Saric Maida Seferovic
Full Text Available Background. Usually both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are related to the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease development. The relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism has been widely investigated but the findings remain controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the lipid profile in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo in comparison to controls and to determine the association of SHypo and dyslipidemia in attempt to find importance of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C in atherosclerosis. Material and methods. In this study we included 100 women, aged 30 to 70 years that were divided into subgroups according to their age. According to the values of levels of thyroid hormones they were divided into euthyroid (control group (n = 64 and (newly discovered subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo group (n = 36. A high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and lipid profile, including small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C were determined. Body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. History of the current illness, medication, alcohol consumption and cigarettes smoking were noted. Results. Changed lipid profile as well as elevated triglycerides and sdLDL-C were observed in the group with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to the control group. Conclusions. It is important to determine serum lipid levels, especially serum sdLDL-C levels at an early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism, since they represent atherogenic LDL particles and are better indicators for dyslipidaemia in subclinical hypothyroidism and the development of atherosclerosis with potential complications such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Fox, Kathleen M; Tai, Ming-Hui; Kostev, Karel; Hatz, Maximilian; Qian, Yi; Laufs, Ulrich
European clinical guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of C goal attainment among atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) patients with various utilization patterns of moderate- or high-intensity statins in routine care. This retrospective cohort study used electronic medical records data from the QuintilesIMS® Disease Analyzer (> 2 million individuals annually) to identify ASCVD (coronary atherosclerosis, stable/unstable angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, aneurysm, peripheral artery disease) patients on moderate-/high-intensity statin in Germany. Proportion of patients with LDL-C C value for each patient (index) in 2012, 2013, and 2014, while on statin. Treatment patterns were assessed for patients with at least 1 year of post-index follow-up. Results were stratified by year and treatment pattern [no change, switch, dose up-/down-titration, discontinuation (≥ 90 day gap)]. In > 14,000 patients assessed in each year (mean age 71 years, 35% female, 8-12% taking high-intensity statins), approximately 80% had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL. Treatment patterns were assessed for most (88-93%) patients. Approximately 79-81% of patients made no change to statin regimens, 1% switched statins, 14-16% discontinued; 1% of moderate-intensity patients up-titrated, and 3% of all patients down-titrated. LDL-C goal attainment in these treatment pattern groups was 20, 16-24, 17, 11-14, and 17-19%, respectively. Majority of ASCVD patients had LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL while on moderate-/high-intensity statins. Despite low LDL-C goal attainment, few patients changed their treatment regimens.
Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne
Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...
Smit, Roelof Aj; Postmus, Iris; Trompet, Stella; Barnes, Michael R; Warren, Helen; Arsenault, Benoit J; Chasman, Daniel I; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hitman, Graham A; Krauss, Ronald M; Li, Xiaohui; Psaty, Bruce M; Stein, Charles M; Rotter, Jerome I; Jukema, J Wouter
To utilize previously reported lead SNPs for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels to find additional loci of importance to statin response, and examine whether genetic predisposition to LDL-c levels associates with differential statin response. We investigated effects on statin response of 59 LDL-c SNPs, by combining summary level statistics from the Global Lipids Genetics and Genomic Investigation of Statin Therapy consortia. Lead SNPs for APOE, SORT1 and NPC1L1 were associated with a decreased LDL-c response to statin treatment, as was overall genetic predisposition for increased LDL-c levels as quantified with 59 SNPs, with a 5.4% smaller statin response per standard deviation increase in genetically raised LDL-c levels. Genetic predisposition for increased LDL-c level may decrease efficacy of statin therapy.
Balder, Jan-Willem; Rimbert, Antoine; Zhang, Xiang; Viel, Martijn; Kanninga, Roan; van Dijk, Freerk; Lansberg, Peter; Sinke, Richard; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in
Full Text Available Abstract Aims Our study addressed potential associations between fatty liver and small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-C levels using a cross-sectional analysis. Methods We enrolled 476 male subjects. Serum sd-LDL-C concentrations were determined using precipitation assays. Results Subjects were divided into four groups based on triglyceride (TG and LDL-C levels: A, TG Conclusions Fatty liver is a significant determinant of serum sd-LDL-C levels independent of the presence of obesity or hyperglycemia. Fatty liver may alter hepatic metabolism of TG and LDL-C, resulting in increased sd-LDL-C levels.
Changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypo- and hyperthyroid patients are related to changes in free thyroxine, not to polymorphisms in LDL receptor or cholesterol ester transfer protein genes
Diekman, M. J.; Anghelescu, N.; Endert, E.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.
Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in lipoprotein metabolism. Both plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase in hypothyroidism and decrease in hyperthyroidism. Changes in LDL-C relate to altered clearance of LDL particles
Canas, Jose A; Ross, Judith L; Taboada, Martha V; Sikes, Kaitlin M; Damaso, Ligeia C; Hossain, Jobayer; Caulfield, Michael P; Gidding, Samuel S; Mauras, Nelly
Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and elevated LDL-C have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, a process that can begin in childhood. To assess the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin improving lipid profiles in children with T1D and elevated LDL-C. Sixty children (31M/29F) with T1D, mean age: 15 ± 0.3 yr, mean diabetes duration: 6.8 ± 0.5 yr, HbA(1c) : 8.8 ± 0.2%, with mean LDL-C 124 ± 4.0mg/dl were recruited. After a 3-month run-in period, subjects were randomized double-blindly to atorvastatin or placebo for 6 months. Lipoprotein subfractions were measured by ion mobility and glucose control by HbA1C; continuous glucose monitors were worn quarterly. After a run-in period, 42 subjects were randomized. There were decreases in total cholesterol (-21%), LDL-C (-32%), non-HDL-C (-31%) and apoB (-26%) in the atorvastatin group versus placebo (p < 0.001). Lipoprotein subparticles (LDL-large 1 and 2A, IDL-large and small, VLDL- medium and small) decreased with statins (p < 0.03 all). Insulin sensitivity scores remained constant in both groups and correlated inversely with apoB (r = -0.312 p = 0.039) and small LDL 3A (r = -0.404 p = 0.007). One subject had asymptomatic elevation of creatinine kinase which normalized after atorvastatin discontinuation. Atorvastatin lowered LDL-C, apoB, and atherogenic lipoprotein subparticles in children with T1D and elevated LDL-C without worsening insulin resistance. The drug was well tolerated and safe. Long-term studies would provide better insight on the impact of these interventions in the development of cardiovascular disease in children with diabetes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs
The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...
Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.
Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee
It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fairoozy, Roaa Hani; Cooper, Jackie; White, Jon
Background and aims: Annexin-A2 (AnxA2) is an endogenous inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9). The repeat-one (R1) domain of AnxA2 binds to PCSK9, blocking its ability to promote degradation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-receptors (LDL-R) and thereby regulat...... plasma LDL-C levels, and thus implicate this protein as a potential therapeutic target for LDL-C lowering. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd....
El Harchaoui, Karim; Akdim, Fatima; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Trip, Mieke D.; Kastelein, John J. P.
Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is the mainstay of the current treatment guidelines in the management of cardiovascular risk. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are Currently the most effective LDL-C-lowering drugs. However, a substantial number of patients do not reach
Bazzano, Lydia A
Strong epidemiologic and experimental data suggest that increasing dietary fiber may help to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. Recent studies have highlighted the role of dietary fiber, particularly water-soluble varieties, in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Several types of soluble fiber, including psyllium, beta-glucan, pectin, and guar gum, have been shown to decrease LDL-C in well-controlled intervention studies, whereas the soluble fiber content of legumes and vegetables has also been shown to decrease LDL-C. Current investigations continue to explore this area in depth and examine potential synergies between dietary fiber and other phytochemicals that may lower cholesterol. These studies, along with recent analyses of ongoing prospective cohort studies, have provided new insights into the probable protective role of dietary fiber in the development of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases.
Hope H Biswas
Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of
Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Men With Primary Elevations of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels of 190 mg/dL or Above Analyses From the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) 5-Year Randomized Trial and 20-Year Observational Follow-Up
Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Robertson, Michele; Catapano, Alberico L.; Watts, Gerald F.; Kastelein, John J.; Packard, Chris J.; Ford, Ian; Ray, Kausik K.
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >= 190 mg/dL are at a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as a result of long-term exposure to markedly elevated LDL-C levels. Therefore, initiation of statin therapy is recommended for
Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard
Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (Plevel of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.
Anwar, M.; Khan, D. A.; Khan, F. A.
Objective: To compare the Friedewald and modified Friedewald formulae with direct homogeneous assay for serum lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels estimation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from June to December 2011. Methodology: Healthy subjects of either gender, from Rawalpindi, aged 18-75 years were included by consecutive sampling. Patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, those taking lipid lowering drugs and samples with triglyceride (TG) > 4.52 mmol/l were excluded from the study. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG and LDL-C were measured on Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer (Roche). LDL-C levels were also calculated by Friedewald formula (FF) and Vujovic modified formula (VMF). Paired sample t-test and scatter plots were used for statistical analysis. Results: Although both calculated methods showed good correlation with direct assay (r > 0.93) in 300 subjects, but the difference was statistically significant. The ffLDL-C were 0.12 +- 31 mmol/l (p < 0.001) lower and vmfLDL-C were 0.11 +- 26 mmol/l (p < 0.001) higher than dLDL-C. The difference was not significant between ffLDL-C and dLDL-C at TG levels < 1.70 mmol/l (p = 0.58) and between vmfLDL-C and dLDL-C at TG levels 2.26 - 4.52 mmol/l (p = 0.38). At all other TG levels, the difference between LDL-C calculated by both formulas and dLDL-C was statistically significant (p < 0.001). As compared to direct assay, 11% and 14% subjects were classified in wrong National Cholesterol Education Programm cardiac risk categories by FF and VMF respectively. Conclusion: LDL-C should be measured by direct homogeneous assay in routine clinical laboratories, as the calculated methods did not have a uniform performance for LDL-C estimation at different TG levels. (author)
Simon C Mathews
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical
On-Treatment Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B, Triglycerides, and Lipid Ratios in Relation to Residual Vascular Risk After Treatment With Potent Statin Therapy JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin)
Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Ridker, Paul M.
Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Cimmino, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Morello, Alberto; Ciccarelli, Michele; Golino, Paolo
Despite aggressive strategies are now available to reduce LDL-cholesterol, the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease remains substantial. Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that drug therapy ultimately leads to a regression of the angiographic lesions but also results in a reduction in cardiovascular events. The dramatic failure of clinical trials evaluating the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CEPT) inhibitors, torcetrapib and dalcetrapib, has led to considerable doubt about the value of the current strategy to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a treatment for cardiovascular disease. These clinical results, as well as animal studies, have revealed the complexity of HDL metabolism, assessing a more important role of functional quality compared to circulating quantity of HDL. As a result, HDL-based therapeutic interventions that maintain or enhance HDL functionality, such as improving its main property, the reverse cholesterol transport, require closer investigation. In this review, we will discuss HDL metabolism and function, clinical-trial data available for HDL-raising agents, and potential strategies for future HDL-based therapies. PMID:26535185
Full Text Available We performed lipid analyses at the early period of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent interferon (IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA treatment, and we attempted to identify the factors that contributed to a rapid increase in the patients' serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentration.We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 100 consecutive patients with HCV infection treated at the National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center: 24 patients underwent daclatasvir (DCV and asunaprevir (ASV combination therapy (DCV/ASV for 24 weeks, and the other 76 patients underwent ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination therapy (LDV/SOF for 12 weeks. ΔLDL-C was defined as the changed in LDL-C level at 28 days from the start of therapy. To determine whether ΔLDL-C was associated with several kinds of factors including viral kinetics, we performed a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.The LDL-C levels in patients treated with LDV/SOF were markedly and significantly elevated (87.45 to 122.5 mg/dl; p<10-10 compared to those in the DCV/ASV-treated patients (80.15 to 87.8 mg/dl; p = 0.0056. The median levels of ΔLDL-C in the LDV/SOF and DCV/ASV groups were 33.2 and 13.1, respectively. LDV/SOF combination therapy as an IFN-free regimen (p<0.001 and ΔHCV core antigen (0-1 day drop (p<0.044 were identified as independent factors that were closely related to the ΔLDL-C.A rapid increase in the serum LDL-C concentration during the IFN-free treatment of hepatitis C was associated with the type of HCV therapy and a decline of HCV core protein.
Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...
Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming
Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Brien, Emily C; Simon, DaJuanicia N; Roe, Matthew T; Wang, Tracy Y; Peterson, Eric D; Alexander, Karen P
Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and is a target for disease prevention. The association between initial LDL-C and statin treatment in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)/unstable angina pectoris (UAP) has not been well characterized. We explored detailed LDL-C levels and statin treatment in 22,938 patients with NSTEMI/UAP enrolled in the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines Registry (2003 to 2006). Patients reporting home statin use or previous cardiovascular disease were excluded. We examined statin receipt at discharge across 4 categories of baseline LDL-C: very low (130 mg/dl). In conclusion, >1/3 of patients with NSTEMI/UAP had an LDL-C level <100. Those with low LDL-C were older, had more co-morbidities, and were less likely to be prescribed a statin at discharge than those with higher LDL-C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arnold, Suzanne V.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Tang, Fengming; Zhao, Zhenxiang; McCollam, Patrick L.; Birt, Julie; Spertus, John A.
Aggressively managing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after myocardial infarction (MI) is a cornerstone of secondary prevention. The changes in LDL-C after MI and the factors associated with LDL-C levels are unknown. Therefore, we directly measured fasting LDL-C levels in 797 MI patients from 24 US hospitals from 2005 to 2008. Mean LDL-C levels at discharge, 1 month, and 6 months were 95.1, 81.9, and 87.1 mg/dL, respectively. In a hierarchical, multivariable, repeated measures model, older age, male sex, and hypertension were associated with lower LDL-C levels, whereas self-reported avoidance of health care because of cost was associated with higher LDL-C. Both the presence and intensity of statin therapy at discharge were strongly associated with LDL-C levels, with adjusted mean 6-month changes of −3.4 mg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI): −12.1, 5.3) for no statins; 1.7 mg/dL (95% CI: −4.7, 8.1) for low statins; −10.2 mg/dL (95% CI: −14.5, −6.0) for moderate statins; and −13.9 mg/dL (95% CI: −19.7, −8.0) for intensive statins (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that greater reductions in LDL-C levels after MI were strongly associated with the presence and intensity of statin therapy, older age, male sex, hypertension, and better socioeconomic status. These findings support the use of intensive statin therapy in post-MI patients and provide estimates of the expected LDL-C changes after MI in a real-world population. PMID:24743066
Vanavanan, Somlak; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Rochanawutanon, Mana; Kerdmongkol, Jirapa; Kroll, Martin H
Small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease. We compared two methods for determination of sdLDL-C, a direct enzymatic (ENZ) method and a polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis (PGE) assay, and investigated the associations of both sdLDL-C measurements with metabolic syndrome. We analyzed 242 patient sera for sdLDL and atherosclerosis-related markers. The PGE method separates the intermediate-density lipoprotein particles into three midbands (MID-A to MID-C) and the LDL particles into seven subfractions (LDL1 to LDL7); the sdLDL-PGE result is calculated as the sum of cholesterol concentrations from LDL3 to LDL7. The regression equation for sdLDL-C was [ENZmmol/L]=0.779[PGE]+0.67, r=0.713. ENZ showed higher sdLDL-C concentrations than PGE (0.86±0.33 vs. 0.24±0.32 mmol/L); however, the difference was not associated with sdLDL-C concentration (p=0.290). sdLDL-C, as measured with the enzymatic assay, exhibited significant positive correlations with very-low-density lipoprotein, MID-C, MID-B, and LDL2 (all p0.600). The ENZ and PGE methods yielded similar patterns of correlation between sdLDL-C, and atherosclerosis-related markers. Using logistic regression, sdLDL-ENZ and apolipoprotein B were identified as significant predictors of metabolic syndrome (p<0.03). The ENZ assay for sdLDL-C correlated well with the PGE method. The ENZ method measures a broader range of atherogenic lipoprotein particles than PGE and has the potential to identify subjects with vascular risk, thus contributing in directing specific interventions for cardiovascular prevention.
Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Straka, Robert
The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights...
Jeong, Y J; Kim, H; Baik, S J; Kim, T M; Yang, S J; Lee, S-H; Cho, J-H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Choi, I Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, H-S
There are a few Korean studies on the economics of statins based on reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) data from other countries. This study aimed to analyse and compare the cost-effectiveness of statins according to the baseline LDL-C level in Korea. Between January 2009 and December 2015, the data of patients who were prescribed statins for the first time were extracted from electronic medical records. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on the LDL-C reduction rate (CEA-RR) and target achievement rate. Among high-intensity statins, the CEA-RR value of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was significantly lower than that of atorvastatin (40 mg) at all baseline LDL-C levels, except levels of 160-189 mg/dL. Additionally, at baseline LDL-C levels of 130-159 mg/dL, the CEA-RR value of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was three times lower than that of atorvastatin (40 mg) (9·1 ± 2·5 $/% vs. 31·7 ± 15·0 $/%, P level in Korea. It is expected that our findings will help clinical decision-making with regard to statin prescription, and this will help reduce national medical expenditure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hagan, R D; Smith, M G; Gettman, L R
The effects of diet and exercise on serum triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and the HDL to TC ratio (HDL/TC) were evaluated in 45 men training continuously for a duration of 6 months. Body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and serum values for Trig, TC, HDL, and HDL/TC were constant throughout the observation period. Bivariate correlations indicated that Trig, TC, and LDL were linearly related and HDL and HDL/TC were related to HDL and HDL/TC. Multiple regression analysis suggested that BMI was the best predictor of Trig, TC, and LDL, while distance run per month was the best predictor of HDL and HDL/TC and second best predictor of Trig. The weekly intakes of fish, bread, cooked cereal, wine, beer, soft drinks, and vegetables were less significant predictors of lipoprotein levels.
Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of heart failure is increasing in the aging population, and heart failure is a disease with large morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a need for identifying modifiable risk factors for prevention. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of nonfasting...... triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with higher risk of heart failure in the general population. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 103 860 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 9694 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 2 prospective observational...... association studies. Nonfasting triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline. Individuals were followed for ≤23 years, during which time 3593 were diagnosed with heart failure. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In the Copenhagen...
Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...... cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...
Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...... cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (= 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (......Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high...... studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated...
Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load.
Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Diniz, Tiego A; de Castro, Marcela R; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% ( P training loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women.
Párraga-Martínez, Ignacio; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Rabanales-Sotos, Joseba; Lago-Deibe, Fernando; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan M; Villena-Ferrer, Alejandro; Blasco-Valle, Mariano; Ferreras-Amez, José M; Morena-Rayo, Susana; Del Campo-Del Campo, José M; Ayuso-Raya, M Candelaria; Pérez-Pascual, José J
Several interventions can improve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control. Our main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a combined intervention to improve LDL-C control in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The study also assessed the efficacy of the intervention in improving adherence (pharmacological, diet, and exercise). A multicenter, parallel group, randomized clinical trial (primary care) was conducted in 358 adults diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia, whether receiving prior drug therapy or not. We compared 178 participants who received the combined intervention (written material, self-completed registration cards, and messages to mobile telephones) with 178 controls. The main outcome variable was the proportion of participants with adequate LDL-C control (target levels of the European guidelines on dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk) at 24 months. At 24 months, the mean reduction in LDL-C was significantly higher in the intervention group (23.8mg/dL [95%CI, 17.5-30.1]) than in the control group (14.6mg/dL [95%CI, 8.9-20.4]; P=.034). The mean LDL-C decrease was 13.1%±28.6%. At 1 year, the proportion of participants with adequate control was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (43.7% vs 30.1%; P=.011; RR, 1.46). Adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group, both to drug therapy (77.2% vs 64.1%; P=.029) and exercise (64.9% vs 35.8; P<.001), but not to diet. The combined intervention significantly reduced LDL-C (by more than 13% at 2 years) and improved the degree of LDL-C control in patients with hypercholesterolemia at 1 year. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon
The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.
Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743
Lee, Jung-Hee; Ko, Young-Guk; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo
The relationship between attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and clinical outcomes in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has received little attention. We sought to investigate clinical outcomes in relation to attainment of LDL-C goals in patients with PAD after endovascular treatment. We reviewed 342 PAD patients treated with endovascular therapy from 2010 through 2012. We categorized patients into two groups based on the attained LDL-C levels at short-term follow-up (mean, 4.8 ± 2.8 months): group A (n = 160), with LDL-C obstructive pulmonary disease (0% vs 7%; P = .001). More patients in group A received statin therapy than those in group B (93% vs 76%; P < .001). MACEs (4% vs 10%; P = .002) and all-cause mortality (2% vs 7%; P = .007) occurred less frequently in group A than in group B at 2 years. A Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression model identified attainment of LDL-C goal <70 mg/dL at short-term follow-up as an independent predictor of reduced MACEs (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.67; P = .006) along with age as a predictor of increased MACEs (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.08; P = .031). Attainment of LDL-C goal <70 mg/dL at short-term follow-up is an independent predictor of reduced mortality and cardiovascular events after endovascular therapy in patients with PAD. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Men With Primary Elevations of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels of 190 mg/dL or Above: Analyses From the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) 5-Year Randomized Trial and 20-Year Observational Follow-Up.
Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Robertson, Michele; Catapano, Alberico L; Watts, Gerald F; Kastelein, John J; Packard, Chris J; Ford, Ian; Ray, Kausik K
Patients with primary elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dL are at a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease as a result of long-term exposure to markedly elevated LDL-C levels. Therefore, initiation of statin therapy is recommended for these individuals. However, there is a lack of randomized trial evidence supporting these recommendations in primary prevention. In the present analysis, we provide hitherto unpublished data on the cardiovascular effects of LDL-C lowering among a primary prevention population with LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL. We aimed to assess the benefits of LDL-C lowering on cardiovascular outcomes among individuals with primary elevations of LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL without preexisting vascular disease at baseline. We performed post hoc analyses from the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) randomized, placebo-controlled trial, and observational posttrial long-term follow-up, after excluding individuals with evidence of vascular disease at baseline. WOSCOPS enrolled 6595 men aged 45 to 64 years, who were randomly assigned to pravastatin 40 mg/d or placebo. In the present analyses, 5529 participants without evidence of vascular disease were included, stratified by LDL-C levels into those with LDL-C coronary heart disease and major adverse cardiovascular events were assessed over the 4.9-year randomized controlled trial phase and on mortality outcomes over a total of 20 years of follow-up. Among 5529 individuals without vascular disease, pravastatin reduced the risk of coronary heart disease by 27% ( P =0.002) and major adverse cardiovascular events by 25% ( P =0.004) consistently among those with and without LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL ( P -interaction >0.9). Among individuals with LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL, pravastatin reduced the risk of coronary heart disease by 27% ( P =0.033) and major adverse cardiovascular events by 25% ( P =0.037) during the initial trial phase and the risk of coronary heart disease death
Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol
Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.
Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Shaw, Leslee J; Goff, David C; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram
Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (≤ 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Even among persons with low LDL-C, some will still experience CHD events and may benefit from more aggressive pharmacologic and lifestyle therapies. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Of 5,627 participants who were not receiving any baseline lipid-lowering therapies, 3,714 (66%) had LDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dl and were included in the present study. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to assess the association of traditional risk factors and biomarkers with CHD events. To determine if subclinical atherosclerosis markers provided additional information beyond traditional risk factors, coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness were each separately added to the multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 (3.2%) CHD events were observed. In unadjusted analysis, age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers (CAC >0; carotid intima media thickness ≥1 mm) predicted CHD events. Independent predictors of CHD events included age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C. After accounting for all traditional risk factors, the predictive value of CAC was attenuated but remained highly significant. The relationship of all independent clinical predictors remained robust even after accounting for elevated CAC. Among persons with low LDL-C, older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C are associated with adverse CHD events. Even after accounting for all such variables, the presence of CAC provided incremental prognostic value. These results may serve as a basis for deciding which patients with low LDL-C may be considered for
Morita, Yasuko; Homma, Yasuhiko; Igarashi, Mihoko; Miyano, Ryuusuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Momoo; Tanigaki, Toshimori; Shiina, Yutaka; Homma, Koichiro
It has not been well defined whether plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) progresses arteriolosclerosis (arteriosclerosis of small arteries) or not. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) is an indicator of the function of renal arterioles and capillaries of glomeruli. The relationship between e-GFR and plasma LDL-C was studied to estimate the effect of plasma LDL-C on the function of renal arterioles and capillaries of glomeruli to speculate the effect of plasma LDL-C on arteriolosclerosis. Major coronary risk factors; blood pressure, plasma lipids, and fasting plasma glucose were compared among 4 groups of examinees of a health evaluation and promotion center separated by e-GFR, namely, Control group, Group 1, 2, 3 from highest e-GFR to lowest e-GFR. Numbers of total male and female subjects were 4602 and 2920, respectively. Plasma LDL-C levels were significantly high in Group 2 and 3 in all male subjects and high in Group 1, 2, and 3 in male subjects with age of fifties, compared with Control group. Plasma LDL-C levels were significantly high in Group 1, 2, and 3 in all female subjects and high in Group 2 and 3 in female subjects with age of fifties, compared with Control group. Plasma levels of LDL-C were not significantly different at each years of age in subjects with age of fifties in both sex. BMI and waist circumference were higher in male subjects with low e-GFR but not in female subjects. Blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose were not high in subjects in Group 1, 2, and 3, compared with Control group in all subjects and subjects with age of fifties in both sex. We concluded that the high plasma level of LDL-C was the major risk factor among coronary risk factors to reduce GFR probably due to impairing the function of renal arterioles and capillaries of glomeruli in subjects with normal kidney function assessed by urinalysis and plasma creatinine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haymana, Cem; Sonmez, Alper; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Tapan, Serkan; Basaran, Yalcin; Meric, Coskun; Baskoy, Kamil; Dinc, Mustafa; Yazici, Mahmut; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Barcin, Cem; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Bolu, Erol; Azal, Omer
Cardiometabolic risk is high in patients with hypogonadism. Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are the practical markers of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance and independent predictors of cardiaovascular risk. To date, no study has evaluated VAI levels and TG/HDL-C ratio in hypogonadism. A total of 112 patients with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age, 21.7 ± 2.06 years) and 124 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.5 ± 1.27 years) were enrolled. The demographic parameters, VAI, TG/HDL-C ratio, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were measured for all participants. The patients had higher total cholesterol (p = 0.04), waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels (p = 0.001 for all) than the healthy subjects. VAI and ADMA and TG/HDL-C levels were also higher in patients than in healthy subjects (p hypogonadism have elevated VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio. These values are significantly correlated with the surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the predictive roles of VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio are not significant. Prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the role of VAI and TG/HDL-C ratio in predicting cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism.
Effect of naturally random allocation to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risk of coronary heart disease mediated by polymorphisms in NPC1L1, HMGCR, or both: a 2 × 2 factorial Mendelian randomization study.
Ference, Brian A; Majeed, Faisal; Penumetcha, Raju; Flack, John M; Brook, Robert D
Considerable uncertainty exists as to whether lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) receptor with ezetimibe, either alone or in combination with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor (statin), will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study evaluated the effect of naturally random allocation to lower LDL-C mediated by polymorphisms in the NPC1L1 gene (target of ezetimibe), the HMGCR gene (target of statins), or both (target of combination therapy) on the risk of CHD. We constructed NPC1L1 and HMGCR genetic LDL-C scores to naturally randomize participants into 4 groups: reference, lower LDL-C mediated by NPC1L1 polymorphisms, lower LDL-C mediated by HMGCR polymorphisms, or lower LDL-C mediated by polymorphisms in both NPC1L1 and HMGCR. We compared the risk of CHD (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction) among each group using a 2 × 2 factorial mendelian randomization study design. A total of 108,376 persons (10,464 CHD events) from 14 studies were included. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics among the 4 groups, thus confirming that allocation was random. Compared to the reference group, the NPC1L1 group had 2.4 mg/dl lower LDL-C and 4.8% lower risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.952, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.920 to 0.985); whereas the HMGCR group had 2.9 mg/dl lower LDL-C and a similar 5.3% lower risk of CHD (OR: 0.947, 95% CI: 0.909 to 0.986). The group with lower LDL-C mediated by both NPC1L1 and HMGCR polymorphisms had 5.8 mg/dl additively lower LDL-C and a 10.8% log-linearly additive lower risk of CHD (OR: 0.892, 95% CI: 0.854 to 0.932). The effect of lower LDL-C on the risk of CHD mediated by polymorphisms in NPC1L1, HMGCR, or both is approximately the same per unit lower LDL-C and log-linearly proportional to the absolute exposure to lower LDL-C. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes in the EXAMINE (Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes with Alogliptin versus Standard of Care) trial.
Hwang, You-Cheol; Morrow, David A; Cannon, Christopher P; Liu, Yuyin; Bergenstal, Richard; Heller, Simon; Mehta, Cyrus; Cushman, William; Bakris, George L; Zannad, Faiez; White, William B
We sought to assess the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) by utilizing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome. Study participants enrolled in the EXAMINE trial (Clinical trials registration number: NCT00968708) and were stratified by baseline hsCRP levels (3 mg/L). They were also sub-divided into 4 groups according to baseline hsCRP (≤3 or >3 mg/L) and achieved LDL-C (3 mg/L, respectively (P 3 mg/L, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.42 (1.13, 1.78; P = .002) for MACE compared with patients with hsCRP C and low hsCRP, low LDL-C and high hsCRP, high LDL-C and low hsCRP, and high LDL-C and high hsCRP levels, respectively (P C level. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey
RATIONALE: Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through...... variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood...... obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased IHD risk because...
Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lecour, Sandrine
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts. This is based on data from previous studies of African and African American populations; however, recent studies conducted in Africa found similar or lower HDL-C concentrations in Black compared with White individuals. Current research, therefore, suggests that HDL-C may not be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk and future research should focus on HDL quality (vs quantity), by measuring HDL functionality and subclass.
Chinwong, Surarong; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Mangklabruks, Ampica
This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results . Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL ( p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion . Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.
Full Text Available This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18–25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i 15 mL VCO or (ii 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC solution (as control, twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females, daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p=0.001 compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.
Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL
Negi, Smita I; Steinberg, Lynne; Polsani, Venkateshwar R; Gowani, Saqib A; Nambi, Vijay; Kumar, Varinder; Marinescu, Victor; Jones, Peter H; Petersen, Laura A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S
Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goal attainment per Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines remains low. To understand gaps in knowledge and practices of physicians-in-training (internal medicine, family medicine, cardiology, endocrinology) towards non-HDL-C. A survey based on a conceptual model to assess the trainee's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding non-HDL-C was developed and administered to physicians-in-training (n = 655) at 26 training programs in the United States. Responses of those in internal medicine and family medicine (residents-in-training; n = 418) were compared with those in cardiology and endocrinology (fellows-in-training; n = 124). Response rate was 83.7%. Fifty-three percent of residents and 31% of fellows-in-training had not read the ATP III guidelines (P training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel (P = .7). Sixty-seven percent of the residents and 52% of fellows were not aware of treatment goals for non-HDL-C (P = .004 for comparison between residents and fellows). Both residents and fellows reported infrequent calculation of non-HDL-C levels in patients with elevated triglycerides (≥200 mg/dL; 32.5% vs 35.4%, respectively, P = .6). Lack of familiarity with ATP III guidelines, lack of knowledge regarding importance of non-HDL-C, lack of institutional mandate to calculate non-HDL-C, and lack of emphasis on non-HDL-C by teaching staff were reported as barriers to non-HDL-C use in routine clinical practice. At least one-third of physicians-in-training could not calculate non-HDL-C from a standard lipid panel, and a large number were not aware of ATP III treatment goals pertaining to non-HDL-C. This area represents one for improvement if non-HDL-C is to be retained as a treatment target in the forthcoming ATP-IV guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Andrea S Foulkes
Full Text Available Informing missing heritability for complex disease will likely require leveraging information across multiple SNPs within a gene region simultaneously to characterize gene and locus-level contributions to disease phenotypes. To this aim, we introduce a novel strategy, termed Mixed modeling of Meta-Analysis P-values (MixMAP, that draws on a principled statistical modeling framework and the vast array of summary data now available from genetic association studies, to test formally for locus level association. The primary inputs to this approach are: (a single SNP level p-values for tests of association; and (b the mapping of SNPs to genomic regions. The output of MixMAP is comprised of locus level estimates and tests of association. In application of MixMAP to summary data from the Global Lipids Gene Consortium, we suggest twelve new loci (PKN, FN1, UGT1A1, PPARG, DMDGH, PPARD, CDK6, VPS13B, GAD2, GAB2, APOH and NPC1 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease and we also demonstrate the potential utility of MixMAP in small data settings. Overall, MixMAP offers novel and complementary information as compared to SNP-based analysis approaches and is straightforward to implement with existing open-source statistical software tools.
Ueda, Shinichiro; Shimabukuro, Michio; Arasaki, Osamu; Node, Koichi; Nomiyama, Takashi; Morimoto, Takeshi
Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is important for patients with a high risk for atherosclerotic events, such as patients with diabetes and other risk factors. Anagliptin was reported to reduce LDL-C for 12 weeks in phase III trials regardless of the use of statins, but it is uncertain whether this effect is common to other dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted to confirm the superiority of anagliptin to sitagliptin in terms of the primary endpoint of reduction of LDL-C for 52 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular lesions, as well as the non-inferiority of anagliptin to sitagliptin in terms of change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Patients are randomly assigned to receive anagliptin or sitagliptin at a ratio of 1:1, with those in the anagliptin group receiving anagliptin 100 mg orally twice per day and those in the sitagliptin group receiving sitagliptin 50 mg orally once per day. During the trial period, hypoglycemic agents and anti-dyslipidemia drugs should not be added and neither should their dosages be changed. A total sample size of 300 was estimated to provide a power of 0.8 with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 for LDL-C, considering a 30% dropout rate. Pre-specified factors for subgroup analyses are HbA1c, use of DPP-4 inhibitors, sex, body mass index, LDL-C, age, and the presence of treatment for existing ischemic heart disease. If anagliptin were to be shown to reduce LDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular lesions despite pre-existing statin treatment, more intensive cholesterol management would be appropriate. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02330406.
Weng, Ruihui; Wei, Xiaobo; Yu, Bin; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yang, Xiaohua; Xie, Fen; Zhang, Mahui; Jiang, Ying; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Xia, Ying; Jin, Kunlin; Chan, Piu; Wang, Qing; Gao, Xiaoya
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) was previously thought as a cause of atypical Parkinsonism. Although Cystatin C (Cys C) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) are known to play critical roles in Parkinsonism, it is unknown whether they can be used as markers to distinguish PSP patients from healthy subjects and to determine disease severity. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine plasma Cys C/HDL/LDL-C levels of 40 patients with PSP and 40 healthy age-matched controls. An extended battery of motor and neuropsychological tests, including the PSP-Rating Scale (PSPRS), the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), was used to evaluate the disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were adopted to assess the prognostic accuracy of Cys C/LDL-C levels in distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects. Patients with PSP exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of Cys C and lower LDL-C. The levels of plasma Cys C were positively and inversely correlated with the PSPRS/NMSS and MMSE scores, respectively. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with PSPRS/NMSS and GDS scores. The ROC curve for the combination of Cys C and LDL-C yielded a better accuracy for distinguishing PSP from healthy subjects than the separate curves for each parameter. Plasma Cys C and LDL-C may be valuable screening tools for differentiating PSP from healthy subjects; while they could be useful for the PSP intensifies and severity evaluation. A better understanding of Cys C and LDL-C may yield insights into the pathogenesis of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Starup-Linde, Jakob; Gregersen, Søren; Vestergaard, Peter
available for an analysis of patient characteristics, co-morbidities, biochemical parameters and drug usage. Results: Patient age at the time of diabetes diagnosis, a diagnosis of previous fracture, an alcohol related diagnosis, total cholesterol level, and the usage of antidepressants, antiepileptics...... and insulin all increased the odds of fracture. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels decreased the odds of fracture, where the level of 3.04-5.96 mmol/l was optimal with regard to fracture risk. Conclusion: LDL may add to the understanding of fractures in diabetes patients and it may be added...
Andersson, Charlotte; Lyass, Asya; Larson, Martin G
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Statins and niacin (nicotinic acid) reduce circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by different mechanisms. Yet, both increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Our objective was to relate blood LDL-C concentrations and a genetic risk score (GRS) for LDL-C to the risk of incident...... contribute to our understanding of why lipid-lowering treatment may cause diabetes in some individuals. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying our observations....... diabetes in individuals not treated with lipid-modifying therapy. METHODS: We evaluated participants of the Framingham Heart Study who attended any of Offspring cohort examination cycles 3-8 and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (N =14,120 person-observations, 6,011 unique individuals; mean age...
Seixas Magda O
Full Text Available Abstract Background The search for sickle cell disease (SCD prognosis biomarkers is a challenge. These markers identification can help to establish further therapy, later severe clinical complications and with patients follow-up. We attempted to study a possible involvement of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in steady-state children with SCD, once that this lipid marker has been correlated with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-aggregation, anti-coagulant and pro-fibrinolytic activities, important aspects to be considered in sickle cell disease pathogenesis. Methods We prospectively analyzed biochemical, inflammatory and hematological biomarkers of 152 steady-state infants with SCD and 132 healthy subjects using immunochemistry, immunoassay and electronic cell counter respectively. Clinical data were collected from patient medical records. Results Of the 152 infants investigated had a significant positive association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with hemoglobin (P Conclusions We hypothesize that some SCD patients can have a specific dyslipidemic subphenotype characterized by low HDL-C with hypertriglyceridemia and high VLDL-C in association with other biomarkers, including those related to inflammation. This represents an important step toward a more reliable clinical prognosis. Additional studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and the probably mechanisms involved in this complex network of markers and their role in SCD pathogenesis.
Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Ampuero, Javier; Ranchal, Isidora; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Pareja, María Jesús; Del Campo, Jose Antonio; Pastor-Ramírez, Helena; Rico, María Carmen; Picón, Rocío; Pastor, Luis; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Andrade, Raúl; Romero-Gómez, Manuel
A small but significant proportion of patients with normal body mass index show non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a powerful immunogenic molecule, which causes oxidative stress and produces antibodies (oxLDL-ab). We aimed to analyze the role of oxLDL-ab on histological features in lean-NAFLD patients. Seventy-two biopsy-proven NAFLD patients were included. Lean patients showed body index mass of Liver biopsies were assessed by one pathologist blinded to clinical data. Histological features were non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and liver fibrosis. Metabolic and hepatic profiles were analyzed, and lipid-lowering medication was recorded. OxLDL-ab levels were measured by ELISA. OxLDL-ab-based lipid indexes analyzed: oxLDL-ab/total cholesterol ratio; oxLDL-ab/LDL-c ratio; oxLDL-ab/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio; and oxLDL-ab/oxLDL ratio. Lean-NAFLD patients presented 26.5% (9/34) of NASH. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (r = 0.570; n = 34; P = 0.001) correlated with NAS score and was the only variable associated with NASH in the multivariate analysis [odds ratio, OR, 1.10 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.21); P = 0.039]. Severe steatosis was present in 41.2% (14/34) of lean-NAFLD patients. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with grade-III steatosis (54.9 (37.3-124.6)) than those with grade II (37.1 (20.2-71.1)) and grade I (17.7 (13.1-22.8)) (P = 0.018). Hepatocellular ballooning was present in 20.6% (7/34) of lean-NAFLD patients, and OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (OR 1.03 [95% CI: 1.01-1.05]; P = 0.050) was independently associated with histological features. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (39.8 (22.9-121.6) vs 17.7 (13.9-30.9); P = 0.025), increasing gradually with the fibrosis stage (P = 0.042) and remained in the final multivariate model [OR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00-1.11); P = 0.05]. However, in
Association between low maternal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the second trimester and delivery of small for gestational age infants at term: a case-control study of the national center for child health and development birth cohort.
Serizawa, Kana; Ogawa, Kohei; Arata, Naoko; Ogihara, Atsushi; Horikawa, Reiko; Sakamoto, Naoko
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy can lead to a small for gestational age (SGA) status among infants. In the present study, we compared the lipid levels during the second trimester in women who delivered SGA infants at term with those in women who delivered appropriate for gestational age infants at term, to examine whether abnormalities in maternal lipid levels could be a risk factor for the delivery of an SGA infant. We enrolled pregnant women who gave birth at the National Center for Child Health and Development (NCCHD), their infants, and who volunteered in a Birth cohort study at the NCCHD. We analyzed a total of 843 blood samples obtained from the women during the second trimester. Moreover, we used multi-regression analysis to assess the relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels during the second trimester and the risk of delivering an SGA infant. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for LDL-C levels was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-0.99). These results indicate that a low LDL-C level during the second trimester was associated with an increased risk of delivering an SGA infant at term. The finding would not only help predict future SGA infant birth, but can also help prevent SGA infant birth.
Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian
Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.
Full Text Available Dujrudee Chinwong,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Surarong Chinwong,1 Khanchai Siriwattana,4 Siriluck Gunaparn,5 John Joseph Hall,6 Arintaya Phrommintikul5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Center of Excellence in Applied Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand; 4Division of Medicine, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 6Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Background: Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or mortality; however, the LDL-C goal for therapy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients is controversial and varies among guidelines. This study aimed to assess the effect of reaching an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L on first composite cardiovascular outcomes in routine clinical practice in Thailand.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using medical charts and the electronic hospital database of patients diagnosed with ACS and treated with statins at a tertiary care hospital in Thailand between 2009 and 2012. After admission, patients were followed from the date of LDL-C goal assessment until the first event of composite cardiovascular outcomes (nonfatal ACS, nonfatal stroke, or all-cause death. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for potential confounders were used.Results: Of 405 patients, mean age was 65 years (60% males. Twenty-seven percent of the patients attained an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL, 38% had LDL-C between 70 and 99 mg/dL, and 35% had LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Forty-six patients experienced a composite
Pereira, Eduardo B; Gemignani, Tiago; Sposito, Andrei C; Matos-Souza, José R; Nadruz Jr, Wilson
Radiotherapy (RT) is a risk factor for accelerated carotid artery atherosclerotic disease in subjects with head and neck cancer. However, the risk factors of RT-induced carotid artery remodeling are not established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RT on carotid and popliteal arteries in subjects with head and neck cancer and to evaluate the relationship between baseline clinical and laboratory features and the progression of RT-induced atherosclerosis. Eleven men (age = 57.9 ± 6.2years) with head and neck cancer who underwent cervical bilateral irradiation were prospectively examined by clinical and laboratory analysis and by carotid and popliteal ultrasound before and after treatment (mean interval between the end of RT and the post-RT assessment = 181 ± 47 days). No studied subject used hypocholesterolemic medications. Significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (0.95 ± 0.08 vs. 0.87 ± 0.05 mm; p < 0.0001) and carotid IMT/diameter ratio (0.138 ± 0.013 vs. 0.129 ± 0.014; p = 0.001) were observed after RT, while no changes in popliteal structural features were detected. In addition, baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels showed a direct correlation with RT-induced carotid IMT change (r = 0.66; p = 0.027), while no other studied variable exhibited a significant relationship with carotid IMT change. These results indicate that RT-induced atherosclerosis is limited to the irradiated area and also suggest that it may be predicted by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in subjects with head and neck cancer
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P＜0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P＜0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of ＜3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (% attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal. Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION:A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.
Gamboa, Christopher M; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Brown, Todd M; Carson, April P; Safford, Monika M
Statin therapy is a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease risk reduction for people with diabetes mellitus. Past reports have shown race-sex differences in statin use in general populations, but statin patterns by race and sex in those with diabetes mellitus have not been thoroughly studied. Our sample of 4288 adults ≥45 years of age with diagnosed diabetes mellitus who had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >100 mg/dL or were taking statins recruited for the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study from 2003 to 2007. Exposures included race-sex groups (white men [WM], black men [BM], white women [WW], black women [BW]) and factors that may influence healthcare utilization. Proportions and prevalence ratios were calculated for statin use and LDL-C control. Statin use for WM, BM, WW, and BW was 66.0%, 57.8%, 55.0%, and 53.6%, respectively ( P diabetes mellitus. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
Association of the Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A-I Ratio, Metabolic Syndrome Components, Total Cholesterol, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Insulin Resistance in the Population of Georgia
Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the association between insulin resistance (IR and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio (ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, metabolic syndrome (MetS components, total cholesterol (TC, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in the nondiabetic population of Georgia. The subjects were 1522 Georgians of Caucasian origin (mean age = 45 years, 653 women without diabetes who had visited the clinics for a related health checkup between 2012 and 2013. IR was calculated using the computer homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR and was defined as the upper quartile. MetS was diagnosed using the updated ATP-III definition of the metabolic syndrome. Logistic and multiple regression models were used to estimate the association between IR and other components. IR was positively correlated with age, ApoB, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, MetS components (excluding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol—HDL-C, LDL-C, fasting insulin, and TC and negatively correlated with HDL-C and ApoA-I in both sexes (all P<0.001. In the logistic regression models, gender, age, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, diastolic pressure, HDL-C, LDL-C, fasting glucose, and triglycerides were the covariates significantly associated with IR (OR: 8.64, 1.03, 17.95, 1.06, 0.13, 1.17, 3.75, and 2.29, resp.; all P<0.05. Multiple regression models demonstrated that these components (except for HDL-C made an independent contribution to the prediction of HOMA2 (all P<0.05.
Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.
Trigueros-Motos, Laia; van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Torta, Federico; Castaño, David; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Chai, Ee Chu; Kang, Martin; Dimova, Lidiya G.; Schimmel, Alinda W. M.; Tietjen, Ian; Radomski, Chris; Tan, Liang Juin; Thiam, Chung Hwee; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wu, Daniel Heqing; Dorninger, Fabian; Yakala, Gopala Krishna; Barhdadi, Amina; Angeli, Veronique; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Berger, Johannes; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Wenk, Markus R.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Singaraja, Roshni R.
Objective-High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered to protect against atherosclerosis in part by facilitating the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues. However, factors regulating lipid efflux are incompletely understood. We previously identified a variant in adenosine
Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Stender, Stefan
Background Low plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of cancer, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Methods We studied 10¿613 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) and 59¿566 participants in the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, 6816 of whom had developed cancer by May 2009. Individuals were genotyped for PCSK9 R46L (rs11591147), ABCG8 D19H (rs11887534), and APOE R112C (rs429358) and R158C (rs7412) polymorphisms, all of which are associated with lifelong reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Plasma LDL...... cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald equation in samples in which the triglyceride level was less than 354 mg/dL and measured directly by colorimetry for samples with higher triglyceride levels. Risk of cancer was estimated prospectively using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and cross...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C and the prevalence of asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC study is a prospective cohort study based on the Kailuan district (China population. A total of 5351 eligible subjects, aged ≥40, and without history of stroke or myocardial infarction, were enrolled in this study. Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCD was performed on all enrolled subjects for the evaluation of ICAS presence. Out of 5351 patients, 698 subjects showed evidence of ICAS (prevalence of 13.04%. Multivariate analysis showed that non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for the presence of ICAS (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.08 - 1.23, but with a gender difference (P for interaction<0.01: in men, non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for ICAS (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.18-1.39, but not in women (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 0.93-1.14. Subjects were divided into five subgroups based non-HDL-C levels and these levels correlated linearly with the prevalence of ICAS (P for trend <0.01. Compared with the first quintile, multivariate-adjusted OR (95%CI of the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles were: 1.05 (0.71-1.56, 1.33 (0.91-1.95, 1.83 (1.27-2.63, 2.48 (1.72-3.57, respectively. CONCLUSION: Non-HDL-C is an independent predictor of ICAS prevalence in men but not in women, suggesting that non-HDL-C levels could be used as a surveillance factor in the primary prevention of ischemic stroke, especially in men.
Pedro-Botet, Juan; Mostaza, José M; Pintó, Xavier; Banegas, José R
To evaluate low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc) goal achievement among dyslipidemic patients treated in lipid and vascular risk units of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA). The LDLc goal was based on the 2007 European guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter national study that included consecutive patients of both sexes over 18 years of age referred for dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk. Information was collected from medical records corresponding to two visits in the lipid unit. We included 1,828 patients from 43 lipid units. In the initial visit, 846 (46.3%) patients were on lipid lowering drug treatment. On the follow-up there was a significant increase in the use of cholesterol-lowering agents, except for a decrease in the use of nicotinic acid. 65.3% of patients with vascular disease and 50.4% with diabetes achieved an LDLc level <100mg/dL. Overall, 44.7% of patients achieved the LDLc goal and the predictors in the multivariate analysis were age, waist circumference, diabetes and the presence of vascular disease. Dyslipidemic patients referred to SEA lipid units have improved LDLc goal achievement after follow-up compared with data reported from previous studies in other health care settings. This improvement was associated with a substantial increase in the prescription of statins, both in monotherapy and combined with ezetimibe. There is still a wide room for improvement in the effectiveness of hypercholesterolemia treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.
Silver, Matt; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E-Shyong; Teo, Yik-Ying; Montana, Giovanni
Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK signalling and immune
Aryan, Zahra; Afarideh, Mohsen; Ghajar, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Esteghamati, Alireza; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr
This study is amid at investigating the associations, and interactions of serum lipid biomarkers with microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A nested case-control study was conducted within an ongoing prospective study on patients with T2D. Microvascular complications of T2D including diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were investigated. A total of 444 cases with at least one of the microvascular complications of T2D and 439 age- and gender-matched controls free of any of the chronic microvascular complications of T2D were included. The associations and interactions of a panel of serum lipid biomarkers with the microvascular complications of T2D were investigated. Serum triglyceride had the strongest association with microvascular complications of T2D (crude model: β=0.632, P value=0.045). Each standard deviation increment in serum TG was associated with 3.7 times increased frequency of microvascular complications. Despite high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) was positively associated with the presence of diabetic neuropathy. Each standard deviation increment in serum ApoA1 was associated with increased frequency of diabetic neuropathy (OR, 1.2, 95% CI, (1.1-1.3), P value=0.006). The frequency of diabetic neuropathy was higher in 2nd and 3rd quartiles of serum Lp(a) compared to diabetic patients in the first quartile (OR, 5.52, 95% (1.17-25.8), P value=0.047). ApoA1 but not HDL-C is straightly associated with diabetic neuropathy. Even Slight rise in serum Lp(a) is associated with increased frequency of diabetic retinopathLipid variables could serve as specific predictors of vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An, Ping; Straka, Robert J.; Pollin, Toni I.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Daw, E. Warwick; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Gibson, Quince; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Province, Michael A.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Shuldiner, Alan R; Arnett, Donna K.; Borecki, Ingrid B.
Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL) is an independent and superior predictor of CVD risk as compared to LDL alone. It represents a spectrum of atherogenic lipid fractions with possibly a distinct genomic signature. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify loci influencing baseline NHDL and its postprandial lipemic (PPL) response. We carried out GWAS in 4,241 participants of European descent. Our discovery cohort included 928 subjects from the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study. Our replication cohorts included 3,313 subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study and Family Heart Study (FamHS). A linear mixed model using the kinship matrix was used for association tests. The best association signal was found in a tri-genic region at RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT for baseline NHDL (lead SNP rs6544903, discovery p = 7e-7, MAF = 2%; validation p = 6e-4 at 0.1 kb upstream neighboring SNP rs3768725, and 5e-4 at 0.7 kb downstream neighboring SNP rs6733143, MAF = 10%). The lead and neighboring SNPs were not perfect surrogate proxies to each other (D′ = 1, r2 = 0.003) but they seemed to be partially dependent (likelihood ration test p = 0.04). Other suggestive loci (discovery p 0.01). The current and first GWAS of NHDL yielded an interesting common variant in RHOQ-PIGF-CRIPT influencing baseline NHDL levels. Another common variant in CDH13 for NHDL response to dietary high fat intake challenge was also suggested. Further validations for both loci from large independent studies, especially interventional studies, are warranted. PMID:24604477
Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases
Figueroa, Catalina; Droppelmann, Katherine; Quiñones, Verónica; Amigo, Ludwig; Mendoza, Camila; Serrano, Valentina; Véjar, Margarita; Maiz, Alberto; Rigotti, Attilio
Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.
Relf, Bronwyn L; Larkin, Emma K; de Torres, Carina; Baur, Louise A; Christodoulou, John; Waters, Karen A
Summary Increasing evidence supports an association between obstructive sleep apnoea and metabolic syndrome in both children and adults suggesting a genetic component. However, the genetic relationship between the diseases remains unclear. We performed a bivariate linkage scan on a single Filipino family with a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea and metabolic syndrome to explore the genetic pathways underlying these diseases. A large rural family (N=50, 50% adults) underwent a 10cM genome-wide scan. Fasting blood was used to measure insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Attended overnight polysomnography was used to quantify the respiratory disturbance index (RDI), a measure of sleep apnea. BMI z-scores and insulin resistance scores were calculated. Bivariate multipoint linkage analyses were performed on RDI and metabolic syndrome components. Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence was 46% (n=23; 9 adults, 14 children) in our participants. Metabolic syndrome phenotype was present in 40% of adults (n=10) and 48% of children (n=12). Linkage peaks with a LOD score > 3 were demonstrated on chromosome 19q13·4 (LOD=3·04) for the trait pair RDI and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Candidate genes identified in this region include the killer-like immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) genes. These genes are associated with modulating inflammatory responses in reaction to cellular stress and initiation of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We have identified a novel locus for genetic links between RDI and lipid factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a chromosomal region containing genes associated with inflammatory responses. PMID:20149069
Burillo, Elena; Andres, Eva Maria; Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Fiddyment, Sarah; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando
Many observational prospective studies have confirmed the inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease. However, the potential benefit of the pharmacological increase in HDL cholesterol has not been clearly demonstrated. Moreover, in some interventions an increase in total mortality has been reported. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between HDL cholesterol increase and non-cardiovascular mortality in randomised trials. Authors searched Medline up to December 2008. Four reviewers identified randomised trials in which, through different types of interventions, HDL cholesterol increase in the treatment group was >4% compared to control group, both groups reported separately non-cardiovascular mortality and the duration of the study was, at least, one year. Data of HDL cholesterol concentrations and deaths were collected as they appeared in the original studies. If necessary, reviewers calculated data by using trial information. Meta-regression analysis included 44 articles corresponding to 107 773 participants. Analysis showed an association between HDL cholesterol increase and non-cardiovascular mortality (p=0.023), however, the correlation disappeared when we excluded the ILLUMINATE (Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerosis Events) trial from the analysis (p=0.972). Meta-regression analysis results suggest that increases in HDL cholesterol up to 40% are not associated with higher non-cardiovascular death. The increase in adverse events observed in some trials where HDL cholesterol was raised in large amounts could be related with the drug mechanisms more than the HDL cholesterol increase itself.
Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan
Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 13.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (31,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ginsberg, Henry N.; Rader, Daniel J.; Raal, Frederick J.; Guyton, John R.; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T.; Lorenzato, Christelle; Pordy, Robert; Stroes, Erik
Even with statins and other lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), many patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) continue to have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. ODYSSEY HIGH FH (NCT01617655) assessed the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein
Association between plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and microvascular kidney disease and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a global case-control study in 13 countries.
Sacks, Frank M; Hermans, Michel P; Fioretto, Paola; Valensi, Paul; Davis, Timothy; Horton, Edward; Wanner, Christoph; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Aronson, Ronnie; Barzon, Isabella; Bishop, Louise; Bonora, Enzo; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Goldenberg, Ronald; Harshfield, Benjamin; Hernández, Cristina; Herzlinger-Botein, Susan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Jia, Weiping; Jiang, Yi-Der; Kadowaki, Takashi; Laranjo, Nancy; Leiter, Lawrence; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato; Ohashi, Ken; Ohno, Atsushi; Pan, Changyu; Pan, Jiemin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Reiner, Zeljko; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Simo, Rafael; Tanaka, Masami; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Twum-Barima, David; Zoppini, Giacomo; Carey, Vincent J
Microvascular renal and retinal diseases are common major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relation between plasma lipids and microvascular disease is not well established. The case subjects were 2535 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an average duration of 14 years, 1891 of whom had kidney disease and 1218 with retinopathy. The case subjects were matched for diabetes mellitus duration, age, sex, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 3683 control subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not have kidney disease or retinopathy. The study was conducted in 24 sites in 13 countries. The primary analysis included kidney disease and retinopathy cases. Matched analysis was performed by use of site-specific conditional logistic regression in multivariable models that adjusted for hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, and statin treatment. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 2.3 mmol/L. The microvascular disease odds ratio increased by a factor of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) for every 0.5 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in triglycerides or decreased by a factor of 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for every 0.2 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For kidney disease, the odds ratio increased by 1.23 (1.16-1.31) with triglycerides and decreased by 0.86 (0.82-0.91) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in matched analysis but not significantly after additional adjustment. Diabetic kidney disease is associated worldwide with higher levels of plasma triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among patients with good control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was less robustly associated with these lipids. These results strengthen the rationale for studying dyslipidemia treatment to prevent diabetic microvascular disease.
Magnus, Per; Bakke, Eirin; Hoff, Dominic A; Høiseth, Gudrun; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Myhre, Ronny; Normann, Per Trygve; Næss, Øyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Thelle, Dag S; Mørland, Jørg
This study tested the hypothesis that moderate alcohol intake exerts its cardioprotective effect mainly through an increase in the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) study, 149 729 adult participants, recruited from 1994 to 2003, were followed by linkage to the Cause of Death Registry until 2006. At recruitment, questionnaire data on alcohol intake were collected, and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum was measured. Using Cox regression, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio for men for dying from coronary heart disease was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69) when consuming alcohol more than once a week compared with never or rarely. The ratio changed only slightly, to 0.55 (0.41-0.73), after the regression model included the serum level of high-density cholesterol. For women, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.62 (0.32-1.23) and 0.68 (0.34-1.34), respectively. Alcohol intake is related to a reduced risk of death from coronary heart disease in the follow-up of a large, population-based Norwegian cohort study with extensive control for confounding factors. Our findings suggest that the serum level of high-density cholesterol is not an important intermediate variable in the possible causal pathway between moderate alcohol intake and coronary heart disease.
Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi
The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Kliegel, Matthias
The present study set out to investigate the relation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level to cognitive performance and its interplay with key markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. We assessed tests of working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in 701 older adults from Amazonas, Brazil. The HDL-C level was derived from fasting blood samples. In addition, we interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. A critically low HDL-C level (cognitive level of the job, and greater engagement in cognitive leisure activity. Cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course may reduce the detrimental influences of a critically low HDL-C level on cognitive functioning in old age. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim
AIMS: To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Parallel nested case-control studies...... among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced...... effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend
Ford, Ian; Murray, Heather; McCowan, Colin; Packard, Chris J
Extended follow-up of statin-based low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering trials improves the understanding of statin safety and efficacy. Examining cumulative cardiovascular events (total burden of disease) gives a better appreciation of the clinical value of statins. This article evaluates the long-term impact of therapy on mortality and cumulative morbidity in a high-risk cohort of men. The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study was a primary prevention trial in 45- to 64-year-old men with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A total of 6595 men were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg once daily or placebo for an average of 4.9 years. Subsequent linkage to electronic health records permitted analysis of major incident events over 20 years. Post trial statin use was recorded for 5 years after the trial but not for the last 10 years. Men allocated to pravastatin had reduced all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94; P=0.0007), attributable mainly to a 21% decrease in cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.90; P=0.0004). There was no difference in noncardiovascular or cancer death rates between groups. Cumulative hospitalization event rates were lower in the statin-treated arm: by 18% for any coronary event (P=0.002), by 24% for myocardial infarction (P=0.01), and by 35% for heart failure (P=0.002). There were no significant differences between groups in hospitalization for noncardiovascular causes. Statin treatment for 5 years was associated with a legacy benefit, with improved survival and a substantial reduction in cardiovascular disease outcomes over a 20-year period, supporting the wider adoption of primary prevention strategies. © 2016 The Authors.
Donner, Thomas W; Magder, Laurence S; Zarbalian, Kiarash
Oral d-tagatose (d-tag) attenuates the rise in plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reduces food intake in healthy human subjects. A reduction in food consumption and less weight gain occur in rats fed tagatose. This pilot study explored the metabolic effects of d-tag given daily to 8 human subjects with type 2 DM for 1 year. We hypothesized that this treatment period would lead to weight loss and improvements in glycated hemoglobin and the lipid profile. A 2-month run-in period was followed by a 12-month treatment period when 15 g of oral d-tag was taken 3 times daily with food. No serious adverse effects were seen during the 12-month treatment period. Ten of the initially 12 recruited subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects that tended to be mild and transient. When 3 subjects were excluded who had oral diabetes, medications added and/or dosages increased during the study and mean (SD) body weight declined from 108.4 (9.0) to 103.3 (7.3) kg (P = .001). Glycated hemoglobin fell nonsignificantly from 10.6% ± 1.9% to 9.6% ± 2.3% (P = .08). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol progressively rose from a baseline level of 30.5 ± 15.8 to 41.7 ± 12.1 mg/dL at month 12 in the 6 subjects who did not have lipid-modifying medications added during the study (P < .001). Significant improvements in body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in this pilot study suggest that d-tag may be a potentially useful adjunct in the management of patients with type 2 DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Helgason, Hannes; Helgadottir, Anna
Through high coverage whole-genome sequencing and imputation of the identified variants into a large fraction of the Icelandic population, we found four independent signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) that associate with levels of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (...... that disrupt the LDL receptor can lower non-HDL-C and protect against CAD....... (non-HDL-C) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Two signals are novel with respect to association with non-HDL-C and are represented by non-coding low frequency variants (between 2-4% frequency), the splice region variant rs72658867-A in intron 14 and rs17248748-T in intron one. These two novel...... associations were replicated in three additional populations. Both variants lower non-HDL-C levels (rs72658867-A, non-HDL-C effect = -0.44 mmol/l, Padj = 1.1 × 10⁻⁸⁰ and rs17248748-T, non-HDL-C effect = -0.13 mmol/l, Padj = 1.3 × 10⁻¹²) and confer protection against CAD (rs72658867-A, OR = 0.76 and Padj = 2...
Full Text Available Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262 were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04, and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02 was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.
Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P intervention, there were no apparent changes in the serum HDL-c and total cholesterol (TCH). In addition, the FO could up-regulate the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mRNA (P obesity-insulin resistance rats.
Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R
(1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tyagi Suresh C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated non HDL-C (as part of the metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an isolated low HDL-C is rapidly emerging. The antiatherosclerotic roles of reverse cholesterol transport and the pleiotropic antioxidant – anti-inflammatory mechanistic effects of HDL-C are undergoing rapid exponential growth. Case presentation In 1997 a 53-year-old Caucasian male presented with a lipoprotein profile of many years duration with an isolated low HDL-C and uric acid levels in the upper quintile of normal. He developed an acute myocardial infarction involving the right coronary artery and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting of this lesion. He also demonstrated a non-critical non-flow limiting lesion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery at the time of this evaluation. Following a program of global risk reduction this patient has done well over the past 7 years and remains free of any clinical signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. His HDL-C and uric acid levels are currently in the normal physiological range. Conclusion Low HDL-C and isolated low HDL-C constitute an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Therapies that lead to a return to normal physiologic range of HDL-C may result in the delay of atherosclerotic progression.
Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric B
To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Parallel nested case-control studies among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend alcohol with HDL-C levels was modified by CETP TaqIB2 carrier status, and there was also a suggestion of a gene-environment interaction on the risk of CHD.
Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh
It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.
Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M
The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P < .001), with lesser but comparable correlations between SSPG and TG/HDL-C ratio, TyG index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P < .001). Calculations of TG/HDL-C ratio and TyG index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer
Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....
Burgess, Stephen; Davey Smith, George
Undertake a systematic investigation into associations between genetic predictors of lipid fractions and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. Two-sample Mendelian randomization investigation using published data. A total of 33 526 individuals (16 144 cases, 17 832 controls) predominantly of European ancestry from the International Age-related Macular Degeneration Genomics Consortium. We consider 185 variants previously demonstrated to be associated with at least 1 of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or triglycerides at a genome-wide level of significance, and test their associations with AMD. We particularly focus on variants in gene regions that are proxies for specific pharmacologic agents for lipid therapy. We then conduct a 2-sample Mendelian randomization investigation to assess the causal roles of LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides on AMD risk. We also conduct parallel investigations for coronary artery disease (CAD) (viewed as a positive control) and Alzheimer's disease (a negative control) for comparison. Diagnosis of AMD. We find evidence that HDL-cholesterol is a causal risk factor for AMD, with an odds ratio (OR) estimate of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.44) per 1 standard deviation increase in HDL-cholesterol. No causal effect of LDL-cholesterol or triglycerides was found. Variants in the CETP gene region associated with increased circulating HDL-cholesterol also associate with increased AMD risk, although variants in the LIPC gene region that increase circulating HDL-cholesterol have the opposite direction of association with AMD risk. Parallel analyses suggest that lipids have a greater role for AMD compared with Alzheimer's disease, but a lesser role than for CAD. Some genetic evidence suggests that HDL-cholesterol is a causal risk factor for AMD risk and that increasing HDL-cholesterol (particularly via CETP inhibition) will increase AMD risk
Full Text Available The gene product ABCB1 (formerly MDR1 or P-glycoprotein is hypothesized to be involved in cholesterol cellular trafficking, redistribution and intestinal re-absorption. Carriers of the ABCB1:3435T allele have previously been associated with decreases in ABCB1 mRNA and protein concentrations and have been correlated with changes in serum lipid concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between the ABCB1:3435T>C polymorphism and changes in lipids in patients following statin treatment. Outpatients (n=130 were examined: 43 men (33%, 87 women (67%: treated with atorvastatin or simvastatin (all patients with equivalent dose of 20 or 40 mg/d simvastatin. Blood was taken for ABCB1:3435T>C genotyping, and before and after statin treatment for lipid concentration determination (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides. Change (Δ in lipid parameters, calculated as differences between measurements before and after treatment, were analyzed with multiple regression adjustments: gender, diabetes, age, body mass index, equivalent statin dose, length of treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant differences in ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.029; multivariate p=0.036 and %ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.021; multivariate p=0.023 between patients with TT (-0.05 ± 0.13 g/l; -6.8% ± 20%; respectively and CC+CT genotypes (0.004 ± 0.15 g/l; 4.1 ± 26%; respectively. Reduction of HDL-C in homozygous ABCB1:3435TT patients suggests this genotype could be associated with a reduction in the benefits of statin treatment.
Gong, Zhizhong; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Fan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sun, Jiayi; Xie, Wuxiang; Li, Yan; Wang, Miao; Qin, Lanping; Wang, Ying; Hao, Yongchen; Zhang, Qingxuan; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Dong
To evaluate the association between very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers in patients with moderate and high risk of coronary heart disease. A total 363 statin-naïve patients with moderate and high risk of coronary heart disease were consecutively recruited from two hospitals in Shanxi and Henan provinces between October 2008 and June 2009. A standard questionnaire and physical examination were performed at baseline. Atorvastatin (20 mg/day) was administered to patients for 4 weeks. Venous blood samples after an overnight fast were collected before and after treatment for measuring VLDL-C and cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers. In qualitative analyses, the baseline level of cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers and their reduction after atorvastatin treatment were categorized into 3 tertile groups. (1) Of 363 patients, 283 patients with mean age of (55.43±9.01)years old with complete data were finally analyzed. The median level of baseline VLDL-C was 1.06 (0.65, 1.86) mmol/L. The median level of baseline cholesterol absorption marker (Campesterol) and cholesterol synthesis marker (Lathosterol) was 6.01 (3.78, 9.45) mg/L and 13.46 (8.30, 21.07) mg/L, respectively. (2) Partial correlation analysis and multiple regression showed the baseline level of VLDL-C was positively correlated with Campesterol (r=0.153, Pmarker, and further studies are needed to validate if inhibitor of cholesterol absorption (for example by Ezetimibe) could bring about more effective VLDL-C lowering effect in this patient cohort.
