

  2. Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Luminosity Functions and Density Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Ellingson, E.; /Colorado U., CASA; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We present K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters. The extensive spectroscopic dataset available for these clusters allows us to determine the cluster K-band luminosity function and density profile without the need for statistical background subtraction. The luminosity density and number density profiles can be described by NFW models with concentration parameters of c{sub l} = 4.28 {+-} 0.70 and c{sub g} = 4.13 {+-} 0.57 respectively. Comparing these to the dynamical mass analysis of the same clusters shows that the galaxy luminosity and number density profiles are similar to the dark matter profile, and are not less concentrated like in local clusters. The luminosity functions show that the evolution of K. over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.5 is consistent with a scenario where the majority of stars in cluster galaxies form at high-redshift (z{sub f} > 1.5) and evolve passively thereafter. The best-fit for the faint-end slope of the luminosity function is {alpha} = -0.84 {+-} 0.08, which indicates that it does not evolve between z = 0 and z = 0.3. Using Principal Component Analysis of the spectra we classify cluster galaxies as either star-forming/recently-star-forming (EM+BAL) or non-star forming (ELL) and compute their respective luminosity functions. The faint-end slope of the ELL luminosity function is much shallower than for the EM+BAL galaxies at z = 0.3, and suggests the number of faint ELL galaxies in clusters decreases by a factor of {approx} 3 from z = 0 to z = 0.3. The redshift evolution of K* for both EM+BAL and ELL types is consistent with a passively evolving stellar population formed at high-redshift. Passive evolution in both classes, as well as the total cluster luminosity function, demonstrates that the bulk of the stellar population in all bright cluster galaxies is formed at high-redshift and subsequent transformations in morphology/color/spectral-type have little effect on the total stellar

  3. The Stellar Density Profile of the Distant Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Colin T; Munn, Jeffrey A; Bell, Eric F; Majewski, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    We use extensive gravity-sensitive DDO 51 photometry over 5100 square degrees, combined with SDSS broadband photometry, to select a catalog of $\\sim 4,000$ giant stars covering a large fraction of the high Galactic latitude sky and reaching out to $\\sim 80$ kpc in the Galactic halo. This sample of bright and unbiased tracers enables us to measure the radial profile and 3D structure of the stellar halo to large distance which had previously only been measured with sparse tracers or small samples. Using population synthesis models to reproduce the observed giant star luminosity function, we find that the halo maintains a $r^{-3.5}$ profile from $30$ to $80$ kpc with no signs of a truncation or sharp break over this range. The radial profile measurement is largely insensitive to individual halo substructure components, but we find that attempting to measure the shape of the halo is overwhelmed by the Sagittarius stream such that no ellipsoidal shape is a satisfactory description in this region. These measurement...

  4. Comparison of high latitude electron density profiles obtained with the GPS radio occultation technique and EISCAT measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stolle

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a comprehensive view on high latitude processes by applying different observation techniques, the SIRCUS campaign was initiated in 2001/2002. This paper compares electron density profiles derived from CHAMP radio occultation data and those measured with the EISCAT facility. Since ionospheric profiling with the help of space-based received GPS is a relatively new technique, validations with established independent instruments are of crucial need. We present 28 profiling events for quasi-statistical analyses, which occurred during the SIRCUS campaigns and describe some of them in more detail. We found out that the majority of profile comparisons in electron density peak value and height, as well as in TEC, lie within the error ranges of the two methods. Differences in the ionospheric quantities do not necessarily occur when the locations of the occultation and of the radar site show considerable distances. Differences are more pronounced when the ionosphere is remarkably structured.

  5. Plasma Shape and Current Density Profile Control in Advanced Tokamak Operating Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenyu

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion has sufficient energy density to potentially supply the world population with its increasing energy demands. The tokamak is a magnetic confinement device used to achieve controlled fusion reactions. Experimental fusion technology has now reached a level where tokamaks are able to produce about as much energy as is expended in heating the fusion fuel. The next step towards the realization of a nuclear fusion tokamak power plant is ITER, which will be capable of exploring advanced tokamak (AT) modes, characterized by a high fusion gain and plasma stability. The extreme requirements of the advanced modes motivates researchers to improve the modeling of the plasma response as well as the design of feedback controllers. This dissertation focuses on several magnetic and kinetic control problems, including the plasma current, position and shape control, and data-driven and first-principles-driven modeling and control of plasma current density profile and the normalized plasma pressure ratio betaN. The plasma is confined within the vacuum vessel by an external electromagnetic field, produced primarily by toroidal and poloidal field coils. The outermost closed plasma surface or plasma boundary is referred to as the shape of the plasma. A central characteristic of AT plasma regimes is an extreme elongated shape. The equilibrium among the electromagnetic forces acting on an elongated plasma is unstable. Moreover, the tokamak performance is improved if the plasma is located in close proximity to the torus wall, which guarantees an efficient use of available volume. As a consequence, feedback control of the plasma position and shape is necessary. In this dissertation, an Hinfinity-based, multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) controller for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is developed, which is used to control the plasma position, shape, and X

  6. Calculating electron momentum densities and Compton profiles using the linear tetrahedron method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, D; Billington, D; Haynes, T D; Millichamp, T E; Taylor, J W; Duffy, J A; Giblin, S R; Dewhurst, J K; Dugdale, S B

    2014-12-10

    A method for computing electron momentum densities and Compton profiles from ab initio calculations is presented. Reciprocal space is divided into optimally-shaped tetrahedra for interpolation, and the linear tetrahedron method is used to obtain the momentum density and its projections such as Compton profiles. Results are presented and evaluated against experimental data for Be, Cu, Ni, Fe3Pt, and YBa2Cu4O8, demonstrating the accuracy of our method in a wide variety of crystal structures.

  7. Advances in the density profile evaluation from broadband reflectometry on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, P.; Manso, M. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Conway, G. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    The high temporal and spatial resolutions provided by broadband microwave reflectometry make it an attractive diagnostic technique to measure the density profile in fusion plasmas. However, great problems have been encountered due to the plasma turbulence that difficult, and sometimes prevent, the routine evaluation of density profiles. Advanced broadband systems employ ultra-fast sweeping in an attempt to perform the profile measurement in a time window smaller than the temporal scale of the main plasma fluctuations but this is not sufficient. Indeed, abrupt plasma movements and/or spatial turbulence always affect the reflectometry signals, as shown by numerical studies (with both one- and two-dimensional codes), for the case of ultra-fast sweeping and pulse radar systems. For this reason not only the system performance is important but the software tools also play a crucial role for reflectometry to become a standard density profile diagnostic. Here we present the recent advances towards automatic evaluation of density profiles from broadband reflectometry on ASDEX Upgrade. For regimes with moderate levels of plasma turbulence, density profiles are obtained from single reflectometry samples (temporal resolution of 20 {mu}s), and for higher turbulence levels average profiles are obtained from bursts of ultra-fast (20 {mu}s), closely spaced (10 {mu}s) sweeps. This method improved the accuracy and reliability of density profiles, which can now be obtained automatically from the edge to the bulk plasma - using reflectometry alone - in most plasma regimes of ASDEX Upgrade. New data processing capability has been implemented that allows the profiles to be available to the end-users 10-12 minutes after each discharge. These developments were possible due to the flexibility and high performance of the control and data acquisition systems and to the large number of measurements that can be performed with the diagnostic during each discharge (720 profiles both on the low

  8. Asymmetric Velocity Distributions from Halo Density Profiles in the Eddington Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Vergados

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We show how to obtain the energy distribution f(E in our vicinity starting from WIMP density profiles in a self-consistent way by employing the Eddington approach and adding reasonable angular momentum dependent terms in the expression of the energy. We then show how we can obtain the velocity dispersions and the asymmetry parameter β in terms of the parameters describing the angular momentum dependence. From this expression, for f(E, we proceed to construct an axially symmetric WIMP a velocity distribution, which, for a gravitationally bound system, automatically has a velocity upper bound and is characterized by the same asymmetriy β. This approach is tested and clarified by constructing analytic expressions in a simple model, with adequate structure. We then show how such velocity distributions can be used in determining the event rates, including modulation, in both the standard and the directional WIMP searches.

  9. Cluster density profiles as a test of modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Schmidt, Fabian; Baldauf, Tobias; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uroš; Smith, Robert E.

    2012-05-01

    We present a new test of gravitational interactions at the r≃(0.2-20)Mpc scale, around the virial radius of dark matter halos measured through cluster-galaxy lensing of maxBCG clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We employ predictions from self-consistent simulations of f(R) gravity to find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of |fR0|confidence level. As a model-independent assessment of the constraining power of cluster profiles measured through weak gravitational lensing, we also constrain the amplitude F0 of a phenomenological modification based on the profile enhancement induced by f(R) gravity when not including effects from the increased cluster abundance in f(R). In both scenarios, dark-matter-only simulations of the concordance model corresponding to |fR0|=0 and F0=0 are consistent with the lensing measurements, i.e., at the 68% and 95% confidence level, respectively.

  10. Explaining the density profile of self-gravitating systems by statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Biao

    A self-gravitating system usually shows a quasi-universal density profile, such as the NFW profile of a simulated dark matter halo, the flat rotation curve of a spiral galaxy, the Sérsic profile of an elliptical galaxy, the King profile of a globular cluster and the exponential law of the stellar disk. It will be interesting if all of the above can be obtained from first principles. Based on the original work of White & Narayan (1987), we propose that if the self-bounded system is divided into infinite infinitesimal subsystems, the entropy of each subsystem can be maximized, but the whole system's gravity may just play the role of the wall, which may not increase the whole system's entropy S t , and finally S t may be the minimum among all of the locally maximized entropies (He & Kang 2010). For spherical systems with isotropic velocity dispersion, the form of the equation of state will be a hybrid of isothermal and adiabatic (Kang & He 2011). Hence this density profile can be approximated by a truncated isothermal sphere, which means that the total mass must be finite and our results can be consistent with observations (Kang & He 2011b). Our method requires that the mass and energy should be conserved, so we only compare our results with simulations of mild relaxation (i.e. the virial ratio is close to -1) of dissipationless collapse (Kang 2014), and the fitting also is well. The capacity can be calculated and is found not to be always negative as in previous works, and combining with calculations of the second order variation of the entropy, we find that the thermodynamical stability still can be true (Kang 2012) if the temperature tends to be zero. However, the cusp in the center of dark matter halos can not be explained, and more works will continue. The above work can be generalized to study the radial distribution of the disk (Kang 2015). The energy constraint automatically disappears in our variation, because angular momentum is much more important than

  11. Near-exponential surface densities as hydrostatic, nonequilibrium profiles in galaxy discs

    CERN Document Server

    Struck, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Apparent exponential surface density profiles are nearly universal in galaxy discs across Hubble types, over a wide mass range, and a diversity of gravitational potential forms. Several processes have been found to produce exponential profiles, including the actions of bars and spirals, and clump scattering, with star scattering a common theme in these. Based on reasonable physical constraints, such as minimal entropy gradients, we propose steady state distribution functions for disc stars, applicable over a range of gravitational potentials. The resulting surface density profiles are generally a power-law term times a Sersic-type exponential. Over a modest range of Sersic index values, these profiles are often indistinguishable from Type I exponentials, except at the innermost radii. However, in certain parameter ranges these steady states can appear as broken, Type II or III profiles. The corresponding velocity dispersion profiles are low order power-laws. A chemical potential associated with scattering can...

  12. Derivation of the Fano profile from time-dependent density-functional theory for local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2007-04-01

    We give the derivation of the Fano profile (the resonance energy position, the resonance width Γ , and q value) from the time-dependent nonrelativistic density-functional theory (DFT) and propose a scheme for calculating the photoabsorption cross section of hot dense plasmas. As a consequence of this derivation, we show the line profile is obtained as a superposition of Fano and Lorentz profiles when the competition of two optically allowed bound-bound and bound-free transitions occurs. We also show the results of the photoabsorption cross section by applying our scheme to an Fe plasma (density is 7.85g/cm3 , temperature is 100eV ), where the calculation is carried out without numerical divergence for any photon energy. The calculated results are in good agreement with those of Grimaldi.

  13. Observing the dark matter density profile of isolated galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prada, F; Klypin, A; Holtzman, J A; Schlegel, D J; Grebel, E K; Rix, H W; Brinkmann, J; McKay, T A; Csabai, I; Prada, Francisco; Vitvitska, Mayrita; Klypin, Anatoly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Schlegel, David J.; Grebel, Eva K.

    2003-01-01

    Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we probe the halo mass distribution by studying the velocities of satellites orbiting isolated galaxies. In a subsample that covers 2500 sq. degrees on the sky, we detect about 3000 satellites with absolute blue magnitudes going down to M_B = -14; most of the satellites have M_B=-16 to -18, comparable to the magnitudes of M32 and the Magellanic Clouds. After a careful, model-independent removal of interlopers, we find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of satellites declines with distance to the primary. For an L* galaxy the r.m.s. line-of-sight velocity changes from ~120 km/s at 20 kpc to ~60 km/s at 350 kpc. This decline agrees remarkably well with theoretical expectations, as all modern cosmological models predict that the density of dark matter in the peripheral parts of galaxies declines as rho_DM propto r^{-3}. Thus, for the first time we find direct observational evidence of the density decline predicted by cosmological models; we also note that this r...

  14. Cluster Density Profiles as a Test of Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lombriser, Lucas; Baldauf, Tobias; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Smith, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    We present a new test of gravitational interactions at the r\\simeq(0.2-20)Mpc scale, around the virial radius of dark matter halos measured through cluster-galaxy lensing of maxBCG clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We employ predictions from self-consistent simulations of f(R) gravity to find an upper bound on the background field amplitude of f_R0<3.5x10^-3 at the 1D-marginalized 95% confidence level. We also constrain the amplitude F_0 of a phenomenological fit modeled on the profile enhancement induced by f(R) gravity when not including effects from the increased cluster abundance in f(R). In both scenarios, dark-matter-only simulations of the concordance model corresponding to f_R0=0 and F_0=0 are consistent with the lensing measurements at the 68% confidence level.

  15. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatmen...

  16. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  17. The influence of third-order interactions on the density profile of associating hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D.; Sokolowski, S.; Zagorski, R.; Trokhymchuk, A.

    Canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and the non-uniform Percus-Yevick (NPY) equation for the local density are used to study the influence of surface mediated thirdorder interactions on the adsorption of associating hard spheres on a hard wall. A comparison of the NPY density profiles with the computer simulations data indicates that this approximation predicts the fluid structure reasonably well.

  18. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining diffe

  19. Evolution of Density Profiles in High-z Galaxies: Compaction and Quenching Inside-Out

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C Marcella; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Lapiner, Sharon; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R

    2015-01-01

    Using cosmological simulations, we address the interplay between structure and star formation in high-redshift galaxies via the evolution of surface density profiles. Our sample consists of 26 galaxies evolving in the redshift range $z=7-1$, spanning the stellar mass range $(0.2-6.4)\\times 10^{10}M_\\odot$ at $z=2$. We recover the main trends by stacking the profiles in accordance to their evolution phases. Following a wet compaction event that typically occurs when the stellar mass is $\\sim10^{9.5}~M_{\\odot}$ at $z\\sim2-4$, the gas develops a cusp inside the effective radius, associated with a peak in star-formation rate (SFR). The SFR peak and the associated feedback, in the absence of further gas inflow to the centre, marks the onset of gas depletion from the central 1 kpc, leading to quenching of the central SFR. An extended, star-forming ring that forms by fresh gas during the central quenching process shows as a rising specific SFR (sSFR) profile, which is interpreted as inside-out quenching. Before quen...

  20. Electron density profiles in the background of LF absorption during Forbush-decrease and PSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, G.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the simulation of different Forbush decrease and particle precipitation effects in the D region, electron density profiles in the mid-latitudes the ionospheric absorption of low frequency (LF) radio waves was determined. The absorption variations at different frequenceis are strongly affected by the shape of the electron density profile. A structure appears which sometimes resembles the letter S (in a sloping form). Both the height (around 70 to 72 km) and the depth of the local minimum in the electron density contribute to the computed absorption changes of various degree at different frequencies. In this way several observed special absorption events can be interpreted.

  1. Effect of Control Blade History, and Axial Coolant Density and Burnup Profiles on BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A technical basis for peak reactivity boiling water reactor (BWR) burnup credit (BUC) methods was recently generated, and the technical basis for extended BWR BUC is now being developed. In this paper, a number of effects related to extended BWR BUC are analyzed, including three major operational effects in BWRs: the coolant density axial distribution, the use of control blades during operation, and the axial burnup profile. Specifically, uniform axial moderator density profiles are analyzed and compared to previous results and an additional temporal fidelity study combing moderator density profiles for three different fuel assemblies is presented. Realistic control blade histories and cask criticality results are compared to previously generated constructed control blade histories. Finally, a preliminary study of the axial burnup profile is provided.

  2. Modification of SOL profiles and fluctuations with line-average density and divertor flux expansion in TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, N.; Tsui, C.; Theiler, C.

    2017-01-01

    that this modification does not influence neither the detachment density threshold, nor the development of a flat SOL density profile which instead depends strongly on the increase of the core line average density. The modification of the SOL upstream profile, with the appearance of what is generally called a density...

  3. Development of the W-band density profile and fluctuation reflectometer on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.M.; Gao, X., E-mail: xgao@ipp.ac.cn; Ling, B.L.; Zhang, S.B.; Zhang, T.; Han, X.; Liu, S.C.; Liu, Z.X.; Liu, Y.; Ti, A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A X-mode W-band reflectometer is designed and installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) for the first time. • Both density profile and fluctuations can be measured by the newly developed reflectometer. • The core density profile has been measured in high magnetic field condition together with V-band reflectometer. • Sawtooth precursor has been measured by fluctuation reflectometer in the low magnetic field condition. -- Abstract: A X-mode polarized W-band reflectometer for plasma density profile and fluctuation measurement is designed and installed on EAST. In measuring the density profile, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is used as the source, allowing a high temporal resolution measurement. The density profile in a plasma with high magnetic field (3.0 T) has been measured by combination of V- and W-band reflectometers. For fluctuation measurements, a frequency synthesizer is used instead of the VCO as a microwave source. The core density fluctuations during sawtooth activity are measured and analyzed.

  4. Inherited susceptibility determines the distribution of dense low-density lipoprotein subfraction profiles in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H. [Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a heritable lipid disorder, in which dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction profiles due to a predominance of small dense LDL particles are frequently observed. These small dense LDL particles are associated with cardiovascular disease. Using segregation analysis, we investigated to what extent these LDL subfraction profiles are genetically determined; also, the mode of inheritance was studied. Individual LDL subfraction profiles were determined by density gradient ultracentrifugation in 623 individuals of 40 well-defined Dutch FCH families. The individual LDL subfraction profile was defined as a quantitative trait by the continuous variable K, a reliable estimate of the relative contribution of each LDL subfraction to the overall profile. Variation in parameter K due to age, sex, and hormonal status was taken into account by introducing liability classes. Segregation analysis was performed by fitting a series of class D regressive models were compared using log-likelihoot ratio tests. Our data show that 60% of the variability of parameter K could be explained by lipid and lipoprotein levels and that a major autosomal locus, recessively inherited, with a population frequency of .42 {+-} .07, and an additional polygenic component of .25 best explained the clustering of atherogenic dense LDL subfraction profiles in these FCH families. Therefore, dense LDL subfraction profiles, associated with elevated lipid levels, appear to have a genetic basis in FCH.

  5. Proposed second class of Haemophilus ducreyi strains show altered protein and lipooligosaccharide profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Deborah M B; Gibson, Bradford W

    2007-09-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. Previously we have shown that the protein profiles and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structures from various strains of H. ducreyi are generally well conserved. Previous studies have demonstrated that at least one strain, 33921, has a variant protein profile and LOS structure. In this study, both the whole cell lysate and the membrane proteins from strain 33921 were further examined and compared to the prototypical strain 35000HP by 2-DE and by the 16-BAC (benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride)/SDS-PAGE two-detergent system, respectively. These comparisons demonstrated that a number of the proteins that could be identified from both strains had altered positions on the gels, both in their apparent molecular weight and pI values. Strain 33921 has been suggested to be a member of a second class of strains, termed class II strains. In this study, the proteomic profiles and the LOS structures from the five potential class II strains were examined and found to be similar to strain 33921.

  6. Reaching Higher Densities for Laboratory White Dwarf Photospheres to Measure Spectroscopic Line Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Falcon, Ross E; Gomez, T A; Schaeuble, M; Nagayama, T; Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E; Rochau, G A

    2016-01-01

    As part of our laboratory investigation of the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf atmosphere models, we extend the electron-density ($n_{\\rm e}$) range measured by our experiments to higher densities (up to $n_{e}\\sim80\\times10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$). Whereas inferred parameters using the hydrogen-$\\beta$ spectral line agree among different line-shape models for $n_{\\rm e}\\lesssim30\\times10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, we now see divergence between models. These are densities beyond the range previously benchmarked in the laboratory, meaning theoretical profiles in this regime have not been fully validated. Experimentally exploring these higher densities enables us to test and constrain different line-profile models, as the differences in their relative H-Balmer line shapes are more pronounced at such conditions. These experiments also aid in our study of occupation probabilities because we can measure these from relative line strengths.

  7. Theory for planetary exospheres: II. Radiation pressure effect on exospheric density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Beth, Arnaud; Toublanc, Dominique; Dandouras, Iannis; Mazelle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The planetary exospheres are poorly known in their outer parts, since the neutral densities are low compared with the instruments detection capabilities. The exospheric models are thus often the main source of information at such high altitudes. We present a new way to take into account analytically the additional effect of the radiation pressure on planetary exospheres. In a series of papers, we present with an Hamiltonian approach the effect of the radiation pressure on dynamical trajectories, density profiles and escaping thermal flux. Our work is a generalization of the study by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989). In this second part of our work, we present here the density profiles of atomic Hydrogen in planetary exospheres subject to the radiation pressure. We first provide the altitude profiles of ballistic particles (the dominant exospheric population in most cases), which exhibit strong asymmetries that explain the known geotail phenomenon at Earth. The radiation pressure strongly enhances the densities c...

  8. Density and impurity profile behaviours in HL-2A tokamak with different gas fuelling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Zheng-Ying; Zhou Yan; Li Wei; Feng Bei-Bin; Sun Ping; Dong Chun-Feng; Liu Yi; Hong Wen-Yu; Yang Qing-Wei; Ding Xuan-Tong; Duan Xu-Ru

    2009-01-01

    The electron density profile peaking and the impurity accumulation in the HL-2A tokamak plasma are observed when three kinds of fuelling methods are separately used at different fuelling particle locations.The density profile becomes more peaked when the line-averaged electron density approaches the Greenwald density limit nG and,consequently,impurity accumulation is often observed.A linear increase regime in the density range ne<0.6nG and a saturation regime in ne>0.6nG are obtained.There is no significant difference in achieved density peaking factor fne between the supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and gas puffing into the plasma main chamber.However,the achieved fne is relatively low,in particular,in the case of density below 0.7nG,when the working gas is puffed into the divertor chamber.A discharge with a density as high as 1.2nG,i.e.ne=1.2nG,can be achieved by SMBI just after siliconization as a wall conditioning.The metallic impurities,such as iron and chromium,also increase remarkably when the impurity accumulation happens.The mechanism behind the density peaking and impurity accumulation is studied by investigating both the density peaking factor versus the effective collisionality and the radiation peaking versus density peaking.

  9. Impact of a hollow density profile on turbulent particle fluxes: Gyrokinetic and fluid simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Strand, P.; Nordman, H.

    2017-07-01

    Hollow density profiles may occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the pellet fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by Ion Temperature Gradient/Trapped Electron (ITG/TE) mode turbulence in hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT, and magnetic shear are investigated. In addition, the effects of a fast species are studied and global ITG simulations in a simplified physics description are performed in order to investigate nonlocal effects. It is found that β in particular, has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region. Both nonlinear GENE and EDWM simulations show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change in the direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln. Moreover, the addition of fast particles was shown to decrease the inward main ion particle flux in the positive gradient region further. This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas. Additionally, the heat flux in global ITG turbulence simulations indicates that nonlocal effects can play a different role from usual in connection with pellet fuelling.

  10. Radial Density Profile in the SSX Plasma Wind Tunnel using a Double Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, D. L.; Flanagan, K.; Gray, T.; Brown, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    We present preliminary results from a moveable double Langmuir probe in the present plasma wind tunnel configuration of SSX. The probe is designed to measure radial profiles of electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) across the midplane with a 1 cm resolution. Line-averaged densities from He-Ne interferometry show densities of 1 - 5 ×1015 cm-3 . In addition to mean values, we will also present electrostatic fluctuations and correlations with magnetic field measurements. The double Langmuir probe also measures local Te. Line-averaged measurements from VUV spectroscopy indicate Te ~ 10 eV . The Langmuir probe stalk diameter measures 6 . 5 mm and tip spacing is 1 . 1 mm . The SSX plasma wind tunnel has dimensions L ≅ 1 m and R = 0 . 08 m . Plasma flow speeds are v >= 50 km / s . The cylindrical copper boundary and probe surfaces are baked and cleaned in a He glow discharge to maintain excellent vacuum and surface conditions. Electrostatic measurements during merging will be presented if available. Work supported by US DOE and CMSO.

  11. Constraints on the halo density profile using HI flaring in the outer Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, C A; Jog, C J

    2005-01-01

    The observed flaring of HI disk in the outer region of galaxies has been used in the past to determine the shape of the dark matter halo. Previous studies based on this concept suggest a slightly oblate halo (axis ratio ~ 0.8) for our Galaxy. We reinvestigate this problem by calculating the HI scaleheight in the outer Galaxy to a larger radial distance, and by studying its dependence on the shape and the density profile of the halo. We find that a simple isothermal infinite halo of any shape- oblate or prolate, is not able to account for the observed flaring. Instead we show that a spherical halo with density falling faster than isothermal halo in the outer region provides a better fit to the observed HI flaring as well as the observed rotation curve of our Galaxy. These halos have about 95% of their mass within a few hundreds of kpc. For R_solar = 8.5 kpc and \\Theta_solar = 220 km/s, the central density and core radius can be constrained to the range \\rho_0 = 0.035 - 0.06 M_sun/pc^3 and R_c = 8 - 10 kpc. Our...

  12. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  13. The effect of baryons on the inner density profiles of rich clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Schaye, Joop; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; McCarthy, I G

    2014-01-01

    We use the "Evolution and assembly of galaxies and their environment" (EAGLE) cosmological simulation to investigate the effect of baryons on the density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. We focus on the six most massive EAGLE clusters ($M_{200} > 10^{14}M_\\odot$) which can be compared with a recent analysis of seven real clusters by Newman et al. The central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in EAGLE have steep stellar density profiles, $\\rho_*(r) \\propto r^{-3}$. Stars dominate the mass density for $r < 10~{\\rm kpc}$, and, as a result, the total mass density profiles are steeper than the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. However, the dark matter halo itself closely follows the NFW form at all resolved radii ($r\\gtrsim3.0~{\\rm kpc}$). The \\eagle BCGs have similar surface brightness and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles as the BCGs observed by Newmanet al. The central slopes of the total mass profiles are also consistent with the observed clusters. However, after subtracting the contribution of t...

  14. Reconstruction of edge density profiles on Large Helical Device using ultrashort-pulse reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuya; Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Kawahata, Kazuo; Nagayama, Yoshio; Hojo, Hitoshi

    2008-10-01

    Reflectometry has been expected to be one of the key diagnostics to measure density profiles. We have applied an ultrashort-pulse reflectometry (USPR) system to Large Helical Device in the National Institute for Fusion Science. Wide frequency band system is required to obtain wide density profile since an incident wave is reflected at the density layer corresponding to its cutoff frequency. The reflectometry utilizes an impulse with less than 30 ps pulse width as a source. Since the bandwidth of an impulse has an inverse relation to the pulse width, we can cover the frequency range of micro- to millimeter waves (18-40 GHz) with a single source. The density profiles can be reconstructed by collecting time-of-flight (TOF) signals for each frequency component of an impulse reflected from the corresponding cutoff layer. We utilize the signal record analysis (SRA) method to reconstruct the density profiles from the TOF signal. The effectiveness of the SRA method for the profile reconstruction is confirmed by a simulation study of the USPR using a finite-difference time domain method.

  15. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.

    2016-11-01

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  16. Dynamics of electron injection and acceleration driven by laser wakefield in tailored density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of electron acceleration driven by laser wakefield is studied in detail using the particle-in-cell code WARP with the objective to generate high-quality electron bunches with narrow energy spread and small emittance, relevant for the electron injector of a multistage accelerator. Simulation results, using experimentally achievable parameters, show that electron bunches with an energy spread of ˜11 % can be obtained by using an ionization-induced injection mechanism in a mm-scale length plasma. By controlling the focusing of a moderate laser power and tailoring the longitudinal plasma density profile, the electron injection beginning and end positions can be adjusted, while the electron energy can be finely tuned in the last acceleration section.

  17. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of matter in large voids

    CERN Document Server

    Tsizh, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large voids in the distribution of galaxies. We assume that perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe - radiation, matter and dark energy - are continuous media with ideal fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame for every component are obtained from equations of conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated by modified Euler method. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is mush larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter in spherical voids with different overdensity shells are formed.

  18. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of matter in large voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsizh, M.; Novosyadlyj, B.

    2016-09-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large voids in the distribution of galaxies. We assume that perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe - radiation, matter and dark energy - are continuous media with ideal fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame for every component are obtained from equations of conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated by modified Euler method. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is mush larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter in spherical voids with different overdensity shells are formed.

  19. Limits on the power-law mass and luminosity density profiles of elliptical galaxies from gravitational lensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shuo; Yao, Meng; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We use 118 strong gravitational lenses observed by the SLACS, BELLS, LSD and SL2S surveys to constrain the total mass profile and the profile of luminosity density of stars (light-tracers) in elliptical galaxies up to redshift $z \\sim 1$. Assuming power-law density profiles for the total mass density, $\\rho=\\rho_0(r/r_0)^{-\\alpha}$, and luminosity density, $\

  20. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  1. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-07-20

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2{pi} when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has

  2. Modifications of plasma density profile and thrust by neutral injection in a helicon plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takao, Yoshinori; Ando, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Argon propellant is introduced from the upstream and downstream sides of a high power helicon plasma thruster. The plasma density profile and the imparted thrust are measured for various upstream and downstream argon flow rates, where the total gas flow rate of 70 sccm and the resultant vacuum chamber pressure of 0.2 mTorr are maintained. It is observed that the imparted thrust increases with an increase in the downstream gas flow rate; simultaneously an upstream-peaking profile of the plasma density observed for the upstream gas injection becomes uniform for the downstream gas injection. The difference in the thrust between the upstream and downstream gas injections is enhanced by increasing the rf power. The observed density profiles are qualitatively consistent with theoretical predictions taking a neutral depletion effect into account.

  3. Near-exponential surface densities as hydrostatic, non-equilibrium profiles in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2017-01-01

    Apparent exponential surface density profiles are nearly universal in galaxy discs across Hubble types, over a wide mass range, and a diversity of gravitational potential forms. Several processes have been found to produce exponential profiles, including the actions of bars and spirals, and clump scattering, with star scattering a common theme in these. Based on reasonable physical constraints, such as minimal entropy gradients, we propose steady-state distribution functions for disc stars, applicable over a range of gravitational potentials. The resulting surface density profiles are generally a power-law term times a Sérsic-type exponential. Over a modest range of Sérsic index values, these profiles are often indistinguishable from Type I exponentials, except at the innermost radii. However, in certain parameter ranges, these steady states can appear as broken, Type II or III profiles. The corresponding velocity dispersion profiles are low-order power laws. A chemical potential associated with scattering can help understand the effects of long-range scattering. The steady profiles are found to persist through constant velocity expansions or contractions in evolving discs. The proposed distributions and profiles are simple and solve the stellar hydrodynamic equations. They may be especially relevant to thick discs that have settled to a steady form via scattering.

  4. Mass, velocity anisotropy and pseudo phase space density profiles of Abell 2142

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Emiliano; Mamon, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We aim to compute the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of Abell 2142 and, from there, the pseudo phase space density profile $Q(r)$ and the density slope - velocity anisotropy $\\beta - \\gamma$ relation, and compare them with theoretical expectations. Methods: The mass profiles have been obtained by using three techniques based on member galaxy kinematics, namely the caustic method, the method of Dispersion - Kurtosis and MAMPOSSt. Through the inversion of the Jeans equation it has been possible to compute the velocity anisotropy profiles. Results: The mass profiles, as well as the virial values of mass and radius, computed with the different techniques are in agreement with one another and with the estimates coming from X-ray and weak lensing studies. A concordance mass profile is obtained by averaging the lensing, X-ray and kinematics determinations. The cluster mass profile is well fit by an NFW profile with $c=4.0 \\pm 0.5$. The population of red and blue galaxies appear to have a different veloci...

  5. Nonsingular density profiles of dark matter halos and Strong gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, D M

    2005-01-01

    We use the statistics of strong gravitational lenses to investigate whether the mass profiles with a flat density core are supported. The probability for lensing by halos modeled by nonsingular truncated isothermal sphere (NTIS) with image separations greater than a certain value (ranges from zero to ten arcseconds) is calculated. NTIS is an analytical model for the postcollapse equilibrium structure of virialized objects derived by Shapiro, Iliev & Raga (1999). This profile has a soft core and matches quite well with the mass profiles of dark matter dominated dwarf galaxies deduced from their observed rotation curves. It also agrees well with NFW (Navarro, Frenk & White) at all radii outside of a few NTIS core radii. Unfortunately, compared the results with those for singular lensing halos (NFW and SIS+NFW) and strong lensing observations, the probabilities for lensing by NTIS halos are far too low. While this result is valid for any other nonsingular density profiles (with a large core radius), we c...

  6. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  7. The effects of ellipticity and substructure on estimates of cluster density profiles based on lensing and kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, Massimo; Bartelmann, Matthias; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos

    2007-10-01

    We address the question of how well the density profile of galaxy clusters can be determined by combining strong lensing and velocity dispersion data. We use cosmological dark matter simulations of clusters to test the reliability of the method, producing mock catalogues of tangential and radial gravitational arcs and simulating the radial velocity dispersion profile of the cluster brightest central galaxy. The density profiles of the simulated clusters closely follow the Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) form, but we find that the recovered values of the inner slope are systematically underestimated, by about 0.4 in the mean, if the lens is assumed to be axially symmetric. However, if the ellipticity and orientation of the isocontours of the cluster lensing potential are taken into account, then the inner slopes can be recovered quite accurately for a significant subset of the clusters whose central surface density profiles appear the most regular. These have lensing potentials with ellipticities in the range 0.15-0.4. Further simulations projecting one cluster along many random lines of sight show that, even for lower ellipticities, the central slopes are underestimated by ~10-35per cent. These simulations closely mimic past observations, suggesting that existing estimates of the central slopes may be biased towards low values. For the remaining clusters, where the lensing potential is strongly perturbed by active merging or by substructure, the correct determination of the inner slope requires a more accurate model for the lens. When the halo profile is modelled by a generalized NFW profile, we find that the inferred scale radius and characteristic density, unlike the inner slope, are generally poorly constrained, since there is a strong degeneracy between these two parameters.

  8. Avalanche consumption and the stationary regions of the density profile around the droplets in the theory of condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurasov, V.

    1998-01-01

    The contradiction between the stationary aproach to the density profile and the avalanche character of the metastable phase consumption is investigated. The exact solution for the metastable phase profile is obtained. The reconsidered value for the special parameter responsible for the hierarchy in the structure of the density profile around the droplet is presented.

  9. THE DENSITY PROFILES OF MASSIVE, RELAXED GALAXY CLUSTERS. I. THE TOTAL DENSITY OVER THREE DECADES IN RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Sand, David J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Nipoti, Carlo [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Richard, Johan [CRAL, Observatorie de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. Andre, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Jullo, Eric, E-mail: anewman@astro.caltech.edu [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2013-03-01

    Clusters of galaxies are excellent locations to probe the distribution of baryons and dark matter (DM) over a wide range of scales. We study a sample of seven massive (M {sub 200} = 0.4-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M {sub Sun }), relaxed galaxy clusters with centrally located brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at z = 0.2-0.3. Using the observational tools of strong and weak gravitational lensing, combined with resolved stellar kinematics within the BCG, we measure the total radial density profile, comprising both dark and baryonic matter, over scales of {approx_equal} 3-3000 kpc. We present Keck spectroscopy yielding seven new spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged sources and extended stellar velocity dispersion profiles of the BCGs. Lensing-derived mass profiles typically agree with independent X-ray estimates within {approx_equal} 15%, suggesting that departures from hydrostatic equilibrium are small and that the clusters in our sample (except A383) are not strongly elongated or compressed along the line of sight. The inner logarithmic slope {gamma}{sub tot} of the total density profile measured over r/r {sub 200} = 0.003-0.03, where {rho}{sub tot}{proportional_to}r{sup -{gamma}{sub t}{sub o}{sub t}}, is found to be nearly universal, with a mean ({gamma}{sub tot}) = 1.16 {+-} 0.05(random){sup +0.05} {sub -0.07} (systematic) and an intrinsic scatter {sigma}{sub {gamma}} < 0.13 (68% confidence). This is further supported by the very homogeneous shape of the observed velocity dispersion profiles, which are mutually consistent after a simple scaling. Remarkably, this slope agrees closely with high-resolution numerical simulations that contain only DM, despite the significant contribution of stellar mass on the scales we probe. The Navarro-Frenk-White profile characteristic of collisionless cold DM is a better description of the total mass density at radii {approx}> 5-10 kpc than that of DM alone. Hydrodynamical simulations that include baryons, cooling, and

  10. Neutrals density profiles in EXTRAP-T2R based on Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecconello, M

    2002-07-01

    The role of neutral particles in fusion plasmas is very important affecting several aspects of the discharge properties. In particular the neutrals affect the particle and energy balance, the plasma confinement properties, the density profile, the particle and energy fluxes at the wall and the wall erosion. In addition, highly energetic neutrals are used as a diagnostic of the plasma ion temperature. This report describes MCNC a Monte Carlo code used in EXTRAP T2R for the calculation of the neutrals density profile of hydrogen plasma.

  11. Interplay between density profile and zonal flows in drift kinetic simulations of slab ITG turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Ghendrih, Ph. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (DSM/DRFC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Bertrand, P. [Universite Henri Poincare, Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Besse, N.; Sonnendruecker, E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS IRMA, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper reports on 4-dimensional drift kinetic simulations of the slab branch of the Ion Temperature Gradient driven turbulence in a cylinder. In the non-linear regime, the system is found to relax preferentially either via heat transport or via mean sheared flows, depending on the density profile. A strong density gradient appears to be stabilizing both linearly, by increasing the instability threshold, and non linearly, by activating sheared flows. This impedes the relaxation of the profiles and sustains a pressure transport barrier. (authors)

  12. A phenomenological model of the muon density profile on the ground of very inclined air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, H. P.; Billoir, P.; Deligny, O.; Hebbeker, T.

    2010-09-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays generate extensive air showers in Earth's atmosphere. A standard approach to reconstruct the energy of an ultra-high energy cosmic rays is to sample the lateral profile of the particle density on the ground of the air shower with an array of surface detectors. For cosmic rays with large inclinations, this reconstruction is based on a model of the lateral profile of the muon density observed on the ground, which is fitted to the observed muon densities in individual surface detectors. The best models for this task are derived from detailed Monte-Carlo simulations of the air shower development. We present a phenomenological parametrization scheme which allows to derive a model of the average lateral profile of the muon density directly from a fit to a set of individual Monte-Carlo simulated air showers. The model reproduces the detailed simulations with a high precision. As an example, we generate a muon density model which is valid in the energy range 10 18 eV < E < 10 20 eV and the zenith angle range 60°<θ<90°. We will further demonstrate a way to speed up the simulation of such muon profiles by three orders of magnitude, if only the muons in the shower are of interest.

  13. Effects of Mean Flow Profiles on Instability of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Nanda Kishore

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the mean flow profiles on the instability characteristics in the near-injector region of low-density gas jets injected into high-density ambient gas mediums. To achieve this, a linear temporal stability analysis and a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round gas jet injected vertically upwards into a high-density ambient gas were performed by assuming three different sets of mean velocity and density profiles. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel. Viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The mean flow parameters were represented as the sum of the mean value and a small normal-mode fluctuation. A second order differential equation governing the pressure disturbance amplitude was derived from the basic conservation equations. The first set of mean velocity and density profiles assumed were those used by Monkewitz and Sohn for investigating absolute instability in hot jets. The second set of velocity and density profiles assumed for this study were the ones used by Lawson. And the third set of mean profiles included a parabolic velocity profile and a hyperbolic tangent density profile. The effects of the inhomogeneous shear layer and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) on the temporal and spatio-temporal results for each set of mean profiles were delineated. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Fitting of the Thomson scattering density and temperature profiles on the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanikova, E.; Peterka, M.; Bohm, P.; Bilkova, P.; Aftanas, M.; Sos, M.; Urban, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2016-11-01

    A new technique for fitting the full radial profiles of electron density and temperature obtained by the Thomson scattering diagnostic in H-mode discharges on the COMPASS tokamak is described. The technique combines the conventionally used modified hyperbolic tangent function for the edge transport barrier (pedestal) fitting and a modification of a Gaussian function for fitting the core plasma. Low number of parameters of this combined function and their straightforward interpretability and controllability provide a robust method for obtaining physically reasonable profile fits. Deconvolution with the diagnostic instrument function is applied on the profile fit, taking into account the dependence on the actual magnetic configuration.

  15. Profiles of Phase-Space Density-like Quantities in Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    With the profiles of total mass density rho(r), stellar mass density rho_*(r) and stellar (radial) velocity dispersion sigma_*(r) of ~2,000 elliptical galaxies, we investigate combinations of rho_*(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon and rho(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon which have the same dimensionality of phase-space density for epsilon=3 and in that case are respectively referred to as pseudo phase-space (PPS) density Q_*(r) and PPS-like density Q'_*(r). Compared with the density profile rho(r) the quantity rho_*(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon has at least as large scatter but the quantity rho(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon has ~4 times smaller scatter of slopes for epsilon=3 within the effective radius R_e. If Q'_*(r) is approximated by Q'_*(r) ~ r^{-chi_e} within R_e, we have chi_e=1.860+/-0.035. Remarkably, this slope matches well the PPS density slope chi_Bertschinger=1.875 predicted by the classical self-similar spherical infall model of a self-gravitating collisionless system and the PPS density slope ~1.9 predicted by N-body simu...

  16. Fast electron current density profile and diffusion studies during LHCD in PBX-M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Kesner, J.; Luckhardt, S.; Paoletti, F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Rimini, F. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1993-08-01

    Successful current profile control experiments using lower hybrid current drive (LCHD) clearly require knowledge of (1) the location of the driven fast electrons and (2) the ability to maintain that location from spreading due to radial diffusion. These issues can be addressed by examining the data from the hard x-ray camera on PBX-M, a unique diagnostic producing two-dimensional, time resolved tangential images of fast electron bremsstrahlung. Using modeling, these line-of-sight images are inverted to extract a radial fast electron current density profile. We note that ``hollow`` profiles have been observed, indicative of off-axis current drive. These profiles can then be used to calculate an upper bound for an effective fast electron diffusion constant: assuming an extremely radially narrow lower hybrid absorption profile and a transport model based on Rax and Moreau, a model fast electron current density profile is calculated and compared to the experimentally derived profile. The model diffusion constant is adjusted until a good match is found. Applied to steady-state quiescent modes on PBX-M, we obtain an upper limit for an effective diffusion constant of about D*=1.1 m{sup 2}/sec.

  17. Evolution of density and velocity profiles of dark matter and dark energy in spherical voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosyadlyj, Bohdan; Tsizh, Maksym; Kulinich, Yurij

    2017-02-01

    We analyse the evolution of cosmological perturbations which leads to the formation of large isolated voids in the Universe. We assume that initial perturbations are spherical and all components of the Universe (radiation, matter and dark energy) are continuous media with ideal fluid energy-momentum tensors, which interact only gravitationally. Equations of the evolution of perturbations for every component in the comoving to cosmological background reference frame are obtained from equations of energy and momentum conservation and Einstein's ones and are integrated numerically. Initial conditions are set at the early stage of evolution in the radiation-dominated epoch, when the scale of perturbation is much larger than the particle horizon. Results show how the profiles of density and velocity of matter and dark energy are formed and how they depend on parameters of dark energy and initial conditions. In particular, it is shown that final matter density and velocity amplitudes change within range ˜4-7 per cent when the value of equation-of-state parameter of dark energy w vary in the range from -0.8 to -1.2, and change within ˜1 per cent only when the value of effective sound speed of dark energy vary over all allowable range of its values.