Chen, Lifang; Xu, Jianing; Sun, Hao; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jinsong
High admission cholesterol has been associated with better outcome after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), but a paradox not completely illustrated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) on short-term survival after AIS. Consecutive patients admitted in 2013 and 2015 were enrolled in the present study. The logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of 3-month outcomes. The primary endpoint was death. Secondary endpoint was good (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or equal to prestrike modified Rankin Scale score) at 3 months. Of 871 patients enrolled in the final analysis, 94 (10.8%) individuals died during 3 months of observation. The serum TC and TC/HDL-C levels at admission were significantly associated with stroke outcomes at 3 months, and the HDL-C level was only correlated with the good outcomes at 3 months. Mortality risk was markedly decreased for patients with high TC/HDL-C ratio (odds ratio: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.50 for Q4:Q1; P-trend <.001) after adjustment. The effect of TC/HDL-C ratio on the probability of good outcomes was still obvious (odds ratio: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.40-3.39 for Q4:Q1; P-trend=.029). According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the best discriminating factor was a TG/HDL-C ≥3.37 (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.643, sensitivity 61.3%, specificity 61.7%) as well as the TC/HDL-C ≥4.09 for good outcomes (AUC: 0.587, sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 79.7%). High TC/HDL-C ratio may be associated with increased short-term survival and better outcomes after AIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mokdad Ali H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio has been reported to be as closely correlated with insulin resistance as is the fasting serum insulin concentration (FSI, and therefore it is seen as a clinically useful way to identify the concomitant presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, conflicting findings exist for the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with FSI by race/ethnicity. Methods The associations of FSI concentration, serum triglyceride concentrations, and HDL-C were analyzed using log-binomial regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis among nondiabetic adults (n = 2652, aged ≥ 20 years, 51.2% men in the United States. Results After adjustment for potential confounding effects, the prevalence ratio of hyperinsulinemia was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74 to 2.08 when using a single cutoff point of 3.5, and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.83 to 2.72 when using race/ethnicity-specific cutoff points of 3.0 for non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans and 2.0 for non-Hispanic blacks for the TG/HDL-C ratio. The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting hyperinsulinemia was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.79, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.77, and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.76 for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans, respectively. Conclusion There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and FSI among three major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Our results add further support to the notion that the TG/HDL-C ratio may be a clinically simple and useful indicator for hyperinsulinemia among nondiabetic adults regardless of race/ethnicity.
Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori
Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.
Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi
The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus <100 mg/dL of non-HDL-cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated dyslipidaemia [high triglyceride (TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations] are increased in South Asian individuals; likely contributing to their increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C has been proposed as a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk. This study was carried out to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles of high-risk South Asian individuals identified by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio versus those with a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, and HDL-C concentrations were determined in apparently healthy men (n=498 and women (n=526. The cardio-metabolic risk profile of "high risk" individuals identified by TG/HDL-C ratios in men (≥ 3.5 and women (≥2.5 was compared to those identified by a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Results: More concentrations of all cardio-metabolic risk factors were significantly higher in "high risk" groups, identified by either the TG/HDL-C ratio or a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. TG, HDL-C, and insulin concentrations were not significantly different in "high risk" groups identified by either criterion, whereas plasma glucose and blood pressure were higher in those with the metabolic syndrome. Interpretation & conclusions: Apparently healthy South Asian individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk can be identified using either the TG/HDL-C ratio or the metabolic syndrome criteria. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be used as a simple marker to identify such individuals.
Liu, Hongtao; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yudong; Zeng, Qiutang; Song, Zongren; He, Wenping; Zhang, Le; Gao, Gan; Xiao, Ting; Yu, Xuedong
Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been proposed an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the magnitude of this association in the general population varied considerably. To investigate the association of baseline non-HDL-C level with CHD risk in the general population by conducting a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the Pubmed and Embase until January 2017. Prospective observational studies that investigated the association between baseline non-HDL-C level and CHD risk in the general population were included. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the highest vs. the lowest non-HDL-C category. Seven articles with 9 independent prospective studies involving 448,732 individuals were included. Meta-analysis showed that individuals with the highest non-HDL-C level at baseline were associated with greater risk of CHD (RR 1.79; 95% CI 1.68-1.91) than those in the lowest non-HDL-C level category. Subgroup analysis suggested that the risk of CHD seemed more pronounced among men (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.70-2.30) than among women (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.35-1.96). Higher baseline non-HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of CHD in the general population. This risk seems more pronounced in men than in women. However, gender difference in non-HDL-C level associated with CHD risk should be verified by more well-designed prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raji Ramachandran Pillai
Full Text Available Postpartum depression (PPD is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10-20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015. Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05. Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047, whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004. Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.
Ramachandran Pillai, Raji; Wilson, Anand Babu; Premkumar, Nancy R.; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric complication of childbirth affecting 10–20% of new mothers and has negative impact on both mother and infant. Serum lipid levels have been related to depressive disorders, but very limited literatures are available regarding the lipid levels in women with postpartum depression. The present study is aimed to examine the association of serum lipids with the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. This is a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India. Women who came for postpartum check-up at 6th week post-delivery were screened for PPD (September 2014-October 2015). Women with depressive symptoms were assessed using EPDS (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The study involved 186 cases and 250 controls matched for age and BMI. Serum levels of lipid parameters were estimated through spectrophotometry and the atherogenic indices were calculated in all the subjects. Low serum levels of Total Cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were significantly low in PPD women with severe depressive symptoms. The study recorded a significant negative correlation between HDL-c and the EPDS score in PPD women (r = -0.140, p = 0.05). Interestingly, the study also observed a significant negative correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and EPDS scores in case group (r = -0.146, p = 0.047), whereas a positive correlation between the same in controls (r = 0.187, p = 0.004). Our study demonstrated that low levels of serum HDL-c is correlated with the development of severe depressive symptoms in postpartum women. Study highlights the role of lipids in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:29444162
Full Text Available Objective: Predictors of subclinical inflammatory obesity (SIO can be important tools for early therapeutic interventions in obesity-related comorbidities. Waist circumference (WC and BMI have different SIO sensitivity. We aimed to i identify SIO predictors and ii investigate whether CD16+ monocytes are associated with BMI- (generally or WC-defined (centrally obesity. Methods: Anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine (namely catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline parameters were evaluated, and CD16+ monocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood from 63 blood donors, and compared and correlated to each other. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify variables that best predict SIO. Results: CD16+ monocyte counts were similar in BMI and WC groups. CD16+ monocytes from centrally obese (CO showed a more inflammatory pattern, as compared to non-CO subjects. WC was sensitive to lipidemia and, in CO subjects, lipidemia was associated with a more inflammatory phenotype of CD16+ monocytes. These differences were not noticed between BMI groups. Adrenaline was correlated with CD16+ monocyte expansion with a lower inflammatory pattern. Leptin, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes were found to be CO predictors. Conclusions: WC-, but not BMI-defined obesity, was associated with a more inflammatory pattern of CD16+ monocytes, without monocyte expansion, suggesting that a monocyte maturation process rather than an independent arise of CD16+ monocytes occurs in CO. Thus, in a population with low cardiovascular risk, leptin, VLDL-C, and CD14 expression of CD16+ monocytes predict CO, constituting a putative tool for screening of SIO.
Tanabe, Naohito; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okada, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Harada, Akiko; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ando, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu
Few Japanese studies have compared serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol with serum total cholesterol as factors for predicting risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, few tools accurately estimate the probability of developing cardiovascular events for the Japanese general population. A total of 22,430 Japanese men and women (aged 40-89 years) without a history of cardiovascular events from 10 community-based cohorts were followed. In an average 7.6-year follow up, 104 individuals experienced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 339 experienced stroke. Compared to serum total cholesterol, serum non-HDL cholesterol was more strongly associated with risk of AMI in a dose-response manner (multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio per 1 SD increment [95% confidence interval] =1.49 [1.24-1.79] and 1.62 [1.35-1.95], respectively). Scoring systems were constructed based on multivariable Poisson regression models for predicting a 5-year probability of developing AMI; the non-HDL cholesterol model was found to have a better predictive ability (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] =0.825) than the total cholesterol model (AUC =0.815). Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol levels were associated with any stroke subtype. The risk of AMI can be more reliably predicted by serum non-HDL cholesterol than serum total cholesterol. The scoring systems are useful tools to predict risk of AMI. Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol can predict stroke risk in the Japanese general population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Squalene, the main hydrocarbon in the unsaponifiable fraction of virgin olive oil, is involved in cholesterol synthesis and it has been reported to own antiatherosclerotic and antiesteatosic effects. However, the squalene's role on lipid plasma parameters and the influence of genotype on this effect need to be addressed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: Three male mouse models (wild-type, Apoa1- and Apoe- deficient were fed chow semisynthetic diets enriched in squalene to provide a dose of 1 g/kg during 11 weeks. After this period, their plasma parameters and lipoprotein profiles were analyzed. KEY RESULTS: Squalene administration at a dose of 1 g/kg showed decreased reactive oxygen species in lipoprotein fractions independently of the animal background and caused an specific increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels, accompanied by an increase in phosphatidylcholine and paraoxonase 1 and no changes in apolipoproteins A1 and A4 in wild-type mice. In these mice, the cholesterol increase was due to its esterified form and associated with an increased hepatic expression of Lcat. These effects were not observed in absence of apolipoprotein A1. The increases in HDL- paraoxonase 1 were translated into decreased plasma malondialdehyde levels depending on the presence of Apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Dietary squalene promotes changes in HDL- cholesterol and paraoxonase 1 and decreases reactive oxygen species in lipoproteins and plasma malondialdehyde levels, providing new benefits of its intake that might contribute to explain the properties of virgin olive oil, although the phenotype related to apolipoproteins A1 and E may be particularly relevant.
Mc Auley, Mark T; Mooney, Kathleen M
The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases with age, up until the midpoint of life in males and females. However, LDL-C can decrease with age in older men and women. Intriguingly, a recent systematic review also revealed an inverse association between LDL-C levels and cardiovascular mortality in older people; low levels of LDL-C were associated with reduced risk of mortality. Such findings are puzzling and require a biological explanation. In this paper a hypothesis is proposed to explain these observations. We hypothesize that the free radical theory of ageing (FRTA) together with disrupted cholesterol homeostasis can account for these observations. Based on this hypothesis, dysregulated hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in older people is characterised by two distinct metabolic states. The first state accounts for an older person who has elevated plasma LDL-C. This state is underpinned by the FRTA which suggests there is a decrease in cellular antioxidant capacity with age. This deficiency enables hepatic reactive oxidative species (ROS) to induce the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase, the key rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. An increase in cholesterol synthesis elicits a corresponding rise in LDL-C, due to the downregulation of LDL receptor synthesis, and increased production of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). In the second state of dysregulation, ROS also trigger the total activation of HMG-CoA reductase. However, due to an age associated decrease in the activity of cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, there is restricted conversion of excess free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol esters. Consequently, the secretion of VLDL-C drops, and there is a corresponding decrease in LDL-C. As intracellular levels of FC accumulate, this state progresses to a pathophysiological condition akin to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is our
Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Park, Jihwan; Quispe, Renato; Elshazly, Mohamed B; Michos, Erin D; Banach, Maciej; Toth, Peter P; Whelton, Seamus P; Blumenthal, Roger S; Jones, Steven R; Martin, Seth S
Background -Selected dyslipidemia guidelines recommend non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) as secondary targets to the primary target of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). We examined, after considering two LDL-C estimates that differ in accuracy: (1) how frequently non-HDL-C guideline targets could change management; and (2) utility of apoB targets after meeting LDL-C and non-HDL-C targets. Methods -We analyzed 2,518 adults representative of the U.S. population from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 126,092 patients from the Very Large Database of Lipids study with apoB. We identified all individuals as well as those with high-risk clinical features including coronary disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome who met very high- and high-risk guideline targets of LDL-CC F ) and a novel, more accurate method (LDL-C N ). Next, we examined those not meeting non-HDL-C (C and non-HDL-C targets (CC F C≥100 mg/dL, and 7-8% had apoB≥80 mg/dL. Among those with LDL-C F C≥130 mg/dL and 2-3% had apoB≥100 mg/dL. In comparison, among those with LDL-C N C and apoB values above guideline targets. Similar trends were upheld among those with high-risk clinical features: ~0-3% of individuals with LDL-C N C≥100 mg/dL or apoB≥80 mg/dL compared to 13-38% and 9-25%, respectively, in those with LDL-C F C F or LDL-C N CC F or LDL-C N CC, guideline-suggested non-HDL-C targets could alter management in only a small fraction of individuals, including those with coronary disease and other high-risk clinical features. Furthermore, current guideline-suggested apoB targets provide modest utility after meeting cholesterol targets. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01698489.
The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol
Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Nelson, Jessica K.; Defesche, Joep C.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Zelcer, Noam
Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that IDOL (also known as MYLIP) contributes to variation in circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). IDOL, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, is a recently identified post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Briefly, IDOL
Beth A. Taylor
Full Text Available The purpose of the present report was to examine whether proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 levels differ in individuals who do not exhibit expected reductions in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C with statin therapy. Eighteen nonresponder subjects treated with 80 mg atorvastatin treatment for 6 months without substantial reductions in LDL-C (ΔLDL-C: 2.6 ± 11.4% were compared to age- and gender-matched atorvastatin responders (ΔLDL-C: 50.7 ± 8.5% and placebo-treated subjects (ΔLDL-C: 9.9 ± 21.5%. Free PCSK9 was marginally higher in nonresponders at baseline (P=0.07 and significantly higher in atorvastatin responders after 6 months of treatment (P=0.04. The change in free PCSK9 over 6 months with statin treatment was higher (P<0.01 in atorvastatin responders (134.2 ± 131.5 ng/mL post- versus prestudy than in either the nonresponders (39.9 ± 87.8 ng/mL or placebo subjects (27.8 ± 97.6 ng/mL. Drug compliance was not lower in the nonresponders as assessed by pill counts and poststudy plasma atorvastatin levels. Serum PCSK9 levels, both at baseline and in response to statin therapy, may differentiate individuals who do versus those who do not respond to statin treatment.
The association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the general Korean population: based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007-2009.
Kim, Jong-Seok; Kang, Hee-Taik; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Hye-Ree
This study explores the association between the ratio of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin resistance according to waist circumference in the general Korean population. 7623 participants were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted during 2007-2009 and included in this cross-sectional study. Insulin resistance was defined as the values equal to or greater than the 75th percentile of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Positive correlation was found between the ratio of TG and HDL-C and other variables such as waist circumference, total cholesterol, and HOMA-IR for both men and women. The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) for insulin resistance for the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C were 2.48 in men and 3.05 in women. The significant relationship between the TG/HDL-C ratio and insulin resistance was not only maintained across all quartiles of waist circumference but also seemed to be enhanced in the higher quartiles of waist circumference. In the general Korean population, there seems to be a linear association between TG/HDL-C ratio and insulin resistance, regardless of degrees of waist circumference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Latour, M A; Laiche, S A; Thompson, J R; Pond, A L; Peebles, E D
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of elevated corticosterone (CORT) on circulating lipoprotein cholesterol during a 1-wk period. For this study, 15 commercial broilers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Group 1 served as the control (CON) and received no treatment, whereas Groups 2 and 3 received subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps containing either physiological saline (PS) or adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), respectively. The ACTH was delivered at a rate of 8 IU/kg of BW/d. Blood samples were taken at Time 0 (before implants) and on Days 2, 4, and 7 postimplantation. Continuous infusion of ACTH increased plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CORT during the postimplantation period. The group treated with ACTH also exhibited a decrease in BW during the last 2 sampling d. There were no differences in any of the serum constituents measured between CON and PS birds, which suggest that CON birds can serve as useful controls. These data suggest that birds given a continuous infusion of ACTH at 8 IU/kg of BW/d can experience changes in plasma lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations along with changes in other blood parameters and may serve as a useful model in accelerated lipoprotein production.
Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne
Elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are causally associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), but whether elevated nonfasting remnant cholesterol and LDL cholesterol both cause low-grade inflammation is currently unknown....
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the KIF6 (kinesin like protein 6, rs20455 or 719Arg), LPA (lipoprotein(a), rs3798220), TAS2R50 (taste receptor type 2, member 50, rs1376251) and VAMP8 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 8, rs1010) have previously been associated with low density lipoprotei...
Our goal was to determine whether genetic variation at genes affecting statin metabolism or targets of statin therapy would influence low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering with pravastatin, baseline heart disease, or cardiac endpoints on trial. We examined associations of single nucleot...
Enhancement of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Functions by Encapsulation of Policosanol Exerts Anti-Senescence and Tissue Regeneration Effects Via Improvement of Anti-Glycation, Anti-Apoptosis, and Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Inhibition.
Lim, So-Mang; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Eun-Young; Cho, Kyung-Hyun
Consumption of policosanol (PCO), a refined mixture of sugar cane wax alcohols, can elevate serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), although the molecular mechanism is still unknown. To investigate the mechanism of action responsible for the anti-senescence effects of PCO on lipoprotein metabolism and HDL functionality, we synthesized reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing PCO. Encapsulation of PCO by rHDL (PCO-rHDL) enhanced anti-oxidant activity against cupric ion-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. PCO-rHDL (final concentration, 9 μM PCO) showed more potent anti-oxidant activity than vitamin C treatment (final concentration, 100 μM). PCO-rHDL inhibited fructose-mediated glycation, which is a major pathological mechanism of diabetic complications, in a dose-dependent manner. PCO also showed cytoprotective effects in monocytes and macrophages with less triggering of apoptotic processes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PCO-rHDL strongly inhibited uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages, which is an initial atherosclerotic process. Surprisingly, PCO-rHDL inhibited human serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity by up to 47% (final concentration, 10 μM PCO). Subcutaneous injection of PCO-rHDL dose-dependently enhanced tissue regeneration activity by 2.4-fold and 3.6-fold compared to that of the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control. In conclusion, PCO in HDL showed potent anti-oxidant, anti-glycation, and CETP inhibitory activities along with tissue regenerative activity, especially upon incorporation into HDL. These results suggest that PCO can enhance functionality of HDL in serum to exert anti-senescence and longevity effects.
Yang, Xiaoping; Sethi, Amar A; Yanek, Lisa R
BACKGROUND: SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1), encoded by the gene SCARB1, is a lipoprotein receptor that binds both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein. We reported that SR-B1 is also a receptor for lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), mediating cellular uptake of Lp(a) in vitro...... variants in 6. Functional studies with 4 of the SCARB1 variants (c.386C>T, c.631-14T>G, c.4G>A, and c.631-53(m)C>T & c.726+55(m)CG>CA) showed decreased receptor function in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Human SCARB1 gene variants are associated with a new lipid phenotype, characterized by high levels of both HDL...... cholesterol and Lp(a). SCARB1 exonic variants often result in diminished function of translated SR-B1 via reduced binding/intracellular transport of Lp(a)....
Surakka, Ida; Whitfield, John B; Perola, Markus
in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein......Genome-wide association analysis on monozygotic twin-pairs offers a route to discovery of gene-environment interactions through testing for variability loci associated with sensitivity to individual environment/lifestyle. We present a genome-wide scan of loci associated with intra-pair differences...
Zelzer, Sieglinde; Fuchs, Nina; Almer, Gunter; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prüller, Florian; Truschnig-Wilders, Martie; Schnedl, Wolfgang; Horejsi, Renate; Möller, Reinhard; Weghuber, Daniel; Ille, Rottraut; Mangge, Harald
Obesity related dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress were associated with atherosclerotic sequels. We analysed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plasma levels of 797 participants of the STyrian Juvenile OBesity (STYJOBS) / Early DEteCTion of Atherosclerosis (EDECTA) Study cohort aged from 5 to 50 years. The rationale of STYJOBS/EDECTA is to investigate the preclinical phase of obesity by a well defined cohort of young and middle aged overweight/obese and normal weight subjects. Plasma oxLDL was analysed by ELISA (Mercodia, Sweden). In the overweight/obese (OW/OB) study group, oxLDL levels were significantly increased compared to normal weighted controls (pobese participants, and between females and males, no significant difference was seen. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis including all study subjects, age, gender, anthropometric data, presence of metabolic syndrome, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, carotis communis intima media thickness, lipids, adipokines, metabolic, and inflammatory biomarkers, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and increased total cholesterol were the best predictors for increased oxLDL levels. Decreased HDL-cholesterol is an important determinant of lipid peroxidation irrespective of obesity, age, gender, SAT distribution, and inflammatory/metabolic biomarkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Osegbe, Ifeyinwa; Ugonabo, Martin; Chukwuka, Chinwe; Meka, Ijeoma; Nwosu, Nnamdi
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) is a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, therefore needs to be assessed and monitored. Direct homogeneous assays and various formulas exist to determine LDLC. We aimed to compare the directly measured LDL (dLDLC) with ten formulas for estimating LDLC. This was a 2-year retrospective study of fasting lipid profile results obtained from HIV-positive patients attending an outpatient clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, using homogeneous direct assays. Estimated LDLC was determined using ten formulas. Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression were performed. Statistical significance was P < 0.05. Three thousand four hundred and eighty-two lipid results with mean ± standard deviation (SD) dLDLC of 2.1 ± 1.1 mmol/L were included in this study. There was a strong, positive correlation between Friedewald's LDLC and dLDLC n = 3412, r = 0.84, P < 0.001, but linear regression demonstrated a proportional bias P = 0.005. Ahmadi's equation showed the worst correlation n = 3482, r = 0.35, P < 0.001, but when applied to samples with triglyceride (TG) <1.13 mmol/L (100 mg/dl), the correlation showed a strong, positive relationship n = 1395, r = 0.80, P < 0.001, and no proportional bias P = 0.86. Teerankanchana's equation was the only formula that showed no difference between its LDLC and dLDLC ( n = 3482, P = 0.056). It also demonstrated strong, positive correlation ( n = 3482, r = 0.84, P < 0.001) and had a mean difference ± SD of -0.68 ± 0.63. Teerankanchana's formula showed good correlation and minimal bias with dLDLC at all TG levels. Moreover, linear regression showed no difference in the two. It seems to be the most suitable formula for estimating LDLC in our HIV-positive population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001. Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.
Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and its association with periodontal disease in Korean adults: findings based on the 2012-2014 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey.
Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Jeong-Won; Lim, Hyoung-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,249 individuals (4,941 men and 7,308 women) who took part in the 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized the TG/HDL-C ratio into three groups. Periodontal disease was defined as a community pocket index score ≥3 with at least one affected site. Multiple logistic analyses were used to analyze the association between TG/HDL-C ratio and periodontal disease. In the study population, prevalence of periodontal disease was 31.6% in men and 21% in women. Compared to the lowest tertile group, OR (95% CI) of the highest tertile group for periodontal disease was 1.474 (1.220-1.780) in men and 1.259 (1.041-1.522) in women after adjusting for age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, current smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, household income, oral health behavior, and use of anti-dyslipidemia medication. Our study suggests that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. TG/HDL-C ratio is a simple and useful marker to reflect insulin resistance. And periodontal disease is also known to be related with insulin resistance. This study indicates that TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults.
Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan
Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), and the correlation between the plasma non-high density cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels and ICAS, especially asymptomatic ICAS (AICAS) is not clear. The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community(APAC) study is a community-based, prospective, long-term follow-up observational study. 3387 participants were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of AICAS was made by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The participants were then divided into 3 groups based on their non-HDLC levels. The cox regression was used to analyze the correlation between the non-HDLC level and the incidence of AICAS.9.98% of the participants were diagnosed with AICAS during 2 years following up. Multivariate analysis showed that non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for the incidence of AICAS (HR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.06-1.40), The incidence of AICAS gradually increase with the increasing non-HDLC level. Compared with subgroup(non-HDLC APAC study.
Benn, M.; Stene, Maria Charlotte Aslaug; Nordestgaard, Børge
demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. Design......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Setting: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. Participants: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. Main Outcome Measures: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic...... (0.21), R3611Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g > t, T2488Tc > t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4 + 171c > a, A591V, Ivs18 + 379a > c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P
Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D
The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sasakabe, Tae; Wakai, Kenji; Kawai, Sayo; Hishida, Asahi; Naito, Mariko; Suzuki, Sadao; Nindita, Yora; Arisawa, Kokichi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Hara, Megumi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Hirata, Akie; Mikami, Haruo; Oze, Isao; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Although beneficial associations have been reported between moderate alcohol intake and the serum lipid profile, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes can modify these associations. Here, we assessed the effects of ADH1B His48Arg (rs1229984), ALDH2 Glu504Lys (rs671), and their combination on these associations. Furthermore, we examined if the findings for ALDH2 could be replicated. We categorized 889 male participants in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study into two groups based on presence or absence of minor allele(s) or four groups based on genotype combinations. We performed regression analyses of serum lipid concentrations on alcohol intake, with multivariable adjustment. The replication study was conducted among 2,562 men in the Shizuoka part of the J-MICC Study. The ALDH2 Glu/Lys or Lys/Lys groups showed significant decreases in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with increasing alcohol consumption; the coefficient per intake increase of 10 g/day was -2.49 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -3.85 to -1.13), and a significant interaction with the polymorphism was confirmed (P for interaction = 0.006). This inverse correlation was more evident among the ADH1B His/His + ALDH2 Glu/Lys or Lys/Lys groups (-3.24 mg/dL, 95% CI, -5.03 to -1.45). Serum triglycerides were positively associated with alcohol consumption in the ADH1B His/His group (P for interaction = 0.020). The stronger association between serum LDL cholesterol and alcohol consumption in the ALDH2 Glu/Lys or Lys/Lys groups was replicated. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism can modify the association between alcohol intake and serum LDL cholesterol in Japanese men.
V. А. Korneva
Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network. Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50
Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.
Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori
The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A revised definition of the metabolic syndrome predicts coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke after adjusting for low density lipoprotein cholesterol in a 13-year cohort study of Japanese: the Suita study.
Okamura, Tomonori; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Higashiyama, Aya; Ono, Yuu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Okayama, Akira; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro
Recently, several major organizations have proposed a unified definition for the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which should be evaluated in multiethnic groups. The effect of Mets on the incidence of cardiovascular disease needs to be assessed after adjusting for serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), a major risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases. This is especially needed to be evaluated in Asian populations with low incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a 13-year prospective study of 4939 Japanese living in an urban area. The MetS was defined using a unified classification that included cut-off points for waist circumference in Asians. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of MetS for CAD and stroke were calculated using a Cox proportional model adjusted for other potential confounding factors with LDLC. During the follow-up period, there were 155 cases of CAD and 204 of stroke including 118 cerebral infarctions. In participants under 65 years old, the multivariable HRs of MetS for CAD were 1.21 (95% C.I., 0.64-2.28) in men and 4.44 (95% C.I., 1.73-11.4) in women; the HRs for ischemic stroke were 3.24 (95% C.I., 1.55-6.77) in men and 3.99 (95% C.I., 1.34-11.8) in women. In participants aged 65 years old and over, MetS only showed a significant association with CAD in men (HR 1.89, 95% C.I., 1.11-3.21). Serum LDLC was associated with increased risk of CAD in men irrespective of age group; however, it was not associated with CAD in women. There was no association between serum LDLC and ischemic stroke in any group stratified by sex and the age of 65. These results indicate that the new uniform MetS definition is useful for detecting high risk individuals, especially for middle-aged population. However, continuous screening for hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent CAD, especially in men, even in Asian countries such as Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ginsberg, Henry N; Rader, Daniel J; Raal, Frederick J; Guyton, John R; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Lorenzato, Christelle; Pordy, Robert; Stroes, Erik
Even with statins and other lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), many patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) continue to have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. ODYSSEY HIGH FH (NCT01617655) assessed the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibody, versus placebo in patients with heFH and LDL-C ≥ 160 mg/dl despite maximally tolerated statin ± other LLT. Patients were randomized to subcutaneous alirocumab 150 mg or placebo every 2 weeks (Q2W) for 78 weeks. The primary endpoint was percent change in LDL-C from baseline to week 24. Mean baseline LDL-C levels were 196.3 mg/dl in the alirocumab (n = 71) and 201.0 mg/dl in the placebo groups (n = 35). Significant mean (standard error [SE]) reductions in LDL-C from baseline to week 24 were observed with alirocumab (-45.7 [3.5] %) versus placebo (-6.6 [4.9] %), a difference of -39.1 (6.0) % (P < 0.0001). Absolute mean (SE) LDL-C levels were reduced from baseline by 90.8 (6.7) mg/dl with alirocumab at week 24, with reductions maintained to week 78. Treatment-emergent adverse events were generally comparable between groups. Injection-site reactions were more frequent in the alirocumab group (8.3 %) versus placebo (5.7 %); most were mild in severity and did not result in study medication discontinuation. In patients with heFH and very high LDL-C baseline levels despite maximally tolerated statin ± other LLT, alirocumab 150 mg Q2W demonstrated significant reductions in LDL-C levels with 41 % of patients achieving predefined LDL-C goals. Alirocumab was generally well tolerated.
Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods.
Maki, Kevin C; Beiseigel, Jeannemarie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Gugger, Carolyn K; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred V; Kaden, Valerie N; Rains, Tia M
Weight loss and consumption of viscous fibers both lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We evaluated whether or not a whole-grain, ready-to-eat (RTE) oat cereal containing viscous fiber, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, lowers LDL cholesterol levels and improves other cardiovascular disease risk markers more than a dietary program alone. Randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial. Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations. Two portions per day of whole-grain RTE oat cereal (3 g/day oat b-glucan) or energy-matched low-fiber foods (control), as part of a reduced energy ( approximately 500 kcal/day deficit) dietary program that encouraged limiting consumption of foods high in energy and fat, portion control, and regular physical activity. Fasting lipoprotein levels, waist circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and body weight were measured at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 10, and 12. LDL cholesterol level was reduced significantly more with whole-grain RTE oat cereal vs control (-8.7+/-1.0 vs -4.3+/-1.1%, P=0.005). Total cholesterol (-5.4+/-0.8 vs -2.9+/-0.9%, P=0.038) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-6.3+/-1.0 vs -3.3+/-1.1%, P=0.046) were also lowered significantly more with whole-grain RTE oat cereal, whereas high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride responses did not differ between groups. Weight loss was not different between groups (-2.2+/-0.3 vs -1.7+/-0.3 kg, P=0.325), but waist circumference decreased more (-3.3+/-0.4 vs -1.9+/-0.4 cm, P=0.012) with whole-grain RTE oat cereal. Larger reductions in LDL, total, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and waist circumference were evident as early as week 4 in the whole-grain RTE oat cereal group. Consumption of a
Rinambaan W.M. Kaligis
Full Text Available Clinical trials have demonstrated significant benefit from low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the US, it is well recognized that a substantial number of hypercholesterolemic patients were not treated to the LDL-C goals recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP guidelines. In 1996, the Indonesian Heart Association (PERKI has issued guidelines recommending goals for screening and lipid treatment in Indonesia adopted from NCEP guidelines; however, the frequency of undertreatment in Indonesia is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the percentage of patients treated with lipid-lowering therapy who reached LDL-C goals as defined by NCEP guidelines in routine clinical practice. This was a cross-sectional survey targeted physicians who regularly treated dyslipidemic patients in 13 cities in Indonesia. Participating doctors were asked on their awareness of NCEP guidelines and to complete the case record form (CRF of the enrolled patients. One-hundred and eighty-eight (188 out of four hundreds (400 physicians who were invited, have participated in this study. Among the evaluable 1420 CRF, 1082 patients received statins, 301 used fibrates, 14 patients used combination drugs, and 23 others received non-drug treatments only. Success rates on achieving target LDL-C in low-risk, high-risk, and CHD groups were 73.0 %, 43.6 %, and 14.8 %, respectively. Overall success rate in patients using statins was 55.1 %, while in low-risk group, high-risk group, and CHD patients, the success rates with statin were 77.8%, 50.1%, and 18.6 %, respectively. Atorvastatin showed the highest success rate (77.4 % if compared to other statins. Only 14 % of physicians were knowledgeable about the NCEP goals. Conclusion : A large number of dyslipidemic patients who were on lipid-lowering therapy were not achieving the recommended LDL-C target
Bradford, W David; Kleit, Andrew N; Nietert, Paul J; Ornstein, Steven
Although highly controversial, directto-consumer (DTC) television advertising for prescription drugs is an established practice in the US health care industry. While the US Food and Drug Administration is currently reexamining its regulatory stance, little evidence exists regarding the impact of DTC advertising on patient health outcomes. The objective of this research was to study the relationship between heavy television promotion of 3 major hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins") and the frequency with which patients are able to attain low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) blood-level goals after treatment with any statin. We used logistic regression to determine achievement of LDL-C goals at 6 months after statin treatment, using electronic medical record extract data from patients from geographically dispersed primary care practices in the United States. We identified LDL-C blood levels as being at or less than goal, as defined by risk-adjusted guidelines published by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute from the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) data. A total of 50,741 patients, identified from 88 practices, were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and had begun therapy with any statin medication during the 1998-2004 time period. In addition, total dollars spent each month on television advertising at the national and local levels for atorvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin were obtained. DTC advertising data were merged by local media market where the physician practice was located and by the month in which the patient was first prescribed a statin. The models were run for all patients who initiated therapy, and also on a subsample of patients who continued to receive prescriptions for the drugs for at least 6 months. Logistic regressions were used to predict the likelihood that each patient attained the ATP III LDL-C blood-level goals as a function of DTC advertising and other factors. High levels of national DTC
Arts, E.; Fransen, J.; Lemmers, H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.; Claessens-Joosten, L.; Riel, P. van; Popa, C.
INTRODUCTION: Higher levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions HDL3-chol and particularly HDL2-chol protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but inflammation reduces the HDL level and may impair its anti-atherogenic effect. Changed HDL composition through the impact of inflammation
LaRosa, John C.; Grundy, Scott M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kostis, John B.; Greten, Heiner
High-dose statin therapy has been demonstrated to provide incremental benefit when low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations are lowered well below recommended target levels. This secondary analysis of the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study was conducted to investigate whether the
Difference in effects of cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption on serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is related to mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study
Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka
Background Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenosine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in the Japanese. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking or habitual drinking on serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods A total of 394 male subjects (age 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regu...
Cuda, Cristina; Badawi, Alaa; Karmali, Mohamed; El-Sohemy, Ahmed
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a protein of the innate immune system hypothesized to mediate some of the effects of a high-fat diet on inflammation and insulin resistance. As both these factors are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), genetic variation in TLR4 may affect the relationship between dietary lipids and MetS. The objective of the study was to determine whether 2 polymorphisms in TLR4 (rs4986790 Asp299Gly and rs5030728 G>A) modify the relationship between dietary fat and markers of the MetS. Participants were healthy young men and women of various ethnocultural backgrounds. Dietary intake was estimated using a 1-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement. The Asp299Gly polymorphism in TLR4 was associated with increased insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P history of diabetes (P = .0002). The intronic polymorphism rs5030728 modified the relationship between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = .003 for interaction). The SFA intake was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol among individuals homozygous for the G allele (β = -0.015 ± 0.007 mmol/L, P = .04), whereas a positive relationship was observed for heterozygotes (β = 0.025 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P = .02). There was no association between dietary SFAs and HDL cholesterol among individuals homozygous for the A allele. These observations suggest that both diet and innate immunity may interact to influence components of the MetS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Difference in effects of cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption on serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels is related to mitochondrial DNA 5178 C/A polymorphism in middle-aged Japanese men: a cross-sectional study.
Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ishikawa, Mamoru; Matsunaga, Naomi; Karita, Kanae; Yoshida, Masao; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Hoshino, Hiromi; Takashima, Yutaka
Mitochondrial DNA 5178 cytosine/adenosine (Mt5178 C/A) polymorphism is associated with longevity in the Japanese. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Mt5178 C/A polymorphism modifies the effects of habitual smoking or habitual drinking on serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol levels in middle-aged Japanese men. A total of 394 male subjects (age 53.9 ± 7.9 years; mean ± SD) were selected from among individuals visiting the hospital for regular medical check-ups. After Mt5178 C/A genotyping, a cross-sectional study assessing the joint effects of Mt5178 C/A polymorphism and cigarette smoking or alcohol drinking on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels was conducted. High levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol were defined as serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl or ≥190 mg/dl. For men with Mt5178A, cigarette smoking may increase serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend cholesterol levels ≥190 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.004). On the other hand, for men with Mt5178C, after adjusting for age and body mass index, alcohol consumption may decrease serum non-HDL cholesterol levels (P for trend = 0.043) and the risk of high levels of non-HDL cholesterol (serum non-HDL cholesterol level ≥160 mg/dl, P for trend = 0.005). These gene-environment interactions on serum non-HDL cholesterol levels may contribute to the establishment of individualized prevention of the risk of high levels of serum non-HDL cholesterol.
Arts, Elke; Fransen, Jaap; Lemmers, Heidi; Stalenhoef, Anton; Joosten, Leo; van Riel, Piet; Popa, Calin D
Higher levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions HDL3-chol and particularly HDL2-chol protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but inflammation reduces the HDL level and may impair its anti-atherogenic effect. Changed HDL composition through the impact of inflammation on HDL subfractions may contribute to the excess risk of CVD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigated whether HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol concentrations differ between RA patients and healthy controls, and whether these levels are related to the level of RA disease activity. Non-fasting blood samples were collected from 45 RA patients and 45 healthy controls. None of the participants had a history of CVD, diabetes, or used lipid-lowering drugs. HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol concentrations were obtained by ultracentrifugation. Regression modeling was used to compare HDL subfraction levels between RA patients and healthy controls, and to analyze the effect of disease activity on HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol. HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol were significantly lower in RA patients compared to healthy controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.005, respectively). The HDL2:HDL3 ratio was significantly lower in patients compared to controls (P = 0.04). Reduced HDL2-chol and HDL3-chol levels were primarily present in female RA patients and not in male RA patients. A modest effect of the disease activity score in 28 joins ( DAS28) on HDL2-chol concentrations was found, after correction for disease duration, glucocorticosteroid use and body mass index (BMI), with a 0.06 mmol/L decrease with every point increase in DAS28 (P = 0.05). DAS28 did not significantly affect HDL3-chol concentrations (P = 0.186). Both HDL subfractions but particularly HDL2-chol concentrations were decreased in RA, primarily in women. This seems to be associated with disease activity and is of clinical relevance. The reduction of the HDL subfraction concentrations, particularly the supposedly beneficial HDL2-chol, may negatively impact the
REDUCTION DEGREE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF STATINS; ITS EFFECT ON THE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE ACUTE EPISODES DEPENDING ON TREATMENT DURATION; AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC AND THROMBOEMBOLIC STROKE. COMMENT ON THE PAPER OF LAW M.R., WALD N.J., RUDNICKA A.R. QUANTIFYING EFFECT OF STATINS ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND STROKE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. BMJ 2003; 326:1423-1427
N. V. Perova
Full Text Available Comparative dose-dependent ability of different statins to lower serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol was determined in three large meta-analysis. Besides, it was found that standardized decrease in LDL cholesterol levels on 1.0 or 1.8 mmol/l leads to rate reduction in ischemic heart disease acute episodes as well as stroke depending on treatment duration. Effect of LDL cholesterol reduction on stroke occurrence was more significant in studies, which included a major share of patients with vascular disease, because these patients have a higher risk of thromboembolic stroke (rather than haemorrhagic stroke in comparison with the general population.
Dron, Jacqueline S; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A
HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control. Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol
Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Fouchier, Sigrid W; Motazacker, Mohammad M; Nelson, Jessica K; Defesche, Joep C; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Kastelein, John J P; Kees Hovingh, G; Zelcer, Noam
Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that IDOL (also known as MYLIP) contributes to variation in circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). IDOL, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, is a recently identified post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Briefly, IDOL promotes degradation of the LDLR thereby limiting LDL uptake. Yet the exact role of IDOL in human lipoprotein metabolism is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying and functionally characterizing IDOL variants in the Dutch population and to assess their contribution to circulating levels of LDL-C. We sequenced the IDOL coding region in 677 individuals with LDL-C above the 95th percentile adjusted for age and gender (high-LDL-C cohort) in which no mutations in the LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 could be identified. In addition, IDOL was sequenced in 560 individuals with baseline LDL-C levels below the 20th percentile adjusted for age and gender (low-LDL-C cohort). We identified a total of 14 IDOL variants (5 synonymous, 8 non-synonymous, and 1 non-sense). Functional characterization of these variants demonstrated that the p.Arg266X variant represents a complete loss of IDOL function unable to promote ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of the LDLR. Consistent with loss of IDOL function, this variant was identified in individuals with low circulating LDL-C. Our results support the notion that IDOL contributes to variation in circulating levels of LDL-C. Strategies to inhibit IDOL activity may therefore provide a novel therapeutic venue to treating dyslipidaemia.
Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol : a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation
Ruiz Nunez, Begona; Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; De Graaf, Deti J.; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.
We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol
Women showed a higher mean body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than men. In both genders, plasma leptin concentration, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), systolic BP ...
Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F
Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur
Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels do not predict functionality and composition of high-density lipoprotein(HDL). Traditionally, keeping levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) down and HDL-C up have been the goal of patients to prevent atherosclerosis that can lead to coronary vascular disease(CVD). People think about the HDL present in their cholesterol test, but not about its functional capability. Up to 65% of cardiovascular death cannot be prevented by putative LDL-C lowering agents. It well explains the strong interest in HDL increasing strategies. However, recent studies have questioned the good in using drugs to increase level of HDL. While raising HDL is a theoretically attractive target, the optimal approach remains uncertain. The attention has turned to the quality, rather than the quantity, of HDL-C. An alternative to elevations in HDL involves strategies to enhance HDL functionality. The situation poses an opportunity for clinical chemists to take the lead in the development and validation of such biomarkers. The best known function of HDL is the capacity to promote cellular cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells and deliver cholesterol to the liver for excretion, thereby playing a key role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from CVD.This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL functions and their relationship to CVD. HDL as a therapeutic target is the new frontier with huge potential for positive public health implications.
ABSTRACT. Blood samples (serum) were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides. (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta ...
Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M
The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.
Zhang, Cai-ping; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Min; Tuo, Qin-hui; Chen, Jian-xiong; Liao, Duan-fang
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the hall marker for the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It has been shown that over 70% of circulating LDL-C is metabolized through binding and activation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). Genetic LDLR mutations cause hypercholesterolemia in the patients. Therefore, elevation of LDLR levels is beneficial for the treatment of dyslipidemia. LDLR expression is regulated by the SREBP2/PCSK9 pathways. Targeting SREBP2/PCSK9 pathways by statins and human monoclonal PCSK9 antibody has been shown to reduce the progression of ASVCD. Recent studies identified that inducible degrader of LDLR (IDOL) is a novel regulator of LDLR. IDOL is an E3-ubiquitin ligase regulated via liver X receptors (LXRs) binding to the upstream of translation start site of IDOL. IDOL modulates LDLR distribution through ubiquitination and degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed that the nonsynonymous substitution rs9370867 of IDOL probably contributes to the variability of circulating LDL levels. Recently studies also demonstrated that IDOL influences PCSK9 expression in a LDLR/SREBP2-dependent manner. Based upon these novel findings, we hypothesize that IDOL and PCSK9 would have a synergistic effect on LDLR distribution. Specifically, loss of IDOL increases LDLR distribution in the hepatic cell, and subsequently reduces serum LDL-C levels in dyslipidemic patients. IDOL might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ASCVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yeang, Calvin; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios
The measurement that is termed 'LDL-cholesterol' (LDL-C) includes the cholesterol content of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)-C], which can contribute approximately 30-45% to measured LDL-C levels as a percentage of its mass. We review the implications of achieved very low LDL-C levels in patients treated with potent LDL-C-lowering agents in the context of varying Lp(a) levels. Combination therapy with statins, ezetimibe, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can lower LDL-C to unprecedentedly low levels. Recent PCSK9 trials have shown that routine achievement of mean LDL-C less than 50 mg/dl is feasible, along with the modest reductions in Lp(a). Many patients will achieve LDL-C less than 25 mg/dl with concomitantly elevated Lp(a) levels that contribute substantially to the measured 'LDL-C'. Therefore, it is possible that some of these patients may have little to no circulating LDL-C. As the new era of ultralow LDL-C levels ensues, it is imperative to understand the contribution of Lp(a)-C to measured LDL-C and the consequences of achieving ultralow or potentially absent LDL-C in the setting of elevated Lp(a) levels and possibly free apo(a). We review this concept and suggest avenues of research, including analyses of existing datasets in current clinical trials and new research studies, to understand its pathophysiological and clinical significance.
may be directly atherogenic and 2) metabolic consequences of hypertriglyceridemia such as elevated postprandial lipoproteins, large VLDL particles...adverse changes in lipid metabolism that could promote CFD and atherosclerosis. Nicotine has been shown to stimulate the sympathoadrenal system which...associations between variables, they may tend to oversimplify the complex biological processes involved in lipid metabolism , lipoprotein transport
Pio-Magalhães, J A; Ferreira-Sae, M C; Souza, F A; Grespan-Magossi, A M; Schreiber, R; Velloso, L A; Geloneze, B; Franchini, K G; Nadruz, W
This report investigated the relationship between anthropometric measurements of body fat distribution and lipid response to statins in hypercholesterolemic hypertensive patients. We prospectively examined 129 subjects who used either simvastatin 20 mg/day (no.=83) or atorvastatin 10 mg/day (no.=46) for 3 months. Anthropometry included evaluation of body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip-ratio. Significant decreases in LDL (pcorrelation between waist circumference and HDLcholesterol levels was detected (r=-0.18; p=0.04). Conversely, a direct relationship between hip circumference and HDLcholesterol response to statins was found in the whole sample (r=0.24; p=0.006), while no other anthropometric measurement displayed significant correlation with lipid changes. The association between HDL-cholesterol response and hip circumference was further confirmed by stepwise regression analysis adjusted for baseline HDL-cholesterol levels, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and waist circumference. Hip circumference, a surrogate marker of peripheral adiposity, is associated with HDL-cholesterol changes following statin therapy in hypertensive patients.
Lu, Y.; Dollé, M.E.T.; Imholz, S.; Slot, van 't R.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.
The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects
Dron, Jacqueline S.; Wang, Jian; Low-Kam, Cécile; Khetarpal, Sumeet A.; Robinson, John F.; McIntyre, Adam D.; Ban, Matthew R.; Cao, Henian; Rhainds, David; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Rader, Daniel J.; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude
HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score. Two additional cohorts were used for validation and included 1,746 individuals from the Montréal Heart Institute Biobank and 1,048 individuals from the University of Pennsylvania. Findings were consistent between cohorts: we found rare heterozygous large-effect variants in 18.7% and 10.9% of low- and high-HDL-C patients, respectively. We also found common variant accumulation, indicated by extreme polygenic trait scores, in an additional 12.8% and 19.3% of overall cases of low- and high-HDL-C extremes, respectively. Thus, the genetic basis of extreme HDL-C concentrations encountered clinically is frequently polygenic, with contributions from both rare large-effect and common small-effect variants. Multiple types of genetic variants should be considered as contributing factors in patients with extreme dyslipidemia. PMID:28870971
Leusink, Maarten; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Ding, Bo; Drenos, Fotios; van Iperen, Erik Pa; Warren, Helen R.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cushman, Mary; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Leslie A.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; de Bakker, Paul Iw; de Boer, Anthonius; Keating, Brendan J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
To find new genetic loci associated with statin response, and to investigate the association of a genetic risk score (GRS) with this outcome. In a discovery meta-analysis (five studies, 1991 individuals), we investigated the effects of approximately 50000 single nucleotide polymorphisms on statin
Objective: To determine the usefulness of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving 109 diabetics, 98 diabetic hypertensives, 102 ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P - and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P -A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P P 3.20 mmol/L subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P P P P +A+ genotype had higher serum LDL-C, TC, HDL-C or ApoA1 levels than the subjects with A-A+ and A-A- genotypes. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that the levels of LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C in Han were correlated with genotypes (P P Conclusions The association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. The discrepancy might partly result from different LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism or LDL-R gene-enviromental interactions.
Thedrez, Aurélie; Blom, Dirk J; Ramin-Mangata, Stéphane; Blanchard, Valentin; Croyal, Mikaël; Chemello, Kévin; Nativel, Brice; Pichelin, Matthieu; Cariou, Bertrand; Bourane, Steeve; Tang, Lihua; Farnier, Michel; Raal, Frederick J; Lambert, Gilles
Evolocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9)-neutralizing antibody, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic (HoFH) patients with reduced LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor) function. However, their individual responses are highly variable, even among carriers of identical LDLR genetic defects. We aimed to elucidate why HoFH patients variably respond to PCSK9 inhibition. Lymphocytes were isolated from 22 HoFH patients enrolled in the TAUSSIG trial (Trial Assessing Long Term Use of PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Genetic LDL Disorders). Ten patients were true homozygotes (FH1/FH1) and 5 identical compound heterozygotes (FH1/FH2). Lymphocytes were plated with or without mevastatin, recombinant PCSK9 (rPCSK9), or a PCSK9-neutralizing antibody. Cell surface LDLR expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. All HoFH lymphocytes had reduced cell surface LDLR expression compared with non-FH lymphocytes, for each treatment modality. Lymphocytes from FH1/FH2 patients (LDLR defective/negative) displayed the lowest LDLR expression levels followed by lymphocytes from FH1/FH1 patients (defective/defective). Mevastatin increased, whereas rPCSK9 reduced LDLR expression. The PCSK9-neutralizing antibody restored LDLR expression. Lymphocytes displaying higher LDLR expression levels were those isolated from patients presenting with lowest levels of LDL-C and apolipoprotein B, before and after 24 weeks of evolocumab treatment. These negative correlations remained significant in FH1/FH1 patients and appeared more pronounced when patients with apolipoprotein E3/E3 genotypes were analyzed separately. Significant positive correlations were found between the levels of LDLR expression and the percentage reduction in LDL-C on evolocumab treatment. Residual LDLR expression in HoFH is a major determinant of LDL-C levels and seems to drive their individual response to evolocumab. © 2017 American Heart Association
Kotani, Kazuhiko; Sakane, Naoki; Yamada, Toshiyuki
The relationship among alcohol metabolism, lipid profile and cardiovascular disease has been a matter of concern, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is one of the key enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism. The frequency of ALDH2 gene G/A polymorphism (with the substitution of glutamic acid to lysine) varies widely among ethnic groups; the polymorphism is prevalent among Asian people but rare in other ethnic groups. The objective of our study was to investigate the association between the ALDH2 gene G/A polymorphism and lipid profile, including the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) status, in a general Japanese population with no or light-to-moderate alcohol drinking habits. Anthropometric and biochemical variables including lipid- and glucose-related factors were measured in a total of 383 Japanese participants (170 males and 213 females; mean age, 45 +/- 8.6 years), free of cardiovascular disease. All participants were genotyped by an allele-specific DNA assay. The numbers of participants with the G/ G, G/A and A/A genotypes were 213, 139 and 31, respectively. The percentages of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia (identified by LDL-C > or = 3.63 mmol/L) were 31.9%, 45.3% and 29.0% in participants with the G/G, G/A and A/A genotypes, respectively. Carrying the G/A + AA genotype was a significant and positive factor related to hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia with an odds ratio of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.04-2.52) after adjusting for the other variables including drinking status. Our findings suggest that the ALDH2 gene G/A polymorphism can affect the lipid profile such as LDL-C status in this population. The association between the polymorphism and LDL-C status warrants further investigation.
Weber, M; McNicoll, S; Marcil, M; Connelly, P; Lussier-Cacan, S; Davignon, J; Latour, Y; Genest, J
Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol abnormalities, diabetes, hypertension and smoking have all been identified as independent predictors of cardiovascular events. Clustering of multiple risk factors suggests a common metabolic link among high blood pressure, insulin resistance, plasma lipoprotein abnormalities and obesity. New guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias target patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD), and high risk patients with multiple risk factors and severe genetic lipoprotein disorders, such as familial hypercholesterolemia. To determine the prevalence of lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and metabolic disorders in premature CAD, 243 men and 61 women with premature CAD (occurring before age 60 years) and 203 age- and sex-matched controls (152 men, 61 women) were studied. After correcting for beta-blocker use (40% of men and 54% of women), hypertension and diabetes were seen more frequently in CAD patients than in controls. In men and women, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) were significantly higher, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was lower, in CAD patients than in controls. By stratifying patients according to LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio (5 or less, or greater than 5) and by triglyceride levels (less than 2.3 mmol/L, or 2.3 mmol/L or greater), significantly more men and women with CAD were found to have an elevated LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio and elevated triglycerides (13.8% versus 1.9%, men and women combined, CAD versus controls, P women versus 11.7% in controls (P women, low HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), the presence of diabetes, smoking and apolipoprotein B levels were all predictors of risk (P < 0.05). However, the clustering of risk factors may be the best predictor of risk. In this selected population, HDL and lipoprotein (a) are the best metabolic markers of premature CAD; metabolic factor clustering is common in
Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol: a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation.
Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; De Graaf, Deti J; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J
We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a widely used coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor. Fatty acid status was determined by measurement of fatty acids in serum cholesterol esters and erythrocytes. Data reflecting the influence of fatty acid intakes on serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained from documented intervention studies. We found that 14:0, 16:0 and saturated fatty acid (SFA) status correlates positively with total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, while their intakes were unrelated. Linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and PUFA intake exhibited negative relations with the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. These data suggest that a high SFA status, not a high SFA intake, is associated with increased CAD risk, while both high linoleic acid status and PUFA status are associated with reduced CAD risk. Consequently, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a questionable risk marker since meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show that partial dietary replacement of SFA for linoleic acid, the dominating dietary PUFA, does not change CAD risk. We conclude that many lifestyle factors, not SFA intake alone, determine SFA status, and suggest that interaction with many other lifestyle factors determines whether SFA status has a relevant contributing effect in low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein changes and CAD risk. The present outcome may teach us to consider the health effects of the entire diet together with many nondietary lifestyle factors, opposite to the reductionist approach of studying the effects of single nutrients, SFA and PUFA included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ference, Brian A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Chapman, M. John; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Packard, Chris J.; Laufs, Ulrich; Brook, Robert D.; Oliver-Williams, Clare; Butterworth, Adam S.; Danesh, John; Smith, George Davey; Catapano, Alberico L.; Sabatine, Marc S.
IMPORTANCE Some cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels without reducing cardiovascular events, suggesting that the clinical benefit of lowering LDL-C may depend on how LDL-C is lowered. OBJECTIVE To estimate the association
Overnight fasting blood sample was obtained for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), uric acid and adiponectin estimation using standard laboratory protocols. Visceral adipose tissue was estimated using visceral adiposity index ...
Apr 19, 2010 ... PMC could improve lipid profile by lowering serum total cholesterol (Total-C), triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) .... ND supplemented with 10% egg yolk power and 10% lard), processed by Zhejiang ...
Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Mora, Samia; Pedersen, Terje R.; LaRosa, John C.; Nestel, Paul J.; Simes, R. John; Durrington, Paul; Hitman, Graham A.; Welch, K. M. A.; Demicco, David A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Clearfield, Michael B.; Downs, John R.; Tonkin, Andrew M.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Ridker, Paul M.; Kastelein, John J. P.
Context The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels with the risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statin therapy have not been reliably documented. Objective To evaluate
Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guo, Yiran; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Lange, Leslie A.; Almoguera, Berta; Appelman, Yolande E.; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gong, Yan; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Mingyao; Li, Yun R.; Liu, Kiang; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F. L.; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Nelson, Christopher P.; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P. R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Smith, Erin N.; Tischfield, Sam E.; van der Most, Peter J.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Volcik, Kelly A.; Zhang, Li; Bailey, Kent R.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bauer, Florianne; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Braund, Peter S.; Burt, Amber; Burton, Paul R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dejong, Jonas S.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Fornage, Myriam; Furlong, Clement E.; Glazer, Nicole; Gums, John G.; Hastie, Claire; Holmes, Michael V.; Illig, Thomas; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kumari, Meena; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mallela, Laya; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Ordovas, Jose; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Post, Wendy S.; Saxena, Richa; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shah, Tina; Shields, Denis C.; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Topol, Eric J.; Toskala, Elina; van Pelt, Joost L.; van Setten, Jessica; Yusuf, Salim; Whittaker, John C.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Anand, Sonia S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Clarke, Robert; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Davidson, Karina W.; Day, Ian N. M.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaess, Bernhard M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A.; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Murray, Sarah S.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce; Redline, Susan; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schunkert, Heribert; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Stanton, Alice; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, Ellen; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Watkins, Hugh; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Whitfield, John B.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Reilly, Muredach P.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wilson, James G.; Rader, Daniel J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elbers, Clara C.; Keating, Brendan J.; Drenos, Fotios; de Boer, Rudolf; Hillege, Hans; van der Klauw, Melanie; Navis, Gerjan; Ormel, Hans; Postma, Dirkje; Rosmalen, Judith; Slaets, Joris; Stolk, Ronald; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce; Alizadeh, Behrooz; Boezen, Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Festen, Noortje; Franke, Lude; Snieder, Harold
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total
Abstract. Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on the total lipid profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) on hypercholesterolaemic rats. Total serum cholesterol ...
The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGD) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured from fasting serum samples using electrophoresis and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was then calculated. Results: End stage renal failure (ESRF) children had higher mean TC (193±36 ...
Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R; Trompet, Stella
BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We perform...
Cannon, Christopher P.; Dansky, Hayes M.; Davidson, Michael; Gotto, Antonio M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Gould, A. Lawrence; Stepanavage, Michael; Liu, Sherry Xueyu; Shah, Sukrut; Rubino, Joseph; Gibbons, Patrice; Hermanowski-Vosatka, Anne; Binkowitz, Bruce; Mitchel, Yale; Barter, Philip; Gerstman, M.; Howes, L.; Kostner, K.; Nestel, P.; Sullivan, D.; Brath, H.; Patsch, J.; Paulweber, B.; Toplak, H.; Constance, C. M.; Howlett, E.; Mymin, D.; Pliamm, L.; Saunders, K. K.; Tardif, J.-C.; Tytus, R.; Aschner, P.; Keinänen-Klukaanniemi, S.; Strandberg, T.; Taskinen, M.-R.; Luc, G.; Richter, D.; Schlienger, J. L.; Zaïr, Y.; Appel, K.-F.; Baar, M.; Luley, C.; Overhoff, U.; Pomykaj, T.; Schaefer, T.; Lau, S. T.; Lee, K. L. F.; Tan, K.; Tomlinson, B.; Tsang, M. W.; Badacsonyi, K.; Kalina, A.; Kanakaridisz, N.; Márk, L.; Péterfai, E.; Regos, L.; Reiber, I.; Takács, J.; Vértes, A.; Elis, A.; Gavish, D.; Harats, D.; Hussein, O.; Hayek, T.; Leitersdorf, E.; Ghapar, A. K. Bin Abdul; Chee, K. H.; Ismail, S. B.; Ling, K. H.; Ramanathan, G. R. L.; Sim, K. H.; Alvarado, R.; Benavides, M.; Cardona, G. E.; Gonzalez, G.; Verdejo, J.; Basart, D. C. G.; Imholz, B. P. M.; Jonker, J. J. C.; Nierop, P. R.; Posma, J. L.; Twickler, Th B.; Barrington-Ward, E.; Cutfield, R.; Friedlander, D. H.; Scott, R. S.; Istad, H.; Langslet, G.; Skjelvan, G. K.; Hoyos, S. J. Campodónico; Araniya, R. Coloma; C, A. Gallegos; Morales, C. A. Pino; Watanabe, L.; Arutyunov, G. P.; Blokhin, A. B.; Bubnova, M. G.; Marcevich, S. Y.; Sánchez, C. Alvarez; Walther, L. A. Alvarez-Sala; Extremera, B. Gil; Jimenez, F. Perez; Parreño, L. L. de Teresa; Anderberg, C.-P.; Hedin, U.; Hellberg, A.; Höök, P.; Kjellström, T.; Nilsson, P.; Olsson, A. G.; Rosenqvist, U.; Tolagen, K.; Wolff, T.; Baskin, A.; Bays, H. E.; Bernstein, R. I.; Bittar, N.; Brinton, E. A.; Chee, L. H. K.; Cottiero, R. A.; D'Agostino, R. D.; Davidson, M. H.; Denker, P. S.; Garcia, R. K.; Hippert, R. K.; Isakov, T.; Kaster, S. R.; Kerzner, B.; Klein, E. J.; Koren, M. J.; Kutner, M. E.; Liljenquist, D.; Lorch, D. G.; Lorraine, R.; Lubin, B. C.; Lunde, N. M.; Majchrzak, T. J.; McKenney, J. M.; Mukherjee, S.; Muse, D. D.; Otruba, M. S.; Pappas, J. E.; Patrick, K.; Powell, S. J.; Riffer, E.; Rink, L. D.; Rohlf, J. L.; Rosen, J. B.; Rosenbilt, P. D.; Roth, E. M.; Rubenstein, C. J.; Rubino, J.; Rudolph, L. A.; Schneider, A.; Short, W. G.; Silverfield, J. C.; Suresh, D. P.; Tarshis, G. A.; Toth, P. D.; Townsend, R. W.; Wahl, T. O.; Barter, Philip J.; Brinton, Eliot; Binkowitz, Bruce S.; Wittes, Janet; Verter, Joel; Wohlford, Neil; Granger, Christopher B.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Hasselblad, Victor; Tonkin, Andrew
BACKGROUND: Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk often remains high despite statin therapy to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). New therapies to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are currently being investigated. Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein
... relative liver weight, serum lipid profile, expressions of hepatic marker gene of lipid metabolism and liver morphology were observed in three hyperlipidemic models. Results: Elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ...
D. Postmus (Douwe); H. Warren (Helen); S. Trompet (Stella); B.J. Arsenault (Benoit J.); C.L. Avery; J.C. Bis (Joshua); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); H. Deshmukh (Harshal); D.S. Evans (Daniel); Feng, Q. (QiPing); X. Li (Xiaohui); Smit, R.A.J. (Roelof A.J.); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); F. Sun (Fangui); K.D. Taylor (Kent); A.M. Arnold (Alice M.); M.J. Barnes (Michael); B.J. Barratt (Bryan J.); J. Betteridge (John); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); Y.D. Chen (Y.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); S. Cummings; Denny, J.C. (Joshua C.); G.P. Dubé (Gregory); P.N. Durrington (Paul); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); I. Ford (Ian); X. Guo (Xiuqing); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Kees Hovingh; J.J.P. Kastelein (John); Launer, L.J. (Leonore J.); Liu, C.-T. (Ching-Ti); Y. Liu (YongMei); T. Lumley (Thomas); P.M. Mckeigue (Paul); P. Munroe (Patricia); A. Neil (Andrew); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); E. O'Brien (Eoin); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); N.R. Poulter (Neil); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); N. Sattar (Naveed); P. Sever (Peter); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); D.C. Shields (Denis C.); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); J.D. Smith (Joshua D.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); A. Stanton (Alice); D.J. Stott (David. J.); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); T. Stürmer; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.-Q. Wei (Wei-Qi); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); E.A. Whitsel (Eric A.); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); R.A. Wilke (Russell A.); C. Ballantyne (Christie); H.M. Colhoun (H.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); O.H. Franco (Oscar); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); G.A. Hitman (Graham); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); Stein, C.M. (Charles M.); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); R.M. Krauss (Ronald)
textabstractBackground In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Interindividual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. Methods and results We
The aim of this study was to determine whether tuberculosis (TB) treatment normalizes the lipid profile strongly affected by pulmonary TB. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in 83 patients with ...
Waterworth, Dawn M.; Ricketts, Sally L.; Song, Kijoung; Chen, Li; Zhao, Jing Hua; Ripatti, Samuli; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Zhang, Weihua; Yuan, Xin; Lim, Noha; Luan, Jian'an; Ashford, Sofie; Wheeler, Eleanor; Young, Elizabeth H.; Hadley, David; Thompson, John R.; Braund, Peter S.; Johnson, Toby; Struchalin, Maksim; Surakka, Ida; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rodwell, Sheila A.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Inouye, Michael; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Elliott, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Scuteri, Angelo; Jackson, Anne; Mohlke, Karen L.; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexandre; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Mahley, Robert W.; Grundy, Scott M.; McArdle, Wendy; Cardon, Lon; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Chambers, John C.; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Salomaa, Veikko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ruokonen, Aimo; Barroso, Inês; Epstein, Stephen E.; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Strachan, David P.; Barter, Philip; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Peltonen, Leena; Wareham, Nicholas J.; McPherson, Ruth; Mooser, Vincent; Sandhu, Manjinder S.