  18. The Initial Mass Function and the Surface Density Profile of NGC 6231

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, M S

    2012-01-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is Rv = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8 -- 45 Msun. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 (Gamma = -1.1 +/- 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius - it is is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We ...

  19. Validation of COSMIC radio occultation electron density profiles by incoherent scatter radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    The COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 is a joint US/Taiwan radio occultation mission consisting of six identical micro-satellites. Each microsatellite has a GPS Occultation Experiment payload to operate the ionospheric RO measurements. FS3/COSMIC data can make a positive impact on global ionosphere study providing essential information about height electron density distribu-tion. For correct using of the RO electron density profiles for geophysical analysis, modeling and other applications it is necessary to make validation of these data with electron density distributions obtained by another measurement techniques such as proven ground based facili-ties -ionosondes and IS radars. In fact as the ionosondes provide no direct information on the profile above the maximum electron density and the topside ionosonde profile is obtained by fitting a model to the peak electron density value, the COSMIC RO measurements can make an important contribution to the investigation of the topside part of the ionosphere. IS radars provide information about the whole electron density profile, so we can estimate the agreement of topside parts between two independent measurements. To validate the reliability of COS-MIC data we have used the ionospheric electron density profiles derived from IS radar located near Kharkiv, Ukraine (geographic coordinates: 49.6N, 36.3E, geomagnetic coordinates: 45.7N, 117.8E). The Kharkiv radar is a sole incoherent scatter facility on the middle latitudes of Eu-ropean region. The radar operates with 100-m zenith parabolic antenna at 158 MHz with peak transmitted power 2.0 MW. The Kharkiv IS radar is able to determine the heights-temporal distribution of ionosphere parameters in height range of 70-1500 km. At the ionosphere in-vestigation by incoherent scatter method there are directly measured the power spectrum (or autocorrelation function) of scattered signal. With using of rather complex procedure of the received signal processing it is possible to estimate the

  20. Role of substituents on the reactivity and electron density profile of diimine ligands: A density functional theory based study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhakti S Kulkarni; Deepti Mishra; Sourav Pal

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the reactivity of diimines like 2, 2'-bipyridine, 1, l0-phenanthroline and 1, 2, 4-triazines using density-based reactivity descriptors. We discuss the enhancement or diminution in the reactivity of these ligands as a function of two substituent groups, namely methyl (-CH3) group and phenyl (-C6H5) group. The global reactivity descriptors explain the global affinity and philicity of these ligands, whereas the local softness depicts the particular site selectivity. The inter-molecular reactivity trends for the same systems are analysed through the philicity and group philicity indices. The -donor character of these ligands is quantified with the help of electron density profile. In addition, the possible strength of interaction of these ligands with metal ions is supported with actual reaction energies of Ru-L complexes.

  1. 20 CFR 416.962 - Medical-vocational profiles showing an inability to make an adjustment to other work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inability to make an adjustment to other work. 416.962 Section 416.962 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and... shows that you meet this profile, we will not need to assess your residual functional capacity...

  2. Advanced Tokamak current density profiles for non-inductive Tore Supra operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Bibet, P.; Froissard, P.; Goniche, M.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Rey, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1995-12-31

    This document deals with the advanced Tokamak concept concerning self consistent hollow current density profiles. Several Lower Hybrid experiments performed on Tore Supra are presented: the feasibility of the constant-flux operation mode is demonstrated and a new improved confinement regime with a reversed shear has been obtained. (TEC). 12 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Novel analysis technique for measuring edge density fluctuation profiles with reflectometry in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujimura, T.; Akiyama, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Emoto, M.; Tanaka, K.; Michael, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new method for measuring density fluctuation profiles near the edge of plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been developed utilizing reflectometry combined with pellet-induced fast density scans. Reflectometer cutoff location was calculated by proportionally scaling the cutoff location calculated with fast far infrared laser interferometer (FIR) density profiles to match the slower time resolution results of the ray-tracing code LHD-GAUSS. Plasma velocity profile peaks generated with this reflectometer mapping were checked against velocity measurements made with charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) and were found to agree within experimental uncertainty once diagnostic differences were accounted for. Measured density fluctuation profiles were found to peak strongly near the edge of the plasma, as is the case in most tokamaks. These measurements can be used in the future to inform inversion methods of phase contrast imaging (PCI) measurements. This result was confirmed with both a fixed frequency reflectometer and calibrated data from a multi-frequency comb reflectometer, and this method was applied successfully to a series of discharges. The full width at half maximum of the turbulence layer near the edge of the plasma was found to be only 1.5-3 cm on a series of LHD discharges, less than 5% of the normalized minor radius.

  4. Model Predictive Control with Integral Action for Current Density Profile Tracking in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Z. O.; Wehner, W. P.; Schuster, E.; Boyer, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Active control of the toroidal current density profile may play a critical role in non-inductively sustained long-pulse, high-beta scenarios in a spherical torus (ST) configuration, which is among the missions of the NSTX-U facility. In this work, a previously developed physics-based control-oriented model is embedded in a feedback control scheme based on a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to track a desired current density profile evolution specified indirectly by a desired rotational transform profile. An integrator is embedded into the standard MPC formulation to reject various modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. Neutral beam powers, electron density, and total plasma current are used as actuators. The proposed MPC strategy incorporates various state and actuator constraints directly into the control design process by solving a constrained optimization problem in real-time to determine the optimal actuator requests. The effectiveness of the proposed controller in regulating the current density profile in NSTX-U is demonstrated in closed-loop nonlinear simulations. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Fingerprints of the initial conditions on the density profiles of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Polisensky, E

    2015-01-01

    We use N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in cold dark matter (CDM) and a large set of different warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies to demonstrate that the spherically averaged density profile of dark matter haloes has a shape that depends on the power spectrum of matter perturbations. Density profiles are steeper in WDM but become shallower at scales less than one percent of the virial radius. Virialization isotropizes the velocity dispersion in the inner regions of the halo but does not erase the memory of the initial conditions in phase space. The location of the observed deviations from CDM in the density profile and in phase space can be directly related to the ratio between the halo mass and the filtering mass and are most evident in small mass haloes, even for a 34 keV thermal relic WDM. The rearrangement of mass within the haloes supports analytic models of halo structure that include angular momentum. We also find evidence of a dependence of the slope of the inner density profile in CDM cosmolo...

  6. The effect of baryons on the inner density profiles of rich clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Matthieu; Frenk, Carlos S.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; McCarthy, I. G.

    2015-09-01

    We use the `Evolution and assembly of galaxies and their environments' (EAGLE) cosmological simulation to investigate the effect of baryons on the density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. We focus on EAGLE clusters with M200 > 1014 M⊙ of which we have six examples. The central brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the simulation have steep stellar density profiles, ρ*(r) ∝ r-3. Stars dominate the mass density for r Frenk-White (NFW) profile, in remarkable agreement with observations. The dark matter halo itself closely follows the NFW form at all resolved radii (r ≳ 3.0 kpc). The EAGLE BCGs have similar surface brightness and line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles as the BCGs in the sample of Newman et al., which have the most detailed measurements currently available. After subtracting the contribution of the stars to the central density, Newman et al. infer significantly shallower slopes than the NFW value, in contradiction with the EAGLE results. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that an inconsistency between the kinematical model adopted by Newman et al. for their BCGs, which assumes isotropic stellar orbits, and the kinematical structure of the EAGLE BCGs, in which the orbital stellar anisotropy varies with radius and tends to be radially biased, could explain at least part of the discrepancy.

  7. High-throughput oncogene mutation profiling shows demographic differences in BRAF mutation rates among melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Karin; Balint, Balazs; Toomey, Sinead; O'Leary, Patrick C; Unwin, Louise; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda W; Murphy, Ian; van den Oord, Joost J; Rafferty, Mairin; FitzGerald, Dara M; Moran, Julie; Cummins, Robert; MacEneaney, Owen; Kay, Elaine W; O'Brien, Cathal P; Finn, Stephen P; Heffron, Cynthia C B B; Murphy, Michelle; Yela, Ruben; Power, Derek G; Regan, Padraic J; McDermott, Clodagh M; O'Keeffe, Allan; Orosz, Zsolt; Donnellan, Paul P; Crown, John P; Hennessy, Bryan T; Gallagher, William M

    2015-06-01

    Because of advances in targeted therapies, the clinical evaluation of cutaneous melanoma is increasingly based on a combination of traditional histopathology and molecular pathology. Therefore, it is necessary to expand our knowledge of the molecular events that accompany the development and progression of melanoma to optimize clinical management. The central objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of the mutational events that complement melanoma progression. High-throughput genotyping was adapted to query 159 known single nucleotide mutations in 33 cancer-related genes across two melanoma cohorts from Ireland (n=94) and Belgium (n=60). Results were correlated with various clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 23 mutations in 12 genes were identified, that is--BRAF, NRAS, MET, PHLPP2, PIK3R1, IDH1, KIT, STK11, CTNNB1, JAK2, ALK, and GNAS. Unexpectedly, we discovered significant differences in BRAF, MET, and PIK3R1 mutations between the cohorts. That is, cases from Ireland showed significantly lower (PBRAF(V600E) mutation rates (19%) compared with the mutation frequency observed in Belgian patients (43%). Moreover, MET mutations were detected in 12% of Irish cases, whereas none of the Belgian patients harbored these mutations, and Irish patients significantly more often (P=0.027) had PIK3R1-mutant (33%) melanoma versus 17% of Belgian cases. The low incidence of BRAF(V600E)(-) mutant melanoma among Irish patients was confirmed in five independent Irish cohorts, and in total, only 165 of 689 (24%) Irish cases carried mutant BRAF(V600E). Together, our data show that melanoma-driving mutations vary by demographic area, which has important implications for the clinical management of this disease.

  8. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulations of Density Profiles for Hard-Sphere Chain Fluids Confined Between Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Covering a wide range of bulk densities, density profiles for hard-sphere chain fluids (HSCFs) with chain length of 3,4,8,20,32 and 64 confined between two surfaces were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using extended continuum configurational-bias (ECCB) method. It is shown that the enrichment of beads near surfaces is happened at high densities due to the bulk packing effect, on the contrary, the depletion is revealed at low densities owing to the configurational entropic contribution. Comparisons with those calculated by density functional theory presented by Cai et al. indicate that the agreement between simulations and predictions is good. Compressibility factors of bulk HSCFs calculated using volume fractions at surfaces were also used to test the reliability of various equations of state of HSCFs by different authors.

  10. Mass, velocity anisotropy, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of Abell 2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, E.; Biviano, A.; Mamon, G. A.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We aim to compute the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of Abell 2142 and, from there, the pseudo phase-space density profile Q(r) and the density slope - velocity anisotropy β - γ relation, and then to compare them with theoretical expectations. Methods: The mass profiles were obtained by using three techniques based on member galaxy kinematics, namely the caustic method, the method of dispersion-kurtosis, and MAMPOSSt. Through the inversion of the Jeans equation, it was possible to compute the velocity anisotropy profiles. Results: The mass profiles, as well as the virial values of mass and radius, computed with the different techniques agree with one another and with the estimates coming from X-ray and weak lensing studies. A combined mass profile is obtained by averaging the lensing, X-ray, and kinematics determinations. The cluster mass profile is well fitted by an NFW profile with c = 4.0 ± 0.5. The population of red and blue galaxies appear to have a different velocity anisotropy configuration, since red galaxies are almost isotropic, while blue galaxies are radially anisotropic, with a weak dependence on radius. The Q(r) profile for the red galaxy population agrees with the theoretical results found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that any bias, relative to the dark matter particles, in velocity dispersion of the red component is independent of radius. The β - γ relation for red galaxies matches the theoretical relation only in the inner region. The deviations might be due to the use of galaxies as tracers of the gravitational potential, unlike the non-collisional tracer used in the theoretical relation.

  11. Limits on the power-law mass and luminosity density profiles of elliptical galaxies from gravitational lensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Biesiada, Marek; Yao, Meng; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-09-01

    We use 118 strong gravitational lenses observed by the SLACS, BOSS emission-line lens survey (BELLS), LSD and SL2S surveys to constrain the total mass profile and the profile of luminosity density of stars (light tracers) in elliptical galaxies up to redshift z ˜ 1. Assuming power-law density profiles for the total mass density, ρ = ρ0(r/r0)-α, and luminosity density, ν = ν0(r/r0)-δ, we investigate the power-law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift. Using Monte Carlo simulations of the posterior likelihood taking the Planck's best-fitting cosmology as a prior, we find γ = 2.132 ± 0.055 with a mild trend ∂γ/∂zl = -0.067 ± 0.119 when α = δ = γ, suggesting that the total density profile of massive galaxies could have become slightly steeper over cosmic time. Furthermore, similar analyses performed on sub-samples defined by different lens redshifts and velocity dispersions indicate the need of treating low-, intermediate- and high-mass galaxies separately. Allowing δ to be a free parameter, we obtain α = 2.070 ± 0.031, ∂α/∂zl = -0.121 ± 0.078 and δ = 2.710 ± 0.143. The model in which mass traces light is rejected at >95 per cent confidence, and our analysis robustly indicates the presence of dark matter in the form of a mass component that is differently spatially extended than the light. In this case, intermediate-mass elliptical galaxies (200 km s-1 <σap ≤ 300 km s-1) show the best consistency with the singular isothermal sphere as an effective model of galactic lenses.

  12. Human yeast-specific CD8 T lymphocytes show a nonclassical effector molecule profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinig, Tanja; Scheller, Nicoletta; Glombitza, Birgit; Breinig, Frank; Meyerhans, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Pathogenic yeast and fungi represent a major group of human pathogens. The consequences of infections are diverse and range from local, clinically uncomplicated mycosis of the skin to systemic, life-threatening sepsis. Despite extensive MHC class I-restricted frequencies of yeast-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in healthy individuals and the essential role of the cell-mediated immunity in controlling infections, the characteristics and defense mechanisms of antifungal effector cells are still unclear. Here, we describe the direct analysis of yeast-specific CD8 T lymphocytes in whole blood from healthy individuals. They show a unique, nonclassical phenotype expressing granulysin and granzyme K in lytic granules instead of the major effector molecules perforin and granzyme B. After stimulation in whole blood, yeast-specific CD8 T cells degranulated and, upon cultivation in the presence of IL-2, their granula were refilled with granulysin rather than with perforin and granzyme B. Moreover, yeast-specific stimulation through dendritic cells but not by yeast cells alone led to degranulation of the effector cells. As granulysin is the only effector molecule in lytic granules known to have antifungal properties, our data suggest yeast-specific CD8 T cells to be a nonclassical effector population whose antimicrobial effector machinery seems to be tailor-made for the efficient elimination of fungi as pathogens.

  13. An improved empirical formulation of an ionosphere bottomside electron density profile thickness parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazo-Cuartas, K.; Radicella, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    An improved empirical formulation for the characterization of the ;base point; of the bottomside ionospheric electron density profile is proposed. The ;base point; in an ionospheric layer is defined by the electron density profile height where the gradient dN/dh reaches a maximum. The difference between the height of the maximum electron density and the height of the ;base point; is proportional to the ionospheric F2 layer thickness parameter B2. The previous empirical formula links the maximum value of dN/dh to foF2 and M(3000)F2 scaled from the ionograms. The new formulation adds a dependence on the solar zenith angle. The use of the new equation improves substantially the calculation of the B2 thickness parameter used in the NeQuick model.

  14. Relationship between habitat, densities and metabolic profile in brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some habitat traits and haematic parameters were studied to understand the relationships between the hare densities, habitat characteristics and physiological and nutritional condition of the animals. A total of 33 protected areas, reserved for wild game reproduction, located in the Province of Florence (Central Italy, were monitored during a 2-year period. In each protected area the hares were submitted to census. The habitat features of the protected areas were studied and the following parameters were categorised: altitude; cleared-land/total-land ratio; main exposure; main ground composition; water availability; main slope; anthropogenic presence; predator presence; wooded borders; presence of trees and shrubs; surveillance against hunting; demographic predator control; kind of cultivation; unharvested crops for game. After the census the hares were captured for translocation outside in “free” hunting areas. During capture the hares were put in darkened, wooden capture-boxes and remained inside for a variable period of time (10min to 3h. A sample of 3 to 7 hares, captured per year and per each protected area, were removed from the boxes (physically restrained, with covered eyes for blood sample collection, sex, age and live weight determination. The following analyses were performed on frozen plasma samples: ALanine aminoTransferase (ALT, ASpartate aminoTransferase (AST, glucose, cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, and Cl concentrations. The relationship between hare density and habitat characteristics was analysed by single regressions analysis. Then the habitat characteristics were subjected to multivariate analysis in relationship to hare body condition. The haematic parameters were analysed by least square means considering habitat traits, animal density, age and sex, as main categorical factors, interaction sex*age, and “pregnant and non-reproducing” nested within sex. Results showed that the highest density

  15. [Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy for Degradation Profile of High Density Polyethylene after Weathering Aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-jun; Yan, Hua; Bao, He-bin; Wang, Xue-mei; Hu, Zhi-de; Yang, Jian-jian

    2015-06-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) was widely used as rotational packaging case in the material reserve field. The chemical changes of HDPE, exposed to particular climatic conditions of tropic marine atmosphere for one year-long in Wanning Hainan, were elucidated by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The structural changes were studied qualitatively, mainly from the polymeric chain breaking, branching and oxidation to distinguish the degradation profile. The variations of crystallinity & carbonyl index were also studied quantitatively according to the characteristic peaks intensity & area ratio. Finally, the relationships between structural changes and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that the polymeric chain breaking & branching play a leading role before 3 months in the aging progress. Then oxidation phenomena gradually takes place during 3-6 months. The chain branching & oxidation were predominant factors after 6 months. Nine months later, the oxidation was saturated gradually. Furthermore, the aging process is positively correlated to the temperature and irradiation. After 12 months aging, the carbonyl index increased by 112 times and crystallinity was 10% higher than before. The tensile/bending modulus deceased faster than tensile/bending strength of HDPE. The linear degree of tensile modulus and carbonyl index was 0.97. The degree of linearity of tensile strength and crystallinity calculated by feature bands (720-730 cm(-1)) was 0.96. It showed that the mechanical properties of HDPE can be speculated from the structural changes by ATR-FTIR.

  16. Image of Fomalhaut Dust Ring at 350 Microns: The Relative Column Density Map Shows Pericenter-Apocenter Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, K. A.; Velusamy, T.; Dowell, C. D.; Grogan, K.; Beichman, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    We have imaged the circumstellar disk of Fomalhaut at 350 mm wavelength, using SHARC II (Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The spatial resolution of the raw images (9") has been enhanced by a factor of 3 using the HiRes deconvolution procedure. We find that at this wavelength and signal-to-noise ratio (approx.12), the observed morphology is that of a simple inclined ring (i approx. 70 deg), with little or no other apparent structure--this is the first observation that shows clearly the ring morphology of the disk. We have combined our 350 mm data with Spitzer Space Telescope images at 24, 70, and 160 mm in order to estimate the two-dimensional spatial variation of relative column density ("tau map") using our DISKFIT procedure. The tau map is based on the following physical assumptions: (1) the wavelength variation of opacity is the same throughout the disk, (2) the radial variation of dust temperature is dictated by the energy balance of individual grains in the stellar radiation field, and (3) the vertical scale height of the disk follows a power-law radial variation. The results confirm the ringlike morphology but also show that the geometric center is displaced from the star by about 8 AU and that the ring has an apocentric enhancement of approximately 14% in integrated column density. If we interpret the displacement in terms of elliptical orbital motion due to gravitational perturbation by an unseen planet, then the implied forced eccentricity is 0.06; dynamical modeling then predicts an apocentric density enhancement consistent with that inferred from the tau map.

  17. Effects of Shewanella putrefaciens on innate immunity and cytokine expression profile upon high stocking density of gilthead seabream specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Héctor; Morcillo, Patricia; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2016-04-01

    High stocking density increases the number of emerging diseases triggering economic losses worldwide. Probiotics provide an effective and natural solution for preventing some diseases through an improvement of innate immune system among others. In the present work dietary administration of the probiotic Shewanella putrefaciens (known as Pdp11) was evaluated under stress by high stocking density after 2 and 4 weeks of administration to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens. Results showed an increase in cellular peroxidase and respiratory burst activity as well as a modulation of cytokine profile when Pdp11 was administered to fish reared at high stocking density. Overall, our results showed how Pdp11 is not only able to improve to some extent the cellular and humoral immunity but also to increase the gene expression profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as il1b or il6 in response to high stocking density in gilthead seabream. These findings may support the potential use of this probiotic as functional feed against stress in fish farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of baryon physics on dark matter structures: a detailed simulation study of halo density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Alan R; Kay, Scott T; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Battye, Richard A; Booth, C M

    2010-01-01

    The back-reaction of baryons on the dark matter halo density profile is of great interest, not least because it is an important systematic uncertainty when attempting to detect the dark matter. Here, we draw on a large suite of high resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, to systematically investigate this process and its dependence on the baryonic physics associated with galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryons results in significantly more concentrated density profiles if radiative cooling is efficient and feedback is weak. The dark matter halo concentration can in that case increase by as much as 30 (10) per cent on galaxy (cluster) scales. The most significant effects occur in galaxies at high redshift, where there is a strong anti-correlation between the baryon fraction in the halo centre and the inner slope of both the total and the dark matter density profiles. If feedback is weak, isothermal inner profiles form, in agreement with observations of massive, early-type galaxies. However, we ...

  19. Effect of small scale density perturbations on the formation of dark matter halo profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipenko, S V; Lukash, V N; Mikheeva, E V

    2012-01-01

    With help of a set of toy N-body models of dark halo formation we study the impact of small scale initial perturbations on the inner density profiles of haloes. We find a significant flattening of the inner slope $\\alpha={d \\log \\rho \\over d \\log r}$ to $\\alpha=-0.5$ in some range of scales and amplitudes of the perturbations (while in the case of absence of these perturbations the NFW profile with $\\alpha=-1$ is reproduced). This effect may be responsible for the formation of cuspless galactic haloes.

  20. Effect of small-scale density perturbations on the formation of dark matter halo profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Lukash, V. N.; Mikheeva, E. V.

    2012-11-01

    With the help of a set of toy N-body models of dark halo formation, we study the impact of small-scale initial perturbations on the inner density profiles of haloes. We find a significant flattening of the inner slope ? to α=-0.5 in some range of scales and amplitudes of the perturbations (while in the case of absence of these perturbations, the Navarro-Frenk-White profile with α=-1 is reproduced). This effect may be responsible for the formation of cuspless galactic haloes.

  1. Effect of small scale density perturbations on the formation of dark matter halo profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Pilipenko, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Lukash, V. N.; Mikheeva, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    With help of a set of toy N-body models of dark halo formation we study the impact of small scale initial perturbations on the inner density profiles of haloes. We find a significant flattening of the inner slope $\\alpha={d \\log \\rho \\over d \\log r}$ to $\\alpha=-0.5$ in some range of scales and amplitudes of the perturbations (while in the case of absence of these perturbations the NFW profile with $\\alpha=-1$ is reproduced). This effect may be responsible for the formation of cuspless galact...

  2. An Examination of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Ionospheric Electron Density Profile: Data Quality Criteria and Comparisons with the IRI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Feng Yang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the properties of ionospheric electron density profiling retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements. Two parameters, namely, the gradient and fluctuation of the topside electron density profile, serve as indicators to quantitatively describe the data quality of the retrieved electron density profile. On the basis of 8 month data (June 2006 - January 2007, we find that on average 93% of the electron density profiles have upper electron density gradients and electron density fluctuations smaller than -0.02 #/m3/m and 0.2, respectively, which can be treated as good data for further analysis. The same results are also achieved for the peak height of the electron density. After removing the questionable data, we compare the general behaviors of the electron density between FORMOSAT-3 and the IRI model. It is found that the global distributions of the peak height and the peak electron density for the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC data are generally consistent with those for the IRI model. However, a significant difference between their scale heights of the topside electron density profiles is found. It suggests that the shape of the topside electron density profile in the IRI model should be revised accordingly such that it more closely resembles the real situation.

  3. TIDAL STIRRING OF DISKY DWARFS WITH SHALLOW DARK MATTER DENSITY PROFILES: ENHANCED TRANSFORMATION INTO DWARF SPHEROIDALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lokas, Ewa L. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Mayer, Lucio, E-mail: stelios@mps.ohio-state.edu [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-02-20

    According to the tidal stirring model, late type, rotationally supported dwarfs resembling present day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies can transform into dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) via interactions with Milky-Way-sized hosts. We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate for the first time how tidal stirring depends on the dark matter (DM) density distribution in the central stellar region of the progenitor disky dwarf. Specifically, we explore various asymptotic inner slopes {gamma} of the dwarf DM density profiles ({rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}). For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in DM halos with core-like distributions ({gamma} = 0.2) and mild density cusps ({gamma} = 0.6) demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs compared to their counterparts with steeper DM density profiles ({gamma} = 1). Such shallow DM distributions are akin to those of observed dIrrs highlighting tidal stirring as a plausible model for the Local Group (LG) morphology-density relation. When {gamma} < 1, a single pericentric passage can induce dSph formation and disky dwarfs on low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are able to transform; these new results allow tidal stirring to explain virtually all known dSphs across a wide range of distances from their hosts. A subset of disky dwarfs initially embedded in DM halos with shallow density profiles are eventually disrupted by the primary; those that survive as dSphs are generally on orbits with lower eccentricities and/or larger pericenters compared to those of typical cold dark matter satellites. The latter could explain the peculiar orbits of several LG dSphs such as Fornax, Leo I, Tucana, and Cetus.

  4. Peaked density profiles in neon and lithium doped discharges on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzotta, C., E-mail: cristina.mazzotta@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Botrugno, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Marinucci, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pucella, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Istituto di Fisica dei Plasmi, CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Tudisco, O. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Peaked density profiles are observed in FTU discharges when the recycling condition of the chamber is influenced by the action of the liquid lithium limiter (LLL). Turbulence analysis of lithium doped FTU plasmas has shown that the presence of the light impurity modifies the phase between fluctuating fields responsible for transport and consequently leads to an inward deuterium pinch and outward impurity flux. Analogous peaked discharges were produced by Ne-gas puffing in different L mode plasma scenarios that have been recently obtained on FTU with following plasma parameters: I = 360 kA, B = 5–6.5 T, n{sub e0} = 0.2–1 × 10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, T{sub e0} = 1–4 keV, as well as in similar experiments on other machines. In fact the Ne seeded plasmas show an increase of the peaking factor around 30%. UV spectroscopy measurements confirm that the electron-density peaking arises from a convective flow and cannot be attributed to the contribution of the injected Ne alone. The Ne doped discharges analysis together with lithium conditioned ones is useful to extend the interpretative framework of the particle transport. In this work a comparison of the diffusion coefficient and of the pinch velocity of the two cases is conducted. By using a two-colors scanning interferometer providing very high spatial and time resolution, it is indeed possible to estimate the D and U coefficients of a simple model for the particle flux.

  5. Analytic, piecewise solution to the Lane-Emden equation for stars with complex density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The polytropic models of stars are used for a variety of applications in computational astrophysics. These are typically obtained by numerically solving the Lane-Emden equation for a star in hydrostatic equilibrium under assumption that the pressure and density within the star obey the polytropic equation of state. We present an efficient analytic, piecewise differentiable solution to the Lane-Emden equation which allows “stitching” of different polytropes to represent complex pressure and density profiles. This approach can be used to model stars with distinct properties in their cores and envelopes, such as the evolved red giant and horizontal branch stars.

  6. Density profiles of Ar adsorbed in slits of CO2: Spontaneous symmetry breaking revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Leszek; Sartarelli, Salvador A.

    2008-03-01

    A recently reported symmetry breaking of density profiles of fluid argon confined by two parallel solid walls of carbon dioxide is studied. The calculations are performed in the framework of a nonlocal density functional theory. It is shown that the existence of such asymmetrical solutions is restricted to a special choice for the adsorption potential, where the attraction of the solid-fluid interaction is reduced by the introduction of a hard-wall repulsion. The behavior as a function of the slit's width is also discussed. All the results are placed in the context of the current knowledge on this matter.

  7. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  8. Transmembrane and secreted MUC1 probes show trafficking-dependent changes in O-glycan core profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Katja; Kinlough, Carol L; Müller, Stefan; Razawi, Hani; Baldus, Stephan E; Hughey, Rebecca P; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2005-11-01

    The human mucin MUC1 is expressed both as a transmembrane heterodimeric protein complex that recycles via the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and as a secreted isoform. To determine whether differences in cellular trafficking might influence the O-glycosylation profiles on these isoforms, we developed a model system consisting of membrane-bound and secretory-recombinant glycosylation probes. Secretory MUC1-S contains only a truncated repeat domain, whereas in MUC1-M constructs this domain is attached to the native transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of MUC1 either directly (M0) or via an intermitting nonfunctional (M1) or functional sperm protein-enterokinase-agrin (SEA) module (M2); the SEA module contains a putative proteolytic cleavage site and is associated with proteins receiving extensive O-glycosylation. We showed that MUC1-M2 simulates endogenous MUC1 by recycling from the cell surface of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant ldlD14 cells through intracellular compartments where its glycosylation continues. The profiles of O-linked glycans on MUC1-S secreted by epithelial EBNA-293 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells revealed patterns dominated by core 2-based oligosaccharides. In contrast, the respective membrane-shed probes expressed in the same cells showed a complete shift to patterns dominated by sialyl core 1. In conclusion, glycan core profiles reflected the subcellular trafficking pathways of the secretory or membranous probes and the modifying activities of the resident glycosyltransferases.

  9. Hollow radial electron density profiles in surface wave discharges. An inside job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Diaz, Manuel; Rahimi, Sara; Carbone, Emile A. D.; Dijk, Jan Van

    2013-09-01

    In many microwave excited plasmas, there is a part of the discharge (tube) hidden from optical access e.g. because of the metal parts that cover it; it is the region where the transformation occurs between the EM modes found in the (metal) waveguide to modes in the plasma (waveguide). Because in most of cases optical access is not an option here, studies of this region remain scarce. Regardless of this, it is a well-known fact that the discharge tube can easily break due to the high temperatures inside the launcher of surfaguide discharges, which means the temperature is higher there than in other regions of the plasma. In this work, we use a 2D model to show how the inner region changes for increasing power absorbed and electromagnetic wave frequency. The shaping of the EM coupling into the plasma region by the cavity is explored as well. We discuss when the hollow radial profiles for the electron density appear in a surfaguide plasma, and how they are related to the radial inhomogeneity of the EM fields and the plasma properties (e.g. gas temperature). All these results were obtained using the modeling platform Plasimo. Supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation (STW Project Nos. 10497 and 10744) and by the Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN).

  10. Modeling of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional etch profiles in high density plasma reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.J.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Sukharev, V. [LSI Logic Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In order to model the plasma etching process from plasma generation to etch profile evolution, processes from the macroscopic reactor scale to the microscopic feature scale must be simulated. An integrated monte Carlo feature Profile Model (MCFPM) has been developed to examine the time evolution of etch profiles in high density plasma systems. By integrating the MCFPM with the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM), the authors are able to self-consistently determine the etch profiles for specific regions on the wafer in specific reactor geometry with specified parameters for power, chemistry, gas flow, etc. The latest improvements of the model include the effects of incoming particle angle and energy on reaction and reflection based on the results of molecular dynamics simulations. Increase the specular reflection of high energy particles leads to more vertical sidewalls and corner clearing but can also cause deformation of the bottom of the profile surface. For Chlorine etching of 2D and 3D profiles in polysilicon, the model results will be compared to experimental results in an inductively couple etching reactor. The changes due to radial location as well as sub wafer and superwafer topography be examined.

  11. Modulation of solar flare particles and track density profiles in gas-rich meteorite grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A solution is presented to the problem concerning the time-averaged solar flare particle flux as a function of kinetic energy and distance from the sun for a given particle injection spectrum at the sun within the framework of standard diffusion-convection-adiabatic deceleration theory with the diffusion coefficient independent of distance from the sun. Results of the calculations which give best agreement with observations at 1 AU are presented and discussed, with particular reference to their implications for gas-rich meteorites. Normalization at the orbit of earth is achieved via observed track density versus depth profiles in lunar vug crystals. It is shown that if gas-rich meteorite grains were irradiated in the asteroid belt and if source and modulation parameters have changed little since irradiation, the track density should be 'harder' than the lunar vug profile by about 0.2-0.3 in the index. Quantitative estimation of solar flare particle exposure ages is discussed.

  12. Double-Humped Transverse Density Profile in Two-Dimensional Chute Flow with Rough Sidewalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-Qi; ZHANG Xun-Sheng; BAO De-Song; TANG Xiao-Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study a two-dimensional granular rapid flow with rough sidewalls stuck with the same size discs by molecular dynamics simulation. A transient state of the double-humped density profile in the flowing process has been found, which appears and moves as travelling wave and is the same as the phenomena in the recent experiments [Acta Phys. Sin. 53 (2004) 3389 (in Chinese)].

  13. Density Profiles of CDM Microhalos and their Implications for Annihilation Boost Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhalden, Donnino

    2013-01-01

    In a standard cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, microhalos at the CDM cutoff scale are the first and smallest objects expected to form in the universe. Here we present results of high resolution simulations of three representative roughly Earth-mass microhalos in order to determine their inner density profile. We find that CDM microhalos in simulations without a cutoff in the power spectrum roughly follow the NFW density profile, just like the much larger CDM halos on galaxy and galaxy cluster scales. But having a cutoff in the initial power spectrum at a typical neutralino free streaming scale of $10^{-7} M_{\\odot}$ makes their inner density profiles considerably steeper, i.e. $\\rho \\propto r^{-(1.3-1.4)}$, in good agreement with the results from Ishiyama et al. (2010). An extrapolation of the halo and subhalo mass functions down to the cutoff scale indicates that microhalos are extremely abundant throughout the present day dark matter distribution and might contribute significantly to indirect dark matter d...

  14. A mass-dependent density profile for dark matter haloes including the influence of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Di Cintio, Arianna; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V; Stinson, Greg S; Knebe, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a mass dependent density profile to describe the distribution of dark matter within galaxies, which takes into account the stellar-to-halo mass dependence of the response of dark matter to baryonic processes. The study is based on the analysis of hydrodynamically simulated galaxies from dwarf to Milky Way mass, drawn from the MaGICC project, which have been shown to match a wide range of disk scaling relationships. We find that the best fit parameters of a generic double power-law density profile vary in a systematic manner that depends on the stellar-to-halo mass ratio of each galaxy. Thus, the quantity Mstar/Mhalo constrains the inner ($\\gamma$) and outer ($\\beta$) slopes of dark matter density, and the sharpness of transition between the slopes($\\alpha$), reducing the number of free parameters of the model to two. Due to the tight relation between stellar mass and halo mass, either of these quantities is sufficient to describe the dark matter halo profile including the effects of baryons. The ...

  15. Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have numerical appreciation of the results the propagation equation for plasma is solved using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method for the initial plane wave front of the beam, using boundary conditions. The spot size of the laser beam decreases as the beam penetrates into the plasma and significantly adds self-focusing in plasma. This causes the laser beam to become more focused by reduction of diffraction effect, which is an important phenomenon in inertial confinement fusion and also for the understanding of self-focusing of laser pulses. Numerical computations are presented and discussed in the form of graphs for typical parameters of laser-plasma interaction.

  16. The masses and density profiles of halos in a LCDM galaxy formation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard G; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Furlong, Michelle; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; McCarthy, I G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the internal structure and density profiles of halos of mass $10^{10}-10^{14}~M_\\odot$ in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations. These follow the formation of galaxies in a $\\Lambda$CDM Universe and include a treatment of the baryon physics thought to be relevant. The EAGLE simulations reproduce the observed present-day galaxy stellar mass function, as well as many other properties of the galaxy population as a function of time. We find significant differences between the masses of halos in the EAGLE simulations and in simulations that follow only the dark matter component. Nevertheless, halos are well described by the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile at radii larger than ~5% of the virial radius but, closer to the centre, the presence of stars can produce cuspier profiles. Central enhancements in the total mass profile are most important in halos of mass $10^{12}-10^{13}M_\\odot$, where the stellar fraction peaks. Over the radial range where t...

  17. Variations in a Universal Density Profile for the Milky Way's Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardel, John; Gebhardt, K.

    2014-01-01

    On the largest scales, the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm for structure formation has enjoyed remarkable success in describing the universe we live in. The current frontier in our knowledge of galaxy formation is at the low-mass level. Here we find disagreement between theory and observations in a number of interesting cases. One such problem that has received considerable attention is the debate over the shape of the dark matter density profiles in the Milky Way's dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, known as the core/cusp problem. CDM simulations predict every halo should have a cuspy profile with an inner logarithmic slope of -1, but some observers have found that profiles with constant density inner cores are preferred. However, a major weakness of this previous work is that the dynamical models constructed to measure the mass distribution have had to assume a parameterization for the dark matter profile--exactly the thing one wishes to measure. For my thesis I introduced a new modeling technique, based on Schwarzschild's method, that instead calculates the dark matter profile non-parametrically. Applying these models to five of the Milky Way's dSphs I found a variety of profile shapes including cores, cusps, and other completely unexpected shapes. When scaled to a common normalization, however, I found the combined profile appears to follow an approximate power law with slope -1. The results of this averaging suggest that the individual formation histories of each galaxy produce differing dark matter profiles, but with a net result that is similar to CDM predictions. To better understand the role baryons play in this process, I compare my results to recent hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of dwarf galaxies. Together, my results and the simulations suggest a trend of flatter profiles in galaxies where more stars have formed. This implies that star formation and dark matter halos are linked through the effects of supernova-induced outflows which are

  18. Model-based Optimization and Feedback Control of the Current Density Profile Evolution in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Zeki Okan

    Nuclear fusion research is a highly challenging, multidisciplinary field seeking contributions from both plasma physics and multiple engineering areas. As an application of plasma control engineering, this dissertation mainly explores methods to control the current density profile evolution within the National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U), which is a substantial upgrade based on the NSTX device, which is located in Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ. Active control of the toroidal current density profile is among those plasma control milestones that the NSTX-U program must achieve to realize its next-step operational goals, which are characterized by high-performance, long-pulse, MHD-stable plasma operation with neutral beam heating. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop model-based, feedforward and feedback controllers that can enable time regulation of the current density profile in NSTX-U by actuating the total plasma current, electron density, and the powers of the individual neutral beam injectors. Motivated by the coupled, nonlinear, multivariable, distributed-parameter plasma dynamics, the first step towards control design is the development of a physics-based, control-oriented model for the current profile evolution in NSTX-U in response to non-inductive current drives and heating systems. Numerical simulations of the proposed control-oriented model show qualitative agreement with the high-fidelity physics code TRANSP. The next step is to utilize the proposed control-oriented model to design an open-loop actuator trajectory optimizer. Given a desired operating state, the optimizer produces the actuator trajectories that can steer the plasma to such state. The objective of the feedforward control design is to provide a more systematic approach to advanced scenario planning in NSTX-U since the development of such scenarios is conventionally carried out experimentally by modifying the tokamak's actuator

  19. Atypical variants of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma show low microvessel density and vessels of distention type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Victoria; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Schuhmacher, Bianca; Döring, Claudia; Hartmann, Sylvia

    2017-02-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) presents different histopathologic growth patterns, including atypical forms showing overlapping histopathologic and clinical features with T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma (THRLBCL). Because growth patterns are associated with vessel distribution, the aim of the present study was to compare angiogenesis in different NLPHL patterns with THRLBCL as well as other lymphomas. Atypical variants of NLPHL and THRLBCL (n=10 per group) both showed a low microvessel density (MVD; 1.16-1.31/μm(2)) with a diffuse vessel distribution. In contrast, in typical NLPHL (n=10), follicular areas with low MVD were retained, whereas an increase in vessels in the interfollicular areas was observed (MVD 1.35/μm(2)). THRLBCL and typical NLPHL could additionally be distinguished by differences in their molecular angiogenesis signature. Furthermore, the number of intravascular T cells was significantly reduced in THRLBCL (0.0028 T cells/mm(2) vessel area) when compared with typical NLPHL (0.0059 T cells/mm(2) vessel area), potentially reflecting the different composition of the microenvironment in these 2 lymphoma entities. The results of our study reveal a similar vascular pattern and angiogenesis behavior in atypical NLPHL variants and THRLBCL in contrast to the retained follicular pattern in typical NLPHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational modeling of bone density profiles in response to gait: a subject-specific approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Henry; Shiwalkar, Abhishek P; Madormo, Chris M; Taylor, Rebecca E; Andriacchi, Thomas P; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the potential of computational growth models to predict bone density profiles in the proximal tibia in response to gait-induced loading. From a modeling point of view, we design a finite element-based computational algorithm using the theory of open system thermodynamics. In this algorithm, the biological problem, the balance of mass, is solved locally on the integration point level, while the mechanical problem, the balance of linear momentum, is solved globally on the node point level. Specifically, the local bone mineral density is treated as an internal variable, which is allowed to change in response to mechanical loading. From an experimental point of view, we perform a subject-specific gait analysis to identify the relevant forces during walking using an inverse dynamics approach. These forces are directly applied as loads in the finite element simulation. To validate the model, we take a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry scan of the subject's right knee from which we create a geometric model of the proximal tibia. For qualitative validation, we compare the computationally predicted density profiles to the bone mineral density extracted from this scan. For quantitative validation, we adopt the region of interest method and determine the density values at fourteen discrete locations using standard and custom-designed image analysis tools. Qualitatively, our two- and three-dimensional density predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. Quantitatively, errors are less than 3% for the two-dimensional analysis and less than 10% for the three-dimensional analysis. The proposed approach has the potential to ultimately improve the long-term success of possible treatment options for chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis on a patient-specific basis by accurately addressing the complex interactions between ambulatory loads and tissue changes.

  1. Gene expression profiling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells using high-density filter-based cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Rigley, K

    2000-05-26

    Microarray technology has provided the ability to analyse the expression profiles for thousands of genes in parallel. The need for highly specialised equipment to use certain types of microarrays has restricted the application of this technology to a small number of dedicated laboratories. High-density filter-based cDNA microarrays provide a low-cost option for performing high-throughput gene expression analysis. We have used a model system in which filter-based cDNA microarrays representing over 4000 known human genes were used to monitor the kinetics of gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with phytohaemagluttinin (PHA). Using software-based cluster analysis, we identified 104 genes that altered in expression levels in response to PHA stimulation of PBMCs and showed that there was a considerable overlap between genes with similar temporal expression profiles and similar functional roles. Comparison of microarray quantitation with quantitative PCR showed almost identical expression profiles for a number of genes. Coupled with the fact that our findings are in agreement with a large number of independent observations, we conclude that the use of filter-based cDNA microarrays is a valid and accurate method for high-throughput gene expression profiling.

  2. Radiation-damped profiles of extremely high column density neutral hydrogen: implications of cosmic reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Kiehunn

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating the time-dependent second-order perturbation theory for the Lyman scattering cross-section, we investigate the intergalactic absorption profiles of extremely high column density systems near the end of cosmic reionization. Assuming a representative set of the redshift distribution of neutral hydrogen, we quantitatively examined the impact of inhomogeneous density on the intrinsic absorption profiles. The cumulative absorption by neutral patches in the line of sight mainly affects the far off-centre region of the red damping wing, but the effect is not significant. The shape of the line centre can be modified by the near-zone distribution due to high opacities of the near-resonance scattering. On the other hand, the HWHM (half width at half-maximum) as an effective line width is relatively less sensitive to the local inhomogeneity. Specifically, when the two local damping wings of Lyα and Lyβ are close in spectra of the strongly damped systems, accurate profiles of both lines are required. In the case of N_{H I}≲ 10^{21} { cm^{-2}}, the two-level approximation is marginally applicable for the damping wing fit within 5 - 7 per cent errors. However, as the local column density reaches N_{H I}˜ 10^{22.3} { cm^{-2}}, this classical approximation yields a relative error of a 10 per cent overestimation in the red wing and a 20 per cent underestimation in the blue wing of Lyα. If severe extinction by the Lyα forests is carefully subtracted, the intrinsic absorption profile will provide a better constraint on the local ionized states. For practical applications, an analytic fitting function for the Lyβ scattering is derived.