Genetic studies might provide new insights into the biological mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism and risk of CAD. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study to identify novel genetic determinants of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Full Text Available Yacob Pinchevsky,1 Varada J Shukla,1 Neil Butkow,1 Tobias Chirwa,2 Frederick Raal3 1Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, 2Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 3Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Purpose: Our study set out to examine if disparities in control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, blood pressure (BP, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C existed among an urban multi-ethnic cohort of South Africans, living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: This longitudinal, retrospective study consisted of 261 men and women with previously diagnosed T2DM who attended Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa across two time periods 2009 and 2013. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from consecutive medical records. The primary outcome was to determine achievements in HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C among ethnic groups using evidence-based goals.Results: The mean age of the cohort was 64 (±10.6 years, females represented 55%, and the self-reported diabetes duration was 16 (±10.6 years as at 2013. Black Africans (42.9%, n=112 of 261 were more likely to reach the HbA1c target (<7% and less likely to have had retinopathy, nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease. Over two-thirds of mixed-ancestry patients attained the BP target (<140/80 mmHg, while 90.2% of Caucasians achieved LDL-C goals (<2.5 mmol/L. Overall, across the ethnic groups studied, we found that HbA1c control deteriorated over time, although BP levels remained the same and LDL-C levels drastically improved.Conclusion: There was poor control of HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C across all ethnic groups. Although a minority achieved recommended targets, some ethnic groups appeared to have worse control than others. Timely aggressive actions in
Full Text Available Bárbara Fernández-Cidón,1–3 Ariadna Padró-Miquel,1 Pedro Alía-Ramos,1 María José Castro-Castro,1 Marta Fanlo-Maresma,4 Dolors Dot-Bach,1 José Valero-Politi,1 Xavier Pintó-Sala,4 Beatriz Candás-Estébanez1 1Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 2Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biomedicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, Pharmacogenetics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; 4Cardiovascular Risk Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain Background: High serum concentrations of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-c particles are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Their clinical application has been hindered as a consequence of the laborious current method used for their quantification. Objective: Optimize a simple and fast precipitation method to isolate sd-LDL particles and establish a reference interval in a Mediterranean population. Materials and methods: Forty-five serum samples were collected, and sd-LDL particles were isolated using a modified heparin-Mg2+ precipitation method. sd-LDL-c concentration was calculated by subtracting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c from the total cholesterol measured in the supernatant. This method was compared with the reference method (ultracentrifugation. Reference values were estimated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine recommendations. sd-LDL-c concentration was measured in serums from 79 subjects with no lipid metabolism abnormalities. Results: The Passing–Bablok regression equation is y = 1.52 (0.72 to 1.73 + 0.07x (−0.1 to 0.13, demonstrating no significant statistical differences
Otis, Jessica P; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Quinlivan, Vanessa; Anderson, Jennifer L; Farber, Steven A
Caveolae and their structural protein caveolin 1 (CAV1) have roles in cellular lipid processing and systemic lipid metabolism. Global deletion of CAV1 in mice results in insulin resistance and increases in atherogenic plasma lipids and cholesterol, but protects from diet-induced obesity and atherosclerosis. Despite the fundamental role of the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of dietary lipid processing and metabolism, the contributions of CAV1 to lipid metabolism in this tissue have never been directly investigated. In this study the cellular dynamics of intestinal Cav1 were visualized in zebrafish and the metabolic contributions of CAV1 were determined with mice lacking CAV1 in intestinal epithelial cells (CAV1 IEC-KO ). Live imaging of Cav1-GFP and fluorescently labeled caveolae cargos shows localization to the basolateral and lateral enterocyte plasma membrane (PM), suggesting Cav1 mediates transport between enterocytes and the submucosa. CAV1 IEC-KO mice are protected from the elevation in circulating fasted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol associated with a high-fat diet (HFD), but have increased postprandial LDL cholesterol, total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The increase in circulating FAs in HFD CAV1 IEC-KO mice is mirrored by decreased hepatic FAs, suggesting a non-cell-autonomous role for intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 in promoting hepatic FA storage. In conclusion, CAV1 regulates circulating LDL cholesterol and several FA species via the basolateral PM of enterocytes. These results point to intestinal epithelial cell CAV1 as a potential therapeutic target to lower circulating FFAs and LDL cholesterol, as high levels are associated with development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has long been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. In this work we evaluated the effect of physical activity on lipid levels, in a sample of cardiovascular disease free people. Methods The ATTICA study is a population – based cohort that has randomly enrolled 2772 individuals, stratified by age – gender (according to the census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, 1376 were men (45 ± 12 years old, range: 18 – 86 and 1396 women (45 ± 13 years old, range: 18 – 88. We assessed the relationship between physical activity status (measured in kcal/min expended per day and several lipids, after taking into account the effect of several characteristics of the participants. Results 578 (42% men and 584 (40% women were classified as physically active. Compared to sedentary physically active women had significantly lower levels of total serum cholesterol (p Conclusions Substantial independent increases in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations were observed in women, but not in men, in a Mediterranean cohort.
Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Popp-Snijders, C; Slaets, JPJ; Heine, RJ; Gans, ROB
High levels of TSH are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Many cardiovascular risk factors cluster within the insulin resistance syndrome. It is not known whether levels of TSH cluster as well. We conducted this research to test the hypothesis that TSH, insulin sensitivity, and levels
At present it is assumed that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that this process may ultimately result in the manifestations of coronary heart disease later in life. For this reason it is relevant to study the distribution of risk indicators for coronary heart disease (CHD) in children from
Improvement of Lipid Profile Is Accompanied by Atheroprotective Alterations in High-Density Lipoprotein Composition Upon Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockade A Prospective Cohort Study in Ankylosing Spondylitis
Eijk, van I.C.; Vries, de M.K.; Levels, J.H.M.; Peters, M.J.L.; Huizer, E.E.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Horst - Bruinsma, van der I.E.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Stadt, van de R.J.; Wolbink, G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.
Objective. Cardiovascular mortality is increased in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and inflammation plays an important role. Inflammation deteriorates the lipid profile and alters high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) composition, reflected by increased concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA)
Improvements in the control of LDL-C levels have occurred in the past decade due to the introduction of increasingly potent statins, such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Many patients, however, do not achieve their LDL-C goals, which presents a practical dilemma for clinicians and highlights the need to identify adherence problems in a clinically relevant manner.
Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David
Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for
Goodrow, Elizabeth F; Wilson, Thomas A; Houde, Susan Crocker; Vishwanathan, Rohini; Scollin, Patrick A; Handelman, Garry; Nicolosi, Robert J
Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are reported to be associated with a reduced incidence of age-related macular degeneration. A rich source of lutein and zeaxanthin in the American diet is the yolk of chicken eggs. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5 wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids, and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals >60 y of age. In a randomized cross-over design, 33 men and women participated in the 18-wk study, which included one run-in and one washout period of no eggs prior to and between two 5-wk interventions of either consuming 1 egg or egg substitute/d. Serum lutein 26% (P egg/d compared with the phase prior to consuming eggs. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were not affected. These findings indicate that in older adults, 5 wk of consuming 1 egg/d significantly increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations without elevating serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
Full Text Available Objective To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and to elucidate whether incapacitation of HDL subclasses occurred in ACS patients. Methods Forty ACS patients hospitalized in Nanfang Hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2012 (ACS group, and 40 subjects simultaneously receiving health examination (control group were enrolled in present study. Plasma lipid and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels, HDL subclasses inflammatory index (HII, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels in both groups were measured. Results The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in ACS group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions The incapacitation of HDL subclasses may occur in ACS patients, with an attenuated antioxidant ability and accentuated proinflammatory function. Mature HDL2 possesses better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function than HDL3, thus playing a better cardioprotective effect.
Objective: To determine the common mutation of low density lipoprotein receptor in hypercholesterolemia patients requiring screening for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) in Karachi. Study Design: Case-series. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Ziauddin Hospital Laboratory and Dr. Rubina Ghani's Pathological and Molecular Laboratories, Karachi, for the PCR bench work from June 2008 to October 2009. Methodology: All the patients selected for this study were from Dr. Ziauddin Hospital and National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases. All the patients having high total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were included in this study with premature coronary artery diseases or a family history of hypercholesterolemia. Exclusion criteria included Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, renal disease, hypothyroidism and steroid therapy. After lipid profile with overnight fasting, DNA was extracted from whole blood collected in EDTA (ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid) tube and multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using forward and reverse primers of exons 3, 4, 9 and 14 of base pairs 162, 431, 550 and 496 respectively. Results: Out of total of 120 hypercholesterolemia cases, 42 patients were classical cases of HeFH (heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia) with xanthomas, xanthelasmas and LDL-C > 160 mg/dl. The total cholesterol (260 +- 57 mg/dL) and LDL-C (192 +- 39 mg/dL ) of cases was significantly high as compared to, controls having total cholesterol (184 9 +- 27 mg/dL) and LDL-C (105 +- 22 mg/dL), p > 0.001. Two novel point mutations were noted in exon 3 and exon 4. The other 78 cases were probable with raised LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) and family history of premature coronary heart diseases. Conclusion: The frequency of HeFH was 35% classical and 65% probable cases out of total 120 hypercholesterolemia patients from two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi. The point mutation on exon 3 and exon 4 of LDLR gene was the most common. PCR is
Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Chie; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo
The egg is a nutrient-dense food and contains antioxidative carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, but its impact on serum cholesterol levels has been a matter of concern, especially for individuals who have high serum cholesterol levels. We conducted this study to determine whether and how the daily additional consumption of one egg affects serum lipid profiles and parameters of LDL oxidation in moderately hypercholesterolemic males. Nineteen male Japanese adults (total cholesterol [TC]>5.2mmol/L) participated, consuming one soft boiled egg per day for 4weeks in addition to their habitual diet. Despite the significant increase in their intake of dietary cholesterol during the intervention period, the subjects' serum concentrations of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) did not increase. Their serum malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) concentrations were significantly decreased and their LDL oxidation lag times, reflecting the resistance of free-radical-induced LDL lipid peroxidation (ex vivo), was prolonged after 2 and 4weeks. At weeks 2 and 4, the subjects' serum lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations were significantly higher than their baseline values and showed both an inverse relation with MDA-LDL and a positive relationship with the LDL oxidation lag time. These data showed that in moderately hypercholesterolemic males, the additional consumption of one egg per day for 4weeks did not have adverse effects on serum TC or LDL-C, and it might reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation through an increase in the serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myung Won Lee
Full Text Available Beyond statin therapy for reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve more optimal reduction in cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. To evaluate the effects and the safety of combined treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and statin in dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes, we conducted a randomized, open-label study in Korea. Patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dL while taking statin for at least 6 weeks were eligible. Fifty-one patients were randomized to receive either omega-3 fatty acid 4, 2 g, or no drug for 8 weeks while continuing statin therapy. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean percentage change of low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and triglyceride (TG level was greater in patients who were prescribed 4 g of omega-3 fatty acid with statin than in patients receiving statin monotherapy (2.8%±3.1% vs. 2.3%±3.6%, P=0.024; -41.0%±24.1% vs. -24.2%±31.9%, P=0.049. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with statin increased LDL particle size and decreased TG level in dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. The therapy was well tolerated without significant adverse effects.
BACKGROUND: The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis predicts that low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation is an early event in atherosclerosis and that oxidized LDL-C contributes to atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine a link, if any, between the plasma lipid peroxidation and total ...
ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis predicts that low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. (LDL-C) oxidation is an early event in atherosclerosis and that oxidized LDL-C contributes to atherogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine a link, if any, between the plasma lipid peroxidation ...
Waters, David D.; LaRosa, John C.; Barter, Philip; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Gotto, Antonio M.; Carter, Roddy; Breazna, Andrei; Kastelein, John J. P.; Grundy, Scott M.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the effects on cerebrovascular events of treating patients with stable coronary disease with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels substantially below 100 mg/dl. BACKGROUND: Lowering LDL-C with statins has been shown to reduce the risk of stroke in
Sri Widyarti; Nunung Harijati; Rodiyati Azrianingsih
One of indication of obesity is high LDL-C . Obesity has serious risk to health, it can cause heart disease and stroke. Effort to lower obesity using drugs have significant side effects such as insomnia, increased blood pressure, dry mouth and so forth. Therefore using natural products that contain glucomannan to reduce obesity and LDL-C is good choise. Glucomannan in the global market derived from Amorphophallus konjac. In this study, we used glucomannan from Amorphophallus endemic East Java...
Cong, Haixia; Du, Longbing; Fang, Bo; You, Chao
A hydrophobic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) adsorbent was synthesized with lauric acid and chitosan. The condition for adsorption was obtained by investigating the influence of adsorbent amount and adsorption time. The results of adsorption in vitro showed that the average adsorption rates for total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total protein (TP) were 47.7%, 84.7%, 18.1% and 5.9% respectively. The adsorbent possesses good selectivity in removing LDL-C.
Garoufi, Anastasia; Vorre, Styliani; Soldatou, Alexandra; Tsentidis, Charalampos; Kossiva, Lydia; Drakatos, Antonios; Marmarinos, Antonios; Gourgiotis, Dimitrios
Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) molecules are more atherogenic compared with large buoyant ones. Phytosterols-enriched diets are effective in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations in hyperlipidemic children without significant adverse effects. Limited data on the impact of such a diet on sdLDL-C levels is available in adults while there are no reports concerning children. The purpose of this study is to prospectively evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of 2 g of plant sterols on sdLDL-C levels in children with hypercholesterolemia. Fifty-nine children, 25 with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/l (130 mg/dl) and 34 with LDL-C yogurt-drink enriched with 2 g of plant sterols was added to the daily diet of hypercholesterolemic children and 6-12 months later lipid profiles were reassessed. Direct quantitative methods were used to measure LDL-C and sdLDL-C levels. The consumption of plant sterols reduced sdLDL-C significantly (p cholesterol (NonHDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels also decreased significantly (p 10% in sixteen children (64%), independently from baseline levels, sex, age and body mass index (BMI). High density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and triglycerides (TGs) levels remained unaffected. Plant sterols decrease sdLDL-C significantly and may be beneficial for children with hypercholesterolemia.
Corral, P; Ruiz, A J
The discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in 2003 in families with familial hypercholesterolemia (HF) later generated the development of pharmacological strategies in order to inhibit this protein. Twelve years after this discovery, the first two biological compounds (monoclonal antibodies) were approved, which have been shown to substantially decrease LDL-C and other lipid subfractions. The objective of the present article is to review the history of the discovery of PCSK9, its physiology and pathophysiology and subsequent pharmacological development. The objectives and goals reached to date and the pending questions regarding the efficacy and safety of its clinical use are presented. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Merians, D R; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Phelps, J; Woods, P D; Superko, R
To investigate the relationship of exercise and oral contraceptive use to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a cross-sectional study was designed to compare lipid levels in 96 exercising and non-exercising women who used or did not use oral contraceptives. Exercisers had significantly lower plasma triglyceride concentrations and low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios than non-exercisers after adjustment for differences in pill type distribution between groups. Women using progestin-dominant pills had significantly lower plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations and significantly higher low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios compared with women using estrogen/progestin-balanced pills. As body fat was significantly associated with both pill type and physical activity, it is unclear how much of these lipoprotein differences were due to body fat, exercise, or pill use. Regular physical activity together with reduced body fat partially compensated for plasma lipoprotein differences associated with oral contraceptive use.
Bradberry, J. Chris; Hilleman, Daniel E.
Products containing omega-3 fatty acids, such as krill oil and fish oils, have been effective in lowering triglyceride levels. Although no data have suggested that the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) increases associated with some omega-3 fatty acid formulations lead to adverse outcomes, these elevations in LDL-C levels may compromise the achievement of lipid targets. Thus, there is a need for agents that can lower triglyceride levels without increasing LDL-C levels.
Jeferson Luis da Silva
Full Text Available Os benefícios da prática regular do exercício físico estão claramente estabelecidos na literatura. Entretanto, a escolha do tipo de exercício ideal pode ser mais salutar para indivíduos com doenças específicas e patologias associadas. O propósito desta revisão foi verificar se o treinamento resistido (TR exerce alguma alteração no colesterol da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C. Foram observadas grandes diferenças na literatura, dificultando uma conclusão em relação aos benefícios do TR nesta revisão. No entanto, foi visto que o TR pode ser promissor na redução dos níveis de LDL-C, principalmente em homens e mulheres adultos, em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 e tipo 2 e em mulheres pré-menopausa, não mostrando diferenças na população idosa. Os autores concluem que o TR é uma boa opção de exercício físico para indivíduos, principalmente quando o treinamento aeróbio (TA é contraindicado.The benefits of exercise regular practice are clearly established in the literature. However, the choice of the ideal exercise may be more beneficial for individuals with specific diseases and associated pathologies. The aim of this review was to determine whether resistance training (RT promotes any change on low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Important differences were observed in research protocols, making it difficult to define the benefits of RT in this review. However, it was noticed that RT may be promising in reducing LDL-C levels mainly in adult men and women, in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 and in pre-menopausal women, not presenting differences in the elderly population. It was concluded that the RT is an option good of physical exercise for individuals, especially when the aerobic training (AT is contra-indicated.
Yang, Panpan; Hu, Wen; Fu, Zhenzhen; Sun, Luning; Zhou, Ying; Gong, Yingyun; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Hongwen
Background It has been suggested that serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with the incident, progression and prognostic of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of BCAAs in metabolic dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides (TG) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) remains poorly understood. This study aims to investigate 1) the association of serum BCAAs with total cholesterol (TC), TG, HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and 2) the associati...
Lee, Hye-Ok; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Choue, Ryowon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate caloric restriction on β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in middle-aged obese Korean women. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifty-seven obese pre-menopausal Korean women participated in a 12-week calorie restriction program. Data on total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin...
Full Text Available While the relationship between total cholesterol (TC and cardiovascular disease (CVD progressively weakens with aging, several studies have shown that low TC is associated with increased mortality in older individuals. However, the possible additive/synergic contribution of the two most important cholesterol rich fractions (LDL-C and HDL-C to mortality risk has not been previously investigated. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between baseline LDL-C and HDL-C, both separately and combined, and 9-years mortality in a sample of community dwelling older individuals from the InCHIANTI study.1044 individuals over 64 years were included. CVD and cancer mortality were defined by ICD-9 codes 390-459 and 140-239, respectively. LDL-C <130 mg/dL (3.36 mmol/L was defined as "optimal/near optimal". Low HDL-C was defined as <40/50 mg/dL (1.03/1.29 mmol/L in males/females, respectively. Nine-years mortality risk was calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. We found that, compared to subjects with high LDL-C and normal HDL-C (reference group, total mortality was significantly increased in subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C (H.R.:1.58; 95%CI:1.11-2.25. As regards the specific cause of death, CVD mortality was not affected by LDL-C/HDL-C levels, while cancer mortality was significantly increased in all subjects with optimal/near optimal LDL-C (with normal HDL-C: H.R.: 2.49; with low HDL-C: H.R.: 4.52. Results were unchanged after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up, and of subjects with low TC (<160 g/dL-4.13 mmol/L.Our findings suggest that, in community dwelling older individuals, the combined presence of optimal/near optimal LDL-C and low HDL-C represents a marker of increased future mortality.
van der Steeg, Wim A; Holme, Ingar; Boekholdt, S Matthijs
: High plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I are inversely related to the risk of CAD. However, recent data suggest that this relationship does not hold true for very high HDL-C levels, particularly when a preponderance of large HDL particles is observed. METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 2...... prospective studies: the IDEAL (Incremental Decrease in End Points through Aggressive Lipid Lowering; n = 8,888) trial comparing the efficacy of high-dose to usual-dose statin treatment for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, and the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer...
Full Text Available Although the 30K family proteins are important anti-apoptotic molecules in silkworm hemolymph, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. This is especially the case in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs. In this study, a 30K protein, 30Kc6, was successfully expressed and purified using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system in silkworm cells. Furthermore, the 30Kc6 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to generate a polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis revealed that the antibody could react specifically with the purified 30Kc6 expressed in silkworm cells. The In vitro cell apoptosis model of HUVEC that was induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL and in vivo atherosclerosis rabbit model were constructed and were employed to analyze the protective effects of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 on these models. The results demonstrated that the silkworm protein 30Kc6 significantly enhanced the cell viability in HUVEC cells treated with Ox-LDL, decreased the degree of DNA fragmentation and markedly reduced the level of 8-isoprostane. This could be indicative of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 antagonizing the Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. Furthermore, Ox-LDL activated the cell mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK, especially JNK and p38. As demonstrated with Western analysis, 30Kc6 inhibited Ox-LDL-induced cell apoptosis in HUVEC cells by preventing the MAPK signaling pathways. In vivo data have demonstrated that oral feeding of the silkworm protein 30Kc6 dramatically improved the conditions of the atherosclerotic rabbits by decreasing serum levels of total triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC. Furthermore, 30Kc6 alleviated the extent of lesions in aorta and liver in the atherosclerotic rabbits. These data are not only helpful in understanding the anti
Nakajima, Yasuhito; Yamanishi, Hachiro; Matsuura, Nariaki
Control sera used as evaluation samples in external quality control of HDL-C and LDL-C sometimes show disparities in results between direct methods differing in reaction principles. As a result, the present standardization status is unclear. In 2008, we investigated the present status of standardization of HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG measurement values available in Japan. To evaluate accuracy, refrigerated fresh human serum pools used as samples were analyzed irrespective of the manufacturer's method. To evaluate precision, a questionnaire survey regarding the internal quality control status at each institution was carried out. As evaluation criteria, the permissible limits of error of BA and CVA based on JSCC proposals, and the accuracy and imprecision criterion NCEP proposals were used. There were 70 participating institutions for HDL-C, 65 for LDL-C, and 71 for TG. TG values from the institutions showed 83.1-91.5% for both the JSCC BA range and the NCEP criterion range. HDL-C values within the JSCC BA range were 81.4-82.6% and within the NCEP criterion range the value was 98.6%. Similarly, LDL-C values within the JSCC BA range were 89.2% and within the NCEP criterion range the value were 81.5-83.1%, respectively. Concerning precision, a questionnaire regarding internal quality control of each institution was completed. More than 90% of the institutions showed values within the CVA range proposed by the JSCC for all of HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG. Standardization of lipid assays used for metabolic syndrome-based health checkups has been mostly achieved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barter, Philip; Kastelein, John; Nunn, Alistair; Hobbs, Richard
The concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been found consistently to be a powerful negative predictor of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in human prospective population studies. There is also circumstantial evidence from human intervention studies and direct
Full Text Available One of indication of obesity is high LDL-C . Obesity has serious risk to health, it can cause heart disease and stroke. Effort to lower obesity using drugs have significant side effects such as insomnia, increased blood pressure, dry mouth and so forth. Therefore using natural products that contain glucomannan to reduce obesity and LDL-C is good choise. Glucomannan in the global market derived from Amorphophallus konjac. In this study, we used glucomannan from Amorphophallus endemic East Java to reduce fattened Wistar rats. Amorphophallus that used include Amorphophallus muelleri, A.variabilis (variant: Brongkos 32; Brongkos 5; Wonorejo, Brangsi and Amorphophallus campanulatus (Var Selopuro. Amorphophallus diet was given to white rats of Wistar strain that previously fattened using a mixture of cholesterol and lard, in addition to PARS (Chicken Feed Race Super as a basic food. Amorphophallus konjac was used as control. Measurement of LDL-C was conducted in four different time points, namely 1. Prior to dietary cholesterol, 2. 24 days after the dietary cholesterol, 3 11 days after Amorphophallus (+cholesterol diet, 4. 25 days after Amorphophallus (+cholesterol diet. The results showed that the diet of A.variabilis potentially lowered blood cholesterol levels for their respective 22.98%, 5.85% and 7.37% for consecutive variant Brongkos 32; Brongkos 5; Wonorejo. Diet from A.campanulatus and A.konjac had not been able to reduce cholesterol to the end of observation (25 days.
de Graaf, Jacqueline; de Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R. W.; van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Haydn Pritchard, P.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total
Graaf, J. de; Sauvage Nolting, P.R. de; Dam, M.S. van; Belsey, E.M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Pritchard, P.H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total
Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.
Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol
Ellison R Curtis
Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to examine whether ε4 carrier status modifies the relation between body mass index (BMI and HDL. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study included 657 families with high family risk scores for coronary heart disease and 588 randomly selected families of probands in the Framingham, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Utah Family Health Tree studies. We selected 1402 subjects who had ε4 carrier status available. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the interaction between BMI and ε4 allele carrier status on HDL after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, mono- and poly-unsaturated fat intake, exercise, comorbidities, LDL, and family cluster. Results The mean (standard deviation age of included subjects was 56.4(11.0 years and 47% were male. Adjusted means of HDL for normal, overweight, and obese BMI categories were 51.2(± 0.97, 45.0(± 0.75, and 41.6(± 0.93, respectively, among 397 ε4 carriers (p for trend Conclusion Our findings do not support an interaction between ε4 allele status and BMI on HDL.