  3. Radiation Damped Profiles of Extremely High Column Density Neutral Hydrogen : Implications of Cosmic Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Kiehunn

    2016-09-01

    Incorporating the time-dependent second-order perturbation theory for the Lyman scattering cross-section, we investigate the intergalactic absorption profiles of extremely high column density systems near the end of cosmic reionization. Assuming a representative set of the redshift distribution of neutral hydrogen, we quantitatively examined the impact of inhomogeneous density on the intrinsic absorption profiles. The cumulative absorption by neutral patches in the line-of-sight mainly affects the far off-center region of the red damping wing, but the effect is not significant. The shape of the line-center can be modified by the near-zone distribution due to high opacities of the near-resonance scattering. On the other hand, the HWHM (half width at half maximum) as an effective line-width is relatively less sensitive to the local inhomogeneity. Specifically, when the two local damping wings of Lyα and Lyβ are close in spectra of the strongly damped systems, accurate profiles of both lines are required. In the case of N HI ≲ 1021 cm-2, the two-level approximation is marginally applicable for the damping wing fit within 5 - 7% errors. However, as the local column density reaches N HI ˜ 1022.3 cm-2, this classical approximation yields a relative error of a 10% overestimation in the red wing and a 20% underestimation in the blue wing of Lyα. If severe extinction by the Lyα forests is carefully subtracted, the intrinsic absorption profile will provide a better constraint on the local ionized states. For practical applications, an analytic fitting function for the Lyβ scattering is derived.

  4. Tolerogenic dendritic cells show gene expression profiles that are different from those of immunogenic dendritic cells in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gae; Jung, Nam-Chul; Lee, Jun-Ho; Song, Jie-Young; Ryu, Sang-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Han, Sung Gu; Ahn, Keun Jae; Hong, Kwan Soo; Choi, Jinjung; Lim, Dae-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) play an important role in inducing peripheral tolerance; however, few tDC-specific markers have been identified. The aims of this study were to examine whether tDCs show a different gene expression profile from that of immunogenic DCs and identify specific gene markers of each cell type, in DBA/1 mice. tDCs were generated by treating immature DCs (imDCs) with TNF-α and type II collagen. The gene expression profiles of mature (m)DCs and tDCs were then investigated by microarray analysis and candidate markers were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Supervised selection identified 75 gene signatures, 63 of which were consistently upregulated in mDCs and 12 of which were upregulated only in tDCs. Additionally, 10 genes were overexpressed or equally expressed in both tDCs and mDCs. Scin (tDC-specific genes) and Orm1, Pdlim4 and Enpp2 (mDC-specific genes) were validated by real-time qRT-PCR. Taken together, these results clearly show that tDCs and mDCs can be identified according to their expression of specific gene markers.

  5. Use of murine bioassay to resolve ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases showing a bovine spongiform encephalopathy molecular profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Katy E; Sallis, Rosemary E; Lockey, Richard; Vickery, Christopher M; Béringue, Vincent; Laude, Hubert; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Tout, Anna C; Jayasena, Dhanushka; Griffiths, Peter C; Cawthraw, Saira; Ellis, Richard; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

    2012-05-01

    Two cases of unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) were diagnosed on the same farm in ARQ/ARQ PrP sheep showing attributes of both bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie. These cases, UK-1 and UK-2, were investigated further by transmissions to wild-type and ovine transgenic mice. Lesion profiles (LP) on primary isolation and subpassage, incubation period (IP) of disease, PrP(Sc) immunohistochemical (IHC) deposition pattern and Western blot profiles were used to characterize the prions causing disease in these sheep. Results showed that both cases were compatible with scrapie. The presence of BSE was contraindicated by the following: LP on primary isolation in RIII and/or MR (modified RIII) mice; IP and LP after serial passage in wild-type mice; PrP(Sc) deposition pattern in wild-type mice; and IP and Western blot data in transgenic mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that each case generated two distinct PrP(Sc) deposition patterns in both wild-type and transgenic mice, suggesting that two scrapie strains coexisted in the ovine hosts. Critically, these data confirmed the original differential IHC categorization that these UK-1 and UK-2 cases were not compatible with BSE.

  6. The variation of rotation curve shapes as a signature of the effects of baryons on dark matter density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.

    2015-12-01

    Rotation curves of galaxies show a wide range of shapes, which can be paramaterized as scatter in Vrot(1 kpc)/Vmax , i.e. the ratio of the rotation velocity measured at 1 kpc and the maximum measured rotation velocity. We examine whether the observed scatter can be accounted for by combining scatters in disc scalelengths, the concentration-halo mass relation, and the M⋆-Mhalo relation. We use these scatters to create model galaxy populations; when housed within dark matter haloes that have universal, Navarro, Frenk & White density profiles, the model does not match the lowest observed values of Vrot(1 kpc)/Vmax and has too little scatter in Vrot(1 kpc)/Vmax compared to observations. By contrast, a model using a mass-dependent dark matter profile, where the inner slope is determined by the ratio of M⋆/Mhalo, produces galaxies with low values of Vrot(1 kpc)/Vmax and a much larger scatter, both in agreement with observation. We conclude that the large observed scatter in Vrot(1 kpc)/Vmax favours density profiles that are significantly affected by baryonic processes. Alternative dark matter core formation models such as self-interacting dark matter may also account for the observed variation in rotation curve shapes, but these observations may provide important constraints in terms of core sizes, and whether they vary with halo mass and/or merger history.

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND INTRA-RING WOOD DENSITY PROFILES IN Gmelina arborea APPLYING X-RAY DENSITOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tomazelo-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Four annual tree-rings (2 of juvenile wood and 2 of mature wood were sampled from fast-growth plantations ofGmelina arborea in two climatic conditions (dry and wet tropical in Costa Rica. Each annual tree-ring was divided in equal parts ina radial direction. For each part, X-ray density as well as vessel percentage, length and width fiber, cell wall thickness and lumendiameter were measured. Wood density and profile patterns of cell dimension demonstrated inconsistency between juvenile andmature wood and climatic conditions. The Pearson correlation matrix showed that intra-ring wood density was positively correlatedwith the cell wall thickness and negatively correlated with vessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width. The forwardstepwise regressions determined that: (i intra-ring wood density variation could be predicted from 76 to 96% for anatomicalvariation; (ii cell wall thickness was the most important anatomical feature to produce intra-ring wood density variation and (iii thevessel percentage, fiber length, lumen diameter and width were the second most statically significant characteristics to intra-ring wooddensity, however, with low participation of the determination coefficient of stepwise regressions.

  8. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: m.alam@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  9. A procedure to analyze nonlinear density waves in Saturn's rings using several occultation profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaport, N J; French, R G; Marouf, E A; McGhee, C A

    2010-01-01

    Cassini radio science experiments have provided multiple occultation optical depth profiles of Saturn's rings that can be used in combination to analyze density waves. This paper establishes an accurate procedure of inversion of the wave profiles to reconstruct the wave kinematic parameters as a function of semi-major axis, in the nonlinear regime. This procedure is achieved from simulated data in the presence of realistic noise perturbations, to control the reconstruction error. By way of illustration we have applied our procedure to the Mimas 5:3 density wave. We were able to recover precisely the kinematic parameters from the radio experiment occultation data in most of the propagation region; a preliminary analysis of the pressure-corrected dispersion allowed us to determine new but still uncertain values for the opacity ($K\\simeq 0.02$ cm$^2$/g) and velocity dispersion of ($c_o\\simeq 0.6$ cm/s) in the wave region. Our procedure constitutes the first step in our planned analysis of the density waves of Sa...

  10. Association of lipid profile with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Yazd province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Mortezaii-Shoroki, Zahra; Modarresi, Mozhgan; Dehghan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low bone mass is a major health problem in postmenopausal women. There is no general agreement regarding relationship between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the association between lipid profile and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 170 women aged between 50 and 70 years old with menopause for at least one year from Yazd, Iran, between March 2013 to September 2013. Association of lipid profile and BMD were measured in all study participants. Results: Among our participants 73 cases had lumbar osteoporosis, 17 cases had femoral osteoporosis and 80 cases did n’t have osteoporosis. After controlling for body mass index, there were no correlations between serum level of lipids and bone mineral density of femur and lumbar bones. Conclusion: No significant association between serum level of lipids and BMD of femur and lumbar was found in postmenopausal women. PMID:27738662

  11. Density profile in thin films of polybutadiene on silicon oxide substrates: a TOF-NR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, E Tilo; Sepe, Alessandro; Haese-Seiller, Martin; Moulin, Jean-François; Papadakis, Christine M

    2013-08-27

    We have investigated thin films from fully deuterated polybutadiene (PB-d6) on silicon substrates with the aim of detecting and characterizing a possible interphase in the polymer film near the substrate using time-of-flight neutron reflectometry (TOF-NR). As substrates, thermally oxidized silicon wafers were either used as such or they were coated with triethylethoxysilyl modified 1,2-PB prior to deposition of the PB-d6 film. TOF-NR reveals that, for both substrates, the scattering length density (SLD) of the PB films decreases near the solid interface. The reduction of SLD is converted to an excess fraction of free volume. To further verify the existence of the interphase in PB-d6, we attempt to model the TOF-NR curves with density profiles which do not feature an interphase. These density profiles do not describe the TOF-NR curves adequately. We conclude that, near the solid interface, an interphase having an SLD lower than the bulk of the film is present.

  12. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron Density Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2016-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm-induced changes were detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron density profiles Ne(h) in a database of profiles and digital topside ionograms, from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program, that enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained in nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm (Dst -100nT). Storms where Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere had better coverage of solar wind parameters than storms with available Ne(h) profiles in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during all storms, with enhancements and depletions sometimes near a factor of 10 and 0.1, respectively, but with substantial differences in the responses in the two hemispheres. Large spatial andor temporal Ne(h) changes were often observed during Dst minimum and during the storm recovery phase. The storm-induced Ne(h) changes were the most pronounced and consistent in the Northern Hemisphere in that large enhancements were observed during winter nighttime and large depletions during winter and spring daytime. The limited available cases suggested that these Northern Hemisphere enhancements increased with increases of the time-shifted solar wind velocity v, magnetic field B, and with more negative values of the B components except for the highest common altitude (1100km) of the profiles. There was also some evidence suggesting that the Northern Hemisphere depletions were related to changes in the solar wind parameters. Southern Hemisphere storm-induced enhancements and depletions were typically considerably less with depletions observed during summer nighttime conditions and enhancements during summer daytime and fall nighttime conditions.

  13. Relativistic self-focusing of intense laser beam in thermal collisionless quantum plasma with ramped density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, S.; Yazdani, E.; Rezaee, S.; Anvari, A.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.

  14. Structure formation in parallel ion flow and density profiles by cross-ferroic turbulent transport in linear magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Inagaki, S.; Kosuga, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Arakawa, H.; Kasuya, N.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we show the direct observation of the parallel flow structure and the parallel Reynolds stress in a linear magnetized plasma, in which a cross-ferroic turbulence system is formed [Inagaki et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 22189 (2016)]. It is shown that the parallel Reynolds stress induced by the density gradient driven drift wave is the source of the parallel flow structure. Moreover, the generated parallel flow shear by the parallel Reynolds stress is found to drive the parallel flow shear driven instability D'Angelo mode, which coexists with the original drift wave. The excited D'Angelo mode induces the inward particle flux, which seems to help in maintaining the peaked density profile.

  15. Allergic asthmatics show divergent lipid mediator profiles from healthy controls both at baseline and following birch pollen provocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2 mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators. OBJECTIVES: Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics. METHODS: Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers. RESULTS: Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS-plot modeling showed a correlation (R(2 = 0.7 between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q(2[cum] = 0.51 and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q(2[cum] = 0.73, with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB(4 and 6-trans-LTB(4, CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols, and IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic

  16. A simple frequency sweep linearization method for FM density profile reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Adi; Hu, Jianqiang; Doyle, Edward; Zhang, Jin; Li, Hong; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Mingyuan; Lan, Tao; Xie, Jinglin; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan

    2015-11-01

    Frequency modulated, continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry is widely used to measure the electron density profile on fusion devices. To ensure the output intermediate frequency signal is proportional to the propagation delay time, the frequency sweep should be linearized, especially for reflectometry with sweeping periods of only a few microseconds. We introduce a simple dynamic calibration technique to linearize the frequency sweep based on digital complex demodulation methods, without using a Fourier transform, which would induce a trade-off between frequency and time resolution. The technique is convenient as it can be done in the same conditions as for plasma measurements. The method is in use on the EAST profile reflectometer, and results will be presented. Work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under 11475173, National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Development Program of China under 2013GB106002 and 2014GB109002, and US DOE Grants DE- SC0010424 and DE-SC0010469.

  17. Iterative noise removal from temperature and density profiles in the TJ-II Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, G., E-mail: gonzalo.farias@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Dormido-Canto, S., E-mail: sebas@dia.uned.es [Departamento de Informática y Automática, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega, J., E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, M., E-mail: msantos@ucm.es [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I., E-mail: ignacio.pastor@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fingerhuth, S., E-mail: sebastian.fingerhuth@ucv.cl [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile); Ascencio, J., E-mail: j_ascencio21@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Brasil 2147, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2014-05-15

    TJ-II Thomson Scattering diagnostic provides temperature and density profiles of plasma. The CCD camera acquires images that are corrupted with some kind of noise called stray-light. This noise degrades both image contrast and measurement accuracy, which could produce unreliable profiles of the diagnostic. So far, several approaches have been applied in order to decrease the noise in the TJ-II Thomson scattering images. Since the presence of the noise is not global but located in some particular regions of the image, advanced processing techniques are needed. However such methods require of manual fine-tuning of parameters to reach a good performance. In this contribution, an iterative image processing approach is applied in order to reduce the stray light effects in the images of the TJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic. The proposed solution describes how the noise can be iteratively reduced in the images when a key parameter is automatically adjusted during the iterative process.

  18. Modelling of the electron density height profiles in the mid-latitude ionospheric D-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Mukhtarov

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mid-latitude D-region (50-105 km model of the electron density is presented obtained on the basis of a full wave theory and by a trial-and-error inversion method. Daytime (at different solar zenith angles absorption measurements by A3-technique made in Bulgaria yielded data with the aid of which the seasonal and diurnal courses of the Ne(h-profiles were derived. Special attention is drawn to the event diurnal asymmetry, or uneven formation of the ionosphere as a function of insulation. The latter is probably connected with the influence of the diurnal fluctuations in the local temperature on the chemistry involved in the electron loss rate, as well as the diurnal variations of the main ionizing agent (NO in the D-region. That is why the Ne(h-profiles in the midlatitude D-region are modelled separately for morning and afternoon hours.

  19. Flow Rate of Particles through Apertures Obtained from Self-Similar Density and Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Alvaro; Zuriguel, Iker; Maza, Diego

    2012-06-01

    “Beverloo’s law” is considered as the standard expression to estimate the flow rate of particles through apertures. This relation was obtained by simple dimensional analysis and includes empirical parameters whose physical meaning is poorly justified. In this Letter, we study the density and velocity profiles in the flow of particles through an aperture. We find that, for the whole range of apertures studied, both profiles are self-similar. Hence, by means of the functionality obtained for them the mass flow rate is calculated. The comparison of this expression with the Beverloo’s one reveals some differences which are crucial to understanding the mechanism that governs the flow of particles through orifices.

  20. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  1. Force-free collisionless current sheet models with non-uniform temperature and density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Allanson, O.

    2017-09-01

    We present a class of one-dimensional, strictly neutral, Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium distribution functions for force-free current sheets, with magnetic fields defined in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions, extending the results of Abraham-Shrauner [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102117 (2013)] to allow for non-uniform density and temperature profiles. To achieve this, we use an approach previously applied to the force-free Harris sheet by Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)]. In one limit of the parameters, we recover the model of Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)], while another limit gives a linear force-free field. We discuss conditions on the parameters such that the distribution functions are always positive and give expressions for the pressure, density, temperature, and bulk-flow velocities of the equilibrium, discussing the differences from previous models. We also present some illustrative plots of the distribution function in velocity space.

  2. Real-time identification of the current density profile in the JET Tokamak: method and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Mazon, Didier; Boulbe, Cédric; Faugeras, Blaise; Boboc, A; Brix, M; De Vries, P; Sharapov, S; Zabeo, L

    2009-01-01

    The real-time reconstruction of the plasma magnetic equilibrium in a Tokamak is a key point to access high performance regimes. Indeed, the shape of the plasma current density profile is a direct output of the reconstruction and has a leading effect for reaching a steady-state high performance regime of operation. In this paper we present the methodology followed to identify numerically the plasma current density in a Tokamak and its equilibrium. In order to meet the real-time requirements a C++ software has been developed using the combination of a finite element method, a nonlinear fixed point algorithm associated to a least square optimization procedure. The experimental measurements that enable the identification are the magnetics on the vacuum vessel, the interferometric and polarimetric measurements on several chords and the motional Stark effect. Details are given about the validation of the reconstruction on the JET tokamak, either by comparison with ?off-line' equilibrium codes or real time software ...

  3. Firn density profile at Megadunes, East Antarctica, calls for an improved densification model for low accumulation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, M.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    We report a density profile of the firn at Megadunes, East Antarctica (80o78'S; 124o50'E). The Megadunes site is characterized by a low mass accumulation rate (2.9 g/cm2/yr) and cold temperature (mean annual = -49.5oC). Validating existing firn densification models using a density profile of such a site is important because such models, either purely empirical or mechanistic, have been calibrated with few sites that are analogous to a glacial condition (ultralow accumulation and temperature). We make use of CO2 concentrations in the lock-in (or non-diffusive) zone to obtain the accumulation rate, assuming that the gas in the lock-in zone ages at the same rate as the surrounding ice [Battle et al., 1996], and assuming that the gas enclosure rate must equal the long-term mean accumulation rate. This estimate is preliminary and may change when results from beta analysis of cores become available. Our density profile shows that the widely used pure empirical model by Herron and Langway [1980] overestimates the close-off depth by 16 %, and the semi-mechanistic model by Pimienta and Barnola [Barnola et al., 1991] also overestimates the close-off depth by 26 %. Our study at the Megadunes site indicates that the δ 15N of N2 paradox for glacial ice from East Antarctica would have partly resulted from a poorly calibrated densification model for a `glacial-like' condition and a thick convective zone as we observed at the Megadunes site [Severinghaus et al., in prep].

  4. Neutral-depletion-induced asymmetric plasma density profile and momentum transport in a helicon thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takao, Yoshinori; Chiba, Aiki; Ando, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Axial momentum lost to a lateral wall of a helicon source is directly measured by using a pendulum force balance, where only the lateral wall is attached to the balance immersed in 60-cm-diam and 1.4-m-long vacuum tank (pumping speed of 300-400 L/s). When operating the source with highly ionized krypton and xenon, the strong density decay along the axis is observed inside the source tube, which seems to be due to the neutral depletion. Under such a condition, a non-negligible loss of the axial momentum to the lateral wall is detected. The presently detected loss of the axial momentum indicates the presence of the ions which are axially accelerated by the electric field in the plasma core and then lost to the lateral wall. Furthermore, the helicon thruster immersed in 1-m-diam and 2-m-long vacuum tank (pumping speed of 4000-5000 L/s) is operated at high rf power up to 5 kW in argon, to demonstrate the neutral-depletion-induced axially asymmetric density profile. Combination between the Langmuir probe and the optical diagnosis indicates that the neutral density at the axial center of the source is reduced to 20% of the initial neutral density. This work is partially supported by grant-in-aid for scientific research (16H04084 and 26247096) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  5. Implementation of the new multichannel X-mode edge density profile reflectometer for the ICRF antenna on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiam, D. E.; Silva, A.; Bobkov, V.; Carvalho, P. J.; Carvalho, P. F.; Cavazzana, R.; Conway, G. D.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fattorini, L.; Faugel, H.; Fernandes, A.; Fünfgelder, H.; Gonçalves, B.; Guimarais, L.; De Masi, G.; Meneses, L.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Rocchi, G.; Santos, J. M.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.

    2016-11-01

    A new multichannel frequency modulated continuous-wave reflectometry diagnostic has been successfully installed and commissioned on ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma edge electron density profile evolution in front of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna. The design of the new three-strap ICRF antenna integrates ten pairs (sending and receiving) of microwave reflectometry antennas. The multichannel reflectometer can use three of these to measure the edge electron density profiles up to 2 × 1019 m-3, at different poloidal locations, allowing the direct study of the local plasma layers in front of the ICRF antenna. ICRF power coupling, operational effects, and poloidal variations of the plasma density profile can be consistently studied for the first time. In this work the diagnostic hardware architecture is described and the obtained density profile measurements were used to track outer radial plasma position and plasma shape.

  6. Implementation of the new multichannel X-mode edge density profile reflectometer for the ICRF antenna on ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiam, D. E., E-mail: daguiam@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt; Silva, A.; Carvalho, P. J.; Carvalho, P. F.; Fernandes, A.; Gonçalves, B.; Guimarais, L.; Meneses, L.; Pereira, R. C.; Santos, J. M. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bobkov, V.; Conway, G. D.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Universitá di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); D’Arcangelo, O.; Rocchi, G.; Tuccillo, A. A. [ENEA, Dipartimento FSN, C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-11-15

    A new multichannel frequency modulated continuous-wave reflectometry diagnostic has been successfully installed and commissioned on ASDEX Upgrade to measure the plasma edge electron density profile evolution in front of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna. The design of the new three-strap ICRF antenna integrates ten pairs (sending and receiving) of microwave reflectometry antennas. The multichannel reflectometer can use three of these to measure the edge electron density profiles up to 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, at different poloidal locations, allowing the direct study of the local plasma layers in front of the ICRF antenna. ICRF power coupling, operational effects, and poloidal variations of the plasma density profile can be consistently studied for the first time. In this work the diagnostic hardware architecture is described and the obtained density profile measurements were used to track outer radial plasma position and plasma shape.

  7. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  8. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUUTA KOMATSU; SHIN SUKEGAWA; MAIYAMA SHITA; NAOKI KATSUDA; BIN TONG; TAKESHI OHTA; HIROYUKI KOSE; TAKAHISA YAMADA

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregu-lated genes (EEF1A2 ,TSG101andTTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B ,ATP5C1 ,COQ3 ,HADHA ,MYH1andMYH7)in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clonesselected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis con-firmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Lan-drace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identifiedgenes except for theTTNwas validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than theATP5C1co-localized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally,the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of theEEF1A2 ,TSG101andTTNgenes and downregulation of theATP5B ,ATP5C1 ,COQ3 ,HADHA ,MYH1andMYH7gene expressionwith increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanismunderlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  9. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Yuuta; Sukegawa, Shin; Yamashita, Mai; Katsuda, Naoki; Tong, Bin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from musculus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected breeding values at the age of 100 kg. Three upregulated genes (EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN) and six downregulated genes (ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7) in pig with genetic propensity for higher growth rate were identified by sequence analysis of 12 differentially expressed clones selected by differential screening following the generation of the subtracted cDNA population. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed difference in expression profiles of the identified genes in musculus longissimus muscle tissues between the two Landrace weanling pig groups with divergent genetic propensity for growth rate. Further, differential expression of the identified genes except for the TTN was validated by Western blot analysis. Additionally, the eight genes other than the ATP5C1 colocalized with the same chromosomal positions as QTLs that have been previously identified for growth rate traits. Finally, the changes of expression predicted from gene function suggested association of upregulation of expression of the EEF1A2, TSG101 and TTN genes and downregulation of the ATP5B, ATP5C1, COQ3, HADHA, MYH1 and MYH7 gene expression with increased growth rate. The identified genes will provide an important insight in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying growth rate in Landrace pig breed.

  10. Tidal stirring of satellites with shallow density profiles prevents them from being too big to fail

    CERN Document Server

    Tomozeiu, Mihai; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The "too big to fail" problem is revisited by studying the tidal evolution of populations of dwarf satellites with different density profiles. The high resolution cosmological $\\rm \\Lambda CDM$ "ErisMod" set of simulations is used. These simulations can model both the stellar and dark matter components of the satellites, and their evolution under the action of the tides of a MW-sized host halo at a force resolution better than 10 pc. The stronger tidal mass loss and re-shaping of the mass distribution induced in satellites with $\\gamma=0.6$ dark matter density distributions, as those resulting from the effect of feedback in hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxy formation, is sufficient to bring the circular velocity profiles in agreement with the kinematics of MW's dSphs. In contrast, in simulations in which the satellites retain cusps at $z=0$ there are several "massive failures" with circular velocities in excess of the observational constraints. Various sources of deviations in the conventionally adop...

  11. Gravitational acceleration and tidal effects in spherical-symmetric density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R

    2015-01-01

    Pure power-law density profiles, $\\rho(r)\\propto r^{b-3}$, are classified in connection with the following reference cases: (i) isodensity, $b=3$, $\\rho=$ const; (ii) isogravity, $b=2$, $g=$ const; (iii) isothermal, $b=1$, $v=[GM(r)/r]^{1/2}=$ const; (iv) isomass, $b=0$, $M=$ const. A restricted number of different families of density profiles including, in addition, cored power-law, generalized power-law, polytropes, are studied in detail with regard to both one-component and two-component systems. Considerable effort is devoted to the existence of an extremum point (maximum absolute value) in the gravitational acceleration within the matter distribution. Predicted velocity curves are compared to the data inferred from observations. Tidal effects on an inner subsystem are investigated and an application is made to globular clusters within the Galaxy. To this aim, the tidal radius is defined by balancing the opposite gravitational forces from the Galaxy and the selected cluster on a special point of the clust...

  12. Aluminum integral foams with tailored density profile by adapted blowing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Johannes; Fiegl, Tobias; Körner, Carolin

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present work is the variation of the structure of aluminum integral foams regarding the thickness of the integral solid skin as well as the density profile. A modified die casting process, namely integral foam molding, is used in which an aluminum melt and blowing agent particles (magnesium hydride MgH2) are injected in a permanent steel mold. The high solidification rates at the cooled walls of the mold lead to the formation of a solid skin. In the inner region, hydrogen is released by thermal decomposition of MgH2 particles. Thus, the pore formation takes place parallel to the continuing solidification of the melt. The thickness of the solid skin and the density profile of the core strongly depend on the interplay between solidification velocity and kinetics of hydrogen release. By varying the melt and blowing agent properties, the structure of integral foams can be systematically changed to meet the requirements of the desired field of application of the produced component.

  13. Community-level physiological profiling analyses show potential to identify the copiotrophic bacteria present in soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) analyses from very diverse environments are frequently used with the aim of characterizing the metabolic versatility of whole environmental bacterial communities. While the limitations of the methodology for the characterization of whole communities are well known, we propose that CLPP combined with high-throughput sequencing and qPCR can be utilized to identify the copiotrophic, fast-growing fraction of the bacterial community of soil environments, where oligotrophic taxa are usually dominant. In the present work we have used this approach to analyze samples of litter and soil from a coniferous forest in the Czech Republic using BIOLOG GN2 plates. Monosaccharides and amino acids were utilized significantly faster than other C substrates, such as organic acids, in both litter and soil samples. Bacterial biodiversity in CLPP wells was significantly lower than in the original community, independently of the carbon source. Bacterial communities became highly enriched in taxa that typically showed low abundance in the original soil, belonging mostly to the Gammaproteobacteria and the genus Pseudomonas, indicating that the copiotrophic strains, favoured by the high nutrient content, are rare in forest litter and soil. In contrast, taxa abundant in the original samples were rarely found to grow at sufficient rates under the CLPP conditions. Our results show that CLPP is useful to detect copiotrophic bacteria from the soil environments and that bacterial growth is substrate specific. PMID:28170446

  14. Density profiles of galaxy groups and clusters from SDSS galaxy-galaxy weak lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, R; Cool, R J; Blanton, M; Hirata, C M; Brinkmann, J; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Cool, Richard J.; Blanton, Michael; Hirata, Christopher M.; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a measurement of the shape of the density profile of galaxy groups and clusters traced by 43 335 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) with spectroscopic redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The galaxies are selected such that they are the brightest within a cylindrical aperture, split into two luminosity samples, and modeled as the sum of stellar and dark matter components. We present a detailed investigation of many possible systematic effects that could contaminate our signal and develop methods to remove them, including a detected intrinsic alignment for galaxies within 100 kpc/h of LRGs which we remove using photometric redshift information. The resulting lensing signal is consistent with NFW profile dark matter halos; the SIS profile is ruled out at the 96 (conservatively) and 99.96 per cent confidence level (CL) for the fainter and brighter lens samples (respectively) when we fit using lensing data between 40 kpc/h and 2 Mpc/h with total signal-to-noise of 19 and 25 for the ...

  15. Citrus reticulata’s Peels Modulate Blood Cholesterol Profile and IncreaseBone Density of Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Adelina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormon Replacement Therapy is a common therapy for estrogen deficiency but in other side it will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Another alternative therapy which relatively more safe is using phytoestrogen. The Citrus reticulata’s peel contain flavanone and polimethoxyflavone which are suspected to give estrogenic effect, therefore it is potential to be used as phytoestrogen.The purpose of this study was to examine the estrogenic effect of Citrus reticulata’s peel extract in modulation of bone density and blood cholesterol profile of ovariectomized rats (OVX, an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Thirty six 7-weeks-old female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to six groups: a SO group, an OVX group, an OVX+CMCNa group, an OVX+extract dose 500 mg/kgBW group, an OVX+extract dose 1000 mg/kgBW group, and an OVX+estradiol group. After 7 weeks, the rats were killed then blood and femoral were collected immediately. The rontgenogram indicated that extract and estradiol administration increase the bone density. And the data analysis with Oneway ANOVA test ,followed by Shceffé test (P 0.05 showed that extract can improve blood cholesterol profile in dose depend manner. These results suggest a possible role of Citrus reticulata’s peel extract as women’s health agent because of its beneficial effects on bone and lipids.

  16. A LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars: average profiles, dispersion measures, flux densities, and spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bilous, A; Kramer, M; Keane, E; Hessels, J; Stappers, B; Malofeev, V; Sobey, C; Breton, R; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Karastergiou, A; Michilli, D; Osłowski, S; Sanidas, S; ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Verbiest, J; Weltevrede, P; Zarka, P; Grießmeier, J -M; Serylak, M; Bell, M; Broderick, J; Eislöffel, J; Markoff, S; Rowlinson, A

    2015-01-01

    We present first results from a LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars. The census includes almost all such pulsars known (194 sources) at declinations Dec$> 8^\\circ$ and Galactic latitudes |Gb|$> 3^\\circ$, regardless of their expected flux densities and scattering times. Each pulsar was observed contiguously in the frequency range from 110$-$188 MHz and for $\\geq 20$ minutes, recording full-Stokes data. We present the dispersion measures, flux densities, and calibrated total intensity profiles for the 158 pulsars detected in the sample. The median uncertainty in census dispersion measures ($1.5 \\times 10^{-4}$ pc cm$^{-3}$) is ten times smaller, on average, than in the ATNF pulsar catalogue. We combined census flux densities with those in the literature and fitted the resulting broadband spectra with single or broken power-law functions. For 48 census pulsars such fits are being published for the first time. Typically, the choice between single and broken power-laws, as well as the location of the spectral bre...

  17. The Surface Density Profile of the Galactic Disk from the Terminal Velocity Curve

    CERN Document Server

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2015-01-01

    The mass distribution of the Galactic disk is constructed from the terminal velocity curve and the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation. Mass models numerically quantifying the detailed surface density profiles are tabulated. For $R_0 = 8$ kpc, the models have stellar mass $5 < M_* < 6 \\times 10^{10}$ M$_{\\odot}$, scale length $2.0 \\le R_d \\le 2.9$ kpc, LSR circular velocity $222 \\le \\Theta_0 \\le 233$ km s$^{-1}$, and solar circle stellar surface density $34 \\le \\Sigma_d(R_0) \\le 61$ M$_{\\odot}$ pc$^{-2}$. The present inter-arm location of the solar neighborhood may have a somewhat lower stellar surface density than average for the solar circle. The Milky Way appears to be a normal spiral galaxy that obeys scaling relations like the Tully-Fisher relation, the size-mass relation, and the disk maximality-surface brightness relation. The stellar disk is maximal, and the spiral arms are massive. The bumps and wiggles in the terminal velocity curve correspond to known spiral features (e.g., the Centaurus A...

  18. Stellar density profile and mass of the Milky Way Bulge from VVV data

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, E; Gonzalez, O A; Minniti, D; Alonso-Garcia, J; Marchetti, E; Hempel, M; Renzini, A; Rejkuba, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the first stellar density profile of the Milky Way bulge reaching latitude $b=0^\\circ$. It is derived by counting red clump stars within the colour\\--magnitude diagram constructed with the new PSF-fitting photometry from VISTA Variables in the V\\'\\i a L\\'actea (VVV) survey data. The new stellar density map covers the area between $|l|\\leq 10^\\circ$ and $|b|\\leq 4.5^\\circ$ with unprecedented accuracy, allowing to establish a direct link between the stellar kinematics from the Giraffe Inner Bulge Spectroscopic Survey (GIBS) and the stellar mass density distribution. In particular, the location of the central velocity dispersion peak from GIBS matches a high overdensity in the VVV star count map. By scaling the total luminosity function (LF) obtained from all VVV fields to the LF from Zoccali et al.(2003), we obtain the first fully empirical estimate of the mass in stars and remnants of the Galactic bulge. The Milky Way bulge stellar mass within ($|b|<9.5^\\circ$, $|l|<10^\\circ$) is $2.0\\pm0.3\\ti...

  19. Speckle measurements of density and temperature profiles in a model gas circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, P. C.; Panousis, E.; Carstensen, J.; Doiron, C. B.; Färber, R.

    2015-01-01

    Speckle imaging was used to measure the density and temperature distribution in the arc zone of a model high voltage circuit breaker during the high current phase and under conditions simulating those present during current-zero crossings (current-zero-like arc); the arc was stabilized by a transonic, axial flow of synthetic air. A single probe beam was used; thus, accurate reconstruction was only possible for axially symmetric gas flows and arc channels. The displacement of speckles with respect to a reference image was converted to a line-of-sight integrated deflection angle, which was in turn converted into an axially symmetric refractive index distribution using a multistep process that made use of the inverse Radon transform. The Gladstone-Dale relation, which gives the index of refraction as a function of density, was extended to high temperatures by taking into account dissociation and ionization processes. The temperature and density were determined uniquely by assuming that the pressure distribution in the case of cold gas flow (in the absence of an arc) is not modified significantly by the arc. The electric conductivity distribution was calculated from the temperature profile and compared to measurements of the arc voltage and to previous results published in the literature for similar experimental conditions.

  20. Characterizing intra-annual density fluctuations using fine-spatial resolution blue intensity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Wright, William; Szejner, Paul; Wells, Leon; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Monson, Russell

    2016-04-01

    Rapidly rising evaporative demand threatens forests in semi-arid areas around the world, but the timing of stem growth response to drought is often coarsely known. This is partly due to a shortage of sub-annual growth records, particularly outside the Mediterranean region where most intra-annual density fluctuation (IADF) chronologies are based. We anticipate that an automated, cost-effective, and easily implementable method to characterize IADFs could foster more widespread development of sub-annual chronologies. Here, we applied a peak detection algorithm to fine-spatial resolution blue intensity (BI) profiles of Ponderosa pine tree rings from two sites located in neighboring mountain ranges in southern Arizona (~300 m elevation difference). This automated procedure proved reliable to isolate and characterize IADFs, thus offering an efficient and objective alternative to visual identification. Out of seven investigated BI parameters, peak height, width, and area showed satisfactory chronology statistics. We assessed the response of these BI and radial growth parameters to six monthly-resolved climate variables and to the onset date of the North American summer monsoon (NAM). The NAM is an atmospheric mode that provides a clear time marker for the termination of a pre-summer drought period (May-June) causing regular IADFs in trees growing near the dry margin of their distribution range. We observed divergent water limitation at the two sites, despite comparable site characteristics. Radial growth at the lower-elevation site depended mainly on winter precipitation, whereas the higher site relied on spring and monsoon precipitation. The pre-summer drought period indeed promoted IADFs in early ring portions at both sites. Yet, IADFs at the higher site were only formed, if spring was sufficiently humid to assume enough radial growth. Late-position IADFs were caused by a weak monsoon and additionally promoted by favorable conditions towards the end of the growing

  1. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes encode enzymes with contrasting substrate specificity and show divergent gene expression profiles in Fragaria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Miosic

    Full Text Available During fruit ripening, strawberries show distinct changes in the flavonoid classes that accumulate, switching from the formation of flavan 3-ols and flavonols in unripe fruits to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the ripe fruits. In the common garden strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa this is accompanied by a distinct switch in the pattern of hydroxylation demonstrated by the almost exclusive accumulation of pelargonidin based pigments. In Fragaria vesca the proportion of anthocyanins showing one (pelargonidin and two (cyanidin hydroxyl groups within the B-ring is almost equal. We isolated two dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR cDNA clones from strawberry fruits, which show 82% sequence similarity. The encoded enzymes revealed a high variability in substrate specificity. One enzyme variant did not accept DHK (with one hydroxyl group present in the B-ring, whereas the other strongly preferred DHK as a substrate. This appears to be an uncharacterized DFR variant with novel substrate specificity. Both DFRs were expressed in the receptacle and the achenes of both Fragaria species and the DFR2 expression profile showed a pronounced dependence on fruit development, whereas DFR1 expression remained relatively stable. There were, however, significant differences in their relative rates of expression. The DFR1/DFR2 expression ratio was much higher in the Fragaria×ananassa and enzyme preparations from F.×ananassa receptacles showed higher capability to convert DHK than preparations from F. vesca. Anthocyanin concentrations in the F.×ananassa cultivar were more than twofold higher and the cyanidin:pelargonidin ratio was only 0.05 compared to 0.51 in the F. vesca cultivar. The differences in the fruit colour of the two Fragaria species can be explained by the higher expression of DFR1 in F.×ananassa as compared to F. vesca, a higher enzyme efficiency (Kcat/Km values of DFR1 combined with the loss of F3'H activity late in fruit development of F.×ananassa.

  2. Dark matter density profiles of the halos embedding early-type galaxies: characterizing halo contraction and dark matter annihilation strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Frieman, Joshua A; Bernardi, Mariangela

    2012-01-01

    Identifying dark matter and characterizing its distribution in the inner region of halos embedding galaxies are inter-related problems of broad importance. We devise a new procedure of determining dark matter distribution in halos. We first make a self-consistent bivariate statistical match of stellar mass and velocity dispersion with halo mass as demonstrated here for the first time. Then, selecting early-type galaxy-halo systems we perform Jeans dynamical modeling with the aid of observed statistical properties of stellar mass profiles and velocity dispersion profiles. Dark matter density profiles derived specifically using Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies and halos from up-to-date cosmological dissipationless simulations deviate significantly from the dissipationless profle of Navarro-Frenk-White or Einasto in terms of inner density slope and/or concentration. From these dark matter profiles we find that dark matter density is enhanced in the inner region of most early-type galactic halos providing an ind...

  3. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  4. Plasma Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and d-Dopachrome Tautomerase Show a Highly Specific Profile in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thierry; Schlapbach, Luregn J.; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Wellmann, Sven; Marquis, Patrick; Vermijlen, David; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic, constitutively expressed, pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important regulator of immune responses. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a newly described member of the MIF protein superfamily, shares sequence homology and biological activities with MIF. We recently reported that high expression levels of MIF sustain innate immune responses in newborns. Here, we elected to further characterize age-dependent MIF expression and to define whether DDT shares a similar expression profile with MIF. Therefore, we delineated the circulating concentrations of MIF and DDT throughout life using a large cohort of 307 subjects including fetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adults. Compared to levels measured in healthy adults (median: 5.7 ng/ml for MIF and 16.8 ng/ml for DDT), MIF and DDT plasma concentrations were higher in fetuses (median: 48.9 and 29.6 ng/ml), increased further at birth (median: 82.6 and 52.0 ng/ml), reached strikingly elevated levels on postnatal day 4 (median: 109.5 and 121.6 ng/ml), and decreased to adult levels during the first months of life. A strong correlation was observed between MIF and DDT concentrations in all age groups (R = 0.91, P < 0.0001). MIF and DDT levels correlated with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein upregulated under low oxygen tension and implicated in vascular and lung development (R = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for MIF and R = 0.65, P < 0.0001 for DDT). In very preterm infants, lower levels of MIF and DDT on postnatal day 6 were associated with an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Thus, MIF and DDT plasma levels show a highly specific developmental profile in early life, supporting an important role for these cytokines during the neonatal period. PMID:28179905

  5. Determination of stratospheric temperature and density by GOMOS: Verification with respect to high latitude LIDAR profiles from Thule, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sarra, A.; Iannone, R. Q.; Casadio, S.; Di Biagio, C.; Pace, G.; Cacciani, M.; Muscari, G.; Dehn, A.; Bojkov, B.

    2017-02-01

    High resolution temperature profiles (HRTP) have been derived from measurements performed by Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) onboard ENVISAT. HRTP are derived from measurements with two fast photometers whose signal is sampled at 1 kHz, and allows investigating the role of irregularities in the density and temperature profiles, such as those associated with gravity waves. In this study high resolution temperature and density profiles measured at high latitude by GOMOS are compared with observations made with the ground-based aerosol/temperature LIDAR at Thule, Greenland. The LIDAR at Thule contributes to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. The LIDAR profiles are analyzed in the height interval overlapping with GOMOS data (22-35 km), and the density and temperature profiles are obtained with 250 m vertical resolution. The comparison is focused on data collected during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 Arctic winters. Profiles measured within 6 hours and 500 km are selected. The profiles are classified based on spatial and temporal variability of dynamical indicators over Thule and at the GOMOS tangent height position. Several corresponding features can be identified in the GOMOS and LIDAR profiles, suggesting that the GOMOS HRTP could be used to investigate the global distribution of small scale fluctuations. As an example, two cases corresponding to inner and outer vortex conditions during the 2008-2009 winter are discussed, also in relation with the very intense sudden stratospheric warming occurred in this season.

  6. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, Sabar [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, Rokiah [School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

  7. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  8. NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE POTENTIAL AND DENSITY PROFILE OF A THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM SHEET BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S M; Bazouin, G

    2011-03-29

    In a recent paper, S. M. Lund, A. Friedman, and G. Bazouin, Sheet beam model for intense space-charge: with application to Debye screening and the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies in a thermal equilibrium beam, in press, Phys. Rev. Special Topics - Accel. and Beams (2011), a 1D sheet beam model was extensively analyzed. In this complementary paper, we present details of a numerical procedure developed to construct the self-consistent electrostatic potential and density profile of a thermal equilibrium sheet beam distribution. This procedure effectively circumvents pathologies which can prevent use of standard numerical integration techniques when space-charge intensity is high. The procedure employs transformations and is straightforward to implement with standard numerical methods and produces accurate solutions which can be applied to thermal equilibria with arbitrarily strong space-charge intensity up to the applied focusing limit.

  9. NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE POTENTIAL AND DENSITY PROFILE OF A THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM SHEET BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazouin, Steven M. Lund, Guillaume; Bazouin, Guillaume

    2011-04-01

    In a recent paper, S. M. Lund, A. Friedman, and G. Bazouin, Sheet beam model for intense space-charge: with application to Debye screening and the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies in a thermal equilibrium beam, in press, Phys. Rev. Special Topics - Accel. and Beams (2011), a 1D sheet beam model was extensively analyzed. In this complementary paper, we present details of a numerical procedure developed to construct the self-consistent electrostatic potential and density profile of a thermal equilibrium sheet beam distribution. This procedure effectively circumvents pathologies which can prevent use of standard numerical integration techniques when space-charge intensity is high. The procedure employs transformations and is straightforward to implement with standard numerical methods and produces accurate solutions which can be applied to thermal equilibria with arbitrarily strong space-charge intensity up to the applied focusing limit.

  10. Size distribution and radial density profile of synaptic vesicles by SAXS and light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castorph, Simon; Salditt, Tim [Institute for X-ray Physics, Goettingen (Germany); Holt, Matthew; Jahn, Reinhard [Max Plank Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany); Sztucki, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Synaptic vesicles are small membraneous organelles within the nerve terminal, encapsulating neurotransmitters by a lipid bilayer. The transport of the neurotransmitter, the fusion at the plasma membrane, and the release of the stored neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft are since long know as essential step in nerve conduction of the chemical synapse. A detailed structural view of these molecular mechanisms is still lacking, not withstanding the enormous progress in the field during recent years. From measurements and quantitative fitting of small angle X-ray scattering curves and dynamic light scattering the averaged structural properties of synaptic vesicles can be determined. We present SAXS measurements and fits revealing the width of the size distribution function and details of the radial scattering length profile of synaptic vesicles from rat brain. Representative values for the inner and outer radius and the size polydispersity as well as the density and width of the outer protein layer are obtained.

  11. New density profile and structural parameters of the complex stellar system Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Mucciarelli, A; Beccari, G; Miocchi, P; Bellazzini, M; Rich, R M; Origlia, L; Valenti, E; Rood, R T; Ransom, S

    2010-01-01

    Terzan 5 is a globular cluster-like stellar system in the Galactic Bulge which has been recently found to harbor two stellar populations with different iron content and probably different ages (Ferraro et al. 2009). This discovery suggests that Terzan 5 may be the relic of a primordial building block which contributed to the formation of the Galactic Bulge. Here we present a re-determination of the structural parameters (center of gravity, density and surface brightness profiles, total luminosity and mass) of Terzan 5, as obtained from the combination of high-resolution (ESO-MAD and HST ACS-WFC) and wide-field (ESO-WFI) observations. We find that Terzan 5 is significantly less concentrated and more massive than previously thought. Still it has the largest collision rate of any stellar aggregate in the Galaxy. We discuss the impact of these findings on the exceptional population of millisecond pulsars harbored in this stellar system.

  12. The late-type stellar density profile in the Galactic Center: A statistical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Samantha N; Do, Tuan; Martinez, Gregory D; Yelda, Sylvana; Sitarski, Breann N; Lu, Jessica R; Morris, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The late-type stellar population in the Galactic Center was first predicted to reside in a dynamically relaxed cusp (power law slope ranging from 3/2 to 7/4). However, observations - which rely on models to correct for projection effects - have suggested a flat distribution instead. The need for this correction is due to the lack of information regarding the line-of-sight distances. With a two decade long baseline in astrometric measurements, we are now able to measure significant projected radial accelerations, six of which are newly reported here, that directly constrain line-of-sight distances. Here we present a statistical approach to take advantage of this information and more accurately constrain the shape of the radial density profile of the late-type stellar population in the Galactic Center.

  13. Effect of Control Blade History, and Axial Coolant Density and Burnup Profiles on BWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S [ORNL

    2015-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation systems (often referred to as casks) and spent fuel pools (SFPs). This work is divided into two main phases. The first phase investigated the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in SFPs to transportation and storage casks and the validation of reactivity calculations and spent fuel compositions within these methods. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the analysis of the effects of control blade insertion history, and moderator density and burnup axial profiles for extended BWR BUC.

  14. Whittaker functions in beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration for a plasma with a parabolic density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, Y.; Dorranian, D., E-mail: d.dorranian@gmail.com [Laser Laboratory, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aslaninejad, M., E-mail: m.aslaninejad@ipm.ir [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a linear wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The density profile has the maximum on the axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. We have built a thorough analytical model and solved the governing equations for the wakefield acceleration of a charged particle beam. The longitudinal and radial wakefields are expressed by Whittaker functions, and for certain parameters of plasma and the beam, their behaviours in longitudinal and radial directions are investigated. It is observed that the radial electric field generated by the bunch increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  15. Whittaker functions in beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration for a plasma with a parabolic density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golian, Y.; Aslaninejad, M.; Dorranian, D.

    2016-01-01

    A model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a linear wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The density profile has the maximum on the axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. We have built a thorough analytical model and solved the governing equations for the wakefield acceleration of a charged particle beam. The longitudinal and radial wakefields are expressed by Whittaker functions, and for certain parameters of plasma and the beam, their behaviours in longitudinal and radial directions are investigated. It is observed that the radial electric field generated by the bunch increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  16. Profile of cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of American Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to density and hypoxia stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations to the physiological profile (cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of Lithobates catesbeianus caused by the stressors density and hypoxia. The organisms were in the prometamorphosis stage and exposed to different tadpole densities: 1 tadpole/L (T1, 5 tadpoles/L (T2, and 10 tadpoles/L (T3 for 12 days. The blood was collected through the rupture of the caudal blood vessel and collected under normoxia (immediate collection and hypoxia (after 15 minutes of air exposure conditions. Cortisol levels rose on the fourth and eighth days of treatment and returned to basal levels by the end of the experiment. The stressor mechanisms tested did not affect glycaemia. White blood cells (total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils showed a significant difference at the twelfth day of the experiment when compared with the start of the experiment. We concluded that, under controlled conditions, a density of up to 10 tadpoles/L and air exposure for 15 minutes did not cause harmful physiological alterations during the experimental period. The answer to these stressors maybe was in another hormonal level (corticosterone.

  17. ASD and schizophrenia show distinct developmental profiles in common genetic overlap with population-based social communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G

    2017-01-03

    Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online

  18. Whole genome expression profiling shows that BRG1 transcriptionally regulates UV inducible genes and other novel targets in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nemzow, Leah; Chen, Hua; Hu, Jennifer J; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    UV irradiation is known to cause cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs), and plays a large role in the development of cancer. Tumor suppression, through DNA repair and proper cell cycle regulation, is an integral factor in maintaining healthy cells and preventing development of cancer. Transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in the various tumor suppression pathways is essential for them to be expressed when needed and to function properly. BRG1, an ATPase catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, has been identified as a tumor suppressor protein, as it has been shown to play a role in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) of CPDs, suppress apoptosis, and restore checkpoint deficiency, in response to UV exposure. Although BRG1 has been shown to regulate transcription of some genes that are instrumental in proper DNA damage repair and cell cycle maintenance in response to UV, its role in transcriptional regulation of the whole genome in response to UV has not yet been elucidated. With whole genome expression profiling in SW13 cells, we show that upon UV induction, BRG1 regulates transcriptional expression of many genes involved in cell stress response. Additionally, our results also highlight BRG1's general role as a master regulator of the genome, as it transcriptionally regulates approximately 4.8% of the human genome, including expression of genes involved in many pathways. RT-PCR and ChIP were used to validate our genome expression analysis. Importantly, our study identifies several novel transcriptional targets of BRG1, such as ATF3. Thus, BRG1 has a larger impact on human genome expression than previously thought, and our studies will provide inroads for future analysis of BRG1's role in gene regulation.

  19. Tidal Disruption of Milky Way Satellites with Shallow Dark Matter Density Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Łokas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf galaxies of the Local Group provide unique possibilities to test current theories of structure formation. Their number and properties have put the broadly accepted cold dark matter model into question, posing a few problems. These problems now seem close to resolution due to the improved treatment of baryonic processes in dwarf galaxy simulations which now predict cored rather than cuspy dark matter profiles in isolated dwarfs with important consequences for their subsequent environmental evolution. Using N-body simulations, we study the evolution of a disky dwarf galaxy with such a shallow dark matter profile on a typical orbit around the Milky Way. The dwarf survives the first pericenter passage but is disrupted after the second due to tidal forces from the host. We discuss the evolution of the dwarf’s properties in time prior to and at the time of disruption. We demonstrate that the dissolution occurs on a rather short timescale as the dwarf expands from a spheroid into a stream with non-zero mean radial velocity. We point out that the properties of the dwarf at the time of disruption may be difficult to distinguish from bound configurations, such as tidally induced bars, both in terms of surface density and line-of-sight kinematics.

  20. Modelling the stellar soft-photon energy density profile of globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Prinsloo, P L; Buesching, I; Kopp, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations by e.g. Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed globular clusters (GC) to be sources of high-energy (HE) and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays. It has been suggested that the presence of large numbers of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) within these clusters may be either directly responsible for these gamma-ray fluxes through emission of pulsed curvature radiation, or indirectly through the injection of relativistic leptons into the cluster. These relativistic particles are plausibly re-accelerated in shocks, created by the collision of stellar winds, before interacting with the soft-photon radiation field set up by the stellar population of the host cluster. Inverse Compton (IC) scattering then produces gamma radiation in the TeV band. In order to calculate the IC spectrum, an accurate profile for the energy density of the soft-photon field is required. We construct such a profile by deriving a radially-dependent expression for the stel...

  1. A "Universal" Density Profile for the Outer Stellar Halos of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The outer stellar halos of galaxies contain vital information about the formation history of galaxies, since the relaxation timescales in the outskirts are long enough to keep the memory, while the information about individual formation events in the central parts has long been lost due to mixing, star formation and relaxation. To unveil some of the information encoded in these faint outer halo regions, we study the stellar outskirts of galaxies selected from a fully hydrodynamical high resolution cosmological simulation, called Magneticum. We find that the density profiles of the outer stellar halos of galaxies over a broad mass range can be well described by an Einasto profile. For a fixed total mass range, the free parameters of the Einasto fits are closely correlated. Galaxies which had more (dry) merger events tend to have lesser curved outer stellar halos, however, we find no indication that the amount of curvature is correlated with galaxy morphology. The Einasto-like shape of the outer stellar halo de...

  2. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical tissues show spurious copy number changes in array-CGH profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Sherry, E A; Mc Goldrick, A; Kay, E W; Hopkins, A M; Gallagher, W M; Dervan, P A

    2007-11-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival clinical specimens are invaluable in discovery of prognostic and therapeutic targets for diseases such as cancer. However, the suitability of FFPE-derived genetic material for array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies is underexplored. In this study, genetic profiles of matched FFPE and fresh-frozen specimens were examined to investigate DNA integrity differences between these sample types and determine the impact this may have on genetic profiles. Genomic DNA was extracted from three patient-matched FFPE and fresh-frozen clinical tissue samples. T47D breast cancer control cells were also grown in culture and processed to yield a fresh T47D sample, a fresh-frozen T47D sample and a FFPE T47D sample. DNA was extracted from all the samples; array-CGH conducted and genetic profiles of matched samples were then compared. A loss of high molecular weight DNA was observed in the FFPE clinical tissues and FFPE T47D samples. A dramatic increase in absolute number of genetic alterations was observed in all FFPE tissues relative to matched fresh-frozen counterparts. In future, alternative fixation and tissue-processing procedures, and/or new DNA extraction and CGH profiling protocols, may be implemented, enabling identification of changes involved in disease progression using stored clinical specimens.

  3. Optimal Density Profile of the Plasma Layer Shielded by a Conducting Surface for the Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舸; 曹金祥; 宋法伦

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Born approximation, we reduce the approximate analysis solution to the normal and oblique incident electromagnetic wave scattering from the weakly ionized plasma layer shielded by a conducting surface. The solution is closely related to the density profile of the plasma layer. Employing the self-consistent base function, we yield the optimal density profile for the nonuniform plasma layer with the frequencies of incident electromagnetic waves ranging from 4-10 GHz. Numerical studies illustrate the optimal density profile can "survive" wide ranges of the plasma parameters. Different from the validity condition for the Wenzell-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys (WKBJ) approximation, the Born approximation is feasible even if the scale length is smaller than the wavelength.Therefore, the Born approximation is universal against the scattering problem from the weakly ionized plasma.

  4. Assessment studies on the inversion of satellite to satellite electron content to obtain electron density profiles in the ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hochegger, G P

    2000-01-01

    The electron content data, obtained by satellite-to-satellite occultations of radio signals can lead to height profiles of electron density by discrete inversion. Since there is no possibility to verify such profiles by means of other measurements (practically never measurements at the same time and same location) it was necessary to simulate occultation scenarios by means of an ionosphere model to obtain a large number of comparisons sufficient for investigations on a statistical basis. The obtained electron contents were inverted and compared with electron density height profiles, obtained with the same ionospheric model for the occultation point. The differences between these profiles were investigated (difference between the F2-peak maxima, the height of the maxima, the shape of the topside and bottom side ionosphere). Since simulations were done for chosen locations (250 randomly spread on the globe) for every month and every second hour and for two solar activity levels (HSA and LSA), a whole year was '...

  5. Direct evaluation of the position dependent diffusion coefficient and persistence time from the equilibrium density profile in anisotropic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer; Colmenares, Pedro J; López, Floralba

    2013-08-21

    We derive expressions for the transverse diffusion coefficient D(z) and the average persistence time τ(z; L) within a layer of width L, for particles of a non-homogeneous fluid enclosed in a planar nanopore. The method allows the direct evaluation of these position-dependent dynamical quantities from the equilibrium local particle density profile. We use results for the density and persistence time profiles from the virtual layer molecular dynamics method to numerically assess the significance of the Smoluchowski approximation.

  6. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  7. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  8. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C;

    2011-01-01

    profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... and the length of follicular and luteal phase and (2) from the estrous cycle following insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone and days from estrus to post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone. A discriminant analysis did not reveal clear...

  9. Spatial profiles of interelectrode electron density in direct current superposed dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kenji; Komuro, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-04-01

    We present experimentally determined spatial profiles of the interelectrode electron density (n e) in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas in which the negative direct current (dc) bias voltage (V dc) is superposed; in the experiment, 13 MHz (P low) was applied to the lower electrode and 60 MHz (P high) to the upper electrode. The bulk n e increased substantially with increases in the external power, P high, P low, and with increases in V dc. When P low was insufficient, the bulk n e decreased as the V dc bias increased. The bulk n e increased due to its dependence on V dc, especially for |V dc|  >  500 V. This may correspond to the sheath voltages (V s) of the lower electrode. The n e values in front of the upper electrode were coupled with the V dc: the V dc dependence first decreased and then increased. The dc currents (I dc) of the upper electrode were collected when a large P low was applied. The value of I dc at the threshold value of V dc  ≈  V s (e.g.  ‑500 V) increased with an increase in n e. When |V dc| exceeded the threshold, the spatial n e profile and the I dc dependence were changed relative to the electrical characteristics of the dc superposition; this led to a change in the location of the maximum n e, the width of the area of n e depletion in front of the electrodes, and a transition in the electron heating modes.

  10. Vortex line density in counterflowing He II with laminar and turbulent normal fluid velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Baggaley, A W

    2013-01-01

    Superfluid helium is an intimate mixture of a viscous normal fluid, with continuous vorticity, and an inviscid superfluid, where vorticity is constrained to thin, stable topological defects. One mechanism to generate turbulence in this system is through the application of a heat flux, so called thermal counterflow. Of particular interest is how turbulence in the superfluid responds to both a laminar and turbulent normal fluid in the presence of walls. We model superfluid vortex lines as reconnecting space curves with fixed circulation, and consider both laminar (Poiseuille) and turbulent normal fluid flows in a channel configuration. Using high resolution numerical simulations we show that turbulence in the normal fluid sustains a notably higher vortex line density than a laminar flow with the same mean flow rate. We exam Vinen's relation, $\\sqrt{L}=\\gamma v_{ns}$, between the steady state vortex line density $L$ and the counterflow velocity $v_{ns}$. Our results support the hypothesis that transition to turb...

  11. An Estimate of Solar Wind Density and Velocity Profiles in a Coronal Hole and a Coronal Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1996-01-01

    Using the total electron content data obtained by the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment (SCE) during the first solar conjunction in summer 1991, two data sets were selected, one associated with a coronal hole and the other associated with coronal streamer crossings. In order to determine coronal streamer density profiles, the electron content of the tracking passes embedded in a coronal streamer were corrected for the contributions from coronal hole densities.

  12. HIV-infected patients show functionally defective high-density lipoprotein (HDL paralleled with changes in HDL-associated proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Estrada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse association between plasma HDL concentrations and cardiovascular risk. Although this cardioprotective role has been mainly attributed to its role in promoting cellular cholesterol efflux, there is an emerging interest in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of HDL. The aim of the study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL isolated from HIV-infected patients. Methods Cross-sectional study of 113 HIV-infected patients and 70 non-infected control subjects without evident CVD. From each subject, HDL was isolated by ultracentrifugation and its anti-inflammatory status was tested as its ability to inhibit MCP-1-induced migration of the monocytic cell line THP-1 using transwell cell culture chamber inserts with micropore filters of 5 microns pore size. HDL-associated proteins were measured by commercial ELISAs. Results Twenty-three HIV-infected patients were ART-naïve (32±15 years, 66.7% male and ninety were currently on ART (46±11 years, 78.9 % male. Most patients on ART (91.1% had undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL. When compared to healthy subjects, both naïve and treated HIV-infected patients had lower plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (naïve: 45±12, ART: 50±10, controls: 55±10 mg/dL, p<0.05. HDL isolated from HIV naïve patients showed a significantly reduced anti-inflammatory activity (THP-1 monocyte migration capacity was 203% times higher in HIV patients than in control subjects. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL from ART-treated HIV-infected patients was significantly improved when compared to naïve patients, although it remained significantly lower than controls (130% THP-1 monocyte migration vs controls. HDL from HIV-infected patients had a decreased concentration of the anti-inflammatory proteins Apo A1 (controls: 2.1±0.3, naïve: 1.4±0.2, ART: 1.6±0.1 mg/ml and LCAT (controls: 0.53±0.09, naïve: 0.34±0

  13. From slant column densities to trace gas profiles: Post processing data from the new MAX-DOAS network in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M. M.; Stremme, W.; Rivera, C. I.; Arellano, E. J.; Grutter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The new MAX-DOAS network in Mexico City provides results of O4, HCHO and NO2 slant column densities (SCD). Here, we present a new numerical code developed to retrieve gas profiles of NO2 and HCHO using radiative transfer simulations. We present first results of such profiles from the MAX-DOAS station located at UNAM campus. The code works in two steps: First, the O4 slant column density information is used to retrieve an aerosol profile. As an a-priori aerosol profile, we use averaged ceilometer data measured at UNAM and scaled to the total optical depth provided by the Aeronet data base. In the second step, the retrieved aerosol profile information is used together with the trace gas (HCHO or NO2) SCDs to retrieve the trace gas profiles. The inversion is based on a gauss-newton iteration scheme and uses constrained least square fitting with either optimal estimation or Tihkonov regularization. For the latter, the regulation matrix is currently constructed from the discrete first derivative operator. The forward model uses the radiative transfer code VLIDORT. The inputs to VLIDORT are calculated using temperature and pressure information from daily radiosounde measurements and aerosol single scattering optical depths and asymmetry factors from the Aeronet data base for Mexico City. For the gas absorption cross sections we use the same values as were used for the SCD calculation from the recorded spectra using QDOAS. Besides demonstrating the functionality of the algorithm showing profile retrievals of simulated SCDs with added random noise, we present HCHO and NO2 profiles retrieved from SCDs calculated from the MAX-DOAS measurements at UNAM campus at selected days.

  14. Central depressions in the charge density profiles of the nuclei around $^{46}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jun Ling; Long, Wen Hui

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of the proton bubble-like structure has been studied within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (RHFB) and relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theories by exploring the bulk properties, the charge density profiles and single proton spectra of argon isotopes and $N = 28$ isotones. It is found that the RHFB calculations with PKA1 effective interaction, which can properly reproduce the charge radii of argon isotopes and the $Z=16$ proton shell nearby, do not support the occurrence of the proton bubble-like structure in argon isotopes due to the prediction of deeper bound proton orbit $\\pi2s_{1/2}$ than $\\pi1d_{3/2}$. For $N = 28$ isotones, $^{42}$Si and $^{40}$Mg are predicted by both RHFB and RHB models to have the proton bubble-like structure, owing to the large gap between the proton $\\pi2s_{1/2}$ and $\\pi1d_{5/2}$ orbits, namely the $Z=14$ proton shell. Therefore, $^{42}$Si is proposed as the potential candidate of proton bubble nucleus, which has longer life-time than $^{40}$Mg.

  15. A serum metabolomics-based profile in low bone mineral density postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takeshi; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yuiko; Koboyashi, Tami; Katsuyama, Eri; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Morita, Mayu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Tando, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Kana; Tsuji, Takashi; Funayama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized as a metabolic disorder of bone tissue, and various metabolic markers are now available to support its diagnosis and evaluate treatment effects. Substances produced as end products of metabolomic activities are the correlated factors to the biological or metabolic status, and thus, metabolites are considered highly sensitive markers of particular pathological states, including osteoporosis. Here we undertook comprehensive serum metabolomics analysis in postmenopausal women with or without low bone mineral density (low BMD vs controls) for the first time using capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. Among the metabolites tested, 57 were detected in sera. Levels of hydroxyproline, Gly-Gly and cystine, differed significantly between groups, with Gly-Gly and cystine significantly lower in the low BMD group and hydroxyproline, a reported marker of osteoporosis, significantly higher. Levels of TRACP5b, a bone resorption marker, were significantly higher in the low BMD group, supporting the study's validity. Taken together, our findings represent novel metabolomic profiling in low BMD in postmenopausal women.

  16. RR Lyrae in XSTPS: The halo density profile in the North Galactic Cap

    CERN Document Server

    Faccioli, Lorenzo; Yuan, H -B; Zhang, H -H; Liu, X -W; Zhao, H -B; Yao, J -S

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) observed by the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey (XDSS). The area we consider is located in the North Galactic Cap, covering 376.75 sq deg at RA $\\approx$ 150 deg and Dec $\\approx$ 27 deg down to a magnitude limit of i $\\approx$ 19. Using the variability information afforded by the multi-epoch nature of our XDSS data, combined with colors from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we are able to identify candidate RRLs. We find 318 candidates, derive distances to them and estimate the detection efficiency. The majority of our candidates have more than 12 observations and for these we are able to calculate periods. These also allows us to estimate our contamination level, which we predict is between 30% to 40%. Finally we use the sample to probe the halo density profile in the 9-49 kpc range and find that it can be well fitted by a double power law. We find good agreement between this model and the models derived for the South Galactic Cap using the Watkins et al....

  17. Gravimetric and density profiling using the combination of surface acoustic waves and neutron reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolan, Daniel T W; Barker, Robert; Gough, Tim; Topham, Paul D; Howse, Jonathan R; Glidle, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    A new approach is described herein, where neutron reflectivity measurements that probe changes in the density profile of thin films as they absorb material from the gas phase have been combined with a Love wave based gravimetric assay that measures the mass of absorbed material. This combination of techniques not only determines the spatial distribution of absorbed molecules, but also reveals the amount of void space within the thin film (a quantity that can be difficult to assess using neutron reflectivity measurements alone). The uptake of organic solvent vapours into spun cast films of polystyrene has been used as a model system with a view to this method having the potential for extension to the study of other systems. These could include, for example, humidity sensors, hydrogel swelling, biomolecule adsorption or transformations of electroactive and chemically reactive thin films. This is the first ever demonstration of combined neutron reflectivity and Love wave-based gravimetry and the experimental caveats, limitations and scope of the method are explored and discussed in detail.

  18. Modeling the convective stability of CO2 sequestration by a discontinuous and unstably stratified density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanstall, Taber; Hadji, Layachi

    2016-11-01

    The convective stability associated with carbon sequestration is modeled by adopting an unstably stratified basic profile having a step function density with top heavy carbon saturated layer overlying a lighter carbon free layer. The model takes into account the anisotropy in both permeability and carbon dioxide diffusion, and chemical reactions between the CO2 rich brine and host mineralogy. We carry out a linear stability analysis to derive the instability threshold parameters for a variety of CO2 boundary conditions. We solve for the minimum thickness of the carbon-rich layer at which convection sets in and quantify how its value is influenced by diffusion, anisotropy, permeability, reaction and type of boundary conditions. The discontinuity leads to convective concentration contours that have the shape of an asymmetric lens which we quantify by deriving and making use of the CO2 flux expressions at the interface. The linear problem is extended to the nonlinear regime, the analysis of which leads to the determination of a uniformly valid super critical steady solution.

  19. Global characteristics of the upper transition height derived from the topside Alouette/ISIS topside sounder electron density profiles, the Formosat-3/COSMIC density profiles and the IRI ion composition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlik, Vladimir; Triskova, Ludmila; Benson, Robert; Bilitza, Dieter; Chu, Philip; Richards, Phil G.; Wang, Yongli

    The upper transition height (Ht) (the altitude of the transition from heavy atomic ions to light ions or in the simplest form the transition from O+ to H+) is an important parameter, representing the boundary between the ionosphere and the plasmasphere. Ht is very sensitive to various geophysical parameters, like solar and magnetic activity and strongly depends on latitude and local time. There were numerous studies of this parameter in past decades. In spite of these efforts, no model satisfactorily represents this parameter so far. Moreover, surprising evidence of very low transition heights during the last prolonged solar minimum, of a level never obtained before, have been reported. We investigate the upper transition height on the global scale. We made progress in processing large data sets of Ht deduced from the Alouette/ISIS topside sounder and from the Formosat-3/COSMIC vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h) using the theoretical Global Plasma Ionosphere Density (GPID) model (Webb and Essex, 2004) and a revised non-linear function describing the scale height vs. altitude (Titheridge, 1976) to fit the vertical density profiles to the observed profiles and to determine the upper transition height. Since both methods require the plasma temperatures and their gradients as input, these are calculated using the IRI2012 model. Both methods are verified using a large amount of electron and ion density profiles simulated by the FLIP theoretical model and their accuracy is discussed. We compare the results from Alouette/ISIS and Formosat-3/COSMIC and present a global distribution of the calculated Ht and its dependence on geophysical parameters. Finally we compare it with Ht calculated using the IRI ion composition model. Titheridge, J.E., 1976. Ion Transition Heights from Topside Electron-Density Profiles. Planetary and Space Science 24 (3), 229-245. Webb, P.A., Essex, E.A., 2004. A dynamic global model of the plasmasphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar

  20. Charge and current density profiles of a degenerate magnetized free-electron gas near a hard wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Kettenis; L.G. Suttorp

    1998-01-01

    The charge and current densities of a completely degenerate free-electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are found to have a damped oscillatory spatial dependence near a wall that is parallel to the magnetic field. For large distances from the wall the behaviour of the associated profile functions

  1. Stereolithography based method of creating custom gas density profile targets for high intensity laser-plasma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S W; He, Z; McGuffey, C; Schumaker, W; Krushelnick, K; Thomas, A G R

    2012-07-01

    Laser based stereolithography methods are shown to be useful for production of gas targets for high intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments. A cylindrically symmetric nozzle with an opening of approximately 100 μm and a periodic attachment of variable periodicity are outlined in detail with associated density profile characterization. Both components are durable within the limits of relevant experiments.

  2. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  3. Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bai [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA

    2007-01-01

    CO2 storage in a 30-minute period in a tall forest canopy often makes significant contributions to net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in the early morning and at night. When CO2 storage is properly measured and taken into account, underestimations of NEE on calm nights can be greatly reduced. Using CO2 data from a 12-level profile, we demonstrate that the lower canopy layer (below the thermal inversion) is a disproportional contributor to the total CO2 storage. This is because time derivative of CO2 density ( c/ t) generally shows increasing magnitude of mean and standard deviation with decreasing heights at night and from sunrise to 1000 hr in both growing and dormant seasons. Effects of resolution and configuration in a profiling system on the accuracy of CO2 storage estimation are evaluated by comparing subset profiles to the 12-level benchmark profile. It is demonstrated that the effectiveness of a profiling system in estimating CO2 storage is not only determined by its number of sampling levels but, more importantly, by its vertical configuration. To optimize a profile, one needs to balance the influence of two factors, c/ t and layer thickness, among all vertical sections within a forest. As a key contributor to the total CO2 storage, the lower canopy (with relatively large means and standard deviations of c/ t) requires a higher resolution in a profile system than the layers above. However, if the upper canopy is over-sparsely sampled relative to the lower canopy, the performance of a profile system might be degraded since, in such a situation, the influence of layer thickness dominates over that of c/ t. We also find that, because of different level of complexity in canopy structure, more sampling levels are necessary at our site in order to achieve the same level of accuracy as at a boreal aspen site. These results suggest that, in order to achieve an adequate accuracy in CO2 storage measurements, the number of sampling levels in a profile and its design should

  4. High energy emission of GRB 130821A: Constraining the density profile of the circum-burst medium as well as the initial Lorentz factor of the outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Bei; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming [Key laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas, E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-01

    GRB 130821A was detected by Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-WIND, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, RHESSI and Mars Odyssey-HEND. Although the data of GRB 130821A are very limited, we show in this work that the high energy γ-ray emission (i.e., above 100 MeV) alone imposes tight constraint on the density profile of the circum-burst medium as well as the initial Lorentz factor of the outflow. The temporal behavior of the high energy γ-ray emission is consistent with the forward shock synchrotron radiation model, and the circum-burst medium likely has a constant-density profile. The Lorentz factor is about a few hundred, similar to other bright GRBs.

  5. Design of Q-band FMCW reflectometry for electron density profile measurement on the Joint TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghan, Wan; Zhoujun, Yang; Ruobing, Zhou; Xiaoming, Pan; Chi, Zhang; Xianli, Xie; Bowen, Ruan

    2017-02-01

    The Q-band (33-50 GHz) fast sweep frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry has been recently developed for electron density profile measurement on the Joint TEXT tokamak. It operates in ordinary mode (O-mode) with a 20 μs sweeping period, covering the density range from 1 × 1019 m-3 to 3 × 1019 m-3. On the bench test, a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) filter is used for the dynamic calibration of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) to obtain a linear frequency sweep. Besides, the use of a power combiner helps to improve the side-band suppression level of the single side-band modulator (SSBM). The reconstructed density profiles are presented, which demonstrate the capability of the reflectometry.

  6. A gravity study along a profile across the Sichuan Basin, the Qinling Mountains and the Ordos Basin (central China): Density, isostasy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Qianshen; Lü, Qingtian; Si, Xiang; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Yan, Jiayong; Hao, Zhaobing

    2017-10-01

    In order to investigate the structure of the crust beneath the Middle Qinling Mountains (MQL) and neighboring areas in the North China Block and South China Block, a north-south gravity profile from Yuquan in the Sichuan Basin to Yulin in the Ordos Basin was conducted in 2011. The Bouguer gravity anomaly is determined from a high-quality gravity dataset collected between 31°N and 36°N of latitude, and varies between -200 and -110 mGal in the study region. Using accredited velocity density relationships, an initial crust-mantle density model is constructed for MQL and adjacent areas, which is later refined interactively to simulate the observed gravity anomaly. The present study reveals the features of the density and Bouguer gravity with respect to the tectonic units sampled by the profile. The lithosphere density model shows typical density values that depict a layered structure and allow differentiate the blocks that extend along the reference profile. The gravity field calculated by forward modeling from the final density distribution model correlates well with the measured gravity field within a standard deviation of 1.26 mGal. The density in the crystalline crust increases with depth from 2.65 g/cm3 up to the highest value of 2.95 g/cm3 near the bottom of the crust. The Conrad interface is identified as a density jump of about 0.05 g/cm3. The average density of the crust in MQL is clearly lower than the density in the formations on both sides. Starting from a combined Airy-Pratt isostatic compensation model, a partly compensated crust is found below MQL, suggesting future growth of the crust, unlike the Ordos and Sichuan basins that will remain stable. On the basis of the density and isostatic state of the crust and additional seismological research, such as the P-wave velocity model and Poisson's ratio, it is concluded that the lower crust delamination is a reasonable interpretation for the geophysical characteristics below the Qinling Orogen.

  7. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Dong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4, transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2, as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL. Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase

  8. The surface density profile of NGC 6388 : a good candidate for harboring an intermediate-mass black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Miocchi, P; Valenti, E; Rood, R T

    2007-01-01

    We have used a combination of high resolution (HST ACS-HRC, ACS-WFC, and WFPC2) and wide-field (ESO-WFI) observations of the galactic globular cluster NGC 6388 to derive its center of gravity, projected density profile, and central surface brightness profile. While the overall projected profiles are well fit by a King model with intermediate concentration (c=1.8) and sizable core radius (rc=7"), a significant power law (with slope \\alpha=-0.2) deviation from a flat core behavior has been detected within the inner 1 arcsecond. These properties suggest the presence of a central intermediate mass black hole. The observed profiles are well reproduced by a multi-mass isotropic, spherical model including a black hole with a mass of ~5.7x10^3 Msol.

  9. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources; Profile der Plasmaparameter und Dichte negativer Wasserstoffionen mittels Laserdetachmentmessungen in HF-angeregten Ionenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-12-20

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields ({proportional_to} 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H{sup -})=1.10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3}, which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  10. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T

    2014-09-01

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  11. Density profile of dark matter haloes and galaxies in the Horizon-AGN simulation: the impact of AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Peirani, S; Volonteri, M; Devriendt, J; Bundy, K; Silk, J; Pichon, C; Kaviraj, S; Gavazzi, R; Habouzit, M

    2016-01-01

    Using a suite of three large cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, Horizon-AGN, Horizon-noAGN (no AGN feedback) and Horizon-DM (no baryons), we investigate how a typical sub-grid model for AGN feedback affects the evolution of the inner density profiles of massive dark matter haloes and galaxies. Based on direct object-to-object comparisons, we find that the integrated inner mass and density slope differences between objects formed in these three simulations (hereafter, H_AGN, H_noAGN and H_DM) significantly evolve with time. More specifically, at high redshift (z~5), the mean central density profiles of H_AGN and H_noAGN dark matter haloes tend to be much steeper than their H_DM counterparts owing to the rapidly growing baryonic component and ensuing adiabatic contraction. By z~1.5, these mean halo density profiles in H_AGN have flattened, pummelled by powerful AGN activity ("quasar mode"): the integrated inner mass difference gaps with H_noAGN haloes have widened, and those with H_DM haloes have narrowed...

  12. Profiling of Ionospheric Electron Density Based on FormoSat-3/COSMIC Data: Results from the Intense Observation Period Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel Global Position System (GPS carrier phase signals received by the FormoSat-3 (FS3/COSMIC program's six low Earth orbiting (LEO satellites were used to undertake active limb sounding of the Earth¡¦s atmosphere and ionosphere via radio occultation (RO. In this study, the effects of large-scale horizontal gradients and/or inhomogeneous ionospheric electron densities (ne were considered by developing an iterative scheme to determine "compensated" total electron content (TEC values through nearby occultation observations. Using an iterative Abel inversion through "compensated" TEC values, more than one-hundred and eighty thousand vertical ionospheric ne profiles were collected during the intense observation period (IOP of 20 June - 27 September (day number 171 to 270 2006. Coincidences of GPS RO observations to ionospheric ne ionosonde data from forty-nine worldwide stations have been examined. It is found that the iterative scheme gives improved retrievals over the standard Abel inversion. From several thousand matches within the IOP experiment, the root mean square (rms foF2 differences between the ionosonde measurements and the FS3/COSMIC retrievals are improved from 1.67 to 1.07 MHz. The results also show improvement in the overestimates (underestimates on low (high retrieved foF2s, while the obtained hmF2s give better agreement with ionosonde observations.

  13. Hydrolysis Profiles of Formalin Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tumors Based on IOD (Integrated Optical Density and Nuclear Texture Feature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Fležar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine optimal hydrolysis time for the Feulgen DNA staining of archival formalin fixed paraffin‐embedded surgical samples, prepared as single cell suspensions for image cytometric measurements. The nuclear texture features along with the IOD (integrated optical density of the tumor nuclei were analysed by an automated high resolution image cytometer as a function of duration of hydrolysis treatment (in 5 N HCl at room temperature. Tissue blocks of breast carcinoma, ovarian serous carcinoma, ovarian serous tumor of borderline malignancy and leiomyosarcoma were included in the study. IOD hydrolysis profiles showed plateau between 30 and 60 min in the breast carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma, and between 40 and 60 min in the ovarian serous carcinoma and ovarian serous tumor of borderline malignancy. Most of the nuclear texture features remained stable after 20 min of hydrolysis treatment. Our results indicate that the optimal hydrolysis time for IOD and for nuclear texture feature measurements, was between 40 and 60 min in the cell preparations from tissue blocks of three epithelial and one soft tissue tumor.

  14. Quantification of mid and late evoked sinks in laminar current source density profiles of columns in the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Markus K; Hechavarría, Julio C; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Current source density (CSD) analysis assesses spatiotemporal synaptic activations at somatic and/or dendritic levels in the form of depolarizing current sinks. Whereas many studies have focused on the short (primary auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils. By applying an algorithm for contour calculation, three distinct mid and four late evoked sinks were identified in layers I, III, Va, VIa, and VIb. Our results further showed that the patterns of intracortical information-flow remained qualitatively similar for low and for high sound pressure level stimuli at the characteristic frequency (CF) as well as for stimuli ± 1 octave from CF. There were, however, differences associated with the strength, vertical extent, onset latency, and duration of the sinks for the four stimulation paradigms used. Stimuli one octave above the most sensitive frequency evoked a new, and quite reliable, sink in layer Va whereas low level stimulation led to the disappearance of the layer VIb sink. These data indicate the presence of input sources specifically activated in response to level and/or frequency parameters. Furthermore, spectral integration above vs. below the CF of neurons is asymmetric as illustrated by CSD profiles. These results are important because synaptic feedback associated with mid and late sinks-beginning at 50 ms post stimulus latency-is likely crucial for response modulation resulting from higher order processes like memory, learning or cognitive control.

  15. Common glycoproteins expressing polylactosamine-type glycans on matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cells show different glycan profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Mitsui, Yosuke; Kakoi, Naotaka; Yamada, Keita; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2014-02-07

    Recently, we reported comparative analysis of glycoproteins which express cancer-specific N-glycans on various cancer cells and identified 24 glycoproteins having polylactosamine (polyLacNAc)-type N-glycans that are abundantly present in malignant cells [ Mitsui et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2012 , 70 , 718 - 726 ]. In the present study, we applied the technique to comparative studies on common glycoproteins present in the matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. Metastatic melanoma cells (WM266-4) contained a large amount of polyLacNAc-type N-glycans in comparison with primary melanoma cells (WM115). To identify the glycoproteins expressing these N-glycans, glycopeptides having polyLacNAc-type N-glycans were captured by a Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA)-immobilized agarose column. The captured glycopeptides were analyzed by LC/MS after removing N-glycans, and some glycoproteins such as basigin, lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were identified in both WM115 and WM266-4 cells. The expression level of polyLacNAc of CSPG4 in WM266-4 cells was significantly higher than that in WM115 cells. In addition, sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains in CSPG4 showed dramatic changes between these cell lines. These data show that characteristic glycans attached to common proteins observed in different stages of cancer cells will be useful markers for determining degree of malignancies of tumor cells.

  16. Validation of improved Multi-Mode model for density, temperature and toroidal rotation profiles using PTRANSP simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Pankin, A. Y.; Rafiq, T.; McCune, D. C.; Budny, R. V.

    2010-11-01

    Advances in the Multi-Mode model include an improved Weiland model for the ITG and TEM modes [1] and a new model for the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (DRIBM) [2]. Advances in the PTRANSP code include an improved algorithm for the particle density evolution. Validation studies are carried out for the improved Multi-Mode model using PTRANSP simulations. In order to allow tight coupling with stiff transport models, all of the transport equations for main ion and impurity density profiles as well as electron temperature, ion temperature and toroidal angular rotation profiles are advanced simultaneously by the PTRANSP solver. The Plasma State connects the new solver to the rest of PTRANSP. The solver uses several techniques to control numerical stability. Simulation results for density, temperature and rotation frequency profiles are compared with experimental data for L-mode and H-mode discharges. [4pt] [1] J.Weiland et al., Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 965933; F.D. Halpern et al., Phys. Plasmas 15 (2008) 065033 [2] T. Rafiq et al., to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2010)

  17. Numerical Simulation of Hot Accretion Flows (I): A Large Radial Dynamical Range and the Density Profile of Accretion Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Feng; Bu, Defu

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of hot accretion flow have shown that the mass accretion rate decreases with decreasing radius; consequently the density profile of accretion flow becomes flatter compared to the case of a constant accretion rate. This result has important theoretical and observational implications. However, because of technical difficulties, the radial dynamic range in almost all previous simulations usually spans at most two orders of magnitude. This small dynamical range, combined with the effects of boundary conditions, makes the simulation results suspectable. Especially, the radial profiles of density and accretion rate may not be precise enough to be used to compare with observations. In this paper we present a "two-zone" approach to expand the radial dynamical range from two to four orders of magnitude. We confirm previous results and find that from $r_s$ to $ 10^4r_s$ the radial profiles of accretion rate and density can be well described by $\\dot{M}(r)\\propto r^s$ and $\\rho\\propto r^{-p}$. The ...

  18. Surface-exposed glycoproteins of hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 show a common N-glycosylation profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Gianna; Balestrieri, Marco; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Rossi, Mosè; Fiume, Immacolata; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella

    2013-06-07

    Cell surface proteins of hyperthermophilic Archaea actively participate in intercellular communication, cellular uptake, and energy conversion to sustain survival strategies in extreme habitats. Surface (S)-layer glycoproteins, the major component of the S-layers in many archaeal species and the best-characterized prokaryotic glycoproteins, were shown to have a large structural diversity in their glycan compositions. In spite of this, knowledge on glycosylation of proteins other than S-layer proteins in Archaea is quite limited. Here, the N-glycosylation pattern of cell-surface-exposed proteins of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 were analyzed by lectin affinity purification, HPAEC-PAD, and multiple mass spectrometry-based techniques. Detailed analysis of SSO1273, one of the most abundant ABC transporters present in the cell surface fraction of S. solfataricus, revealed a novel glycan structure composed of a branched sulfated heptasaccharide, Hex4(GlcNAc)2 plus sulfoquinovose where Hex is d-mannose and d-glucose. Having one monosaccharide unit more than the glycan of the S-layer glycoprotein of S. acidocaldarius, this is the most complex archaeal glycan structure known today. SSO1273 protein is heavily glycosylated and all 20 theoretical N-X-S/T (where X is any amino acid except proline) consensus sequence sites were confirmed. Remarkably, we show that several other proteins in the surface fraction of S. solfataricus are N-glycosylated by the same sulfated oligosaccharide and we identified 56 N-glycosylation sites in this subproteome.

  19. A long-term study on the deletion criterion of questionable electron density profiles caused by ionospheric irregularities - COSMIC radio occultation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, G.; Brahmanandam, P. S.; Chu, Y. H.

    2016-06-01

    The crucial assumption made in the retrieval of radio-occultated atmospheric parameters is the spherical symmetry of the atmospheric refractive index, which implies that no horizontal gradient of the refractive index exists along the spherical shell. Nevertheless, the presence of density irregularities will lead to scintillation and multipath effects that often create highly fluctuating and random electron density profiles. In this study, it is proposed a reliable data quality control (QC) approach to remove questionable electron density profiles (due to the presence of ionospheric irregularities) retrieved using the COSMIC radio occultation (RO) technique based on two parameters, namely, the gradient and fluctuation of the topside density profile. Statistics of seven years density profiles (July 2006-May 2013) are presented by determining the aforementioned parameters for every density profile. The main advantage of this data QC is that it uses COSMIC RO electron density profiles retrieved from the slant total electron content (TEC) that is estimated from the excess phases of the GPS L1 and L2 frequencies only to delete the questionable profiles, instead of relying on any model and other observations. A systematic criterion has been developed based on the statistics to relinquish the so-called questionable density profiles. The computed gradients and fluctuations of the topside ionosphere electron density profiles have shown a few important features including, solar activity dependency and pronounced variations in between around +40° and -40° latitudes. After the removal of questionable profiles, both peak densities and heights of the ionosphere F layer are presented globally in different seasons of years during 2007 and 2012 that revealed several important features.

  20. High-Latitude Topside Ionospheric Vertical Electron-Density-Profile Changes in Response to Large Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Truhlik, Vladimir; Wang, Yongli; Bilitza, Dieter; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-01-01

    Large magnetic-storm induced changes have been detected in high-latitude topside vertical electron-density profiles Ne(h). The investigation was based on the large database of topside Ne(h) profiles and digital topside ionograms from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program available from the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) at http://spdf.gsfc.nasa.gov/isis/isis-status.html. This large database enabled Ne(h) profiles to be obtained when an ISIS satellite passed through nearly the same region of space before, during, and after a major magnetic storm. A major goal was to relate the magnetic-storm induced high-latitude Ne(h) profile changes to solar-wind parameters. Thus an additional data constraint was to consider only storms where solar-wind data were available from the NASA/SPDF OMNIWeb database. Ten large magnetic storms (with Dst less than -100 nT) were identified that satisfied both the Ne(h) profile and the solar-wind data constraints. During five of these storms topside ionospheric Ne(h) profiles were available in the high-latitude northern hemisphere and during the other five storms similar ionospheric data were available in the southern hemisphere. Large Ne(h) changes were observed during each one of these storms. Our concentration in this paper is on the northern hemisphere. The data coverage was best for the northern-hemisphere winter. Here Ne(h) profile enhancements were always observed when the magnetic local time (MLT) was between 00 and 03 and Ne(h) profile depletions were always observed between 08 and 10 MLT. The observed Ne(h) deviations were compared with solar-wind parameters, with appropriate time shifts, for four storms.

  1. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  2. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P.; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Evrard, August E.; Becker, Matthew; Annis, James

    2007-09-28

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  3. The transcriptional profile of mesenchymal stem cell populations in primary osteoporosis is distinct and shows overexpression of osteogenic inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Benisch

    Full Text Available Primary osteoporosis is an age-related disease characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis. While the resorptive aspect of the disease has been studied intensely, less is known about the anabolic part of the syndrome or presumptive deficiencies in bone regeneration. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are the primary source of osteogenic regeneration. In the present study we aimed to unravel whether MSC biology is directly involved in the pathophysiology of the disease and therefore performed microarray analyses of hMSC of elderly patients (79-94 years old suffering from osteoporosis (hMSC-OP. In comparison to age-matched controls we detected profound changes in the transcriptome in hMSC-OP, e.g. enhanced mRNA expression of known osteoporosis-associated genes (LRP5, RUNX2, COL1A1 and of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis (CSF1, PTH1R, but most notably of genes coding for inhibitors of WNT and BMP signaling, such as Sclerostin and MAB21L2. These candidate genes indicate intrinsic deficiencies in self-renewal and differentiation potential in osteoporotic stem cells. We also compared both hMSC-OP and non-osteoporotic hMSC-old of elderly donors to hMSC of ∼30 years younger donors and found that the transcriptional changes acquired between the sixth and the ninth decade of life differed widely between osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic stem cells. In addition, we compared the osteoporotic transcriptome to long term-cultivated, senescent hMSC and detected some signs for pre-senescence in hMSC-OP.Our results suggest that in primary osteoporosis the transcriptomes of hMSC populations show distinct signatures and little overlap with non-osteoporotic aging, although we detected some hints for senescence-associated changes. While there are remarkable inter-individual variations as expected for polygenetic diseases, we could identify many susceptibility genes for osteoporosis known from genetic studies. We also found new candidates, e.g. MAB21L

  4. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in a flavonoid pathway in response to exogenous phenylalanine in Boesenbergia rotunda cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Mustafa, Noor Diyana; Khalid, Norzulaani; Gao, Huan; Peng, Zhiyu; Alimin, Mohd Firdaus; Bujang, Noraini; Ming, Wong Sher; Mohd-Yusuf, Yusmin; Harikrishna, Jennifer A; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2014-11-18

    Panduratin A extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda is a flavonoid reported to possess a range of medicinal indications which include anti-dengue, anti-HIV, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Boesenbergia rotunda is a plant from the Zingiberaceae family commonly used as a food ingredient and traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and China. Reports on the health benefits of secondary metabolites extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda over the last few years has resulted in rising demands for panduratin A. However large scale extraction has been hindered by the naturally low abundance of the compound and limited knowledge of its biosynthetic pathway. Transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of native and phenylalanine treated Boesenbergia rotunda cell suspension cultures were carried out to elucidate the key genes differentially expressed in the panduratin A biosynthetic pathway. Based on experiments that show increase in panduratin A production after 14 days post treatment with exogenous phenylalanine, an aromatic amino acid derived from the shikimic acid pathway, total RNA of untreated and 14 days post-phenylalanine treated cell suspension cultures were extracted and sequenced using next generation sequencing technology employing an Illumina-Solexa platform. The transcriptome data generated 101, 043 unigenes with 50, 932 (50.41%) successfully annotated in the public protein databases; including 49.93% (50, 447) in the non-redundant (NR) database, 34.63% (34, 989) in Swiss-Prot, 24,07% (24, 316) in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and 16.26% (16, 426) in Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). Through DGE analysis, we found that 14, 644 unigenes were up-regulated and 14, 379 unigenes down-regulated in response to exogenous phenylalanine treatment. In the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the proposed panduratin A production, 2 up-regulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 3 up-regulated 4-coumaroyl

  5. Space charge profiles in low density polyethylene samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bambery, K.R.; Fleming, R.J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    .5×107 V m-1. Current density was also measured as a function of temperature and field. Space charge due exclusively to the temperature gradient was detected, with density of order 0.01 C m-3. The activation energy associated with the transport of electrons through the bulk was calculated as 0.09 e...

  6. Broadening of the Spectral Atomic Lines Analysis in High Density Argon Corona Plasma by Using Voigt Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Atrazhev, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Studies of spectrum emission from high density argon plasma corona has been done. The analysis of the boardening of spectral atomic lines of Ar-I profile has been curried out by using an empirical approximation based on a Voigt profile. Full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the spectral-lines of 763.5 nm has been determined from atmospheric pressure until liquid state. The study liquid argon was curried out in a variation of temperature from K to 151.2 K and hydrostatics pressure from 2.1 MPa to 6.4 MPa. These pressure gives the densities N∞ (i.e. density very far from ionization zone) a variation from 1.08 1022 to 2.11 1022 cm-3. FWHM of Voigt approximation (Wv) of the line 763,5 nm of 'Ar I for: the emission lamp very low pressure (Wv = 0,160 nm) and our corona discharge at a pressure of MPa (Wv = 0,67 nm) and at a pressure of 9,5 MPa (Wv = 1,16 nm). In gas, corona plasma has been generated from 0.1 MPa to 9.5 MPa. We found that the broadening spectral line increase by increasing densities both for. the spectral-lines of 763.5 nm and 696.5 nm. We concluded that broadening of spectrum cause of Van der Waals force.

  7. The dynamics of straight vortex filaments in a Bose-Einstein condensate with a Gaussian density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, V P

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of interacting quantized vortex filaments in a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate, which is in the Thomas-Fermi regime at zero temperature and described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, is considered in the hydrodynamical "anelastic" approximation. In the presence of a smoothly inhomogeneous array of filaments (vortex lattice), a non-canonical Hamiltonian equation of motion is derived for the macroscopically averaged vorticity, with taking into account the spatial non-uniformity of the equilibrium condensate density determined by the trap potential. A minimum of the corresponding Hamiltonian describes a static configuration of deformed vortex lattice against a given density background. The minimum condition is reduced to a vector nonlinear partial differential equation of the second order, for which some approximate and exact solutions are found. It is shown that if the condensate density has an anisotropic Gaussian profile then equation of motion for the averaged vorticity admits solutio...

  8. Space charge profiles in low density polyethylene samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bambery, K.R.; Fleming, R.J.; Holbøll, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Laser induced pressure pulse space charge measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of high purity low density polyethylene equipped with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 20 °C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to dc fields up to 1.......5×107 V m-1. Current density was also measured as a function of temperature and field. Space charge due exclusively to the temperature gradient was detected, with density of order 0.01 C m-3. The activation energy associated with the transport of electrons through the bulk was calculated as 0.09 e...

  9. Rapidity Profile of the Initial Energy Density in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ozonder, Sener

    2013-01-01

    The rapidity dependence of the initial energy density in heavy-ion collisions is calculated from a three-dimensional McLerran-Venugopalan model (3dMVn) introduced by Lam and Mahlon. This model is infrared safe since global color neutrality is enforced. In this non-boost-invariant framework, the nuclei have non-zero thickness in the longitudinal direction. This results in Bjorken-x dependent unintegrated gluon distribution functions which lead to a rapidity-dependent initial energy density after the collision. The initial energy density and its rapidity dependence are important initial conditions for the quark gluon plasma and its hydrodynamic evolution.

  10. Influence of the fluid structure on the binding potential: Comparing liquid drop profiles from density functional theory with results from mesoscopic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adam P.; Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    For a film of liquid on a solid surface, the binding potential g(h) gives the free energy as a function of the film thickness h and also the closely related (structural) disjoining pressure Π =-∂g /∂h . The wetting behaviour of the liquid is encoded in the binding potential and the equilibrium film thickness corresponds to the value at the minimum of g(h). Here, the method we developed in the work of Hughes et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074702 (2015)], and applied with a simple discrete lattice-gas model, is used with continuum density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the binding potential for a Lennard-Jones fluid and other simple liquids. The DFT used is based on fundamental measure theory and so incorporates the influence of the layered packing of molecules at the surface and the corresponding oscillatory density profile. The binding potential is frequently input in mesoscale models from which liquid drop shapes and even dynamics can be calculated. Here we show that the equilibrium droplet profiles calculated using the mesoscale theory are in good agreement with the profiles calculated directly from the microscopic DFT. For liquids composed of particles where the range of the attraction is much less than the diameter of the particles, we find that at low temperatures g(h) decays in an oscillatory fashion with increasing h, leading to highly structured terraced liquid droplets.

  11. Topside-plasmasphere electron density profiles model by using AIS ionosonde measurements and calibrates GPS TEC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Claudio; Scotto, Carlo; Ippolito, Alessandro; Ciraolo, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Physics group at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) developed Autoscala, a computer program for automatic scaling of the critical frequency foF2 and other ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms. Autoscala includes a routine that automatically estimates the electron density profile below F layer peak height hmF2, by adjusting the parameters of a model according to the recorded ionogram [Scotto (2009)]. By integrating this profile we can estimate bottom-side total electron content (bTEC). By means of a calibration technique [Ciraolo et al. (2007)], we are able to obtain calibrated vertical TEC (vTEC) values from GPS measurements over a receiver station. This method permits to estimate biases of the received signal due to transmitter-receiver hardware configuration. These biases must be eliminated from the GPS data in order to calibrate the experimental slant total electron content (sTEC) along the satellite-receiver line-of-sight (LoS). The difference between vTEC and bottom-side TEC (bTEC) permits to evaluate electron content of the topside ionospheric region (tTEC). Starting from tTEC, bottom-side parameters (foF2, hmF2, scale height at hmF2) obtained by ionosonde and O+ - H+ transition level, we can solve a system of equations based on different ionospheric profiler (Chapman, sech-squared and exponential) the solution of which provides ion scale height [Stankov et al. (2003)]. This last factor is sufficient to establish the vertical distribution of electrons in topside and plasmasphere regions. Obtained vertical profiles could be used to develop a new model for real time estimation of TEC and topside electron density distribution. References: Scotto, C. (2009). Electron density profile calculation technique for Autoscala ionogram analysis. Advances in Space Research, 44(6), 756-766. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.037 Ciraolo, L., et al. "Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with

  12. High Density Sphere Culture of Adult Cardiac Cells Increases the Levels of Cardiac and Progenitor Markers and Shows Signs of Vasculogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vukusic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D environment and high cell density play an important role in restoring and supporting the phenotypes of cells represented in cardiac tissues. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the suitability of high density sphere (HDS cultures for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology. Primary adult cardiac cells from nine human biopsies were cultured using different media for up to 9 weeks. The possibilities to favor a certain cell phenotype and induce production of extra cellular matrix (ECM were studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Defined media gave significant increase in both cardiac- and progenitor-specific markers and also an intraluminal position of endothelial cells over time. Cardiac media showed indication of differentiation and maturity of HDS considering the ECM production and activities within NOTCH regulation but no additional cardiac differentiation. Endothelial media gave no positive effects on endothelial phenotype but increased proliferation without fibroblast overgrowth. In addition, indications for early vasculogenesis were found. It was also possible to affect the Wnt signaling in HDS by addition of a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitor. In conclusion, these findings show the suitability of HDS as in vitro model for studies of cardiomyocyte-, endothelial-, and stem-cell biology.

  13. Large Deviation of the Density Profile in the Steady State of the Open Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Speer, E. R.

    2002-05-01

    We consider an open one dimensional lattice gas on sites i=1,..., N, with particles jumping independently with rate 1 to neighboring interior empty sites, the simple symmetric exclusion process. The particle fluxes at the left and right boundaries, corresponding to exchanges with reservoirs at different chemical potentials, create a stationary nonequilibrium state (SNS) with a steady flux of particles through the system. The mean density profile in this state, which is linear, describes the typical behavior of a macroscopic system, i.e., this profile occurs with probability 1 when N→∞. The probability of microscopic configurations corresponding to some other profile ρ( x), x= i/ N, has the asymptotic form exp[- N F({ ρ})]; F is the large deviation functional. In contrast to equilibrium systems, for which F eq({ ρ}) is just the integral of the appropriately normalized local free energy density, the F we find here for the nonequilibrium system is a nonlocal function of ρ. This gives rise to the long range correlations in the SNS predicted by fluctuating hydrodynamics and suggests similar non-local behavior of F in general SNS, where the long range correlations have been observed experimentally.

  14. In depth fusion flame spreading with a deuterium-tritium plane fuel density profile for plasma block ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Malekynia; S.S.Razavipour

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fuel ignition was given by Chu and Bobin according to the hydrodynamic theory at x =0 qualitatively.A high threshold energy flux density,i.e.,E* =4.3 x 1012 J/m2,has been reached.Recently,fast ignition by employing clean petawatt-picosecond laser pulses was performed.The anomalous phenomena were observed to be based on suppression of prepulses.The accelerated plasma block was used to ignite deuterium-tritium fuel at solid-state density.The detailed analysis of the thermonuclear wave propagation was investigated.Also the fusion conditions at x ≠ 0 layers were clarified by exactly solving hydrodynamic equations for plasma block ignition.In this paper,the applied physical mechanisms are determined for nonlinear force laser driven plasma blocks,thermonuclear reaction,heat transfer,electron-ion equilibration,stopping power of alpha particles,bremsstrahlung,expansion,density dependence,and fluid dynamics.New ignition conditions may be obtained by using temperature equations,including thc dcnsity profile that is obtained by the continuity equation and expansion velocity.The density is only a function of x and independent of time.The ignition energy flux density,E*t,for the x ≠ 0 layers is 1.95 × 1012 J/m2.Thus threshold ignition energy in comparison with that at x =0 layers would be reduced to less than 50 percent.

  15. Determination of global plasmaspheric electron density profile by tomographic approach using omega signals and ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, I.; Kasahara, Y.; Oya, H.

    2001-07-01

    It has been necessary requirements to determine the global electron density distribution in the plasmasphere with time resolutions, of less than a day. We have provided solutions to this requirement using the wave normal directions, delay time of Omega signals and the in situ electron density observed on-board the Japanese satellite Akebono (Sawada et al., Journal of Geophysical Research 98(11) (1993) 267, Kimura et al., Advance Space Research 15(2) (1995) 103, Advance Space Research 18(6) (1996) 279, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 59 (1997) 1569). The present paper is intended to review our earlier studies.

  16. A simple analysis of halo density profiles using gravitational lensing time delays

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational lensing time delays depend upon the Hubble constant and the density distribution of the lensing galaxies. This allows one to either model the lens and estimate the Hubble constant, or to use a prior on the Hubble constant from other studies and investigate what the preferred density distribution is. Some studies have required compact dark matter halos (constant M/L ratio) in order to reconcile gravitational lenses with the HST/WMAP value of the Hubble constant (72 +/- 8 km/s /Mp...

  17. Cross-correlation Weak Lensing of SDSS galaxy Clusters II: Cluster Density Profiles and the Mass--Richness Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, David E; Wechsler, Risa H; Rozo, Eduardo; Koester, Benjamin P; Frieman, Joshua A; McKay, Timothy A; Evrard, August E; Becker, Matthew R; Annis, James

    2007-01-01

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. 2007 (Paper I). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration para...

  18. Forward Modeling of the 2003 November 14 Titan Occultation: New Retrievals of Temperature, Density and Opacity Profiles from about 350 to 500 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. F.; Zalucha, A.

    2012-04-01

    On 2003 November 14, Titan occulted a relatively bright star (V = 10.7). This event was observed from La Palma Observatory using ULTRACAM in three simultaneous wavelengths (358, 487 and 758 nm), as reported by Zalucha et al. (2007). The event was near-central, but only the long-wavelength light curves show a central flash. Zalucha et al. (2007) extracted temperature profiles from 350 to 485 km, estimated the altitudes where line-of-sight aerosol optical depths are one in the three ULTRACAM filters and fit the three-peaked central flash feature to atmospheric shape models that are comparable to those used by Hubbard et al. (1993) in the 28 Sgr occultation. We now use a more flexible forward-modeling approach to re-examine the ULTRACAM light curves. The output of this effort is a thin-screen representation of Titan’s upper atmosphere consisting of line-of-sight opacities and phase delays - it is a flexible technique to simultaneously retrieve extinction and refractivity profiles and bulk atmospheric shape. We will present temperature, density and opacity profiles that are consistent with the retrieved thin-screen model and compare model light curves generated from HASI temperature profiles to the occultation observations. References: Zalucha, A., et al.: "The 2003 November 14 occultation by Titan of TYC 1343-1865-1 II. Analysis of light curves". Icarus, Vol. 197, pp. 503-518, 2007.

  19. Core and Wing Densities of Asymmetric Coronal Spectral Profiles: Implications for the Mass Supply of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding approximately equal to 50 km per sec. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe(sub XIV) lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Angstroms is used to determine wing and core densities.We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe(sub XIV) lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  20. NMR metabolomics profiling of blood plasma mimics shows that medium- and long-chain fatty acids differently release metabolites from human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, M.; Michiels, P. J.; Girard, F. C.; Spraul, M.; Wijmenga, S. S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolite profiling by NMR of body fluids is increasingly used to successfully differentiate patients from healthy individuals. Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters of body biochemistry. However, in blood plasma the NMR-detected free-metabolite concentrations are also strongly affected by interactions with the abundant plasma proteins, which have as of yet not been considered much in metabolic profiling. We previously reported that many of the common NMR-detected metabolites in blood plasma bind to human serum albumin (HSA) and many are released by fatty acids present in fatted HSA. HSA is the most abundant plasma protein and main transporter of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Here, we show by NMR how the two most common fatty acids (FAs) in blood plasma - the long-chain FA, stearate (C18:0) and medium-chain FA, myristate (C14:0) - affect metabolite-HSA interaction. Of the set of 18 common NMR-detected metabolites, many are released by stearate and/or myristate, lactate appearing the most strongly affected. Myristate, but not stearate, reduces HSA-binding of phenylalanine and pyruvate. Citrate signals were NMR invisible in the presence of HSA. Only at high myristate-HSA mole ratios 11:1, is citrate sufficiently released to be detected. Finally, we find that limited dilution of blood-plasma mimics releases HSA-bound metabolites, a finding confirmed in real blood plasma samples. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for NMR experiments for quantitative metabolite profiling.

  1. Density profile characterization and modeling at Paranal and Armazones 2k sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Julio C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA in the southern hemisphere will be installed at Armazones 2k site in northern Chile. Scarce atmospheric observations are available in the region, particularly radiosonde data. This study analyzes radiosondes launched at Paranal observatory, located at about 21 km from the CTA site, from 24 October and 4 November 2011, to understand the behavior of density in the atmosphere near the CTA site. High-resolution numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model are validated with Paranal radiosondes to quantify its ability to represent the atmospheric conditions in the region. In addition, the seasonal and diurnal evolution of atmospheric density at the CTA site were studied during 2011 using the high-resolution weather forecasts from the WRF model.

  2. One-dimensional transport of interacting particles: currents, density profiles, phase diagrams, and symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierl, Marcel; Einax, Mario; Maass, Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Driven lattice gases serve as canonical models for investigating collective transport phenomena and properties of nonequilibrium steady states. Here we study one-dimensional transport with nearest-neighbor interactions both in closed bulk systems and in open channels coupled to two particle reservoirs at the ends of the channel. For the widely employed Glauber rates we derive an exact current-density relation in the bulk for unidirectional hopping. An approach based on time-dependent density functional theory provides a good description of the kinetics. For open systems, the system-reservoir couplings are shown to have a striking influence on boundary-induced phase diagrams. The role of particle-hole symmetry is discussed, and its consequence for the topology of the phase diagrams. It is furthermore demonstrated that systems with weak bias can be mapped onto systems with unidirectional hopping.

  3. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, E W; Andersen, T R; Schmidt, J F;

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  4. Differential gene expression profiles in foetal skin of Rex rabbits with different wool density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms controlling hair follicle development in the Rex rabbit. The Agilent rabbit gene expression microarray was used to determine differentially expressed genes in Rex rabbit foetuses with different wool densities. The expression patterns of selected differentially-expressed genes were further investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to low wool density rabbits, 1342 differentially expressed probes were identified in high wool density rabbits, including 950 upregulated probes and 392 downregulated probes. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the most upregulated differentially expressed probes belonged to receptors and the most downregulated differentially expressed probes belonged to DNA binding molecules. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed probes were mainly involved in the sonic hedgehog (Shh and Eph signalling pathways. The results also suggest that transforming growth factor-beta 1, growth hormone receptor, and the keratin-associated protein 6.1 genes, as well as the Shh and Eph signalling pathways, may be involved in the regulation of hair follicle developmental in Rex rabbits.

  5. Gene expression profiling in circulating endothelial cells from systemic sclerosis patients shows an altered control of apoptosis and angiogenesis that is modified by iloprost infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Circulating endothelial cells are increased in patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) and their number strongly correlates with vascular damage. The effects of iloprost in systemic sclerosis are only partially known. We aimed at studying the gene expression profile of circulating endothelial cells and the effects of iloprost infusion and gene expression in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods We enrolled 50 patients affected by systemic sclerosis, 37 patients without and 13 patients with digital ulcers. Blood samples were collected from all patients before and 72 hours after either a single day or five days eight hours iloprost infusion. Blood samples were also collected from 50 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitors cells were detected in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis by flow cytometry with a four-colour panel of antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 16 statistical package.Circulating endothelial cells were then isolated from peripheral blood by immunomagnetic CD45 negative selection for the gene array study. Results The number of both circulating endothelial cells and progenitors was significantly higher in patients affected by systemic sclerosis than in controls and among patients in those with digital ulcers than in patients without them. Circulating endothelial cells and progenitors number increased after iloprost infusion. Gene array analysis of endothelial cells showed a different transcriptional profile in patients compared to controls. Indeed, patients displayed an altered expression of genes involved in the control of apoptosis and angiogenesis. Iloprost infusion had a profound impact on endothelial cells gene expression since the treatment was able to modulate a very high number of transcripts. Conclusions We report here that circulating endothelial cells in patients with systemic sclerosis show an altered expression of

  6. Genome-wide copy number profiling using high-density SNP array in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, G; Qu, L; Chen, S; Xu, G; Yang, N

    2015-04-01

    Phenotypic diversity is a direct consequence resulting mainly from the impact of underlying genetic variation, and recent studies have shown that copy number variation (CNV) is emerging as an important contributor to both phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Herein, we performed a genome-wide CNV scan in 96 chickens from 12 diversified breeds, benefiting from the high-density Affymetrix 600 K SNP arrays. We identified a total of 231 autosomal CNV regions (CNVRs) encompassing 5.41 Mb of the chicken genome and corresponding to 0.59% of the autosomal sequence. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 2.6 to 586.2 kb with an average of 23.4 kb, including 130 gain, 93 loss and eight both gain and loss events. These CNVRs, especially deletions, had lower GC content and were located particularly in gene deserts. In particular, 102 CNVRs harbored 128 chicken genes, most of which were enriched in immune responses. We obtained 221 autosomal CNVRs after converting probe coordinates to Galgal3, and comparative analysis with previous studies illustrated that 153 of these CNVRs were regarded as novel events. Furthermore, qPCR assays were designed for 11 novel CNVRs, and eight (72.73%) were validated successfully. In this study, we demonstrated that the high-density 600 K SNP array can capture CNVs with higher efficiency and accuracy and highlighted the necessity of integrating multiple technologies and algorithms. Our findings provide a pioneering exploration of chicken CNVs based on a high-density SNP array, which contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variation in the chicken genome and is beneficial to unearthing potential CNVs underlying important traits of chickens. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.

  8. Density profile in shock wave fronts of partially ionized xenon plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Reinholz, H; Morozov, I; Mintsev, V; Zaparoghets, Y; Fortov, V; Wierling, A

    2003-01-01

    Results for the reflection coefficient of shock-compressed dense xenon plasmas at pressures of 1.6-20 GPa and temperatures around 30 000 K are interpreted. In addition to former experiments using laser beams with lambda = 1.06 mu m, measurements at lambda = 0.694 mu m have been performed recently. Reflectivities typical for metallic systems are found at high densities. Besides free carriers, the theoretical description also takes into account the influence of the neutral component of the plasma on the reflectivity. A consistent description of the measured reflectivities is achieved only if a finite width of the shock wave front is considered.

  9. Density profile evolution and nonequilibrium effects in partial and full spreading measurements of surface diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikunen, P.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2001-01-01

    in D-C(theta) depend on the initial density gradient and the initial state from which the spreading starts. To this end, we carry out extensive Monte Carlo simulations for a lattice-gas model of the O/W(110) system. Studies of submonolayer spreading from an initially ordered p(2x1) phase at theta = 1....../2 reveal that the spreading and diffusion rates in directions parallel and perpendicular to rows of oxygen atoms are significantly different within the ordered phase. Aside from this effect, we find that the degree of ordering in the initial phase has a relatively small impact on the overall behavior of D...

  10. Density and current profiles in Uq (A2(1)) zero range process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniba, A.; Mangazeev, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    The stochastic R matrix for Uq (An(1)) introduced recently gives rise to an integrable zero range process of n classes of particles in one dimension. For n = 2 we investigate how finitely many first class particles fixed as defects influence the grand canonical ensemble of the second class particles. By using the matrix product stationary probabilities involving infinite products of q-bosons, exact formulas are derived for the local density and current of the second class particles in the large volume limit.

  11. Flow rate of particles through apertures obtained from self-similar density and velocity profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    ‘‘Beverloo’s law’’ is considered as the standard expression to estimate the flow rate of particles through apertures. This relation was obtained by simple dimensional analysis and includes empirical parameters whose physical meaning is poorly justified. In this Letter, we study the density and velocity profiles in the flow of particles through an aperture. We find that, for the whole range of apertures studied, both profiles are self-similar. Hence, by means of the functionality obtained for the...

  12. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  13. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  14. Computational modeling of Krypton gas puffs with tailored mass density profiles on Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lamppa, D. C.; Hansen, S. B.; Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Jobe, M.; Strizic, T.; Reneker, J.; Rochau, G. A.; Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Large diameter multi-shell gas puffs rapidly imploded by high current (∼20 MA, ∼100 ns) on the Z generator of Sandia National Laboratories are able to produce high-intensity Krypton K-shell emission at ∼13 keV. Efficiently radiating at these high photon energies is a significant challenge which requires the careful design and optimization of the gas distribution. To facilitate this, we hydrodynamically model the gas flow out of the nozzle and then model its implosion using a 3-dimensional resistive, radiative MHD code (GORGON). This approach enables us to iterate between modeling the implosion and gas flow from the nozzle to optimize radiative output from this combined system. Guided by our implosion calculations, we have designed gas profiles that help mitigate disruption from Magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor implosion instabilities, while preserving sufficient kinetic energy to thermalize to the high temperatures required for K-shell emission.

  15. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  16. The Co-Evolution of Total Density Profiles and Central Dark Matter Fractions in Simulated Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Naab, Thorsten; Burkert, Andreas; Hirschmann, Michaela; Hoffmann, Tadziu L; Johansson, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations for a co-evolution of the slope of the total (dark and stellar) mass density profiles, gamma_tot, and the dark matter fractions within the half-mass radius, f_DM, in early-type galaxies. The relation can be described as gamma_tot = A f_DM + B and holds for all systems at all redshifts. We test different feedback models and find that the general trend is independent of the assumed feedback processes and is set by the decreasing importance of dissipative processes towards lower redshifts and for more massive systems. Early-type galaxies are smaller, more concentrated, have lower dark matter fractions and steeper total density slopes at high redshifts and at lower masses for a given redshift. The values for A and B change distinctively with the assumed feedback model, and thus this relation can be used as a test for feedback models. A similar correlation exists between gamma_tot and the stellar mass surface density Sigma_*. The model with weak stel...

  17. A method for evaluating models that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    de Almeida, Álefe O F; Rodrigues, Davi C

    2016-01-01

    There are some approaches, either based on General Relativity (GR) or modified gravity, that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the matter density of the corresponding galaxy, and this procedure would either indicate a partial or a complete elimination of dark matter in galaxies. Here we review these approaches, clarify the difficulties on this inverted procedure, present a method for evaluating them, and use it to test two specific approaches that are based on GR: the Cooperstock-Tieu (CT) and the Balasin-Grumiller (BG) approaches. Using this new method, we find that neither of the tested approaches can satisfactorily fit the observational data without dark matter. The CT approach results can be significantly improved if some dark matter is considered, while for the BG approach no usual dark matter halo can improve its results.

  18. A method for evaluating models that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Álefe O. F.; Piattella, Oliver F.; Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2016-11-01

    There are some approaches, either based on General Relativity (GR) or modified gravity, that use galaxy rotation curves to derive the matter density of the corresponding galaxy, and this procedure would either indicate a partial or a complete elimination of dark matter in galaxies. Here we review these approaches, clarify the difficulties on this inverted procedure, present a method for evaluating them, and use it to test two specific approaches that are based on GR: the Cooperstock-Tieu (CT) and the Balasin-Grumiller (BG) approaches. Using this new method, we find that neither of the tested approaches can satisfactorily fit the observational data without dark matter. The CT approach results can be significantly improved if some dark matter is considered, while for the BG approach no usual dark matter halo can improve its results.

  19. Exact nonlinear analytic Vlasov-Maxwell tangential equilibria with arbitrary density and temperature profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Mottez, F

    2003-01-01

    The tangential layers are characterized by a bulk plasma velocity and a magnetic field that are perpendicular to the gradient direction. They have been extensively described in the frame of the Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) theory. But the MHD theory does not look inside the transition region if the transition has a size of a few ion gyroradii. A series of kinetic tangential equilibria, valid for a collisionless plasma is presented. These equilibria are exact analytical solutions of the Maxwell-Vlasov equations. The particle distribution functions are sums of an infinite number of elementary functions parametrized by a vector potential. Examples of equilibria relevant to space plasmas are shown. A model for the deep and sharp density depletions observed in the auroral zone of the Earth is proposed. Tangential equilibria are also relevant for the study of planetary environments and of remote astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Global SAXS data analysis for multilamellar vesicles: Evolution of the scattering density profile (SDP) model

    CERN Document Server

    Heftberger, Peter; Heberle, Frederick A; Pan, Jianjun; Rappolt, Michael; Amenitsch, Heinz; Kucerka, Norbert; Katsaras, John; Pabst, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We adapted the highly successful scattering density pro?le (SDP) model, which is used to jointly analyze small angle x-ray and neutron scattering data from unilamellar vesicles, for use with data from fully hydrated, liquid crystalline multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). By using a genetic algorithm, this new method is capable of providing high resolution structural information, as well as determining bilayer elastic bending fluctuations from standalone x-ray data. Important structural parameters, such as bilayer thickness and area per lipid were determined for a series of saturated and unsaturated lipids, as well as binary mixtures with cholesterol. Results are in good agreement with previously reported SDP data, which used both neutron and x-ray data. The addition of deuterated and non-deuterated MLV neutron data to the analysis improved lipid backbone information, but did not improve, within experimental uncertainties, the structural information regarding bilayer thickness and area per lipid.

  1. Time Ordering Effects on Hydrogen Zeeman-Stark Line Profiles in Low-Density Magnetized Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rosato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stark broadening of hydrogen lines is investigated in low-density magnetized plasmas, at typical conditions of magnetic fusion experiments. The role of time ordering is assessed numerically, by using a simulation code accounting for the evolution of the microscopic electric field generated by the charged particles moving at the vicinity of the atom. The Zeeman effect due to the magnetic field is also retained. Lyman lines with a low principal quantum number n are first investigated, for an application to opacity calculations; next Balmer lines with successively low and high principal quantum numbers are considered for diagnostic purposes. It is shown that neglecting time ordering results in a dramatic underestimation of the Stark effect on the low-n lines. Another conclusion is that time ordering becomes negligible only when ion dynamics effects vanish, as shown in the case of high-n lines.

  2. Safety profile of subjects treated to very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (JUPITER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Brendan M; Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; MacFadyen, Jean; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-12-01

    Recent US guidelines expand the indications for high-intensity statin therapy, yet data on the safety of attaining very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are scarce. Among 16,304 participants in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) with on-treatment LDL-C levels, we identified 767 who did and 7,387 who did not achieve LDL-C JUPITER, achieving LDL-C levels <30 mg/dl with high-intensity statin therapy appeared to be generally well tolerated but associated with certain adverse events, including more physician-reported diabetes, hematuria, hepatobiliary disorders, and insomnia. These data may guide the monitoring of patients on intensive statin therapy and adverse events in trials of therapies that lead to very low LDL-C levels.

  3. Population dynamics of three songbird species in a nestbox population in Central Europe show effects of density, climate and competitive interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; van der Meer, J.; Fiedler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Unravelling the contributions of density-dependent and density-independent factors in determining species population dynamics is a challenge, especially if the two factors interact. One approach is to apply stochastic population models to long-term data, yet few studies have included interactions

  4. Mathematical modeling of velocity and number density profiles of particles across the flame propagation through a micro-iron dust cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Mehdi; Haghiri, Ali; Rahbari, Alireza

    2010-04-15

    In this study, an attempt has been made to analytically investigate the concentration and velocity profiles of particles across flame propagation through a micro-iron dust cloud. In the first step, Lagrangian particle equation of motion during upward flame propagation in a vertical duct is employed and then forces acting upon the particle, such as thermophoretic force (resulted from the temperature gradient), gravitation and buoyancy are introduced; and consequently, the velocity profile as a function of the distance from the leading edge of the combustion zone is extracted. In the resumption, a control volume above the leading edge of the combustion zone is considered and the change in the particle number density in this control volume is obtained via the balance of particle mass fluxes passing through it. This study explains that the particle concentration at the leading edge of the combustion zone is more than the particle agglomeration in a distance far from the flame front. This increase in the particle aggregation above the combustion zone has a remarkable effect on the lower flammability limits of combustible particle cloud. It is worth noticing that the velocity and particle concentration profiles show a reasonable compatibility with the experimental data.

  5. Variability of the bottomside (B0, B1) profile parameters of ionospheric electron density over the lower mid-latitude Cyprus and comparisons with IRI-2012 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sampad Kumar; Haralambous, Haris; Mostafa, Md Golam

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the variations of the bottomside ionospheric electron density profile thickness (B0) and shape (B1) parameters, deduced from the manually scaled digisonde (DPS-4D) ionograms at the lower mid-latitude Cyprus (Geographic 35°N, 33°E) covering the period 2009-2014. The monthly median hourly values of these parameters during different seasons and solar activity conditions are compared with the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012) estimations using three different options namely: Bil-2000, Gul-1987, and ABT-2009. To ensure the quiet time profile, the ionograms of the geomagnetically disturbed periods are discarded from the datasets and the storm model in the IRI is intentionally turned off. The statistical studies reveal considerable discrepancies in the observed B0 parameters from the model simulations, though the divergences are minimal around the daytime and during the summer solstice seasons. Nevertheless, B0 with the Gul-1987 option apparently shows closer daytime value during the low solar active summer, whereas the ABT-2009 option manifested relatively better agreement during the high solar active summer months. The characteristic morning, evening, as well as nighttime departure in the model derived B0 parameters are conspicuous in all the seasons in spite of unnoticed perturbations in the B1, suggesting that further improvement in the existing model database is essential with additional in-situ experimental data across the lower mid-latitude region. The important extracts from this study may support in the international efforts of determining the best set of profile parameters for the climatological representation of the ionospheric electron density variation across the globe.

  6. Determination of density profiles of unevenly compressed wood of Po­pu­lus tremula using the X – RAY DENSE – LAB laboratory device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Dejmal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measuring of the density profile of unevenly pressed wood of European aspen (Populus tremula L.. The main aim of the work is to examine in an experimental way the possibilities of using the X – RAY DENSE – LAB laboratory equipment designed for the determination of density profiles of agglomerated and plied large-area materials. The work uses the X – RAY DENSE – LAB equipment to determine the density profile of the cross-section of unevenly pressed aspen wood, plasticized hydrothermically, without the presence of chemical substances. The work also presents calculations of the level of compression/densification in dependence on the density and it describes the factors that can influence the density profile of compressed/densified wood; at the same time, it presents the possible ways to determine the density profile in the cross-section. Further, it includes the creation of the methodology for sample preparation so that the results do not get distorted during measuring. It describes the preparation of sample pieces, the orientation of the anatomic structure, the methodology of pressing, air conditioning, sample preparation, their measuring and analysis. The paper also describes the theory and the principles of measuring with use of X – RAY DENSE – LAB and its calibration. The paper analyses the obtained results of density profiles and searches for and describes the causes of the uneven distribution of the density in the cross-section. It concludes by summarizing the results and recommending the procedure for future measuring.

  7. Measuring one-dimensional and two-dimensional impurity density profiles on TEXTOR using combined charge exchange-beam emission spectroscopy and ultrasoft x-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Hellermann, M. von; Jaspers, R.; Donné, A. J. H.; Shmaenok, L.

    2004-10-01

    Two techniques are presented that allow us to measure impurity density profiles in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma. The one-dimensional profiles are gathered by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) in combination with beam emission spectroscopy (BES). Combining CXRS and BES eliminate the need for absolute calibration. For two-dimensional profiles an ultrasoft x-ray tomography system has been developed. The system is spectrally resolved and produces local emissivity profiles of several ionization stages of impurities. Both systems are presently being commissioned. They are complementary and give an insight into the impurity distribution and transport in plasmas.

  8. Gene expression profiles of mouse aorta and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells differ widely, yet show common responses to dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Alvaro; Sartor, Maureen A; Huang, Ming-Ya; Kerzee, J Kevin; Wei, Yu-Dan; Tomlinson, Craig R; Baxter, C Stuart; Medvedovic, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants may play a role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. Many environmental agents, such as dioxin, are risk factors for atherosclerosis because they may exacerbate an underlying disease by altering gene expression patterns. Expression profiling of vascular tissues allows the simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes and may provide predictive information particularly useful in early disease stages. Often, however, in vivo experiments are unfeasible for material or ethical reasons, and data from cultured cells must be used instead, even though it may not be known whether cultured cells and live tissues share common global responses to the same toxicant. In a search for genes responsive to dioxin exposure, we used oligonucleotide microarrays with DNA sequences from 13,433 genes to compare global gene expression profiles of C57BL/6 mice aortas with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) of the same mice. Aorta segments and vSMCs differed in the expression of more than 4500 genes, many showing expression differences greater than 1000-fold. Integration of microarray data into Gene Ontology Project annotations showed that many of the genes differentially expressed belonged to the same biological process or metabolic pathway. Notwithstanding these results, a subset of 35 genes responded in the same fashion to dioxin exposure in both systems. Genes in this subset encoded phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, signal transduction kinases and phosphatases, and proteins involved in DNA repair and the cell cycle. We conclude that vSMCS may be useful aorta surrogates to study early gene expression responses to dioxin exposure, provided that analyses focus on this subset of genes.

  9. Improving lipoprotein profiles by liver-directed gene transfer of low density lipoprotein receptor gene in hypercholesterolaemia mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HAILONG OU; QINGHAI ZHANG; JIA ZENG

    2016-06-01

    The defect of low density lipoprotein receptor disturbs cholesterol metabolism and causes familial hypercholesterolaemia(FH). In this study, we directly delivered exogenousLdlrgene into the liver of FH model mice (Ldlr − / −) by lentiviral genetransfer system. The results showed that theLdlrgene controlled by hepatocyte-specific human thyroxine-binding globulin(TBG) promoter successfully and exclusively expressed in livers. We found that, although, the content of high density lipopro-tein in serum was not significantly affected by theLdlrgene expression, the serum low density lipoprotein level was reducedby 46%, associated with a 30% and 28% decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol, respectively, compared to uninjectedLdlr − / −mice. Moreover, the TBG directed expression ofLdlrsignificantly decreased the lipid accumulation in liver andreduced plaque burden in aorta (32%). Our results indicated that the hepatocyte-specific expression ofLdlrgene strikinglylowered serum lipid levels and resulted in amelioration of hypercholesterolaemia.

  10. Difference between bulk and thin film densities of metal oxide and fluoride films studied by NRA depth profiling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coban, A; Durrani, S A

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis techniques have been used to study the difference between bulk and thin film densities of different dielectric (WO sub 3 , MgF sub 2 , NdF sub 3 , LaF sub 3 and ThF sub 4) thin films. Thicknesses of the films were measured by optical methods. The sup 1 sup 8 O(p,alpha) sup 1 sup 5 N reaction was used at 730 keV to profile WO sub 3 prepared with different thicknesses on a tantalum backing by thermal evaporation of natural WO sub 3. We have also successfully tested the sup 1 sup 8 O(p,alpha) sup 1 sup 5 N reaction at the 629 keV (GAMMA=2.1 keV) resonance for the same purpose. Excitation function measurement of the reaction was performed around the resonant energy at a detection angle of 150 deg. . In order to obtain the oxygen profiles of the thin films non-resonant part of the excitation function was deconvoluted using the known cross-section data of the reaction. Also, we studied different films of MgF sub 2 , NdF sub 3 , LaF sub 3 and ThF sub 4 using the 483.85 keV resonance in the ...

  11. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nidhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher what genetic factors in addition to flavonoid structural genes contribute to high rutin content of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. Results Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP in seed maturing stages (inflorescence to seed maturation with 32 primer combinations generated total of 509 transcript fragments (TDFs. 167 TDFs were then eluted, cloned and sequenced from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. Categorization of TDFs on the basis of their presence/absence (qualitative variation or differences in the amount of expression (quantitative variation between both the Fagopyrum species showed that majority of variants are quantitative (64%. The TDFs represented genes controlling different biological processes such as basic and secondary metabolism (33%, regulation (18%, signal transduction (14%, transportation (13%, cellular organization (10%, and photosynthesis & energy (4%. Most of the TDFs except belonging to cellular metabolism showed relatively higher transcript abundance in F. tataricum over F. esculentum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine TDFs representing genes involved in regulation, metabolism, signaling and transport of secondary metabolites showed that all the tested nine TDFs (Ubiquitin protein ligase, ABC transporter, sugar transporter except MYB 118 showed significantly higher expression in early seed formation stage (S7 of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. qRT-PCR results were found to be consistent with the c

  12. Current Fluctuations in One Dimensional Diffusive Systems with a Step Initial Density Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Gerschenfeld, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    We show how to apply the macroscopic fluctuation theory (MFT) of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio, and Landim to study the current fluctuations of diffusive systems with a step initial condition. We argue that one has to distinguish between two ways of averaging (the annealed and the quenched cases) depending on whether we let the initial condition fluctuate or not. Although the initial condition is not a steady state, the distribution of the current satisfies a symmetry very reminiscent of the fluctuation theorem. We show how the equations of the MFT can be solved in the case of non-interacting particles. The symmetry of these equations can be used to deduce the distribution of the current for several other models, from its knowledge (Derrida and Gerschenfeld in J. Stat. Phys. 136, 1-15, 2009) for the symmetric simple exclusion process. In the range where the integrated current Qt˜sqrt{t} , we show that the non-Gaussian decay exp [- Q {/t 3}/ t] of the distribution of Q t is generic.

  13. Measurement of axial neutral density profiles in a microwave discharge ion thruster by laser absorption spectroscopy with optical fiber probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Kazutaka; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2011-12-01

    In order to reveal the physical processes taking place within the "μ10" microwave discharge ion thruster, internal plasma diagnosis is indispensable. However, the ability of metallic probes to access microwave plasmas biased at a high voltage is limited from the standpoints of the disturbance created in the electric field and electrical isolation. In this study, the axial density profiles of excited neutral xenon were successfully measured under ion beam acceleration by using a novel laser absorption spectroscopy system. The target of the measurement was metastable Xe I 5p(5)((2)P(0) (3/2))6s[3/2](0) (2) which absorbed a wavelength of 823.16 nm. Signals from laser absorption spectroscopy that swept a single-mode optical fiber probe along the line of sight were differentiated and converted into axial number densities of the metastable neutral particles in the plasma source. These measurements revealed a 10(18) m(-3) order of metastable neutral particles situated in the waveguide, which caused two different modes during the operation of the μ10 thruster. This paper reports a novel spectroscopic measurement system with axial resolution for microwave plasma sources utilizing optical fiber probes.

  14. Transcriptome profiling in conifers and the PiceaGenExpress database show patterns of diversification within gene families and interspecific conservation in vascular gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raherison Elie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conifers have very large genomes (13 to 30 Gigabases that are mostly uncharacterized although extensive cDNA resources have recently become available. This report presents a global overview of transcriptome variation in a conifer tree and documents conservation and diversity of gene expression patterns among major vegetative tissues. Results An oligonucleotide microarray was developed from Picea glauca and P. sitchensis cDNA datasets. It represents 23,853 unique genes and was shown to be suitable for transcriptome profiling in several species. A comparison of secondary xylem and phelloderm tissues showed that preferential expression in these vascular tissues was highly conserved among Picea spp. RNA-Sequencing strongly confirmed tissue preferential expression and provided a robust validation of the microarray design. A small database of transcription profiles called PiceaGenExpress was developed from over 150 hybridizations spanning eight major tissue types. In total, transcripts were detected for 92% of the genes on the microarray, in at least one tissue. Non-annotated genes were predominantly expressed at low levels in fewer tissues than genes of known or predicted function. Diversity of expression within gene families may be rapidly assessed from PiceaGenExpress. In conifer trees, dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA osmotic regulation proteins occur in large gene families compared to angiosperms. Strong contrasts and low diversity was observed in the dehydrin family, while diverse patterns suggested a greater degree of diversification among LEAs. Conclusion Together, the oligonucleotide microarray and the PiceaGenExpress database represent the first resource of this kind for gymnosperm plants. The spruce transcriptome analysis reported here is expected to accelerate genetic studies in the large and important group comprised of conifer trees.

  15. Determination of Ionospheric Electron Density Profiles from Satellite UV (Ultraviolet) Emission Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-17

    events , but the mid- and low- [titude requirements of D.ISP and AWS were also satisfied by this instrument. In fact, even the actual instrument...ledge in the E region. Figure 5 from Takacs and Feldman 1 2 shows the type of airglow spectrum in the far UV (FUV) that can be detected in the daytime...Planck theory, Planet. Space. Sci. 25:743. 16. Anderson, D. N. (1973) A theoretical study of the ionospheric F region. equatorial anamoly , 1, Theory

  16. The co-evolution of total density profiles and central dark matter fractions in simulated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Naab, Thorsten; Burkert, Andreas; Hirschmann, Michaela; Hoffmann, Tadziu L.; Johansson, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    We present evidence from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations for a co-evolution of the slope of the total (dark and stellar) mass density profile, γtot, and the dark matter fraction within the half-mass radius, fDM, in early-type galaxies. The relation can be described as γtot = A fDM + B for all systems at all redshifts. The trend is set by the decreasing importance of gas dissipation towards lower redshifts and for more massive systems. Early-type galaxies are smaller, more concentrated, have lower fDM and steeper γtot at high redshifts and at lower masses for a given redshift; fDM and γtot are good indicators for growth by `dry' merging. The values for A and B change distinctively for different feedback models, and this relation can be used as a test for such models. A similar correlation exists between γtot and the stellar mass surface density Σ*. A model with weak stellar feedback and feedback from black holes is in best agreement with observations. All simulations, independent of the assumed feedback model, predict steeper γtot and lower fDM at higher redshifts. While the latter is in agreement with the observed trends, the former is in conflict with lensing observations, which indicate constant or decreasing γtot. This discrepancy is shown to be artificial: the observed trends can be reproduced from the simulations using observational methodology to calculate the total density slopes.

  17. Improving the AGR Fuel Testing Power Density Profile Versus Irradiation-Time in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray S. Chang; David A. Petti; John T. Maki; Misti A. Lillo

    2009-05-01

    The Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles. Each TRISO-coated fuel particle has its own containment which serves as the principal barrier against radionuclide release under normal operating and accident conditions. These fuel particles, in the form of graphite fuel compacts, are currently undergoing a series of irradiation tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification program. A representive coated fuel particle with an 235U enrichment of 19.8 wt% was used in this analysis. The fuel burnup analysis tool used to perform the neutronics study reported herein, couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN2. The fuel burnup methodology known as Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) was used to evaluate the AGR experiment assembly and demonstrate compliance with ATR safety requirements. For the AGR graphite fuel compacts, the MCWO-calculated fission power density (FPD) due to neutron fission in 235U is an important design parameter. One of the more important AGR fuel testing requirements is to maintain the peak fuel compact temperature close to 1250°C throughout the proposed irradiation campaign of 550 effective full power days (EFPDs). Based on the MCWO-calculated FPD, a fixed gas gap size was designed to allow regulation of the fuel compact temperatures throughout the entire fuel irradiation campaign by filling the gap with a mixture of helium and neon gases. The chosen fixed gas gap can only regulate the peak fuel compact temperature in the desired range during the irradiation test if the ratio of the peak power density to the time-dependent low power density (P/T) at 550 EFPDs is less than 2.5. However, given the near constant neutron flux within the ATR driver core and the depletion of 235U in

  18. Inferring Average Ground Profiles of the Muon Density of Inclined Air Showers from Monte-Carlo Simulations at Ultra-High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dembinski, Hans; Deligny, Olivier; Hebbeker, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A standard method to measure ultra-high energy cosmic rays is the sampling of the ground particle profile of the extensive air shower that is produced in the atmosphere with an array of surface detectors. The primary energy of inclined air showers with zenith angles >60 Deg can be reconstructed by using simulated 2-D profiles of the ground density of muons. We will present an effective way to extract such profiles from a library of Monte-Carlo simulated air showers. Also, we will demonstrate a way to speed up the simulation of ground profiles of the muon density in very inclined showers by three orders of magnitude, if only the muon component in the shower is of interest.

  19. Stellar and Black Hole Mass Densities as Empirical Tracers of Co-evolution Show Lock-step Growth since $z{\\sim}3$

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Duschl, Wolfgang J

    2016-01-01

    At redshifts beyond $z{\\sim}1$ measuring the black hole galaxy relations proves to be a difficult task. The bright light of the AGN aggravates deconvolution of black hole and galaxy properties. On the other hand high redshift data on these relations is vital to understand in what ways galaxies and black holes co-evolve and in what ways they don't. In this work we use black hole (BHMDs) and stellar mass densities (SMDs) to constrain the possible co-evolution of black holes with their host galaxies since $z{\\sim}5$. The BHMDs are calculated from quasar luminosity functions (QLF) using the Soltan argument, while we use integrals over stellar mass functions (SMFs) or the star formation rate density to obtain values for the stellar mass density. We find that both quantities grow in lock-step below redshifts of $z{\\sim}3$ with a non-evolving BHMD to SMD ratio. A fit to the data assuming a power law relation between the BHMD and the SMD yields exponents around unity ($1.0{-}1.5$). Up to $z{\\sim}5$ the BHMD to SMD ra...

  20. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  1. Thermodynamic origin of the solubility profile of drugs showing one or two maxima against the polarity of aqueous and nonaqueous mixtures: niflumic acid and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Pilar; Navarro, J; Romero, S; Escalera, B

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the origin of the different solubility profiles of drugs against the polarity of solvent mixtures with a common cosolvent. Niflumic acid and caffeine where chosen as model drugs. The solubilities were measured at five or six temperatures in aqueous (ethanol-water) and nonaqueous (ethyl acetate-ethanol) mixtures. The enthalpies of solution were obtained at the harmonic mean of the experimental temperature. Solid phase changes were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermomicroscopy. A single solubility maximum was obtained for niflumic acid against the solubility parameter of both mixtures that is not related to solid phase changes. In contrast, caffeine displays two maxima and anhydrous-hydrate transition occurs at the solubility peak in the amphiprotic mixture. The apparent enthalpies of solution of both drugs show endothermic maxima against solvent composition that are related to hydrophobic hydration. A general explanation for the cosolvent action in aqueous mixtures is proposed. The dominant mechanism shifts from entropy to enthalpy at a certain cosolvent ratio dependent on the hydrophobicity and the solubility parameter of the drug. Niflumic acid and caffeine show enthalpy-entropy compensation in ethanol-water, and this relationship is demonstrated for the first time in nonaqueous mixtures. The results support that enthalpy-entropy compensation is a general effect for the solubility of drugs in solvent mixtures. The shape of the solubility curves is correlated with the compensation plots. The solubility peaks separate different enthalpy-entropy relationships that also differentiate the solubility behavior of the hydrate and the anhydrous forms of caffeine. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Human colon cancer profiles show differential microRNA expression depending on mismatch repair status and are characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer arises from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal colonic tissue. microRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Differential miRNA expression in cancer versus normal tissue is a common event and may be pivotal for tumor onset and progression. Methods To identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in tumors and tumor subtypes, we carried out highly sensitive expression profiling of 735 miRNAs on samples obtained from a statistically powerful set of tumors (n = 80 and normal colon tissue (n = 28 and validated a subset of this data by qRT-PCR. Results Tumor specimens showed highly significant and large fold change differential expression of the levels of 39 miRNAs including miR-135b, miR-96, miR-182, miR-183, miR-1, and miR-133a, relative to normal colon tissue. Significant differences were also seen in 6 miRNAs including miR-31 and miR-592, in the direct comparison of tumors that were deficient or proficient for mismatch repair. Examination of the genomic regions containing differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that they were also differentially methylated in colon cancer at a far greater rate than would be expected by chance. A network of interactions between these miRNAs and genes associated with colon cancer provided evidence for the role of these miRNAs as oncogenes by attenuation of tumor suppressor genes. Conclusion Colon tumors show differential expression of miRNAs depending on mismatch repair status. miRNA expression in colon tumors has an epigenetic component and altered expression that may reflect a reversion to regulatory programs characteristic of undifferentiated proliferative developmental states.

  3. Identification and validation of seven new loci showing differential DNA methylation related to serum lipid profile: an epigenome-wide approach. The REGICOR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid traits (total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DNA methylation is not only an inherited but also modifiable epigenetic mark that has been related to cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to identify loci s...

  4. Stellar and Black Hole Mass Densities as Empirical Tracers of Co-evolution Show Lock-step Growth since $z{\\sim}3$

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; Duschl, Wolfgang J.

    2016-01-01

    At redshifts beyond $z{\\sim}1$ measuring the black hole galaxy relations proves to be a difficult task. The bright light of the AGN aggravates deconvolution of black hole and galaxy properties. On the other hand high redshift data on these relations is vital to understand in what ways galaxies and black holes co-evolve and in what ways they don't. In this work we use black hole (BHMDs) and stellar mass densities (SMDs) to constrain the possible co-evolution of black holes with their host gala...

  5. The genome-wide binding profile of the Sulfolobus solfataricus transcription factor Ss-LrpB shows binding events beyond direct transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Duc, Trong; van Oeffelen, Liesbeth; Song, Ningning; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Muyldermans, Serge; Charlier, Daniel; Peeters, Eveline

    2013-11-25

    Gene regulatory processes are largely resulting from binding of transcription factors to specific genomic targets. Leucine-responsive Regulatory Protein (Lrp) is a prevalent transcription factor family in prokaryotes, however, little information is available on biological functions of these proteins in archaea. Here, we study genome-wide binding of the Lrp-like transcription factor Ss-LrpB from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) has revealed that Ss-LrpB interacts with 36 additional loci besides the four previously identified local targets. Only a subset of the newly identified binding targets, concentrated in a highly variable IS-dense genomic region, is also bound in vitro by pure Ss-LrpB. There is no clear relationship between the in vitro measured DNA-binding specificity of Ss-LrpB and the in vivo association suggesting a limited permissivity of the crenarchaeal chromatin for transcription factor binding. Of 37 identified binding regions, 29 are co-bound by LysM, another Lrp-like transcription factor in S. solfataricus. Comparative gene expression analysis in an Ss-lrpB mutant strain shows no significant Ss-LrpB-mediated regulation for most targeted genes, with exception of the CRISPR B cluster, which is activated by Ss-LrpB through binding to a specific motif in the leader region. The genome-wide binding profile presented here implies that Ss-LrpB is associated at additional genomic binding sites besides the local gene targets, but acts as a specific transcription regulator in the tested growth conditions. Moreover, we have provided evidence that two Lrp-like transcription factors in S. solfataricus, Ss-LrpB and LysM, interact in vivo.

  6. Water temperature, salinity, and density profiles collected by CTD from multiple cruises in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Gulf of Alaska from 2001-01 to 2001-10 (NCEI Accession 0001112)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and density profiles were collected using CTD from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN, NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN, and SIR WILFRED LAURIER in the Northeast...

  7. Free energy partitioning analysis of the driving forces that determine ion density profiles near the water liquid-vapor interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanargin, Ayse; Beck, Thomas L

    2012-03-14

    Free energy partitioning analysis is employed to explore the driving forces for ions interacting with the water liquid-vapor interface using recently optimized point charge models for the ions and SPC/E water. The Na(+) and I(-) ions are examined as an example kosmotrope/chaotrope pair. The absolute hydration free energy is partitioned into cavity formation, attractive van der Waals, local electrostatic, and far-field electrostatic contributions. We first compute the bulk hydration free energy of the ions, followed by the free energy to insert the ions at the center of a water slab. Shifts of the ion free energies occur in the slab geometry consistent with the SPC/E surface potential of the water liquid-vapor interface. Then the free energy profiles are examined for ion passage from the slab center to the dividing surface. The profiles show that, for the large chaotropic I(-) ion, the relatively flat total free energy profile results from the near cancellation of several large contributions. The far-field electrostatic part of the free energy, largely due to the water liquid-vapor interface potential, has an important effect on ion distributions near the surface in the classical model. We conclude, however, that the individual forms of the local and far-field electrostatic contributions are expected to be model dependent when comparing classical and quantum results. The substantial attractive cavity free energy contribution for the larger I(-) ion suggests that there is a hydrophobic component important for chaotropic ion interactions with the interface.

  8. Plasma fasting and nonfasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in atherosclerotic stroke: different profiles according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk Jae; Park, Yun Gyoung; Kim, Ji Hyun; Han, Yun Kyung; Cho, Hong Keun; Bang, Oh Young

    2012-08-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the main lipid target for cardiovascular risk reduction, recent studies suggest that other lipid indicies are also associated with vascular events. We hypothesized that the association of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with atherosclerotic stroke (AS) differs depending on LDL-C levels. Data prospectively collected on subjects admitted with acute ischemic stroke to a university medical center were analyzed. We divided the patients into AS and non-atherosclerotic stroke (NAS) groups and independent association of lipid parameters and genetic influences of apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) polymorphisms with AS were evaluated. Of 268 patients, 160 (59.7%) were classified with AS and 108 (40.3%) were classified with NAS. Vascular risk factors were more prevalent in AS patients than in those with NAS; additionally, AS patients' anthropometric indexes and laboratory findings showed that they were prone to atherosclerosis. AS was independently associated with fasting TG (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.64; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 12.85; 95% CI, 3.31-49.85), HDL-C (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88; OR for lowest vs. highest tertile, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.16-15.86), and nonfasting TG (OR per 10 10 mg/dL increase, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 8.20; 95% CI, 1.98-33.88) only among patients with LDL <100 mg/dL. No interaction was observed between fasting and nonfasting TG and ApoA5 polymorphisms. In conclusion, fasting and nonfasting TG and HDL-C were associated with AS only when patients had low levels of LDL-C. Non-LDL-C may have an additional role in addition to the LDL-C levels in AS development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring of the mass density profile along the 0° geomagnetic longitude during magnetic storms with the use of ground magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, N.; Stepanova, M. V.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Pilipenko, V.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground magnetometers offer a very cheap and robust means of globally monitoring the magnetospheric mass density, by determining the ULF field line resonant frequency. ULF waves are almost always present in near-Earth environment and are generated by the solar wind interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere. These waves from the magnetopause propagate through the magnetosphere. When they encounter a field line that resonates at the same frequency, coupling to the Alfven field line oscillations occurs and the resonance can be detected on the ground at that particular latitude. There are different methods for determining resonant frequencies from ground ULF waves. the density profiles along the 0° geomagnetic longitude were obtained using both the gradient and the amplitude-phase methods for the analysis of the magnetic field data from the magnetometer arrays: SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array), MAGDAS and American Antarctic bases (Palmer, WAIS-D). We compared the density profiles during quiet magnetic conditions and during strong magnetic storms (recovery phase). It is shown that in the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms (Dst <-150 nT) profile of the equatorial mass density varies greatly in comparison with the density distribution in quiet days.

  10. CLASH-VLT: The mass, velocity-anisotropy, and pseudo-phase-space density profiles of the z=0.44 galaxy cluster MACS 1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Biviano, A; Balestra, I; Mercurio, A; Girardi, M; Nonino, M; Grillo, C; Scodeggio, M; Lemze, D; Kelson, D; Umetsu, K; Postman, M; Zitrin, A; Czoske, O; Ettori, S; Lombardi, M; Maier, C; Medezinski, E; Mei, S; Presotto, V; Tozzi, P; Ziegler, B; Annunziatella, M; Bartelmann, M; Benitez, N; Bradley, L; Brescia, M; Broadhurst, T; Coe, D; Demarco, R; Donahue, M; Ford, H; Gobat, R; Graves, G; Koekemoer, A; Kuchner, U; Melchior, P; Meneghetti, M; Merten, J; Moustakas, L; Munari, E; Regos, E; Sartoris, B; Seitz, S; Zheng, W

    2013-01-01

    We use an unprecedented data-set of about 600 redshifts for cluster members, obtained as part of a VLT/VIMOS large programme, to constrain the mass profile of the z=0.44 cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 over the radial range 0-5 Mpc (0-2.5 virial radii) using the MAMPOSSt and Caustic methods. We then add external constraints from the gravitational lensing analysis of Umetsu et al. (2012). We invert the Jeans equation to obtain the velocity-anisotropy profiles of cluster members. With the mass-density and velocity-anisotropy profiles we then obtain the first determination of a cluster pseudo-phase-space density profile. The kinematics and lensing determinations of the cluster mass profile are in excellent agreement. This is very well fitted by a NFW model with mass M200=(1.4 +- 0.2) 10^15 Msun and concentration c200=6 +- 1, only slightly higher than theoretical expectations. Other mass profile models also provide acceptable fits to our data, of (slightly) lower (Burkert, Hernquist, and Softened Isothermal Sphere) or ...

  11. Measurement of deuterium density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chrystal, C.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Pablant, N. A.; Stagner, L.

    2016-11-01

    Recent completion of a thirty two channel main-ion (deuterium) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] enables detailed comparisons between impurity and main-ion temperature, density, and toroidal rotation. In a H-mode DIII-D discharge, these new measurement capabilities are used to provide the deuterium density profile, demonstrate the importance of profile alignment between Thomson scattering and CER diagnostics, and aid in determining the electron temperature at the separatrix. Sixteen sightlines cover the core of the plasma and another sixteen are densely packed towards the plasma edge, providing high resolution measurements across the pedestal and steep gradient region in H-mode plasmas. Extracting useful physical quantities such as deuterium density is challenging due to multiple photoemission processes. These challenges are overcome using a detailed fitting model and by forward modeling the photoemission using the FIDASIM code, which implements a comprehensive collisional radiative model.

  12. Classification of X-ray solar flares regarding their effects on the lower ionosphere electron density profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Grubor

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of X-ray solar flares is performed regarding their effects on the Very Low Frequency (VLF wave propagation along the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The changes in propagation are detected from an observed VLF signal phase and amplitude perturbations, taking place during X-ray solar flares. All flare effects chosen for the analysis are recorded by the Absolute Phase and Amplitude Logger (AbsPal, during the summer months of 2004–2007, on the single trace, Skelton (54.72 N, 2.88 W to Belgrade (44.85 N, 20.38 E with a distance along the Great Circle Path (GCP D≈2000 km in length.

    The observed VLF amplitude and phase perturbations are simulated by the computer program Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC, using Wait's model of the lower ionosphere, as determined by two parameters: the sharpness (β in 1/km and reflection height (H' in km. By varying the values of β and H' so as to match the observed amplitude and phase perturbations, the variation of the D-region electron density height profile Ne(z was reconstructed, throughout flare duration. The procedure is illustrated as applied to a series of flares, from class C to M5 (5×10−5 W/m2 at 0.1–0.8 nm, each giving rise to a different time development of signal perturbation.

    The corresponding change in electron density from the unperturbed value at the unperturbed reflection height, i.e. Ne(74 km=2.16×108 m−3 to the value induced by an M5 class flare, up to Ne(74 km=4×1010 m−3 is obtained. The β parameter is found to range from 0.30–0.49 1/km and the reflection height H' to vary from 74–63 km. The changes in Ne(z during the flares, within height range z=60 to 90 km are determined, as well.

  13. Comparative study of non-high density lipoproteins cholesterol level and lipid profile in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Firoz, C K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Khan, Mohammad S; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-04-01

    The present study compares the role and significance of non-high density lipoproteins (non-HDL) cholesterol level in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients. This study also compares non-HDL cholesterol level between males and females and with different age groups as well. An observational study was conducted among 3830 randomly selected individuals to envisage the association of non-HDL cholesterol and other lipid parameters with age, gender, and diabetic status. On the basis of health status, the subjects were classified as diabetic, pre-diabetic and normal. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed on Roche p-800 modular system. Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and fasting triglycerides were also measured. From the above mentioned parameters, the level of non-HDL cholesterol level was also calculated. Significant association was observed with non-HDL cholesterol level and all other studied lipid parameters (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) compared with age and gender of the subjects studied. Moreover, the calculated non-HDL level, total cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly co-related with diabetic status of the patients involved in the study. However, HDL and LDL values did not show any significant association with diabetic status of the patients. In this study, we found that age and gender of the studied subjects are associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Moreover, our data clearly indicates the positive association of non-HDL cholesterol level with pre-diabetic and diabetic status of the patients. Based on our study, we recommend estimation of non-HDL level in routine clinical practice to differentiate pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

  14. Beam Matching to a Plasma Wake Field Accelerator Using a Ramped Density Profile at the Plasma Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Kenneth; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of plasma wake field accelerators (PWFA) is stable propagation of the drive beam. In the under dense regime, the drive beam creates an ion channel which acts on the beam as a strong thick focusing lens. The ion channel causes the beam to undergo multiple betatron oscillations along the length of the plasma. There are several advantages if the beam size can be matched to a constant radius. First, simulations have shown that instabilities such as hosing are reduced when the beam is matched. Second, synchrotron radiation losses are minimized when the beam is matched. Third, an initially matched beam will propagate with no significant change in beam size in spite of large energy loss or gain. Coupling to the plasma with a matched radius can be difficult in some cases. This paper shows how an appropriate density ramp at the plasma entrance can be useful for achieving a matched beam. Additionally, the density ramp is helpful in bringing a misaligned trailing beam onto the drive beam axis. A plas...

  15. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (λ = 248 nm , Δν ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (λ = 266 nm , Δt = 8 psec) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  16. 3D stellar kinematics at the Galactic center: measuring the nuclear star cluster spatial density profile, black hole mass, and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Do, T; Yelda, S; Ghez, A M; Bullock, J; Kaplinghat, M; Lu, J R; Peter, A G H; Phifer, K

    2013-01-01

    We present 3D kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true three dimensional profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass ($M_\\mathrm{BH}$), and distance to the Galactic center ($R_0$) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, $\\rho(r)\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ to have a power law slope $\\gamma=0.05_{-0.60}^{+0.29}$, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall $\\&am...

  17. Sap flow measurements combining sap-flux density radial profiles with punctual sap-flux density measurements in oak trees (Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica) - water-use implications in a water-limited savanna-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Leonardo; Lubczynski1, Maciek W.

    2010-05-01

    measurements using the HFD-measured radial profiles. The standard TDP daily mean of sap-flux density was 95% higher than the 2cm equivalent of the HFD for Q. ilex and 70% higher for Q. pyrenaica. NTG-corrected TDP daily mean of sap-flux density was 34% higher than HFD for Q. ilex and 47% lower for Q. pyrenaica. Regarding sap flow measurements, the standard TDP sap flow was 81% higher than HFD sap flow for Q. ilex and 297% for Q. pyrenaica. The NTG-corrected TDP sap flow was 24% higher than HFD sap flow for Q. ilex and 23% for Q. pyrenaica. The radial correction, for TDP-NTG-corrected sap-flux density, produced sap-flow measurements in well agreement with HFD, just slightly lower (-3% Q.i. and -4% Q.p.). The TDP-HFD sap flow data acquired in dry season over the savanna type of sparsely distributed oak trees (Q. ilex & Q. pyrenaica) showed that the TDP method must be corrected for NTG and for radial variability of sap flux density in trees with sapwood thicker than 2 cm. If such corrections are not taken into consideration, the amount of accounted water used by the trees is prone to overestimation, especially for Quercus pyrenaica. The obtained results indicate also that the combination of HFD and TDP leads to an efficient and accurate operational sap flow measurement schema that is currently in the optimization stage.

  18. A method for the retrieval of atomic oxygen density and temperature profiles from ground-based measurements of the O(+)(2D-2P) 7320 A twilight airglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, J. A.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.; Torr, M. R.; Sharp, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for extracting thermospheric profiles of the atomic-oxygen density and temperature, using ground-based measurements of the O(+)(2D-2P) doublet at 7320 and 7330 A in the twilight airglow. In this method, a local photochemical model is used to calculate the 7320-A intensity; the method also utilizes an iterative inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method described by Press et al. (1986). The results demonstrate that, if the measurements are only limited by errors due to Poisson noise, the altitude profiles of neutral temperature and atomic oxygen concentration can be determined accurately using currently available spectrometers.

  19. In situ synthesized 3D heterometallic metal-organic framework (MOF) as a high-energy-density material shows high heat of detonation, good thermostability and insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaya; Liu, Xiangyu; Duan, Linqiang; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Yang, Xuwu; Gao, Shengli

    2015-02-07

    A reticular 3D heterometallic metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu4Na(Mtta)5(CH3CN)]n () (N% = 40.08%), has been synthesized, using a 5-methyl tetrazole (Mtta) ligand formed from acetonitrile and azide, through in situ synthesis and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The fluorescence spectra demonstrate that undergoes an interesting structural transformation in aqueous solution, yielding the compound [Cu4Na(Mtta)5H2O]n () as confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR and PXRD. Thermoanalysis showed that possesses excellent thermostability up to 335 °C. The calculated detonation properties and the sensitivity test illustrate that compound could be used as a potential explosive. In addition, the non-isothermal kinetics for were studied using the Kissinger and Ozawa-Doyle methods. The enthalpy of formation was obtained from the determination of the constant-volume combustion energy.

  20. Only Three Fingers Write, but the Whole Brain Works: A High-Density EEG Study Showing Advantages of Drawing Over Typing for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Audrey L H; van der Weel, F R Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Are different parts of the brain active when we type on a keyboard as opposed to when we draw visual images on a tablet? Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were typing or describing in words visually presented Pictionary(TM) words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing pictures of the same words on a tablet using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. We found that when drawing, brain areas in the parietal and occipital regions showed event related desynchronization activity in the theta/alpha range. Existing literature suggests that such oscillatory neuronal activity provides the brain with optimal conditions for learning. When describing the words using the keyboard, upper alpha/beta/gamma range activity in the central and frontal brain regions were observed, especially during the ideation phase. However, since this activity was highly synchronized, its relation to learning remains unclear. We concluded that because of the benefits for sensory-motor integration and learning, traditional handwritten notes are preferably combined with visualizations (e.g., small drawings, shapes, arrows, symbols) to facilitate and optimize learning.

  1. Low bone mineral density and peripheral blood monocyte activation profile in calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A; Fuentès, V; Desaint, C; Bataille, P; Westeel, A; Brazier, M; Prin, L; Fournier, A

    1997-01-01

    Calcium stone formers (CaSF) with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have been shown to have decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The mechanism of their bone loss remains obscure. Monokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are involved in bone remodeling, but only IL-1 excess has been incriminated in the bone loss of CaSF with IH. Therefore, to more precisely delineate the role of monocyte activation in the pathogenesis of bone loss in these patients, we studied the production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF by unstimulated or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cultured peripheral blood monocytes in 15 CaSF with IH, in 10 CaSF with dietary calcium-dependent hypercalciuria (DH), and in 10 healthy controls (C). Cytokines were measured in the culture medium by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and vertebral BMD by single energy computed tomography. The decrease of vertebral BMD in IH compared with DH, was confirmed (Z score: -1.2 +/- 0.2 vs. -0.5 +/- 0.2; P = 0.04; Mann-Whitney). In the supernatant of unstimulated peripheral blood monocytes, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha levels were higher in IH than in C (respectively, 40 +/- 21 vs. 7 +/- 1 pg/mL, P = 0.008 and 236 +/- 136 vs. 39 +/- 23 pg/mL, P = 0.03); those of GM-CSF were greater in IH than in DH and C (respectively, 52 +/- 27 vs. 6 +/- 2, P = 0.04 and 6 +/- 2 pg/mL, P = 0.01) and those of IL-6 were not significantly different among the groups. After in vitro stimulation by LPS (10 micrograms/mL), the levels of the various monokines were not significantly different. In IH patients, the post-LPS levels of IL-6 were negatively correlated to vertebral BMD (n = 15, Z = -1.97, P = 0.04; Spearman), whereas those of GM-CSF were positively related to vertebral BMD (n = 15, Z = 2.01, P = 0.04). In this study, calcium stone formers with IH have bone mineral decrease and a particular profile of peripheral

  2. High-Resolution Sedimentation Rates at IODP Sites U1424 and U1427 since the late Pliocene from spectral-analyzing GRA Bulk Density and RGB Color Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Thomas; Irino, Tomohisa; Tada, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    Sedimentation Rates (SRs) for IODP Sites U1424 (lat/lon coordinates: 40o11.40'N, 138o13.90'E; water depth: 2808 mbsl) and U1427 (lat/lon coordinates: 35o57.92'N, 134o26.06'E; water depth: 330 mbsl) were calculated by performing spectral analysis in the depth domain on both RGB color and Gamma-Ray-Attenuation (GRA) bulk density data. Inversion and integration of SRs versus depth from spectral analysis yielded detailed SR profiles in both time and depth domains. Our results show a greater variability in calculated SRs and differed from those established through coarse-scaled biostratigraphy and paleo-magnetic data. Our data analyses produces pulses of distinct high SRs for certain depth/age intervals at both sites, with time lags for such features possibly due to variable oceanographic conditions near-shore for Site U1427 versus those at Site U1424 further offshore. Both GRA and RGB profiles reveal a distinct periodicity in the waveband of Milankovitch cycles and other prominent periodicities in the 10-to-1ky period range. This observation suggests climate variabilities and trends in SRs responding to insolation patterns during the past 1 Myr at both sites and extending to 4.5 Myr for Site U1424. With only few identified eccentricity (100ky) cycle segments throughout the entire normalized spectral amplitude profile, our high-resolution Age-Depth model was tuned to obliquity (41ky) and precessional (19-23ky) cycles to achieving a strong fit with corresponding low-resolution models based on biostratigraphy, paleo-magnetic and, at least for Site U1424, augmenting volcanostratigraphy data. According to our Age-Depth models, relatively low SRs occur when evolutive amplitude spectra are dominated by periods in the range of obliquity and eccentricity. In contrast, significant SR peaks at both sites often occur when strong precessional amplitudes coexist with all other cycles. Lower SRs at Site U1424 have been interpreted to reflect a decrease in diatom flux and relative

  3. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  4. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  5. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  6. Gene expression profiles of vascular smooth muscle show differential expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during captopril therapy of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank C; Brozovich, Frank V

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by increased vascular tone and an impairment in nitric-oxide-mediated vasodilatation. We have demonstrated that the blunted response to nitric oxide is due, in part, to a reduction in the leucine-zipper-positive isoform of the myosin-targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light-chain phosphatase. Additionally, we have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, but not afterload reduction with prazosin, preserves leucine-zipper-positive MYPT1 isoform expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and normalizes the sensitivity to cGMP-mediated vasodilatation. We therefore hypothesized that in CHF, growth regulators and cytokines downstream of the angiotensin II receptor are involved in modulating gene expression in vascular tissue. Rats were divided into control and captopril-treated groups following left coronary artery ligation. Gene expression profiles in the aorta and portal vein at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) were analyzed using microarray technology and quantitative real-time PCR. After MI, microarray analysis revealed differential mRNA expression of 21 genes in the aorta of captopril-treated rats 2 and 4 weeks after surgery when compared to gene expression profiles at baseline and without captopril therapy. Real-time PCR demonstrated that captopril suppressed the expression of protein kinases in the angiotensin-II-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, including Taok1 and Raf1. These data suggest that in CHF, captopril therapy modulates gene expression in vascular smooth muscle, and some of the beneficial effects of ACE inhibition may be due to differential gene expression in the vasculature.

  7. X-ray scattering study of pike olfactory nerve: intensity of the axonal membrane, solution of the phase problem and electron density profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzati, Vittorio; Vachette, Patrice; Benoit, Evelyne; Charpentier, Gilles

    2004-10-08

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering experiments were performed on unmyelinated pike olfactory nerves. The difference between the meridional and the equatorial traces of the 2-D spectra yielded the 1-D equatorial intensity of the macromolecular components oriented with respect to the nerve: axonal membranes, microtubules and other cytoskeletal filaments. These 1-D spectra display a diffuse band typical of bilayer membranes and, at small s, a few sharper bands reminiscent of microtubules. All the spectra merge at large s. The intensity of the axonal membrane was determined via a noise analysis of the nerve-dependent spectra, involving also the notion that the thickness of the membrane is finite. The shape of the intensity function indicated that the electron density profile is not centrosymmetric. The knowledge of intensity and thickness paved the way to the electron density profile via an ab initio solution of the phase problem. An iterative procedure was adopted: (i) choose the lattice D of a 1-D pseudo crystal, interpolate the intensity at the points sh = h/D, adopt an arbitrary set of initial phases and compute the profile; (ii) determine the phases corresponding to this profile truncated by the thickness D/2; (iii) repeat the operation with the updated phases until a stable result is obtained. This iterative procedure was carried out for different D-values, starting in each case from randomly generated phases: stable results were obtained in less than 10,000 iterations. Most importantly, for D in the vicinity of 200 A, the overwhelming majority of the profiles were congruent with each other. These profiles were strongly asymmetric and otherwise typical of biological membranes.

  8. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  9. Analysis of the Clinical Profile in Patients with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Its Association with Parasite Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Praveen; Mittal, Shilpa; Kachhawa, Kamal; Agrawal, Divya; Rath, Bhabagrahi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health hazard in the modern world, particularly in developing countries. In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, there is a direct correlation between asexual erythrocytic stage parasite density and disease severity. Accordingly, the correlations between parasite density and various clinical presentations, severity, and outcome were examined in falciparum malaria in India. The study was conducted in a tertiary health-care center in North India. Of 100 cases of falciparum malaria, 65 patients were male and 35 were female. A total of 54 patients were in the uncomplicated group and 46 patients were in the complicated malaria group. Fever, anemia, icterus, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly were common clinical findings. All clinical findings were significantly more common in the complicated malaria group and patients with a high parasite density than in the uncomplicated group and those with a low parasite density. All patients in the uncomplicated malaria group had a parasite density of 5%, and the difference between groups was statistically significant. The incidence of cerebral malaria was significantly higher in cases with a high parasite density; 58.33% mortality was observed in these cases. Cerebral malaria and hyperbilirubinemia was the most frequently encountered combination of complications. In P. falciparum malaria, parasite density was associated with complications and poor clinical outcomes. These results may inform treatment decisions and suggest that a threshold parasite density of 5% is informative.

  10. A direct dynamical measurement of the Milky Way's disk surface density profile, disk scale length, and dark matter profile at 4 kpc ≲ R ≲ 9 kpc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter, E-mail: bovy@ias.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    We present and apply rigorous dynamical modeling with which we infer unprecedented constraints on the stellar and dark matter mass distribution within our Milky Way (MW), based on large sets of phase-space data on individual stars. Specifically, we model the dynamics of 16,269 G-type dwarfs from SEGUE, which sample 5 kpc < R{sub GC} < 12 kpc and 0.3 kpc ≲ |Z| ≲ 3 kpc. We independently fit a parameterized MW potential and a three-integral, action-based distribution function (DF) to the phase-space data of 43 separate abundance-selected sub-populations (MAPs), accounting for the complex selection effects affecting the data. We robustly measure the total surface density within 1.1 kpc of the mid-plane to 5% over 4.5 kpc < R{sub GC} < 9 kpc. Using metal-poor MAPs with small radial scale lengths as dynamical tracers probes 4.5 kpc ≲ R{sub GC} ≲ 7 kpc, while MAPs with longer radial scale lengths sample 7 kpc ≲ R{sub GC} ≲ 9 kpc. We measure the mass-weighted Galactic disk scale length to be R{sub d} = 2.15 ± 0.14 kpc, in agreement with the photometrically inferred spatial distribution of stellar mass. We thereby measure dynamically the mass of the Galactic stellar disk to unprecedented accuracy: M {sub *} = 4.6 ± 0.3 + 3.0 (R {sub 0}/ kpc – 8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and a total local surface density of Σ{sub R{sub 0}}(Z=1.1 kpc)=68 ± 4 M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} of which 38 ± 4 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} is contributed by stars and stellar remnants. By combining our surface density measurements with the terminal velocity curve, we find that the MW's disk is maximal in the sense that V {sub c,} {sub disk}/V {sub c,} {sub total} = 0.83 ± 0.04 at R = 2.2 R{sub d} . We also constrain for the first time the radial profile of the dark halo at such small Galactocentric radii, finding that ρ{sub DM}(r; ≈R {sub 0})∝1/r {sup α} with α < 1.53 at 95% confidence. Our results show that action-based DF modeling of complex stellar data sets is now a feasible

  11. ASGR1 and ASGR2, the Genes that Encode the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor (Ashwell Receptor, Are Expressed in Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Show Interindividual Differences in Transcript Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR is a hepatic receptor that mediates removal of potentially hazardous glycoconjugates from blood in health and disease. The receptor comprises two proteins, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 and 2 (ASGR1 and ASGR2, encoded by the genes ASGR1 and ASGR2. Design and Methods. Using reverse transcription amplification (RT-PCR, expression of ASGR1 and ASGR2 was investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes. Results. Monocytes were found to express ASGR1 and ASGR2 transcripts. Correctly spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of ASGR1 and ASGR2 were present in monocytes. The profile of transcript variants from both ASGR1 and ASGR2 differed among individuals. Transcript expression levels were compared with the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 which produces high levels of ASGPR. Monocyte transcripts were 4 to 6 orders of magnitude less than in HepG2 but nonetheless readily detectable using standard RT-PCR. The monocyte cell line THP1 gave similar results to monocytes harvested from peripheral blood, indicating it may provide a suitable model system for studying ASGPR function in this cell type. Conclusions. Monocytes transcribe and correctly process transcripts encoding the constituent proteins of the ASGPR. Monocytes may therefore represent a mobile pool of the receptor, capable of reaching sites remote from the liver.

  12. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmang; Xiao, Liang; Fang, Tingting; Cai, Yimin; Jia, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF) and wheat bran fiber (WF) supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  13. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species’ delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica–two taxa currently considered as synonyms–and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:27525415

  14. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  15. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae) shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suguiyama, Vanessa F; Silva, Emerson A; Meirelles, Sergio T; Centeno, Danilo C; Braga, Marcia R

    2014-01-01

    Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP) of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80 and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  16. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fuentes Suguiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80% and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC.

  17. The large-scale correlations of multi-cell densities and profiles, implications for cosmic variance estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Codis, Sandrine; Pichon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the error budget in the measured probability distribution functions of cell densities, the two-point statistics of cosmic densities in concentric spheres is investigated. Bias functions are introduced as the ratio of their two-point correlation function to the two-point correlation of the underlying dark matter distribution. They describe how cell densities are spatially correlated. They are computed here via the so-called large deviation principle in the quasi-linear regime. Their large-separation limit is presented and successfully compared to simulations for density and density slopes: this regime is shown to be rapidly reached allowing to get sub-percent precision for a wide range of densities and variances. The corresponding asymptotic limit provides an estimate of the cosmic variance of standard concentric cell statistics applied to finite surveys. More generally, no assumption on the separation is required for some specific moments of the two-point statistics, for instance when pre...

  18. The Secular Evolution Of Disc Galaxies And The Origin Of Exponential And Double Exponential Surface Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2016-10-01

    Exponential radial profiles are ubiquitous in spiral and dwarf Irregular galaxies, but the origin of this structural form is not understood. This talk will review the observations of exponential and double exponential disks, considering both the light and the mass profiles, and the contributions from stars and gas. Several theories for this structure will also be reviewed, including primordial collapse, bar and spiral torques, clump torques, galaxy interactions, disk viscosity and other internal processes of angular momentum exchange, and stellar scattering off of clumpy structure. The only process currently known that can account for this structure in the most theoretically difficult case is stellar scattering off disks clumps. Stellar orbit models suggest that such scattering can produce exponentials even in isolated dwarf irregulars that have no bars or spirals, little shear or viscosity, and profiles that go out too far for the classical Mestel case of primordial collapse with specific angular momentum conservation.

  19. High-density PhyloChip profiling of stimulated aquifer microbial communities reveals a complex response to acetate amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, Kim M.; Wrighton, Kelly E.; Piceno, Y. M.; Anderson, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; N' Guessan, A. L.; Peacock, Aaron; Bargar, John R.; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2012-06-13

    There is increasing interest in harnessing the functional diversity of indigenous microbial communities to transform and remediate a wide range of environmental contaminants. Understanding the response of communities to stimulation, including flanking taxa, presents important opportunities for optimizing remediation approaches. We used high-density PhyloChip microarray analysis to comprehensively determine community membership and abundance patterns amongst a suite of samples from U(VI) bioremediation experiments. Samples were unstimulated or collected during Fe(III) and sulfate reduction from an acetate-augmented aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, and from laboratory experiments using field-collected materials. Results showed the greatest diversity in abundant SRB lineages was present in naturally-reduced sediment. Desulfuromonadales and Desulfobacterales were consistently identified as the dominant Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (IRB and SRB) throughout acetate amendment experiments. Stimulated communities also exhibited a high degree of functional redundancy amongst enriched flanking members. Not surprisingly, competition for both sulfate and iron was evident amongst abundant taxa, but the distribution and abundance of these ancillary SRB (Peptococcaceae, Desulfovibrionales and Syntrophobacterales), and lineages containing IRB (excluding Desulfobacteraceae) was heterogeneous amongst sample types. Interesting, amongst the most abundant taxa, particularly during sulfate reduction, were Epsilonproteobacteria that perform microaerobic or nitrate-dependant sulfur oxidation, and a number of bacteria other than Geobacteraceae that may enzymatically reduce U(VI). Finally, in depth community probing with PhyloChip determined the efficacy of experimental approaches, notably revealing striking similarity amongst stimulated sediment (from drill cores and in-situ columns) and groundwater communities, and demonstrating that sediment-packed in-situ (down-well) columns served

  20. Immunohistological profile of the Ras homologous B protein (RhoB) in human testes showing normal spermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest and Sertoli cell only syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed

    2010-09-01

    Ras homologous B protein (RhoB) belongs to the Ras homologous subfamily which consists of low molecular weight (21 kDa) GTP-binding proteins. Rho proteins are regulatory molecules associated with various kinases and as such they mediate changes in cell shape, contractility, motility and gene expression. To date, no data are available about the expression pattern of RhoB protein in the human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. The present study addresses these issues. Human testicular biopsy specimens were obtained from patients suffering from post-testicular infertility (testis showing normal spermatogenesis, 10 cases) and testicular infertility (testis showing Sertoli cell only syndrome and spermatogenic arrest, 10 patients each). The expression of RhoB was examined using in situ immunofluorescent staining methods. In testes showing normal spermatogenesis, RhoB had a strong expression in the seminiferous epithelium (cytoplasm of Sertoli-cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes) and in the interstitium (Leydig cells). RhoB expression was weak in the myofibroblasts and absent in the spermatids and sperms. In the testes showing abnormal spermatogenesis, RhoB expression was moderate in the seminiferous epithelium (cytoplasm of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes) and was completely absent in the Leydig cells, myofibroblasts, spermatids and sperms. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first morphological indication that RhoB protein is expressed in human testis and its expression undergoes testicular infertility associated changes. These findings suggest the involvement of RhoB in the process of spermatogenesis in human and their possible therapeutic ramifications in testicular infertility are open for further investigations.

  1. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  2. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  3. Measurements of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) and Electron Density/Temperature Profiles in Plasmas Produced by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We will present results of simultaneous measurements of LPI-driven light scattering and density/temperature profiles in CH plasmas produced by the Nike krypton fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm). The primary diagnostics for the LPI measurement are time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration in spectral ranges relevant to the optical detection of stimulated Raman scattering or two plasmon decay. The spectrometers are capable of monitoring signal intensity relative to thermal background radiation from plasma providing a useful way to analyze LPI initiation. For further understanding of LPI processes, the recently implemented grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR)a is used to measure the coronal plasma profiles. In this experiment, Nike-GIR is equipped with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) in attempt to probe into a high density region over the previous peak density with λ = 263 nm probe light ( 4 ×1021 cm-3). The LPI behaviors will be discussed with the measured data sets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  4. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  5. Comparison of the fluid dynamic models of solids density profile in a FCC cold riser with aid of gamma-ray transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Valdemir A. dos, E-mail: valdemir.alexandre@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Carlos C., E-mail: ccd@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Luna-Finkler, Christine L., E-mail: chrislluna@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Silva, Jose M.F., E-mail: jmfs5@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    To measure the axial concentration of the solid component with aid of gamma radiation to compare two fluid dynamic models was the goal of this work. An {sup 241}Am radioactive source of a 9 7.4 centre dot10{sup 9} Bq intensity and the detector were collimated. A support of the arrangement allows dislocating source and detector in order to scan along of riser axial length. The gamma measurements are taken with a 0.05 m x 0.05 m NaI(Tl) detector associated to a mono and to a multichannel analyser which is provided by a Genie 2000, Canberra software for spectrum evaluation. By integrating the 0.060 MeV photopeak of the {sup 241}Am gamma spectrum all the attenuation measurements are taken. The catalyst mass absorption coefficient, mu =331 m{sup 2}/kg, was determined in a previous experiment. For the solid volumetric fraction about 0.02, in the solid entrance in riser, the fluid dynamic model performances were compared by four different search numeric methods (Quasi-Newton, Hook-Jeeves Pattern Mooves, Rosenbrock Pattern Search and Simplex Procedure) from user-specified regression (Custom loss function) from nonlinear estimation of SIMULINK/Matlab{sup R} and Statistica software. In this standard multiple regression type it estimates the regression coefficients by 'finding' those coefficients that minimize the residual variance (sum of squared residuals) around the regression line. Any deviation of an observed score from a predicted score signifies some loss in the accuracy of prediction. The comparison tests between experimental and simulated data showed that the Santana's model was more indicated to simulate the solid axial density profile in a cold flow riser of a FCC pilot unit. (author)

  6. FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN A HIGH CELL DENSITY CULTURE OF ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA) EXPOSED TO HIGH PFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The changes in arachidonic acid (AA) and fatty acids profiles along the growth curve of Parietochloris incisa, a coccoid snow green alga, were studied in a 2.8 cm light-path flat photobioreactor, exposed to strong photon flux density [PFD, 2400 μEmol/(m2*s)]. Sixteen fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography showing that AA was the dominant fatty acid (33%-41%) followedby linoleic acid (17%-21%). AA content was closely investigated with respect tototal fatty acids (TFA), ash free dry weight (AFDW) of cell mass as well as total culture content. These parameters were influenced significantly in a similar manner by culture growth phase, i.e., slightly decreasing in the lag period, gradually increasing in the logarithmic phase, becoming maximal at the early stationary phase, starting to decrease at the late stationary phase, sharply dropping at the decline phase. The increase in AA per culture volume during the logarithmic phase was not only associated with the increase in AFDW but also connected with a corresponding increase in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW as well as AA/AFDW. The sharp decrease in AA content of the culture during the decline phase was mainly due to the decrease in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW and AA/AFDW, although AFDW declined only a smallextent. Maximal AA concentration, obtained at the early stationary phase, was 900 mg/L culture volume, and the average daily net increase of AA during 9 days logarithmic growth was 1.7 g/(m2*day). Therefore, harvesting prior to the declinephase in a batch culture, or at steady state in continuous culture mode seems best for high AA production. The latter possibility was also further confirmed bycontinuous culture with 5 gradients of harvesting rate. ``

  7. Pharmacologic profile of the Adnectin BMS-962476, a small protein biologic alternative to PCSK9 antibodies for low-density lipoprotein lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tracy; Chao, Ginger; Sitkoff, Doree; Lo, Fred; Monshizadegan, Hossain; Meyers, Daniel; Low, Simon; Russo, Katie; DiBella, Rose; Denhez, Fabienne; Gao, Mian; Myers, Joseph; Duke, Gerald; Witmer, Mark; Miao, Bowman; Ho, Siew P; Khan, Javed; Parker, Rex A

    2014-08-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 (PCSK9) is an important pharmacological target for decreasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in cardiovascular disease, although seemingly inaccessible to small molecule approaches. Compared with therapeutic IgG antibodies currently in development, targeting circulating PCSK9 with smaller molecular scaffolds could offer different profiles and reduced dose burdens. This inspired genesis of PCSK9-binding Adnectins, a protein family derived from human fibronectin-10th-type III-domain and engineered for high-affinity target binding. BMS-962476, an ∼11-kDa polypeptide conjugated to polyethylene glycol to enhance pharmacokinetics, binds with subnanomolar affinity to human. The X-ray cocrystal structure of PCSK9 with a progenitor Adnectin shows ∼910 Å(2) of PCSK9 surface covered next to the LDL receptor binding site, largely by residues of a single loop of the Adnectin. In hypercholesterolemic, overexpressing human PCSK9 transgenic mice, BMS-962476 rapidly lowered cholesterol and free PCSK9 levels. In genomic transgenic mice, BMS-962476 potently reduced free human PCSK9 (ED50 ∼0.01 mg/kg) followed by ∼2-fold increases in total PCSK9 before return to baseline. Treatment of cynomolgus monkeys with BMS-962476 rapidly suppressed free PCSK9 >99% and LDL-cholesterol ∼55% with subsequent 6-fold increase in total PCSK9, suggesting reduced clearance of circulating complex. Liver sterol response genes were consequently downregulated, following which LDL and total PCSK9 returned to baseline. These studies highlight the rapid dynamics of PCSK9 control over LDL and liver cholesterol metabolism and characterize BMS-962476 as a potent and efficacious PCSK9 inhibitor.

  8. Activating FLT3 mutants show distinct gain-of-function phenotypes in vitro and a characteristic signaling pathway profile associated with prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Janke

    Full Text Available About 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML harbour mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3, mostly internal tandem duplications (ITD and point mutations of the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD. It was the aim of this study to comprehensively analyze clinical and functional properties of various FLT3 mutants. In 672 normal karyotype AML patients FLT3-ITD, but not FLT3-TKD mutations were associated with a worse relapse free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. In paired diagnosis-relapse samples FLT3-ITD showed higher stability (70% compared to FLT3-TKD (30%. In vitro, FLT3-ITD induced a strong activating phenotype in Ba/F3 cells. In contrast, FLT3-TKD mutations and other point mutations--including two novel mutations--showed a weaker but clear gain-of-function phenotype with gradual increase in proliferation and protection from apoptosis. The pro-proliferative capacity of the investigated FLT3 mutants was associated with cell surface expression and tyrosine 591 phosphorylation of the FLT3 receptor. Western blot experiments revealed STAT5 activation only in FLT3-ITD positive cell lines, in contrast to FLT3-non-ITD mutants, which displayed an enhanced signal of AKT and MAPK activation. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct difference between FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD for STAT5 target gene expression as well as deregulation of SOCS2, ENPP2, PRUNE2 and ART3. FLT3-ITD and FLT3 point mutations show a gain-of-function phenotype with distinct signalling properties in vitro. Although poor prognosis in AML is only associated with FLT3-ITD, all activating FLT3 mutations can contribute to leukemogenesis and are thus potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  9. Usability of optical spectrum analyzer in measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities: inspection with FTS and aircraft profiles in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The practical usefulness of a desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface sites was examined in two separate measurement campaigns. The first comparison involved operating the OSA in parallel with a high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS situated at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Scale factors for the OSA were assigned for the column average volume mixing ratios of xCO2 and xCH4 by comparing with the well-studied FTS. The second method is a calibration against aircraft CO2 profiles in situ over Tsukuba in Japan obtained during a GOSAT validation campaign carried out from 28 January to 7 February 2011. The xCO2 values in the campaign, deduced by use of a derived OSA scale factor, were in excellent agreement with the integrated aircraft profiles.

  10. Usability of optical spectrum analyzer in measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities: substantiation with FTS and aircraft profiles in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The practical usefulness of a desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface sites was examined in two separate measurement campaigns. The first involved a long term measurement in parallel with a high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS studies at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Scale factors of the OSA were assigned for the column average volume mixing ratios of xCO2 and xCH4 by comparing with the well-studied FTS. The second method is a calibration against aircraft CO2 profiles in situ over Tsukuba in Japan obtained during a GOSAT validation campaign carried out from 28 January to 7 February 2011. The xCO2 values in the campaign, deduced by use of a derived OSA scale factor, were in excellent agreement with the integrated aircraft profiles.

  11. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  12. Electron density profiles in the nighttime high-latitude lower ionosphere, artificially disturbed by high-power radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokov, A. M.; Martynenko, S. I.; Misiura, V. A.; Piven, L. A.; Somov, V. G.; Fedorenko, Iu. P.; Chernogor, L. F.; Shemet, A. S.

    1982-10-01

    The method of partial reflections detected increases of electron temperature to 50% at heights of 67-71 km. The electron density decreased under the effect of high-power radio waves (9 MW effective pulse power) by 30-40% at 68-72 km, while it increased by several tens of percent at 76-85 km.

  13. Density profiles of small Dirac operator eigenvalues for two color QCD at nonzero chemical potential compared to matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akemann, Gernot [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/DSM/SPhT Saclay, Unite associee CNRS/SPM/URA 2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Bittner, Elmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, Augustplatz 10/11, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Lombardo, Maria-Paola [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Markum, Harald [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Pullirsch, Rainer [Atominstitut, Technische Universitaet Wien, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2005-03-15

    We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in two color QCD at finite chemical potential. The profiles of complex eigenvalues close to the origin are compared to a complex generalization of the chiral Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble, confirming its predictions for weak and strong non-Hermiticity. They differ from the QCD symmetry class with three colors by a level repulsion from both the real and imaginary axis.

  14. Genes of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Family Show Different Expression Profiles and Overexpression of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 5 Modulates Fatty Acid Composition and Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexue Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs are a group of small acidic proteins functioning as important cofactors in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In Arabidopsis, ACPs are encoded by a small gene family comprising five plastid members, AtACP1 to AtACP5, and three mitochondrial members. The biological functions and the transcriptional responses to abiotic stresses of most AtACPs have yet to be elucidated. The present study extends previous findings and provides new knowledge on the function of ACPs by examining the responses of AtACP-encoding genes to several abiotic stresses and, in particular, the role of AtACP5 in the adaptation to salt stress. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AtACP1, AtACP2, AtACP3, and AtACP5 can be classified into one group and separated from a group comprising AtACP4 and ACP homologs from related species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of AtACP1, AtACP2, and AtACP3 was induced by drought. Both iron deficiency and nitrogen starvation resulted in down-regulation of AtACP4. The most pronounced response was observed for AtACP5, the expression of which was dramatically decreased by salt stress. Knock-out of AtACP5 showed increased sensitivity to NaCl stress, whereas transgenic lines overexpressing AtACP5 displayed increased salt tolerance relative to the wild-type. Overexpression of AtACP5 further led to an altered composition of fatty acids, mainly a decrease of oleic acid (C18:1 and an increase of palmitic acid (C16:0, and to a lower Na+/K+ ratio when compared to the salt stressed wild-type. The comprehensive transcriptional information on the small plastid AtACP gene family in response to various abiotic stresses and the further investigation of the AtACP5 indicate that AtACP5 might be critical for salt tolerance through alterations of the composition of fatty acids and, subsequently, the Na+/K+ ratio.

  15. Hematological profile of juvenile European catfish (Silurus glanis reared under different stocking densities in recirculating system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandita Placinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   The aim of present study was to evaluate the hematological parameters and the absolute number of leukocytes of European catfish (Silurus glanis maintained in different technological conditions induced by applied stocking densities. The experiment was conducted over a period of 32 days. A number of 450 European catfish, with an average weight of 158,9± 0,26 g, were distributed in four rearing units, in order to create different stocking densities as follows: V1- 14,28 kg/m3,  V2 – 28,59 kg/m3, V3 – 42,97 kg/m3 and V4- 57,06 kg/m3. The following hematological parameters were determined: RBC, Ht, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC. A decrease of RBC and higher values of MCH and MCHC were observed at V4, while at V1 an increase in RBC and lower MCV, MCH values can be seen. Regarding the absolute number of leukocytes, no significant statistical differences were registered between the applied stocking densities (p>0.05. However, there was a slight increase of leukocyte number with increasing stocking density (240,01 x103cel./mm3 at V4,  respectively 189,64 x103cel./mm3 at V1. It can be concluded from hematological parameters analysis that a stocking density of 60 kg/m3 seems to be out of the optimal range for catfish growth, in current growth conditions.  

  16. Human synaptic plasticity gene expression profile and dendritic spine density changes in HIV-infected human CNS cells: role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Subba Rao Atluri

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occur in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. Our current understanding of HAND emanates mainly from HIV-1 subtype B (clade B, which is prevalent in USA and Western countries. However very little information is available on neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 subtype C (clade C that exists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Therefore, studies to identify specific neuropathogenic mechanisms associated with HAND are worth pursuing to dissect the mechanisms underlying this modulation and to prevent HAND particularly in clade B infection. In this study, we have investigated 84 key human synaptic plasticity genes differential expression profile in clade B and clade C infected primary human astrocytes by using RT(2 Profile PCR Array human Synaptic Plasticity kit. Among these, 31 and 21 synaptic genes were significantly (≥3 fold down-regulated and 5 genes were significantly (≥3 fold up-regulated in clade B and clade C infected cells, respectively compared to the uninfected control astrocytes. In flow-cytometry analysis, down-regulation of postsynaptic density and dendrite spine morphology regulatory proteins (ARC, NMDAR1 and GRM1 was confirmed in both clade B and C infected primary human astrocytes and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Further, spine density and dendrite morphology changes by confocal microscopic analysis indicates significantly decreased spine density, loss of spines and decreased dendrite diameter, total dendrite and spine area in clade B infected SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells compared to uninfected and clade C infected cells. We have also observed that, in clade B infected astrocytes, induction of apoptosis was significantly higher than in the clade C infected astrocytes. In conclusion, this study suggests that down-regulation of synaptic plasticity genes, decreased dendritic spine density and induction of

  17. A direct dynamical measurement of the Milky Way's disk surface density profile, disk scale length, and dark matter profile at 4 kpc < R < 9 kpc

    CERN Document Server

    Bovy, Jo

    2013-01-01

    We present and apply rigorous dynamical modeling with which we infer unprecedented constraints on the stellar and dark matter mass distribution within our Milky Way (MW), based on large sets of phase-space data on individual stars. Specifically, we model the dynamics of 16,269 G-type dwarfs from SEGUE, which sample 5 < R/kpc < 12 and 0.3 < |Z|/kpc < 3. We independently fit a parameterized MW potential and a three-integral, action-based distribution function (DF) to the phase-space data of 43 separate abundance-selected sub-populations (MAPs), accounting for the complex selection effects affecting the data. We robustly measure the total surface density within 1.1 kpc of the mid-plane to about 5% over the range 4.5< R/kpc < 9. Using metal-poor MAPs with small radial scale lengths as dynamical tracers probes 4.5 < R/kpc < 7, while MAPs with longer radial scale lengths sample 7 < R/kpc < 9. We measure the mass-weighted Galactic disk scale length to be R_d = 2.15+/-0.14 kpc, in agreem...

  18. Density Profiles, Energy, and Oscillation Strength of a Quantum Dot in Two Dimensions with a Harmonic Oscillator External Potential using an Orbital-free Energy Functional Based on Thomas–Fermi Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhufa Alfarisa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims i to determine the density profile and calculate the ground state energy of a quantum dot in two dimensions (2D with a harmonic oscillator potential using orbital-free density functional theory, and ii to understand the effect of the harmonic oscillator potential strength on the electron density profiles in the quantum dot. This study determines the total energy functional of the quantum dot that is a functional of the density that depends only on spatial variables. The total energy functional consists of three terms. The first term is the kinetic energy functional, which is the Thomas–Fermi approximation in this case. The second term is the external potential. The harmonic oscillator potential is used in this study. The last term is the electron–electron interactions described by the Coulomb interaction. The functional is formally solved to obtain the electron density as a function of spatial variables. This equation cannot be solved analytically, and thus a numerical method is used to determine the profile of the electron density. Using the electron density profiles, the ground state energy of the quantum dot in 2D can be calculated. The ground state energies obtained are 2.464, 22.26, 90.1957, 252.437, and 496.658 au for 2, 6, 12, 20, and 56 electrons, respectively. The highest electron density is localized close to the middle of the quantum dot. The density profiles decrease with the increasing distance, and the lowest density is at the edge of the quantum dot. Generally, increasing the harmonic oscillator potential strength reduces the density profiles around the center of the quantum dot.

  19. Is Lipid Profile Associated with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Formation in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between serum lipids and bone mineral density (BMD has been investigated previously but, up to now, these relationships have not yet been described in spinal cord injury (SCI. We tried to assess the correlation between serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL and BMD in male subjects with SCI. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was used to assess BMD in femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanteric zone, and lumbar vertebras. Blood samples were taken to measure serums lipids and bone biomarkers including osteocalcin, cross-linked type I collagen (CTX, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP. Partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between mentioned measurements after adjustment for weight and age. Results. We found a positive correlation between HDL and femoral neck BMD (P: 0.004, r=0.33. HDL was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (P: 0.017, r=-0.31 which was not in consistency with its relationship with BMD. TC and LDL were not related to CTX, BALP and BMD. Conclusion. This study does not support a strong association between serum lipids and BMD in subjects with SCI. Moreover it seems that positive association between HDL and BMD is not mediated through increased bone formation.

  20. Effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on low-density lipoprotein subfraction profile, low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, and antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein in relation to carotid intima media thickness in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, L.J.H. van; Smilde, T.J.; Wissen, S. van; Graaf, J. de; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of statins on the quality of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in relation to atherosclerosis progression. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized trial of 325 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), we assessed the effects of high-dose

  1. Liquid drops on a surface: Using density functional theory to calculate the binding potential and drop profiles and comparing with results from mesoscopic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adam P.; Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.

    2015-02-01

    The contribution to the free energy for a film of liquid of thickness h on a solid surface due to the interactions between the solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces is given by the binding potential, g(h). The precise form of g(h) determines whether or not the liquid wets the surface. Note that differentiating g(h) gives the Derjaguin or disjoining pressure. We develop a microscopic density functional theory (DFT) based method for calculating g(h), allowing us to relate the form of g(h) to the nature of the molecular interactions in the system. We present results based on using a simple lattice gas model, to demonstrate the procedure. In order to describe the static and dynamic behaviour of non-uniform liquid films and drops on surfaces, a mesoscopic free energy based on g(h) is often used. We calculate such equilibrium film height profiles and also directly calculate using DFT the corresponding density profiles for liquid drops on surfaces. Comparing quantities such as the contact angle and also the shape of the drops, we find good agreement between the two methods. We also study in detail the effect on g(h) of truncating the range of the dispersion forces, both those between the fluid molecules and those between the fluid and wall. We find that truncating can have a significant effect on g(h) and the associated wetting behaviour of the fluid.

  2. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  3. Effect of Stocking Density Stress on the Hematological Profile of Oncorhynchus Mykiss in KashmirTrout Raceways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Qadir Charoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed at the investigation into the effect of stocking density on the hematological response of Oncorhynchus mykiss maintained in flow through condition. The stock having a weight of 520.22 ± 48.20 g and 580.25± 52.2 g were stocked in flow through FRP tanks at the stocking density of 38 kg/m3 and 30 kg/ m3 respectively. The sampling of Oncorhynchus mykiss blood from the four variants before and after the experimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cell counts (RBCc, hematocrit values (Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC were measured and analyzed, with routine methods used in fish hematology. Differences in hematological parameters were statistically analyzed by Student T test. Physiological stress, induced by maintenance in different technological condition induced by stocking stress, was reflected in the hematological indices (significant increase, p<0.05, RBCc, Hb, Ht, MCV and decrease insignificant, p >0.05 MCH, MCHC with direct implications at the biotechnological level.

  4. Imaging brain gene expression profiles by antipsychotics: region-specific action of amisulpride on postsynaptic density transcripts compared to haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Marmo, Federica; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Rossi, Rodolfo; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Induction of motor disorders is considered the clinical landmark differentiating typical from atypical antipsychotics, and has been mainly correlated to dopamine D2 receptors blockade in striatum. This view is challenged by benzamides, such as amisulpride, which display low liability for motor side effects despite being D2/D3 receptors high-affinity blocking agents. These effects have been explained with the prominent presynaptic action of amisulpride or with the fast dissociation at D2 receptors, but there is scarce information on the effects of amisulpride on postsynaptic signaling. We carried out a molecular imaging study of gene expression after acute administration of haloperidol (0.8 mg/kg), amisulpride (10 or 35 mg/kg), or vehicle, focusing on postsynaptic genes that are key regulators of synaptic plasticity, such as Arc, c-fos, Zif-268, Norbin, Homer. The last one has been associated to schizophrenia both in clinical and preclinical studies, and is differentially induced by antipsychotics with different D2 receptors affinity. Topography of gene expression revealed that amisulpride, unlike haloperidol, triggers transcripts expression peak in medial striatal regions. Correlation analysis of gene expression revealed a prevalent correlated gene induction within motor corticostriatal regions by haloperidol and a more balanced gene induction within limbic and motor corticostriatal regions by amisulpride. Despite the selective dopaminergic profile of both compounds, our results demonstrated a differential modulation of postsynaptic molecules by amisulpride and haloperidol, the former impacting preferentially medial regions of striatum whereas the latter inducing strong gene expression in lateral regions. Thus, we provided a possible molecular profile of amisulpride, putatively explaining its "atypical atypicality".

  5. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S Saroka

    Full Text Available In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m and magnetic field (pT components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6-16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7-8 Hz, second (13-14 Hz and third (19-20 Hz harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the 'best-of-fitness' of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity.

  6. Predicted metabolizable energy density and amino acid profile of the crop contents of free-living scarlet macaw chicks (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J; Dierenfeld, E S; Bailey, C A; Brightsmith, D J

    2012-12-01

    Hand rearing of neonates is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines. However, nutritional requirements for their growth and development are not well understood, and malnutrition is common. We analysed the amino acid (AA) profile of the crop contents of 19 free-living scarlet macaw (Ara macao) chicks, 19-59 days old. Predicted metabolizable energy (PME) density was 16.9 MJ/kg DM and true protein (total AA protein) 8.3 g/MJ PME. Crude protein (CP) was 10.0 g/MJ PME, lower than the requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn chicks but not different than the requirements of growing budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). The mean concentrations of leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine (Lys) and methionine on a PME basis were below the minimum requirements of 0- to 12-week-old leghorn-type chicks. The calculated PME density of the samples did not vary with age. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the average age of the chicks and the Lys concentration. We conclude that the lower CP and AA densities compared with poultry could result from a combination of (i) differences in the essential AA composition of the body tissues, (ii) adaptations that allow the birds to grow on low-protein food sources and (iii) suboptimal nutrition of these free-ranging chicks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Ion density and temperature profiles along (XGSM) and across (ZGSM) the magnetotail as observed by THEMIS, Geotail, and ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Hietala, H.; Runov, A.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of the two-dimensional configuration of the magnetotail current sheet are important for modeling magnetotail motion/evolution and charged particle energization. Because of the magnetotail current sheet's dynamical nature, however, simultaneous plasma and magnetic field measurements at different radial distances are required to reveal this configuration. Simultaneous observations of the magnetotail current sheet from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) D (around 10RE downtail), Geotail (around 30RE downtail), and Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moons Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) P1 (around 55RE downtail) are used to study distributions of plasma (ion) density and temperature along (Earth-Sun direction) and across (north-south direction) the magnetotail. Fourteen events (each including several current sheet crossings at different downtail distances) are studied. We demonstrate that the plasma temperature along and across the magnetotail varies more significantly than plasma density does. The temperature decrease from equatorial plane to current sheet boundaries is a major contributor to the cross-tail pressure balance. The Alfven velocity VA,B calculated at the current sheet boundaries increases significantly toward the Earth from 700 km/s at lunar orbit ˜55RE to 2200 km/s around ˜10RE downtail. The corresponding energy EA=mpVA,B2 (mp is the proton mass) is 4 times larger than the plasma temperature T0 in the magnetotail's equatorial plane, whereas the ratio EA/T0 is constant along the magnetotail. The plasma temperature T0 measured around lunar orbit in the magnetotail agrees well with the simultaneously measured energy of solar wind protons mpVSW2/2 (VSW is the solar wind speed).

  8. Development of an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer for fast density profile measurements of dense plasmas generated by beam-target interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dan [National Security Technol., LLC, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berninger, M; Meidinger, A; Stutman, Dan; Valdivia, Maria Pia

    2015-05-01

    For the first time an x-ray Talbot-Lau moire deflectometer is being developed that will use a flash tube source and fast detector for dynamic density gradient measurements. In Talbot-Lau moire deflectometry, an x-ray grating makes an image of itself on a second grating (the Talbot effect) to produce a moire pattern on a detector. The test object is placed between these gratings, with variations in index of refraction changing the pattern. A third grating in front of an incoherent x-ray source produces an array of coherent sources. With a 150 kV x-ray flash tube as the source, the gratings are placed in a glancing angle setup for performance at ~60 keV. The detector is a gated CCD with a fast scintillator for x-ray conversion. This diagnostic, designed for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, measures the density profile of dense plasma plumes ejected from beam-target interactions. DARHT has two high-current, pulsed, inductive linear electron accelerators with bremsstrahlung targets at the end of each beam line to create 2-D radiographic images of hydrodynamic tests. One multi-pulse accelerator has up to four beam pulses striking the same target within 2 μs. Computer simulations that model target evolution and ejected material between pulses are used to design these targets for optimal radiographic performance; the x-ray deflectometer will directly measure density gradients in the ejected plumes and provide the first experimental constraints to these models. During the first year, currently underway, the diagnostic systems are being designed. In year two, the flash tube and fast detector will be deployed at DARHT for radiographic imaging while the deflectometer is built and tested on the bench with a continuous source. Finally, in year three, the fast deflectometer will be installed on DARHT and density measurements will be performed.

  9. The accretion history of dark matter halos II: The connections with the mass power spectrum and the density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Camila A; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    We explore the relation between the structure and mass accretion histories of dark matter halos using a suite of cosmological simulations. We confirm that the formation time, defined as the time when the virial mass of the main progenitor equals the mass enclosed within the scale radius, correlates strongly with concentration. We provide a semi-analytic model for halo mass history that combines analytic relations with fits to simulations. This model has the functional form, $M(z) = M_{0}(1+z)^{\\alpha}e^{\\beta z}$, where the parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are directly correlated with concentration. We then combine this model for the halo mass history with the analytic relations between $\\alpha$, $\\beta$ and the linear power spectrum derived by Correa et al. (2014) to establish the physical link between halo concentration and the initial density perturbation field. Finally, we provide fitting formulas for the halo mass history as well as numerical routines, we derive the accretion rate as a function of halo ma...

  10. Modelling of the electron density profile in the lowest part of ionosphere D-region on the basis of radiowave absorption data. 1. Theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtarov, P.; Pancheva, D.

    1996-11-01

    A simplified full-wave method adapted to the propagation of very obliquely incident LF radio waves is developed. For a selected ionosphere model the wave-field structure is calculated inside a horizontally stratified ionosphere and the peculiarities of the reflected field are clearly described. The penetration of the investigated radio waves in the lower ionosphere at noon-time is found to be restricted to a layer several wavelengths thick. The reflected wave is created entirely by the mechanism of partial reflections and the region responsible for its formation is usually below 70 km. The influence of some typical parameters of the electron density profile, as well as the atmospheric pressure and temperature, on the attenuation of the investigated radio waves is demonstrated. It is also found that the reflection at very oblique incidence depends mainly on the height of the bottom of the ionosphere.

  11. Self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh Gaussian laser beam in a magnetoplasma with ramp density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti; Wani, Manzoor Ahmad [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, Punjab (India)

    2013-11-15

    The early and strong self-focusing of a Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in magnetoplasma in the presence of density ramp has been observed. Focusing and de-focusing nature of the Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter and magnetic field has been studied, and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter 'b' plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam and is very sensitive as in case of extraordinary mode. For mode indices, m = 0, 1, 2, and b = 4.00, 3.14, and 2.05, strong self-focusing is observed. Similarly in case of ordinary mode, for m = 0, 1, 2 and b = 4.00, 3.14, 2.049, respectively, strong self-focusing is reported. Further, it is seen that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For mode indices m = 0, 1, and 2, diffraction term becomes more dominant over nonlinear term for decentered parameter b=0. For selective higher values of decentered parameter in case of mode indices m=0, 1, and 2, self-focusing effect becomes strong for extraordinary mode. Also increase in the value of magnetic field enhances the self-focusing ability of the laser beam, which is very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers.

  12. Analysis of the diagnostic presentation profile, parathyroidectomy indication and bone mineral density follow-up of Brazilian patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.E.M. Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder with variable clinical expression, frequently presenting as asymptomatic hypercalcemia in Western countries but still predominantly as a symptomatic disease in developing countries. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the diagnostic presentation profile, parathyroidectomy indication and post-surgical bone mineral density follow-up of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism seen at a university hospital. We found 115 patients (92 women, median age 56 years with primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed during the last 20 years. We defined symptomatic patients based on the presence of any classical symptom affecting bone, kidney or the neuromuscular system. Surgical criteria followed the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health regarding asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Symptomatic patients and patients meeting surgical criteria for parathyroidectomy were 66 and 93% of the sample, respectively. Median calcium and parathyroid hormone values were 11.9 mg/dL and 189 pg/mL, respectively. After surgical treatment, 97% of patients were cured, with increases in bone mineral density of 19.4% in the lumbar spine and 15.7% in the femoral neck 3 years after surgery. Greater bone mass increases were detected in pre-menopausal women, men, and in symptomatic and younger patients, both in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Our results support the previous findings of a predominantly symptomatic disease with a presentation profile that could be mainly related to a delayed diagnosis. Nevertheless, genetic and racial backgrounds, and nutritional factors such as calcium and vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism of Brazilian patients.

  13. Quantitative T1 and proton density mapping with direct calculation of radiofrequency coil transmit and receive profiles from two-point variable flip angle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrexel, Simon; Reitz, Sarah C; Hof, Stephanie; Gracien, René-Maxime; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Zimmermann, Hilga; Droby, Amgad; Klein, Johannes C; Deichmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative T1 mapping of brain tissue is frequently based on the variable flip angle (VFA) method, acquiring spoiled gradient echo (GE) datasets at different excitation angles. However, accurate T1 calculation requires a knowledge of the sensitivity profile B1 of the radiofrequency (RF) transmit coil. For an additional derivation of proton density (PD) maps, the receive coil sensitivity profile (RP) must also be known. Mapping of B1 and RP increases the experiment duration, which may be critical when investigating patients. In this work, a method is presented for the direct calculation of B1 and RP from VFA data. Thus, quantitative maps of T1 , PD, B1 and RP can be obtained from only two spoiled GE datasets. The method is based on: (1) the exploitation of the linear relationship between 1/PD and 1/T1 in brain tissue and (2) the assumption of smoothly varying B1 and RP, so that a large number of data points can be fitted across small volume elements where B1 and RP are approximately constant. The method is tested and optimized on healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Spatial profiles of electron density, electron temperature, average ionic charge, and EUV emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas for EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuta; Tomita, Kentaro; Tsukiyama, Syoichi; Eguchi, Toshiaki; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kouge, Kouichiro; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Wada, Yasunori; Kunishima, Masahito; Kodama, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2017-03-01

    Spatial profiles of the electron density (n e), electron temperature (T e), and average ionic charge (Z) of laser-produced Sn plasmas for EUV lithography, whose conversion efficiency (CE) is sufficiently high for practical use, were measured using a collective Thomson scattering (TS) technique. For plasma production, Sn droplets of 26 µm diameter were used as a fuel. First, a picosecond-pulsed laser was used to expand a Sn target. Next, a CO2 laser was used to generate plasmas. By changing the injection timing of the picosecond and CO2 lasers, three different types of plasmas were generated. The CEs of the three types of plasmas differed, and ranged from 2.8 to 4.0%. Regarding the different plasma conditions, the spatial profiles of n e, T e, and Z clearly differed. However, under all plasma conditions, intense EUV was only observed at a sufficiently high T e (> 25 eV) and in an adequate n e range [1024–(2 × 1025) m‑3]. These plasma parameters lie in the efficient-EUV light source range, as predicted by simulations.

  15. Recombinant MUC1 probe authentically reflects cell-specific O-glycosylation profiles of endogenous breast cancer mucin. High density and prevalent core 2-based glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2002-07-19

    Knowledge about the O-linked glycan chains of tumor-associated MUC1 is primarily based on enzymatic and immunochemical evidence. To obtain structural information and to overcome limitations by the scarcity of endogenous mucin, we expressed a recombinant glycosylation probe corresponding to six MUC1 tandem repeats in four breast cancer cell lines. Comparative analyses of the O-glycan profiles were performed after hydrazinolysis and normal phase chromatography of 2-aminobenzamide-labeled glycans. Except for a general reduction in the O-glycan chain lengths and a high density glycosylation, no common structural pattern was revealed. T47D fusion protein exhibits an almost complete shift from core 2 to core 1 expression with a preponderance of sialylated glycans. By contrast, MCF-7, MDA-MB231, and ZR75-1 cells glycosylate the MUC1 repeat peptide preferentially with core 2-based glycans terminating mostly with alpha 3-linked sialic acid (MDA-MB231, ZR75-1) or alpha 2/3-linked fucose (MCF-7). Endogenous MUC1 from T47D and MCF-7 cell supernatants revealed almost identical O-glycosylation profiles compared with the respective recombinant probes, indicating that the fusion proteins reflected the authentic O-glycan profiles of the cells. The structural patterns in the majority of cells under study are in conflict with biosynthetic models of MUC1 O-glycosylation in breast cancer, which claim that the truncation of normal core 2-based polylactosamine structures to short sialylated core 1-based glycans is due to the reduced activity of core 2-forming beta 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and/or to overexpression of competitive alpha 3- sialyltransferase.

  16. Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Bruce, Barry D; Young, Jock W; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species.

  17. A rumble in the dark: signatures of self-interacting dark matter in supermassive black hole dynamics and galaxy density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cintio, Arianna; Tremmel, Michael; Governato, Fabio; Pontzen, Andrew; Zavala, Jesús; Bastidas Fry, Alexander; Brooks, Alyson; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We explore for the first time the effect of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the dark matter (DM) and baryonic distribution in massive galaxies formed in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, including explicit baryonic physics treatment. A novel implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation and evolution is used, as in Tremmel et al., allowing us to explicitly follow the SMBH dynamics at the centre of galaxies. A high SIDM constant cross-section is chosen, σ = 10 cm2gr-1, to amplify differences from CDM models. Milky Way-like galaxies form a shallower DM density profile in SIDM than they do in cold dark matter (CDM), with differences already at 20 kpc scales. This demonstrates that even for the most massive spirals, the effect of SIDM dominates over the adiabatic contraction due to baryons. Strikingly, the dynamics of SMBHs differs in the SIDM and reference CDM case. SMBHs in massive spirals have sunk to the centre of their host galaxy in both the SIDM and CDM run, while in less massive galaxies about 80 per cent of the SMBH population is off-centred in the SIDM case, as opposed to the CDM case in which ∼ 90 per cent of SMBHs have reached their host's centre. SMBHs are found as far as ∼9 kpc away from the centre of their host SIDM galaxy. This difference is due to the increased dynamical friction time-scale caused by the lower DM density in SIDM galaxies compared to CDM, resulting in core stalling. This pilot work highlights the importance of simulating in a full hydrodynamical context different DM models combined to the SMBH physics to study their influence on galaxy formation.

  18. Vertical profile of the specific surface area and density of the snow at Dome C and on a transect to Dumont D'Urville, Antarctica – albedo calculations and comparison to remote sensing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Gallet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific surface area (SSA of snow determines in part the albedo of snow surfaces and the capacity of the snow to adsorb chemical species and catalyze reactions. Despite these crucial roles, almost no value of snow SSA are available for the largest permanent snow expanse on Earth, the Antarctic. We report the first extensive study of vertical profiles of snow SSA near Dome C (DC: 75°06' S, 123°20' E, 3233 m a.s.l. on the Antarctic plateau, and at seven sites during the logistical traverse between Dome C and the French coastal base Dumont D'Urville (DDU: 66°40' S, 140°01' E during the Austral summer 2008–2009. We used the DUFISSS system, which measures the IR reflectance of snow at 1310 nm with an integrating sphere. At DC, the mean SSA of the snow in the top 1 cm is 38 m2 kg−1, decreasing monotonically to 14 m2 kg−1 at a depth of 50 cm. Along the traverse, the snow SSA profile is similar to that at DC in the first 600 km from DC. Closer to DDU, the SSA of the top 5 cm is 23 m2 kg−1, decreasing to 19 m2 kg−1 at 50 cm depth. This difference is attributed to wind, which causes a rapid decrease of surface snow SSA, but forms hard windpacks whose SSA decrease more slowly with time. Since light-absorbing impurities are not concentrated enough to affect albedo, the vertical profiles of SSA and density were used to calculate the spectral albedo of the snow for several realistic illumination conditions, using the DISORT radiative transfer model. A preliminary comparison with MODIS data is presented and our calculations and MODIS data show similar trends.

  19. Scattering Density Profile Model of POPG Bilayers as Determined by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Small-Angle Neutron and X-ray Scattering Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Holland, B [University of Guelph; Gray, C.G [University of Guelph; Tomberli, B [Brandon University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiment, both small-angle neutron (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), to determine the precise structure of bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), a lipid commonly encountered in bacterial membranes. Experiment and simulation are used to develop a one-dimensional scattering density profile (SDP) model suitable for the analysis of experimental data. The joint refinement of such data (i.e., SANS and SAXS) results in the area per lipid that is then used in the fixed-area simulations. In the final step, the direct comparison of simulated-to-experimental data gives rise to the detailed structure of POPG bilayers. From these studies we conclude that POPG s molecular area is 66.0 +/- 1.3 ^2, its overall bilayer thickness is 36.7 +/- 0.7 , and its hydrocarbon region thickness is 27.9 ( 0.6 , assuming a simulated value of 1203 ^3 for the total lipid volume.

  20. Free reaction enthalpy profile of the Schrock cycle derived from density functional theory calculations on the full [Mo(HIPT)N3N] catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Wulf; Gradert, Christian; Broda, Henning; Wennmohs, Frank; Neese, Frank; Tuczek, Felix

    2015-10-05

    A series of density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the full [Mo(HIPT)N3N] catalyst are performed to obtain an energy profile of the Schrock cycle. This is a continuation of our earlier investigation of this cycle in which the bulky hexaisopropyterphenyl (HIPT) substituents of the ligand were replaced by hydrogen atoms (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 5639). In an effort to provide a treatment that is as converged as possible from a quantum-chemical point of view, the present study now fully takes the HIPT moieties into account. Moreover, structures and energies are calculated with a near-saturated basis set, leading to models with 280 atoms and 4850 basis functions. Solvent and scalar relativistic effects have been treated using the conductor-like screening model and zeroth-order regular approximation, respectively. Free reaction enthalpies are evaluated using the PBE and B3LYP functionals. A comparison to the available experimental data reveals much better agreement with the experiment than preceding DFT treatments of the Schrock cycle. In particular, free reaction enthalpies of reduction steps and NH3/N2 exchange are now excellently reproduced.

  1. AL0_DENS. A map that shows a five-minute grid of density of marine birds (birds/sq.km.)off central CA in all seasons in the CDAS data set, 1980-2001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_DENS is a polygon shapefile representing 5'x5' latitude x longitude cells that contain the overall, combined densities (birds/sq.km.), of 76 species of marine...

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehghani Ashkezari, Atefeh; Oliaie Rezaie, Nooshin; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = −0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.16 to −0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS. PMID:28422987

  3. Radially extended kinematics and stellar populations of the massive ellipticals NGC1600, NGC4125 and NGC7619. Constraints on the outer dark halo density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Pu, S B; Fabricius, M H; Thomas, J; Bender, R; Han, Z

    2010-01-01

    We present high quality long slit spectra along the major and minor axes out to 1.5-2 Re (14-22 kpc) of three bright elliptical galaxies (NGC1600, NGC4125, NGC7619) obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). We derive stellar kinematic profiles and Lick/IDS indices (Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406). Moreover, for NGC4125 we derive gas kinematics and emission line strengths. We model the absorption line strengths using Simple Stellar Populations models that take into account the variation of [\\alpha/Fe] and derive ages, total metallicity and element abundances. Overall, we find that the three galaxies have old and [\\alpha/Fe] overabundant stellar populations with no significant gradients. The metallicity is supersolar at the center with a strong negative radial gradient. For NGC4125, several pieces of evidence point to a recent dissipational merger event. We calculate the broad band color profiles with the help of SSP models. All of the colors show sharp peaks at the center of the galaxies, mainl...

  4. Citicoline in pre-clinical animal models of stroke: a meta-analysis shows the optimal neuroprotective profile and the missing steps for jumping into a stroke clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alejandro; Giralt, Dolors; Garcia-Bonilla, Lidia; Campos, Mireia; Rosell, Anna; Montaner, Joan

    2012-10-01

    The neuroprotective actions of citicoline have been documented for experimental stroke therapy. We used a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess this evidence. From 64 identified studies using citicoline in stroke animal models, only those describing ischemic occlusive stroke and reporting data on infarct volume and/or neurological outcome were included (14 studies, 522 animals). Overall, the quality of the studies was modest (5, 4-6), while the absence of studies involving animals with co-morbidities, females, old animals or strain differences indicated that studies did not fulfill the STAIR recommendations. Weighted mean difference meta-analysis showed citicoline to reduce infarct volume by 27.8% [(19.9%, 35.6%); p citicoline effect on reducing infarct volume was higher in proximal occlusive models of middle cerebral artery (MCA) compared with distal occlusion. Moreover, the efficacy was superior using multiple doses than single dose and when a co-treatment was administered compared with citicoline monotherapy, the only independent factor identified in the meta-regression. Citicoline improved neurological deficit by 20.2% [(6.8%, 33.7%); p = 0.015], but only four studies including 176 animals reported these data. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence of citicoline efficacy in stroke animal models and shows the optimal neuroprotective profile and the missing experimental requirements before jumping into clinical trials.

  5. Association between the biochemical profiles in blood and bone mineral density in Chinese Han population: findings from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen HX

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Chen,1,2,* Li-Bing Wu,3,* Zhong-Ji Meng1 1Institute of Biomedicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Environmental, Agricultural, & Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: This study investigated the possible correlation between blood biochemical profiles and bone mineral density (BMD in the Chinese Han population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using participants randomly selected from the Health Screening Center of Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, which included a total of 285 individuals, varied in ages from 31 years to 63 years. The height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of each subject were measured, as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglycerides, total cholesterol, blood uric acid (UA, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We evaluated BMD at the wrist (grams per centimeter square using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. The mean ages of female and male groups were 45.32±8.24 years and 46.76±9.01 years, respectively. The mean age of the study population was 46.14±8.79 years, which is similar to the general population. The mean BMI values were 22.08±2.38 kg/m2 and 24.50±2.67 kg/m2 in the female and male population, respectively, representing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05. No significant differences in levels of FBG total cholesterol, or triglycerides were seen among the male and female population. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using BMD as outcome variables and BMI, blood UA, FBG, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine as covariates, and the regression equation was established as Y=0

  6. Modeling of power spectral density of modified von Karman atmospheric phase turbulence and acousto-optic chaos using scattered intensity profiles over discrete time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Mohamed, Fathi H. A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent research, propagation of plane electromagnetic (EM) waves through a turbulent medium with modified von Karman phase characteristics was modeled and numerically simulated using transverse planar apertures representing narrow phase turbulence along the propagation path. The case for extended turbulence was also studied by repeating the planar phase screens multiple times over the propagation path and incorporating diffractive effects via a split-step algorithm. The goal of the research reported here is to examine two random phenomena: (a) atmospheric turbulence due to von Karman-type phase fluctuations, and (b) chaos generated in an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell under hybrid feedback. The latter problem has been thoroughly examined for its nonlinear dynamics and applications in secure communications. However, the statistical characteristics (such as the power spectral density (PSD)) of the chaos have not been estimated in recent work. To that end, treating the chaos phenomena as a random process, the time waveforms of the chaos intensity and their spectra are numerically evaluated over a (large) number of time iterations. These spectra are then averaged to derive the equivalent PSD of the A-O chaos. For the turbulence problem, an optical beam passing through an input pinhole is propagated through a random phase screen (placed at different locations) to a desired distance (typically near-field) under different levels of turbulence strength. The resulting spatial intensity profile is then averaged and the process repeated over a (large) number of pre-specified time intervals. From this data, once again, the turbulence PSD is calculated via the Fourier spectra of the average intensity snapshots. The results for the two systems are compared.

  7. Application of Thomson scattering at 1.06{mu}m as a diagnostic for spatial profile measurements of electron temperature and density on the TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-04-01

    The variable configuration tokamak, TCV, in operation at CRPP since the end of 1991, is a particularly challenging machine with regard to the experimental system that must provide essential information regarding properties of confined plasmas with strongly shaped, non-circular cross-sections. The importance of the energy confinement issue in a machine designed specifically for the investigation of the effect of plasma shape on confinement and stability is self-evident, as is the necessity for a diagnostic capable of providing the profiles of electron temperature and density required for evaluation of this confinement. For TCV, a comprehensive Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was the natural choice, specifically owing to the resulting spatially localized and time resolved measurement. The details of the system installed on TCV, together with the results obtained from the diagnostic comprise the subject matter of this thesis. A first version of the diagnostic was equipped with only ten observation volumes. In this case, adequate spatial resolution can only be maintained if measurements are limited to plasmas located in the upper half of the highly elongated TCV vacuum vessel. The system has recently been upgraded through the addition of a further fifteen observation volumes, together with major technical improvements in the scattered light detection system. This new version now permits TS observations in all TCV plasma configurations, including equilibria produced in the lower and upper halves of the vacuum vessel and the highly elongated plasmas now routinely created. Whilst a description of the new detection system along with some results obtained using the extended set of observation volumes are included, this thesis reports principally on the hardware details of and the interpretation of data from the original, ten observation volume system. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs.

  8. Application of Thomson scattering at 1.06{mu}m as a diagnostic for spatial profile measurements of electron temperature and density on the TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, S. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-04-01

    The variable configuration tokamak, TCV, in operation at CRPP since the end of 1991, is a particularly challenging machine with regard to the experimental system that must provide essential information regarding properties of confined plasmas with strongly shaped, non-circular cross-sections. The importance of the energy confinement issue in a machine designed specifically for the investigation of the effect of plasma shape on confinement and stability is self-evident, as is the necessity for a diagnostic capable of providing the profiles of electron temperature and density required for evaluation of this confinement. For TCV, a comprehensive Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was the natural choice, specifically owing to the resulting spatially localized and time resolved measurement. The details of the system installed on TCV, together with the results obtained from the diagnostic comprise the subject matter of this thesis. A first version of the diagnostic was equipped with only ten observation volumes. In this case, adequate spatial resolution can only be maintained if measurements are limited to plasmas located in the upper half of the highly elongated TCV vacuum vessel. The system has recently been upgraded through the addition of a further fifteen observation volumes, together with major technical improvements in the scattered light detection system. This new version now permits TS observations in all TCV plasma configurations, including equilibria produced in the lower and upper halves of the vacuum vessel and the highly elongated plasmas now routinely created. Whilst a description of the new detection system along with some results obtained using the extended set of observation volumes are included, this thesis reports principally on the hardware details of and the interpretation of data from the original, ten observation volume system. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs.

  9. Deduction of temp erature and density spatial profile for implosion core by multi-ob jective optimization%多目标优化推断内爆芯部温度和密度空间分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建军; 邓博; 曹柱荣; 江少恩

    2014-01-01

    The spatial profiles of implosion core temperature and density are very important to check the theoretical simulation codes and understand the implosion physics in depth. A method is presented that the temperature and density profiles are evaluated by multi-objective optimization, where the normalized intensity profile is calculated from implosion core X-ray images. Two models, i.e., the model with considering absorption and the model without considering absorption, are studied. The results indicate that the temperature profile from the model without considering absorption is about twice that from the model with considering absorption. The density profiles evaluated by the two models are almost the same in the fuel zone, but the density from the model without considering absorption is more than ten times smaller than that from the model with considering absorption in the ablator zone.%内爆芯部的温度和密度分布对理论模拟程序的校验以及深入理解内爆物理非常重要.本文提出了一种通过内爆芯部X光图像获得归一化的角向平均强度分布,并利用多目标优化算法推断芯部的温度和密度空间分布的方法.通过吸收模型和无吸收模型加以研究,结果表明无吸收模型推断的温度分布要比吸收模型高大约1倍;在芯部燃料区,两种模型推断的密度分布接近,在芯部边缘,无吸收模型的结果是吸收模型的1/10.

  10. Gaussian Random Field: Physical Origin of Sersic Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-01-01

    While the Sersic profile family provide adequate fits for the surface brightness profiles of observed galaxies, the physical origin is unknown. We show that, if the cosmological density field are seeded by random gaussian fluctuations, as in the standard cold dark matter model, galaxies with steep central profiles have simultaneously extended envelopes of shallow profiles in the outskirts, whereas galaxies with shallow central profiles are accompanied by steep density profiles in the outskirts. These properties are in accord with those of the Sersic profile family. Moreover, galaxies with steep central profiles form their central regions in smaller denser subunits that possibly merge subsequently, which naturally leads to formation of bulges. In contrast, galaxies with shallow central profiles form their central regions in a coherent fashion without significant substructure, a necessary condition for disk galaxy formation. Thus, the scenario is self-consistent with respect to the correlation between observed ...

  11. Magnetic momentum density, Fermi surface, and directional magnetic Compton profiles in LaSr2Mn2O7 and La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnarends, P. E.; Kaprzyk, S.; Barbiellini, B.; Li, Yinwan; Mitchell, J. F.; Montano, P. A.; Bansil, A.

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out first principles, all-electron computations of the magnetic momentum density ρmag(p) and magnetic Compton profiles (MCPs) for momentum transfer along the [100], [001], and [110] directions in LaSr2Mn2O7 and La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 within the local spin density approximation (LSDA) based band theory framework. Parallel measurements of these three MCPs from a single crystal of La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 at 5K in a magnetic field of 7T are also reported. ρmag(p) is shown to contain distinct peaks arising from the occupied majority-spin t2g electrons and to display images of the Fermi surface (FS) in the first and higher Brillouin zones (BZs). The overall shape of the MCPs, Jmag(pz) , obtained by integrating ρmag(p) over px and py , is found to be dominated by the majority-spin t2g states. The FS-related fine structure in the MCPs is, however, substantial only in the [100] MCP, which contains features arising from the large majority-spin hole sheets. The overall shapes and widths of the experimental MCPs along all three directions investigated are in reasonably good accord with theoretical predictions, although some discrepancies indicating inadequacy of the LSDA in treating the magnetic states can be identified. We discuss details of the FS-related signatures in the first and higher BZs in the [100] MCP and show that high resolution magnetic Compton scattering experiments with a momentum resolution of 0.1a.u. full-width-at-half-maximum or better will be necessary to observe this fine structure. We comment also on the feasibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy in this connection.

  12. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques; Controle du profil de densite dans le plasma de Tore Supra. Comparaison de differentes methodes d'alimentation en particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commaux, N

    2007-09-15

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the {nabla}B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the {nabla}B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the {nabla

  13. Dislocation density and Burgers vector population in fiber-textured Ni thin films determined by high-resolution X-ray line profile analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszár, Gábor; Pantleon, Karen; Alimadadi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni thin films have been produced by direct current electrodeposition with different additives and current density in order to obtain 〈100〉, 〈111〉 and 〈211〉 major fiber textures. The dislocation density, the Burgers vector population and the coherently scattering domain size distri...

  14. NMR-Based Lipid Profiling of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Healthy Subjects with Low, Normal, and Elevated HDL-Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostara, Christina E; Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Elisaf, Moses S; Bairaktari, Eleni T

    2017-04-07

    Recent studies suggest that the cholesterol content of HDL (high density lipoproteins) may provide limited information on their antiatherogenic properties and that the composition and particles' structure provide more information on their functionality. We used NMR-based (nuclear magnetic resonance-based) lipidomics to study the relationships of serum HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol) levels with the lipid composition of HDL particles in three groups of subjects selected on the basis of their HDL-C levels. Subjects with low and high HDL-C levels exhibited differences in HDL lipidome compared to those with normal HDL-C levels. In pattern recognition analysis, the discrimination power among all groups was of high significance. The low HDL-C group presented enrichment of the core in triglycerides and depletion in cholesterol esters, whereas the high HDL-C group showed a decrease in triglycerides content. Additionally, as HDL-C increases, all lipid classes are esterified with higher percentage of unsaturated than saturated fatty acids. In addition to the aforementioned differences, the surface layer is enriched in sphingomyelin and free cholesterol in the high HDL-C level group. NMR-based lipidomic analysis of HDL can be particularly useful since it provides insights into molecular features and helps in the characterization of the atheroprotective function of HDL lipoproteins and in the identification of novel biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

  15. A density functional theory study on the effect of zero-point energy corrections on the methanation profile on Fe(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Ashriti; Ferré, Daniel Curulla; Niemantsverdriet, J W Hans

    2012-04-23

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of the surface hydrogenation of adsorbed atomic carbon to methane, following the reaction sequence C+4H(-->////energies and overall energy profile are affected when zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections are included. The C, CH and CH(2) species are most stable at the fourfold hollow site, while CH(3) prefers the twofold bridge site. Atomic hydrogen is adsorbed at both the twofold bridge and fourfold hollow sites. Methane is physisorbed on the surface and shows neither orientation nor site preference. It is easily desorbed to the gas phase once formed. The incorporation of ZPE corrections has a very slight, if any, effect on the adsorption energies and does not alter the trends with regards to the most stable adsorption sites. The successive addition of hydrogen to atomic carbon is endothermic up to the addition of the third hydrogen atom resulting in the methyl species, but exothermic in the final hydrogenation step, which leads to methane. The overall methanation reaction is endothermic when starting from atomic carbon and hydrogen on the surface. Zero-point energy corrections are rarely provided in the literature. Since they are derived from C-H bonds with characteristic vibrations on the order of 2500-3000 cm(-1), the equivalent ZPE of 1/2 hν is on the order of 0.2-0.3 eV and its effect on adsorption energy can in principle be significant. Particularly in reactions between CH(x) and H, the ZPE correction is expected to be significant, as additional C-H bonds are formed. In this instance, the methanation reaction energy of +0.77 eV increased to +1.45 eV with the inclusion of ZPE corrections, that is, less favourable. Therefore, it is crucial to include ZPE corrections when reporting reactions involving hydrogen-containing species.

  16. Relationship of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio to the remainder of the lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids-4 (VLDL-4) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Manalac, Raoul J; Faridi, Kamil F; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Nasir, Khurram; Virani, Salim S; Banach, Maciej; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    High levels of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. We evaluated variability in the remaining lipid profile, especially remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and its components (very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol), with variability in the TG/HDL-C ratio in a very large study cohort representative of the general U.S. We examined data from 1,350,908 US individuals who were clinically referred for lipoprotein cholesterol ultracentrifugation (Atherotech, Birmingham, AL) from 2009 to 2011. Demographic information other than age and sex was not available. Changes to the remaining lipid profile across percentiles of the TG/HDL-C ratio were quantified, as well as by three TG/HDL-C cut-off points previously proposed in the literature: 2.5 (male) and 2 (female), 3.75 (male) and 3 (female), and 3.5 (male and female). The mean age of our study population was 58.7 years, and 48% were men. The median TG/HDL-C ratio was 2.2. Across increasing TG/HDL-C ratios, we found steadily increasing levels of RLP-C, non-HDL-C and LDL density. Among the lipid parameters studied, RLP-C and LDL density had the highest relative increase when comparing individuals with elevated TG/HDL-C levels to those with lower TG/HDL-C levels using established cut-off points. Approximately 47% of TG/HDL-C ratio variance was attributable to RLP-C. In the present analysis, a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increasingly atherogenic lipid phenotype, characterized by higher RLP-C along with higher non-HDL-C and LDL density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ω-6 (18:2) and ω-3 (18:3) fatty acids in reconstituted high-density lipoproteins show different functionality of anti-atherosclerotic properties and embryo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Yong; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Among unsaturated fatty acids, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) fatty acids show different associations with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To determine why consumption of ω-3 fatty acid is associated with lower risk of CVD, we investigated the biological functions of ω-6 (linoleic acid) and ω-3 (linolenic acid) in reconstituted HDL (rHDL) after encapsulation using human cells and zebrafish embryo. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the principal protein behind the beneficial functions of HDL, which include potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic activities in blood. Several rHDLs were synthesized with apoA-I and different molar ratio of ω-6 or ω-3 fatty acid. Both fatty acids showed similar solubility in rHDL up to a molar ratio of 95:5:1:10 (palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol:apoA-I:fatty acid). Although both rHDL showed similar structural properties and α-helical contents, ω-6-rHDL showed loss of anti-oxidant ability against LDL oxidation. Uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages was inhibited by ω-3-rHDL but not ω-6-rHDL, suggesting that ω-6-rHDL has higher pro-atherosclerotic activity. ω-3-rHDL showed more enhanced cholesterol efflux activity with less accumulation of triglyceride in the macrophage. ω-6-rHDL caused more senescence in human dermal fibroblast cells with cytotoxicity, while ω-3-rHDL treatment inhibited the senescence. In zebrafish embryo survivability, ω-3-rHDL-injected embryos showed 86±3% survival, whereas ω-6-rHDL-injected ones showed 72±2% survival as well as an elevated inflammatory response in zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, ω-6-rHDL and ω-3-rHDL show different physiological activities in atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cellular senescence.

  18. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  19. Mutational profiles in triple-negative breast cancer defined by ultradeep multigene sequencing show high rates of PI3K pathway alterations and clinically relevant entity subgroup specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Mark; Endris, Volker; Wolf, Thomas; Pfarr, Nicole; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Loibl, Sibylle; Denkert, Carsten; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Budczies, Jan; Sinn, Peter; Weichert, Wilko

    2014-10-30

    Mutational profiling of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) by whole exome sequencing (WES) yielded a landscape of genomic alterations in this tumor entity. However, the clinical significance of these findings remains enigmatic. Further, integration of WES in routine diagnostics using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material is currently not feasible. Therefore, we designed and validated a breast cancer specific gene panel for semiconductor-based sequencing comprising 137 amplicons covering mutational hotspots in 44 genes and applied this panel on a cohort of 104 well-characterized FFPE TNBC with complete clinical follow-up. TP53 mutations were present in more than 80% of cases. PI3K pathway alterations (29.8%) comprising mainly PIK3CA mutations (22.1%) but also mutations and/or amplifications/deletions in other PI3K-associated genes (7.7%) were far more frequently observed, when compared to WES data. Alterations in MAPK signaling genes (8.7%) and cell-cycle regulators (14.4%) were also frequent. Mutational profiles were linked to TNBC subgroups defined by morphology and immunohistochemistry. Alterations in cell-cycle pathway regulators were linked with better overall (p=0.053) but not disease free survival. Taken together, we could demonstrate that breast cancer targeted hotspot sequencing is feasible in a routine setting and yields reliable and clinically meaningful results. Mutational spectra were linked to clinical and immunohistochemically defined parameters.

  20. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  1. Influence of soft ferromagnetic sections on the magnetic flux density profile of a large grain, bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, Matthieu; Ainslie, Mark D.; Wera, Laurent; Fagnard, Jean-François; Dennis, Anthony; Shi, Yunhua; Cardwell, David A.; Vanderheyden, Benoît; Vanderbemden, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet (SC/FM) hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction ...

  2. Inferring Gravitational Potentials from Mass Densities in Cluster-sized Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Stark, Alejo; Gifford, Daniel; Kern, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    We use N-body simulations to quantify how the escape velocity in cluster-sized halos maps to the gravitational potential in a ΛCDM universe. Using spherical density-potential pairs and the Poisson equation, we find that the matter density inferred gravitational potential profile predicts the escape velocity profile to within a few percent accuracy for group and cluster-sized halos (10{}13\\lt {M}200\\lt {10}15 M {}⊙ , with respect to the critical density). The accuracy holds from just outside the core to beyond the virial radius. We show the importance of explicitly incorporating a cosmological constant when inferring the potential from the Poisson equation. We consider three density models and find that the Einasto and Gamma profiles provide a better joint estimate of the density and potential profiles than the Navarro, Frenk, and White profile, which fails to accurately represent the escape velocity. For individual halos, the 1σ scatter between the measured escape velocity and the density-inferred potential profile is small (<5%). Finally, while the sub-halos show 15% biases in their representation of the particle velocity dispersion profile, the sub-halo escape velocity profile matches the dark matter escape velocity profile to high accuracy with no evidence of velocity bias outside 0.4r 200.

  3. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.

  4. High-throughput immuno-profiling of mamba (Dendroaspis) venom toxin epitopes using high-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious condition requiring medical attention and administration of antivenom. Current antivenoms are antibody preparations obtained from the plasma of animals immunised with whole venom(s) and contain antibodies against snake venom toxins, but also against other antigens....... In order to better understand the molecular interactions between antivenom antibodies and epitopes on snake venom toxins, a high-throughput immuno-profiling study on all manually curated toxins from Dendroaspis species and selected African Naja species was performed based on custom-made high...

  5. Density limits investigation and high density operation in EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Liu, Haiqing; Jie, Yinxian; Wang, Shouxin; Li, Jiahong; Duan, Yanming; Li, Miaohui; Li, Yongchun; Zhang, Ling; Ye, Yang; Yang, Qingquan; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Yingjie; Xu, Jichan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Liqing; Zhao, Hailin; Wang, Fudi; Lin, Shiyao; Wu, Bin; Lyu, Bo; Xu, Guosheng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Tonghui; He, Kaiyang; Lan, Heng; Chu, Nan; Cao, Bin; Sun, Zhen; Zuo, Guizhong; Ren, Jun; Zhuang, Huidong; Li, Changzheng; Yuan, Xiaolin; Yu, Yaowei; Wang, Houyin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jinhua; EAST Team

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the density in a tokamak is limited by the so-called density limit, which is generally performed as an appearance of disruption causing loss of plasma confinement, or a degradation of high confinement mode which could further lead to a H  →  L transition. The L-mode and H-mode density limit has been investigated in EAST tokamak. Experimental results suggest that density limits could be triggered by either edge cooling or excessive central radiation. The L-mode density limit disruption is generally triggered by edge cooling, which leads to the current profile shrinkage and then destabilizes a 2/1 tearing mode, ultimately resulting in a disruption. The L-mode density limit scaling agrees well with the Greenwald limit in EAST. The observed H-mode density limit in EAST is an operational-space limit with a value of 0.8∼ 0.9{{n}\\text{GW}} . High density H-mode heated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are analyzed, respectively. The constancy of the edge density gradients in H-mode indicates a critical limit caused perhaps by e.g. ballooning induced transport. The maximum density is accessed at the H  →  L transition which is generally caused by the excessive core radiation due to high Z impurities (Fe, Cu). Operating at a high density (>2.8× {{10}19} {{\\text{m}}-3} ) is favorable for suppressing the beam shine through NBI. High density H-mode up to 5.3× {{10}19}{{\\text{m}}-3}~≤ft(∼ 0.8{{n}\\text{GW}}\\right) could be sustained by 2 MW 4.6 GHz LHCD alone, and its current drive efficiency is studied. Statistics show that good control of impurities and recycling facilitate high density operation. With careful control of these factors, high density up to 0.93{{n}\\text{GW}} stable H-mode operation was carried out heated by 1.7 MW LHCD and 1.9 MW ion cyclotron resonance heating with supersonic molecular beam injection fueling.

  6. Compact, Low-Profile Power Converters: Highly-Laminated, High-Saturation-Flux-Density, Magnetic Cores for On-Chip Inductors in Power Converter Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is creating compact, low-profile power adapters and power bricks using materials and tools adapted from other industries and from grid-scale power applications. Adapters and bricks convert electrical energy into useable power for many types of electronic devices, including laptop computers and mobile phones. These converters are often called wall warts because they are big, bulky, and sometimes cover up an adjacent wall socket that could be used to power another electronic device. The magnetic components traditionally used to make adapters and bricks have reached their limits; they can't be made any smaller without sacrificing performance. Georgia Tech is taking a cue from grid-scale power converters that use iron alloys as magnetic cores. These low-cost alloys can handle more power than other materials, but the iron must be stacked in insulated plates to maximize energy efficiency. In order to create compact, low-profile power adapters and bricks, these stacked iron plates must be extremely thin-only hundreds of nanometers in thickness, in fact. To make plates this thin, Georgia Tech is using manufacturing tools used in microelectromechanics and other small-scale industries.

  7. How to make an ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy: tidal stirring of disky dwarfs with shallow dark matter density profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Lokas, Ewa L; Mayer, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has unraveled a new population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) in the vicinity of the Milky Way (MW) whose origin is still a puzzle. Using a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the formation of UFDs in the context of the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group (LG). Our simulations are designed to reproduce the tidal interactions between MW-sized host galaxies and rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in 10^9 M_sun dark matter (DM) halos. We explore a wide variety of inner density slopes \\rho \\propto r^{-\\alpha} for the dwarf DM halos, ranging from core-like (\\alpha = 0.2) to cuspy (\\alpha = 1), and different dwarf orbital configurations. Our experiments demonstrate that UFDs can be produced via the tidal stirring of disky dwarfs on relatively tight orbits, consistent with a redshift of accretion by the host galaxy of z~1, and with intermediate values for the halo inner density slopes (\\rho ...

  8. High Density Lipoprotein Structural Changes and Drug Response in Lipidomic Profiles following the Long-Term Fenofibrate Therapy in the FIELD Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetukuri, L.; Huopaniemi, I.; Koivuniemi, A.;

    2011-01-01

    mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. Herein we investigated HDL lipidomic profiles associated with fenofibrate treatment and the drug-induced Hcy levels in the FIELD substudy. We found that fenofibrate leads to complex HDL compositional changes including increased apoA-II, diminishment...... of lysophosphatidylcholines and increase of sphingomyelins. Ethanolamine plasmalogens were diminished only in a subgroup of fenofibrate-treated patients with elevated homocysteine levels. Finally we performed molecular dynamics simulations to qualitatively reconstitute HDL particles in silico. We found that increased number...... of apoA-II excludes neutral lipids from HDL surface and apoA-II is more deeply buried in the lipid matrix than apoA-I. In conclusion, a detailed molecular characterization of HDL may provide surrogates for predictors of drug response and thus help identify the patients who might benefit from fenofibrate...

  9. Effect of alirocumab on specific lipoprotein non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and subfractions as measured by the vertical auto profile method: analysis of 3 randomized trials versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Hamon, Sara C; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Banerjee, Poulabi; Hanotin, Corinne; Roth, Eli M; McKenney, James M

    2016-02-13

    The effect of alirocumab on potentially atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions was assessed in a post hoc analysis using the vertical auto profile (VAP) method. Patients from three Phase II studies with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥ 2.59 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) at baseline on stable statin therapy were randomised to receive subcutaneous alirocumab 50-150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 150-300 mg every 4 weeks (according to study) or placebo for 8-12 weeks. Samples from patients treated with alirocumab 150 mg Q2W (n = 74; dose common to all three trials) or placebo (n = 71) were analysed by VAP. Percent change in lipoprotein subfractions with alirocumab vs. placebo was analysed at Weeks 6, 8 or 12 using analysis of covariance. Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and the cholesterol content of subfractions LDL1, LDL2 and LDL3+4. Significant reductions were also observed in triglycerides, apolipoproteins CII and CIII and the cholesterol content of very low-density, intermediate-density, and remnant lipoproteins. Alirocumab achieved reductions across a spectrum of atherogenic lipoproteins in patients receiving background statin therapy. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01288443, NCT01288469, NCT01266876.

  10. High density lipoprotein structural changes and drug response in lipidomic profiles following the long-term fenofibrate therapy in the FIELD substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Yetukuri

    Full Text Available In a recent FIELD study the fenofibrate therapy surprisingly failed to achieve significant benefit over placebo in the primary endpoint of coronary heart disease events. Increased levels of atherogenic homocysteine were observed in some patients assigned to fenofibrate therapy but the molecular mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. Herein we investigated HDL lipidomic profiles associated with fenofibrate treatment and the drug-induced Hcy levels in the FIELD substudy. We found that fenofibrate leads to complex HDL compositional changes including increased apoA-II, diminishment of lysophosphatidylcholines and increase of sphingomyelins. Ethanolamine plasmalogens were diminished only in a subgroup of fenofibrate-treated patients with elevated homocysteine levels. Finally we performed molecular dynamics simulations to qualitatively reconstitute HDL particles in silico. We found that increased number of apoA-II excludes neutral lipids from HDL surface and apoA-II is more deeply buried in the lipid matrix than apoA-I. In conclusion, a detailed molecular characterization of HDL may provide surrogates for predictors of drug response and thus help identify the patients who might benefit from fenofibrate treatment.

  11. Human second trimester amniotic fluid cells are able to create embryoid body-like structures in vitro and to show typical expression profiles of embryonic and primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Di Pietro, Roberta; Alfonsi, Melissa; Centurione, Maria Antonietta; Centurione, Lucia; Sancilio, Silvia; Pelagatti, Francesca; D'Amico, Maria Angela; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Piattelli, Adriano; Tetè, Stefano; Palka, Giandomenico; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2014-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) represent a novel class of broadly multipotent stem cells sharing characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells. However, both the origin of these cells and their actual properties in terms of pluripotent differentiation potential are still debated. In order to verify the presence of features of pluripotency in human second trimester AFSCs, we have investigated the ability of these cells to form in vitro three-dimensional aggregates, known as embryoid bodies (EBs), and to express specific genes of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). EBs were obtained after 5 days of AFSC culture in suspension and showed positivity for alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining and for specific markers of pluripotency (OCT4 and SOX2). Moreover, EB-derived cells showed the expression of specific transcripts of the three germ layers. RT-PCR analysis, carried out at different culture times (second, third, fourth, fifth, and eighth passages), revealed the presence of specific markers of ESCs (such as FGF4 and DAPPA4), as well as of markers typical of PGCs and, in particular, genes involved in early stages of germ cell development (Fragilis, Stella, Vasa, c-Kit, Rnf17). Finally, the expression of genes related to the control of DNA methylation (DNMT3A, DNMT3b1, DNMT1, DNMT3L, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MDB4, MeCP2), as well as the lack of inactivation of the X-chromosome in female samples, was also demonstrated. Taken together, these data provide further evidence for the presence of common features among human AFSCs, PGCs, and ESCs.

  12. Global Metabolic Profiling of Plasma Shows that Three-Year Mild-Caloric Restriction Lessens an Age-Related Increase in Sphingomyelin and Reduces L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-12-01

    The effect of weight loss from long-term, mild-calorie diets (MCD) on plasma metabolites is unknown. This study was to examine whether MCD-induced weight reduction caused changes in the extended plasma metabolites. Overweight and obese subjects aged 40-59 years consumed a MCD (approximately 100 kcal/day deficit, n=47) or a weight-maintenance diet (control, n=47) in a randomized, controlled design with a three-year clinical intervention period and plasma samples were analyzed by using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The three-year MCD intervention resulted in weight loss (-8.87%) and significant decreases in HOMA-IR and TG. The three-year follow-up of the MCD group showed reductions in the following 13 metabolites: L-leucine; L-phenylalanine; 9 lysoPCs; PC (18:0/20:4); and SM (d18:0/16:1). The three-year MCD group follow-up identified increases in palmitic amide, oleamide, and PC (18:2/18:2). Considering the age-related alterations in the identified metabolites, the MCD group showed a greater decrease in L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, and SM (d18:0/16:1) compared with those of the control group. Overall, the change (Δ) in BMI positively correlated with the ΔTG, ΔHOMA-IR, ΔL-leucine, and ΔSM (d18:0/16:1). The ΔHOMA-IR positively correlated with ΔTG, ΔL-leucine, ΔL-phenylalanine, and ΔSM (d18:0/16:1). The weight loss resulting from three-year mild-caloric restriction lessens the age-related increase in SM and reduces L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in overweight and obese subjects. These changes were coupled with improved insulin resistance (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02081898).

  13. Retrieval of mesospheric electron densities using an optimal estimation inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Grainger, R. G.; Lawrence, B. N.; Fraser, G. J.; von Biel, H. A.; Heuff, D. N.; Plank, G. E.

    2004-03-01

    We present a new method to determine mesospheric electron densities from partially reflected medium frequency radar pulses. The technique uses an optimal estimation inverse method and retrieves both an electron density profile and a gradient electron density profile. As well as accounting for the absorption of the two magnetoionic modes formed by ionospheric birefringence of each radar pulse, the forward model of the retrieval parameterises possible Fresnel scatter of each mode by fine electronic structure, phase changes of each mode due to Faraday rotation and the dependence of the amplitudes of the backscattered modes upon pulse width. Validation results indicate that known profiles can be retrieved and that χ2 tests upon retrieval parameters satisfy validity criteria. Application to measurements shows that retrieved electron density profiles are consistent with accepted ideas about seasonal variability of electron densities and their dependence upon nitric oxide production and transport.

  14. Some exact solutions of the local induction equation for motion of a vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate with Gaussian density profile

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, V P

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a vortex filament in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is considered when the equilibrium density of the condensate, in rotating with angular velocity ${\\bf\\Omega}$ coordinate system, is Gaussian with a quadratic form ${\\bf r}\\cdot\\hat D{\\bf r}$. It is shown that equation of motion of the filament in the local induction approximation admits a class of exact solutions in the form of a straight moving vortex, ${\\bf R}(\\beta,t)=\\beta {\\bf M}(t) +{\\bf N}(t)$, where $\\beta$ is a longitudinal parameter, and $t$ is the time. The vortex is in touch with an ellipsoid, as it follows from the conservation laws ${\\bf N}\\cdot \\hat D {\\bf N}=C_1$ and ${\\bf M}\\cdot \\hat D {\\bf N}=C_0=0$. Equation of motion for the tangent vector ${\\bf M}(t)$ turns out to be closed, and it has the integrals ${\\bf M}\\cdot \\hat D {\\bf M}=C_2$, $(|{\\bf M}| -{\\bf M}\\cdot\\hat G{\\bf \\Omega})=C$, where the matrix $\\hat G=2(\\hat I \\mbox{Tr\\,} \\hat D -\\hat D)^{-1}$. Intersection of the corresponding level surfaces determines trajecto...

  15. [Comparative study of the consumption of virgin olive oil or seje on lipid profile and oxidation resistance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) of rat plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel Giacopini, María; Guerrero, Omaira; Moya, Manuel; Bosch, Virgilio

    2011-06-01

    We compared the effect of the consumption of seje oil (Oenocarpus bataua), with that of olive oil, on plasma lipids and susceptibility in vitro to oxidation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the rat. Two groups often male Sprague Dawley rats were fed ad libitum, for a lapse of eight week, with a purified diets with 10g de seje oil or olive oil/100 g of diet (GS y GO respectively). The animals were exsanguinated at the end of the experimental after a 14 hour fast. Plasma was isolated by centrifugation, and the fractions of lipoproteins were separated from the plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. Rats of GO had a statistically significant lower in concentration of TG (p < 0.05) compared with GS group. HDL fractions in both groups were oxidatively modified by incubation with copper ions. Differences in the fractions susceptibilities to peroxidation were studied by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) for 3 hours. HDL in GS had a statistically significant decrease in TBARS formation (p < 0.05) relative to HDL of GO. This may be explained by the lower concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids of HDL in GS compared with HDL in GO.

  16. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  17. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  18. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  19. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. 高阻溶洞上高密度电法与高密度联合剖面法异常响应特征研究%Study of Anomaly Corresponding Characteristic of High - density Electrical Method and High - density Resistivity Composite Profile on High Resistivity Cave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹崇本

    2012-01-01

    为探讨高密度电法与联合剖面法寻找高阻溶洞的效果,利用水槽模型试验及野外现场实测方法,总结了高密度电法常用排列方式、不同成图方法在高阻溶洞上的异常响应特征,讨论了异常体地表投影位置及中心埋深的确定方法。提出探测高阻溶洞采用高密度电法温纳排列(α1)、β排列和高密度联合剖面三种方法的最佳组合方法。%In order to study the effect for high resistance cave by high - density electrical method and resis- tivity composite profile, by flume model experiment and field testing, it summarizes the usual array of high - density electrical method, anomaly corresponding characteristics of different mapping methods on high resist- ance cave, the surface projection position of anomalous body and the determination of central burial depth are discussed. The best formation method of high resistance cave searching is carried out: high resistance cave Wenner array, array βand high -density resistivity comnosite nrnfila

  4. The SL2S Galaxy-scale Lens Sample. IV. The dependence of the total mass density profile of early-type galaxies on redshift, stellar mass, and size

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Suyu, Sherry H; Marshall, Philip J; Auger, Matthew W; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, VLT, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the SL2S survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z_d=0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z_s=1-3.5. We combine this data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the SLACS and LSD surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile \\gamma' (\\rho(r)\\propto r^{-\\gamma'}) on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficent to determine \\gamma' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, \\gamma' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density \\partial \\gamma'/ \\partial \\Sigma_*=0.38\\pm 0.07, i.e. galaxies with denser stars also have steeper ...

  5. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  6. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  7. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  8. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  9. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  10. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  11. Magnetic depth profiling of Fe/Au multilayer using neutron reflectometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surendra Singh; Saibal Basu; M Gupta

    2008-11-01

    We present unpolarized and polarized neutron reflectometry data on Fe/Au multilayer sample for characterizing the layer structure and magnetic moment density profile. Fe/Au multilayer shows strong spin-dependent scattering at interfaces, making it a prospective GMR material. Fe/Au multilayer with bilayer thickness of 130 Å was grown on Si substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. Unpolarized neutron reflectivity measurement yields nuclear scattering length density profile. The magnetic scattering length density profile has been obtained from polarized neutron reflectivity measurements.

  12. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  13. Velocity dispersion profile in dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeft, M; Gottlöber, S

    2004-01-01

    Numerous numerical studies indicate that dark matter halos show an almost universal radial density profile. The origin of the profile is still under debate. We investigate this topic and pay particular attention to the velocity dispersion profile. To this end we have performed high-resolution simulations with two independent codes, ART and {\\sc Gadget}. The radial velocity dispersion can be approximated as function of the potential by $\\sigma_r^2 = a (\\Phi / \\Phi_{\\rm{out}})^\\kappa (\\Phi_{\\rm{out}} - \\Phi)$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm{out}}$ is the outer potential of the halo. For the parameters $a$ and $\\kappa$ we find $a=0.29\\pm0.04$ and $\\kappa=0.41\\pm0.03$. We find that the power-law asymptote $\\sigma^2 \\propto \\Phi^\\kappa$ is valid out to much larger distances from the halo center than any power asymptote for the density profile $\\rho \\propto r^{-n}$. The asymptotic slope $n(r \\to 0)$ of the density profile is related to the exponent $\\kappa$ via $n=2\\kappa/(1+\\kappa)$. Thus the value obtained for $\\kappa$ from th...

  14. EVALUATION AND APPLICATION OF THE INVASIVE WEED MIKANIA MICRANTHA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Long Chen,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mikania micrantha particle (MP and fiber (MF were added to recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE for producing natural fiber (or particle reinforced plastic composites (NFRPC by the flat-platen pressing process. The results showed that the flexural strength and stiffness of NFRPC were significantly improved through incorporating M. micrantha particle and fiber. Higher aspect ratio of reinforcement displayed stronger mechanical properties. The vertical density profile in composites significantly influenced the mechanical properties of NFRPC. A conventional V-shaped profile and a uniform vertical density profile (homo-profile were observed in MP and MF based NFRPC, respectively. Additionally, with increasing lignocellulose content, a more uniform vertical density profile and higher wood screw holding strength were observed. These results indicate M. micrantha particle and fiber are excellent reinforcements for NFRPC applications.

  15. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  16. Impact of particle density and initial volume on mathematical compression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    on the derived apparent yield pressures. Substances with ionic bonds or macromolecular materials with amorphous structures do not show this dependency on the particle density. The influence of density is demonstrated by performing non-linear regression on the Heckel equation where the optimal particle density...... equations. The problems are illustrated by investigations on compaction profiles of 17 materials with different molecular structures and particle densities. It is shown that the particle density of materials with covalent bonds in the Heckel model acts as a key parameter with a dominating influence...

  17. The mass profile and accretion history of cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Navarro, Julio F.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bett, Philip E.; Angulo, Raúl E.; Li, Ming; White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos; Springel, Volker

    2013-06-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation series to investigate the relation between the accretion history and mass profile of cold dark matter (CDM) haloes. We find that the mean inner density within the scale radius, r-2 (where the halo density profile has isothermal slope), is directly proportional to the critical density of the Universe at the time when the virial mass of the main progenitor equals the mass enclosed within r-2. Scaled to these characteristic values of mass and density, the average mass accretion history, expressed in terms of the critical density of the Universe, M(ρcrit(z)), resembles that of the enclosed density profile, M(), at z = 0. Both follow closely the Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, which suggests that the similarity of halo mass profiles originates from the mass-independence of halo accretion histories. Support for this interpretation is provided by outlier haloes whose accretion histories deviate from the NFW shape; their mass profiles show correlated deviations from NFW and are better approximated by Einasto profiles. Fitting both M() and M(ρcrit) with either NFW or Einasto profiles yield concentration and shape parameters that are correlated, confirming and extending earlier work that has linked the concentration of a halo with its accretion history. These correlations also confirm that halo structure is insensitive to initial conditions: only haloes whose accretion histories differ greatly from the NFW shape show notable deviations from NFW in their mass profiles. As a result, the NFW profile provides acceptable fits to hot dark matter haloes, which do not form hierarchically, and for fluctuation power spectra other than CDM. Our findings, however, predict a subtle but systematic dependence of mass profile shape on accretion history which, if confirmed, would provide strong support for the link between accretion history and halo structure we propose here.

  18. Gaussian Random Field: Physical Origin of Sersic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-08-01

    While the Sersic profile family provides adequate fits for the surface brightness profiles of observed galaxies, its physical origin is unknown. We show that if the cosmological density field is seeded by random Gaussian fluctuations, as in the standard cold dark matter model, galaxies with steep central profiles have simultaneously extended envelopes of shallow profiles in the outskirts, whereas galaxies with shallow central profiles are accompanied by steep density profiles in the outskirts. These properties are in accord with those of the Sersic profile family. Moreover, galaxies with steep central profiles form their central regions in smaller denser subunits that possibly merge subsequently, which naturally leads to the formation of bulges. In contrast, galaxies with shallow central profiles form their central regions in a coherent fashion without significant substructure, a necessary condition for disk galaxy formation. Thus, the scenario is self-consistent with respect to the correlation between observed galaxy morphology and the Sersic index. We further predict that clusters of galaxies should display a similar trend, which should be verifiable observationally.

  19. Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Negishi, S.; Shima, Y.; Hojo, H.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10.

  20. Semiclassics in Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyung; Cangi, Attila; Elliott, Peter; Burke, Kieron

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we published an article [1] about the semiclassical origin of density functional theory. We showed that the density and the kinetic energy density of one dimensional finite systems with hard walls can be expressed in terms of the external potential using the semiclassical Green's function method. Here, we show a uniformization scheme for the semiclassical density and the kinetic energy density for turning-point problems.[1] P. Elliott, D. Lee, A. Cangi, and K. Burke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256406 (2008).

  1. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  2. Tent-induced perturbations on areal density of implosions at the National Ignition Facilitya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Field, J. E.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Haan, S. W.; Aracne-Ruddle, C.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. A.; Ma, T.; Meezan, N. B.; Nagel, S. R.; Rygg, J. R.; Segraves, K. S.; Stadermann, M.; Strauser, R. J.; Town, R. P. J.

    2015-05-01

    Areal density non-uniformities seeded by time-dependent drive variations and target imperfections in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets can grow in time as the capsule implodes, with growth rates that are amplified by instabilities. Here, we report on the first measurements of the perturbations on the density and areal density profiles induced by the membranes used to hold the capsule within the hohlraum in indirect drive ICF targets. The measurements are based on the reconstruction of the ablator density profiles from 2D radiographs obtained using pinhole imaging coupled to area backlighting, as close as 150 ps to peak compression. Our study shows a clear correlation between the modulations imposed on the areal density and measured neutron yield, and a 3× reduction in the areal density perturbations comparing a high-adiabat vs. low-adiabat pulse shape.

  3. MEASUREMENT OF WHEAT DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等

    1995-01-01

    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  4. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  5. Effects of Three Different Additives and Two Different Bulk Densities on Maize Silage Characteristics, Temperature Profiles, CO2 and O2–Dynamics in Small Scale Silos during Aerobic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Helena Jungbluth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Silage quality and aerobic stability are sometimes insufficient. If management requirements are not met, or to improve silage quality, additives are often used. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different factors on silage during aerobic conditions. Whole-crop forage maize was harvested and 24 buckets (65 L were filled and assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1 control (no treatment; (2 chemical additive (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium acetate; (3 a mixed biological inoculant containing Lactobacillus buchneri, L. plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilacti; and (4 a mixed biological inoculant containing L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and L. rhamnosus. An untreated variation was also ensiled. Two different densities were adjusted during ensiling. After opening, the temperature was measured for seven days and O2 and CO2 concentrations were analysed. The findings show that the chemical additive very effectively prevented silage from reheating and deteriorating. Aerobic reheating of silage was also successfully inhibited through biological additives and high density.

  6. Electronic properties and momentum densities of tin chalcogenides: Validation of PBEsol exchange-correlation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, B.L., E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.ik [Department of Physics, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Raykar, Veera; Joshi, Ritu [Department of Physics, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Tiwari, Shailja [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer 305001, Rajasthan (India); Talreja, Sonal [Department of Computer Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001 (India); Choudhary, Gopal [Department of Physics, Techno India NJR Institute of Technology, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India)

    2015-05-15

    We report Compton profiles of SnS and SnTe at a momentum resolution of 0.34 a.u. using a 20 Ci {sup 137}Cs Compton spectrometer. To compare our experimental data, we have also computed the theoretical Compton profiles using density functional theory within linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method. To interpret the relative nature of bonding in these compounds, we have scaled the experimental and theoretical Compton profiles on equal-valence-electron-density (EVED). On the basis of EVED profiles, it is seen that SnTe shows more covalent character than SnS. To rectify the substantial disagreement between experimental and theoretical band gaps, we have also presented the energy bands and density of states of both the compounds using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) including spin–orbit interaction within the PBEsol exchange-correlation potential.

  7. Exact potential-density pairs for flattened dark haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Cosmological simulations suggest that dark matter haloes are not spherical, but typically moderately to strongly triaxial systems. We investigate methods to convert spherical potential-density pairs into axisymmetric ones, in which the basic characteristics of the density profile (such as the slope at small and large radii) are retained. We achieve this goal by replacing the spherical radius r by an oblate radius m in the expression of the gravitational potential. We extend and formalize the approach pioneered by Miyamoto & Nagai (1975) to be applicable to arbitrary potential-density pairs. Unfortunately, an asymptotic study demonstrates that, at large radii, such models always show a R^(-3) disc superposed on a smooth roughly spherical density distribution. As a result, this recipe cannot be used to construct simple flattened potential-density pairs for dynamical systems such as dark matter haloes. Therefore we apply a modification of our original recipe that cures the problem of the discy behaviour. An ...

  8. Analysis of lipoprotein profiles of healthy cats by gel-permeation high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hisashi; Sako, Toshinori; Okuda, Hiroko; Arai, Nobuaki; Kuriyama, Koji; Mori, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Itaru; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2016-09-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) and gel electrophoresis are conventionally used to obtain lipoprotein profiles of animals. We recently applied high-performance liquid chromatography with a gel permeation column (GP-HPLC) and an on-line dual enzymatic system to dogs for lipoprotein profile analysis. We compared the GP-HPLC with DGUC as a method to obtain a feline lipoprotein profile. The lipoprotein profiles showed large and small peaks, which corresponded to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively, whereas very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron (CM) were only marginally detected. This profile was very similar to that of dogs reported previously. Healthy cats also had a small amount of cholesterol-rich particles distinct from the normal LDL or HDL profile. There was no difference in lipoprotein profiles between the sexes, but males had a significantly larger LDL particle size (P=0.015). This study shows the feasibility of GP-HPLC for obtaining accurate lipoprotein profiles with small sample volumes and provides valuable reference data for healthy cats that should facilitate diagnoses.

  9. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fuente, Asunción [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Lago E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bontemps, Sylvain [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Di Francesco, James, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  10. Changes in divertor conditions in response to changing core density with RMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesemeister, A. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Canik, J. M.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Frerichs, H.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lore, J. D.; Leonard, A. W.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Schmitz, O.; Shafer, M. W.; Unterberg, E. A.; Wang, H. Q.; Watkins, J. G.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of changes in core density on divertor electron temperature, density and heat flux when resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are applied are presented, notably a reduction in RMP induced secondary radial peaks in the electron temperature profile at the target plate is observed when the core density is increased, which is consistent with modeling. RMPs is used here to indicate non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbations, created using in-vessel control coils, which have at least one but typically many resonances with the rotational transform of the plasma (Evans et al 2006 Phys. Plasmas 13 056121). RMPs are found to alter inter-ELM heat flux to the divertor by modifying the core plasma density. It is shown that applying RMPs reduces the core density and increases the inter-ELM heat flux to both the inner and outer targets. Using gas puffing to return the core density to the pre-RMP levels more than eliminates the increase in inter-ELM heat flux, but a broadening of the heat flux to the outer target remains. These measurements were made at a single toroidal location, but the peak in the heat flux profile was found near the outer strike point where simulations indicate little toroidal variation should exist and tangentially viewing diagnostics showed no evidence of strong asymmetries. In experiments where divertor Thomson scattering measurements were available it is shown that local secondary peaks in the divertor electron temperature profile near the target plate are reduced as the core density is increased, while peaks in the divertor electron density profile near the target are increased. These trends observed in the divertor electron temperature and density are qualitatively reproduced by scanning the upstream density in EMC3-Eirene modeling. Measurements are presented showing that higher densities are needed to induce detachment of the outer strike point in a case where an increase in electron temperature, likely due to a change in MHD activity

  11. Density and undrained shear strength of bed sediment from ND-CPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Hino, Takenori; Hamada, Takaharu; Chai, Jinchun; Yoshimura, Mitsugu

    2013-05-01

    The density and the undrained shear strength ( s u) of bed sediments at either side of the Isahaya Bay dike in the Ariake Sea, Japan, were investigated using nuclear density cone penetration tests (ND-CPTs). The nuclear density cone penetrometer (ND-CP) was operated from a boat, conducting 71 ND-CPTs. Furthermore, 26 undisturbed samples were obtained for soil density and s u measurements to calibrate the ND-CPT data. The results show that the density and s u obtained from in situ with the ND-CPTs agree well with those from the laboratory tests on undisturbed samples, and the obtained density profiles show good repeatability. The vertical variation in density and s u of the bed sediment can be obtained from the ND-CPT results. The relations between the density and s u show that s u increases with an increase in density, but that this relation is site specific. The values of s u show an exponentially growing trend and the values of log s u show a linearly increasing trend with density. The vertical distribution of the bed sediments can be described using the density values obtained with the ND-CPT.

  12. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set o