S.E. Borggreve (Susanna); H.L. Hillege (Hans); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); P. de Jong (Paul); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); G. van der Steege (Gerrit); A. van Tol (Arie); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin)
textabstractContext: The -629C→A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promoter polymorphism is a determinant of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). The effect of the closely linked CETP TaqIB polymorphism on HDL-C has been suggested to be modified by obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Objective: Because the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Triglyceride/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C is considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Genetic components were important in controlling the variation in western countries. But the mode of inheritance and family aggregation patterns were still unknown among Asian-Pacific countries. This study, based on families recruited from community and hospital, is aimed to investigate the mode of inheritance, heritability and shared environmental factors in controlling TG/HDL-C. Results Two populations, one from community-based families (n = 988, 894 parent-offspring and 453 sibling pairs and the other from hospital-based families (n = 1313, 76 parent-offspring and 52 sibling pairs were sampled. The population in hospital-based families had higher mean age values than community-based families (54.7 vs. 34.0. Logarithmic transformed TG/ HDL-C values, after adjusted by age, gender and body mass index, were for genetic analyses. Significant parent-offspring and sibling correlations were also found in both samples. The parent-offspring correlation coefficient was higher in the hospital-based families than in the community-based families. Genetic heritability was higher in community-based families (0.338 ± 0.114, p = 0.002, but the common shared environmental factor was higher in hospital-based families (0.203 ± 0.042, p Conclusion Variations of TG/HDL-C in the normal ranges were likely to be influenced by multiple factors, including environmental and genetic components. Higher genetic factors were proved in younger community-based families than in older hospital-based families.
Frikke-Schmidt, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Stene, M.C.A.
increased risk of ischemic heart disease ( IHD). Design, Setting, and Participants Three studies of white individuals from Copenhagen, Denmark, were used: the Copenhagen City Heart Study ( CCHS), a 31-year prospective general population study ( n= 9022; 28 heterozygotes); the Copenhagen General Population...
Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Morita, Kazunori; Tanaka, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Ayami; Kawata, Yuki; Oniki, Kentaro; Saruwatari, Junji; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Otake, Koji; Ogata, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Akira; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao
We investigated the clinical relevance of a common variant, rs4820599, in the γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT)1 gene, associated with the serum GGT level, in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study (4.9 ± 2.5 years) including 352 T2DM patients (T2DM subjects) and a cross-sectional study including 796 health screening program participants (general subjects). A real-time TaqMan allelic discrimination assay was used to identify the genotypes. Risk factors for a high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) (≥1750 cm/sec) or diabetic retinopathy (DR) were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis or Cox proportional hazards model, etc. The frequency of the GGT1 G allele was 20.8% in the T2DM subjects, and no associations were found between the GGT1 genotype and risk of T2DM. The mean log GGT values in the T2DM and general subjects were significantly higher among G allele carriers than non-carriers. The G allele and a low HDL-C level were identified to be risk factors for a high baPWV in the T2DM subjects [odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.008; OR 1.71, P = 0.03; respectively), and a significant interactive effect between these factors was found on the risk of a high baPWV and DR. The HDL-C level at baseline was a significant predictor of a high baPWV only in G allele carriers according to the ROC analysis. This result regarding baPWV in the T2DM subjects was replicated in the general population. Meanwhile, the GGT1 genotype was not associated with the risk of DR, although it affected the principal factors involved in the risk of DR, and a low HDL-C level was also found to be a risk factor for DR only in G allele carriers. We herein describe for the first time the significant interactive effects of the GGT1 G allele and a low HDL-C level on a high baPWV and DR. These findings may encourage future clinical trials comparing the efficacy of agents increasing the HDL-C levels among the GGT1 genotypes. However, well-designed studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our results.
Jakulj, Lily; Vissers, Maud N.; Rodenburg, Jessica; Wiegman, Albert; Trip, Mieke D.; Kastelein, John J. P.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of plant stanols on lipids and endothelial function in pre-pubertal children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). STUDY DESIGN: Children with FH (n=42), aged 7-12 years, were enrolled in a double-blind crossover trial, in which they consumed 500 mL of a low-fat
Maturu, Amita; DeWitt, Peter; Kern, Philip A; Rasouli, Neda
The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians. However, there are conflicting data on TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of IR in African Americans. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower TG levels and increased insulin levels despite a greater risk for diabetes. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is predictive of IR and/or β-cell function in African American (AA) women. Non-diabetic AA women (n = 41) with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were measured using minimal model and β-cell function was determined by disposition index (DI = S I*AIRg). IR was defined as the lowest tertile of SI ( 0.70 was defined as significant discrimination. The mean (± SD) age was 38.5 ± 11.3 years, with BMI of 33.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose of 86.5 ± 10.5 mg/dL. The AUC-ROC for the prediction of DI women. However, we did show an inverse association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and β-cell function, suggesting that this simple tool may effectively identify AA women at risk for DM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL, in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. RESULTS: Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p = 0.046, LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.032, triglycerides (p = 0.01, body mass index (p = 0.046, waist circumference (p = 0.008, fat mass (p = 0.056 and insulin (p = 0.046 and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02. In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin, TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r(2 = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships.
Brombo, Gloria; Volpato, Stefano; Secchiero, Paola; Passaro, Angelina; Bosi, Cristina; Zuliani, Giovanni; Zauli, Giorgio
Tumor necrosis factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL), in addition to having a prognostic value in patients with cardiovascular disease, seems to interact with adiposity, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the results of previous clinical studies, focused on the association of TRAIL with selected metabolic or anthropometric indices were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to further investigate how soluble TRAIL concentrations independently correlate with major cardiovascular risk factors, including lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features. We examined the associations between serum soluble TRAIL concentrations, measured by ELISA, and lipid, glycemic and anthropometric features in 199 subjects recruited at our Metabolic Outpatient Clinic. Soluble TRAIL concentrations had a significant and direct correlation with total cholesterol (p = 0.046), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.032), triglycerides (p = 0.01), body mass index (p = 0.046), waist circumference (p = 0.008), fat mass (p = 0.056) and insulin (p = 0.046) and an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders (age, gender, C-reactive protein, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, waist circumference, and insulin), TRAIL levels continued to have an independent correlation with LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference (r(2) = 0.04). Serum TRAIL levels were weakly but significantly and independently associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral adiposity, and with LDL-cholesterol. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological basis of these relationships.
Aguirre, Miguel; Briceño, Yajaira; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Zerpa, Yajaira; Camacho, Nolis; Paoli, Mariela
To determine the behavior of the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela. A total of 1292 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years who attended educational institutions in the Libertador Municipality were enrolled into this study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured. The TG/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR, and QUICKI indexes were calculated. Subjects were categorized as with and without cardiometabolic risk based on the presence or absence of 2or more risk factors. Cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio were determined by constructing ROC curves. Significantly higher mean TG/HDL ratios were found in pubertal (2.2 ± 1.7) as compared to prepubertal subjects (1.8 ± 1.5; P=.001), with no sex differences. Two or more risk factors were found in 14.7% (n=192) of the participants, in whom TG/HDL ratios were significantly higher as compared to those with no risk (3.5±2.9 versus 1.6±0.8 in prepubertal and 4.1 ± 3.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.9 in pubertal subjects; P=.0001). According to cardiometabolic risk, cut-off points for the TG/HDL ratio of 1.8 and 2.5 were found for prepubertal and pubertal children respectively. These cut-off points showed risks (odds ratio) higher than 2.5 for conditions such as metabolic syndrome, elevated non-HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and elevated HOMA-IR. In this sample of children and adolescents, an elevated TG/HDLc ratio was found to be a good marker for predicting cardiometabolic risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chen, Qing-Jie; Lai, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bang-Dang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhai, Hui; He, Chun-Hui; Pan, Shuo; Luo, Jun-Yi; Gao, Jing; Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning
Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in general healthy Uygur adults in Xinjiang. A total of 4047 Uygur subjects aged ≥35 years were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in all participants. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The prevalence of high LDL-C and low HDL-C cholesterol was high and positively correlated with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in the Uygur population. In both men and women, we detected a slight apparent trend of high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Our study also demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for CVD risk factors was slightly stronger in men than in women. Analysis of the shortest distance in the ROC curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥two of these risk factors suggested a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cutoff of 2.5 for both men and women. The results of this study showed that a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cut-off of 2.5 might be used as the predictive marker to detect CVD risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang.
Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Gerrit; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Zelissen, Peter M. J.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Beek, André P.
GH replacement lowers total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in GH-deficient adults, but effects on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) are variable. Both GH and glucocorticoids decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, which is important
Holzinger, Emily R; Verma, Shefali S.; Moore, Carrie B; Hall, Molly A; De, Rishika; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Pankratz, Nathan; Amuzu, Antoinette; Burt, Amber; Dale, Caroline E.; Dudek, Scott; Furlong, Clement E; Gaunt, Tom R.; Kim, Daniel Seung; Riess, Helene; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Brautbar, Ariel; Carrell, David S.; Crosslin, David R.; Jarvik, Gail P; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Larson, Eric B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Tromp, Gerard; Baumert, Jens; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kleber, Marcus E.; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lange, Leslie A.; Mӓrz, Winfried; North, Kari E.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N; Reiner, Alex P.; Talmud, Philippa J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Wilson, James G.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Moore, Jason H; Drenos, Fotios; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Keating, Brendan J.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.
BACKGROUND: The genetic etiology of human lipid quantitative traits is not fully elucidated, and interactions between variants may play a role. We performed a gene-centric interaction study for four different lipid traits: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein
Holzinger, Emily R.; Verma, Shefali S.; Moore, Carrie B.; Hall, Molly; de, Rishika; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Pankratz, Nathan; Amuzu, Antoinette; Burt, Amber; Dale, Caroline; Dudek, Scott; Furlong, Clement E.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Kim, Daniel Seung; Riess, Helene; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Brautbar, Ariel; Carrell, David S.; Crosslin, David R.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Larson, Eric B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Tromp, Gerard; Baumert, Jens; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hovingh, G. K.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Klein, Barbara E.; Klein, Ronald; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lange, Leslie A.; Mӓrz, Winfried; North, Kari E.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Reiner, Alex P.; Talmud, Philippa J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Wilson, James G.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Moore, Jason H.; Drenos, Fotios; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.
Background: The genetic etiology of human lipid quantitative traits is not fully elucidated, and interactions between variants may play a role. We performed a gene-centric interaction study for four different lipid traits: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein
Fernando Henpin Yue Cesena
Full Text Available Abstract Background: There is controversy whether management of blood cholesterol should be based or not on LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c target concentrations. Objectives: To compare the estimated impact of different lipid-lowering strategies, based or not on LDL-c targets, on the risk of major cardiovascular events in a population with higher cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included consecutive individuals undergoing a routine health screening in a single center who had a 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD ≥ 7.5% (pooled cohort equations, ACC/AHA, 2013. For each individual, we simulated two strategies based on LDL-c target (≤ 100 mg/dL [Starget-100] or ≤ 70 mg/dL [Starget-70] and two strategies based on percent LDL-c reduction (30% [S30%] or 50% [S50%]. Results: In 1,897 subjects (57 ± 7 years, 96% men, 10-year ASCVD risk 13.7 ± 7.1%, LDL-c would be lowered from 141 ± 33 mg/dL to 99 ± 23 mg/dL in S30%, 71 ± 16 mg/dL in S50%, 98 ± 9 mg/dL in Starget-100, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL in Starget-70. Ten-year ASCVD risk would be reduced to 8.8 ± 4.8% in S50% and 8.9 ± 5.2 in Starget-70. The number of major cardiovascular events prevented in 10 years per 1,000 individuals would be 32 in S30%, 31 in Starget-100, 49 in S50%, and 48 in Starget-70. Compared with Starget-70, S50% would prevent more events in the lower LDL-c tertile and fewer events in the higher LDL-c tertile. Conclusions: The more aggressive lipid-lowering approaches simulated in this study, based on LDL-c target or percent reduction, may potentially prevent approximately 50% more hard cardiovascular events in the population compared with the less intensive treatments. Baseline LDL-c determines which strategy (based or not on LDL-c target is more appropriate at the individual level.
Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Christoffersen, Christina
Human genetics studies have implicated GALNT2, encoding GalNAc-T2, as a regulator of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the mechanisms relating GALNT2 to HDL-C remain unclear. We investigated the impact of homozygous GALNT2 deficiency on HDL-C in humans and mammalian mod...
To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). BACKGROUND ON FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol
Blood lipids, PAR, inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque were recorded and compared. Results: Following treatment, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the observation group were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group, while high ...
Favourable lifestyles promote cardiovascular protection. Exercise can induce beneficial changes in the genome that decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increase anti-inflammatory markers. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, fortified by nuts, while not reducing weight, reduces mortality. Lifestyle ...
Raal, Frederick J.; Braamskamp, Marjet J.; Selvey, Sheryl L.; Sensinger, Charlotte H.; Kastelein, John J.
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare, inherited condition resulting in severely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C) leading to premature cardiovascular disease and, often, death. Mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits apolipoprotein B
Graham, Ian; Shear, Chuck; de Graeff, Pieter; Boulton, Caroline; Catapano, Alberico L.; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Carlsson, Stefan C.; de Backer, Guy; Emmerich, Joseph; Greenfeder, Scott; Kim, Albert M.; Lautsch, Dominik; Nguyen, Tu; Nissen, Steven E.; Prasad, Krishna; Ray, Kausik; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Sasiela, William J.; Bruins Slot, Karsten; Stroes, Erik; Thuren, Tom; van der Schueren, Bart; Velkovski-Rouyer, Maja; Wasserman, Scott M.; Wiklund, Olov; Zouridakis, Emmanouil
The very high occurrence of cardiovascular events presents a major public health issue because treatment remains suboptimal. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins or ezetimibe in combination with a statin reduces major adverse cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular
Olsson, Anders G; Lindahl, Christina; Holme, Ingar
We assessed the proportion of patients treated with either simvastatin 20 or 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals of 2.5 or 2.0 mmol/l in the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering (IDEAL) study. We explored how...
and low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined on blood samples collected on the 28th day. ..... fraction in a process mediated by cholesteryl ester ... stimulate biosynthesis of triglyceride and reduces oxidation of fatty acids in rats. J. lipid. Res. (34); 933-941. Gbile, Z.O., 1986. Ethnobotany, taxonomy and.
L.A. Lange (Leslie); Y. Hu (Youna); H. Zhang (He); C. Xue (Chenyi); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); Z.-Z. Tang (Zheng-Zheng); C. Bizon (Chris); E.M. Lange (Ethan); G.D. Smith; E.H. Turner (Emily); Y. Jun (Yang); H.M. Kang (Hyun Min); G.M. Peloso (Gina); P. Auer (Paul); K.-P. Li (Kuo-Ping); J. Flannick (Jason); J. Zhang (Ji); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); K. Gaulton (Kyle); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); A. Locke (Adam); A.K. Manning (Alisa); X. Sim (Xueling); M.A. Rivas (Manuel); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); Y. Lu (Yingchang); D. Ruderfer (Douglas); E.A. Stahl (Eli); Q. Duan (Qing); Y. Li (Yun); P. Durda (Peter); S. Jiao (Shuo); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); D.D. Correa; M.D. Griswold (Michael); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); G.D. Smith; P.J. Schreiner (Pamela); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S. Crosby; C.L. Wassel (Christina); R. Do (Ron); N. Franceschini (Nora); L.W. Martin (Lisa); J.G. Robinson (Jennifer); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); D.R. Crosslin (David); E.A. Rosenthal (Elisabeth); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); M. Rieder (Mark); D.N. Farlow (Deborah); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); T. Lumley (Thomas); E.R. Fox (Ervin); C.S. Carlson (Christopher); U. Peters (Ulrike); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D. Levy (Daniel); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); H.A. Taylor (Herman); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); D.S. Siscovick (David); M. Fornage (Myriam); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); C. Hayward (Caroline); I. Rudan (Igor); Y.E. Chen (Y. Eugene); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); P. Sætrom (Pål); K. Hveem (Kristian); M. Boehnke (Michael); L. Groop (Leif); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); T. Meitinger (Thomas); C. Ballantyne (Christie); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); W.S. Post (Wendy S.); K.E. North (Kari); A. Reiner (Alexander); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); D. Altshuler (David); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); D.Y. Lin (Dan); G.P. Jarvik (Gail); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C. Kooperberg (Charles); J.G. Wilson (James); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); S.S. Rich (Stephen); R.P. Tracy (Russell); C.J. Willer (Cristen)
textabstractElevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a treatable, heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 157 variants associated with lipid levels but are not well suited to assess the impact of rare and low-frequency
van der Gronde, Toon; Hartog, Anita; van Hees, Charlotte; Pellikaan, Hubert; Pieters, Toine
Dietary fibres have diverse mechanisms in reducing plasma cholesterol, which could be useful for treating high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The objective of this review is to determine the state of the evidence for the cholesterol-lowering effects of three selected fibres
Stein, Evan A.; Dann, Eldad J.; Wiegman, Albert; Skovby, Flemming; Gaudet, Daniel; Sokal, Etienne; Charng, Min-Ji; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Luirink, Ilse; Raichlen, Joel S.; Sundén, Mattias; Carlsson, Stefan C.; Raal, Frederick J.; Kastelein, John J. P.
BACKGROUND Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by extremely elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment starts at diagnosis, but no statin has been
SNPs with P values<0.05 are marked in bold; SNPs with P values <0.05 after Bonferroni correction are black highlighted with white letters. All calculations were made with a Univariate analysis with covariates (age, BMI, and ln glucose levels). TC, total cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; ...
Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients using protease inhibitor (PI) – based antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop atherogenic changes in their lipoprotein profile consisting of elevations in triglyc- eride-rich lipoproteins, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (Bonnet et al., 2000; Bozzette ...
Braamskamp, Marjet J. A. M.; Langslet, Gisle; McCrindle, Brian W.; Cassiman, David; Francis, Gordon A.; Gagné, Claude; Gaudet, Daniel; Morrison, Katherine M.; Wiegman, Albert; Turner, Traci; Kusters, D. Meeike; Miller, Elinor; Raichlen, Joel S.; Wissmar, Jenny; Martin, Paul D.; Stein, Evan A.; Kastelein, John J. P.
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to premature atherosclerosis. Guidelines recommend initiating statins early to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Studies have evaluated rosuvastatin in children aged ≥10 years, but its
Assessment of lipid profile of a group of undergraduates in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. ... Consumption of fast foods (48%) and alcoholic beverages (52%) up to thrice a week was high. High levels of TC (56%), increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (92%) and low ...
rs17321515 SNP has been associated with variation in LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. This effect has never been studied in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, our aims were to assess the association of the rs17321515 (TRIB1) SNP with pl...
Stroes, Erik; Guyton, John R; Lepor, Norman
BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately cont...
Kozlitina, Julia; Smagris, Eriks; Stender, Stefan
-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase in 3 independent populations (n > 80,000). When recombinant protein was expressed in cultured hepatocytes, 50% less Glu167Lys TM6SF2 protein was produced relative to wild-type TM6SF2. Adeno-associated virus-mediated short hairpin RNA...
Moriarty, Patrick M.; Thompson, Paul D.; Cannon, Christopher P.; Guyton, John R.; Bergeron, Jean; Zieve, Franklin J.; Bruckert, Eric; Jacobson, Terry A.; Kopecky, Stephen L.; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T.; Du, Yunling; Pordy, Robert; Gipe, Daniel A.; Drexel, Heinz; Kaser, Susanne; Toplak, Hermann; Baass, Alexis; Gaudet, Daniel; Farnier, Michel; Krempf, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Serusclat, Pierre; Cohen, Hofit; Gavish, Dov; Hussein, Osama; Maislos, Maximo; Schurr, Daniel; Arca, Marcello; Averna, Maurizio; Pozzi, Claudio; Balsamo, Cinisello; Heggen, Eli; Langslet, Gisle; Al-Bahrani, Ali; Blagden, Mark; O'Kane, Maurice; Reynolds, Tim; Viljoen, Adie; Andersen, James; Awasty, Vivek; Bayron, Carlos; Bestermann, William; Bolster, Eric; deGoma, Emil; Dunn, Fredrick; Duprez, Daniel; Elam, Marshall; El Shahawy, Mahfouz; Faillace, Robert; Freeman, Mason; Goyal, Neil; Guyton, John; Hemphill, Linda; Huffman, Cynthia; Jain, Vandana; Kopecky, Stephen; Koren, Michael; Lepor, Norman; Lesko, Michael; Linton, MacRae; Loh, Irving; Malik, Amir; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Moriarty, Patrick; Mulford, Mim; Muse, Derek; O'dea, Daniel; Shaoulian, Emanuel; Smith, Donald; Stearns, Pamela; Thompson, Paul; Toth, Phillip; Turner, Traci; Vardi, Gil; Voyce, Stephen; Weinstein, Debra; Weiss, Robert; Zieve, Franklin; Ginsberg, Henry; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rader, Daniel J.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Olsson, Anders; Waters, David; Larrey, Dominique; Rosenson, Robert S.; Patriarca, Peter A.; Molenberghs, Geert; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Lopes, Renato D.; Shah, Bimal R.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Roe, Matthew T.; Eapen, Zubin; Armaganijan, Luciana; Bertolami, Adriana; Leonardi, Sergio; Kolls, Bradley J.; Jordan, J. Dedrick; Ducrocq, Grégory; Puymirat, Etienne; Mathews, Robin; Alexander, Karen; Melloni, Chiara
BACKGROUND: Statin intolerance limits many patients from achieving optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Current options for such patients include using a lower but tolerated dose of a statin and adding or switching to ezetimibe or other non-statin therapies. METHODS:
Stroes, Erik; Guyton, John R; Lepor, Norman; Civeira, Fernando; Gaudet, Daniel; Watts, Gerald F; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T; Lecorps, Guillaume; Manvelian, Garen; Farnier, Michel; Visseren, FLJ
BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately
The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...
Conclusion: No much change of clinical practice with regard to cholesterol management was found in Chinese patients with CAD, accompanied by very low achievement of LDL-C target, suggesting that there is a great room for the improvement of cholesterol control in Chinese patients with CAD.
Stein, Evan A; Dann, Eldad J; Wiegman, Albert
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by extremely elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment starts at diagnosis, but no statin has been f...... and adults was related to underlying genetic mutations. (A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Rosuvastatin in Children and Adolescents With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia [HYDRA]; NCT02226198).......BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by extremely elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment starts at diagnosis, but no statin has been...... formally evaluated in, or approved for, HoFH children. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the LDL-C efficacy of rosuvastatin versus placebo in HoFH children, and the relationship with underlying genetic mutations. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, 12-week, crossover study of rosuvastatin...
Suadicani, P.; Hein, H.O.; Eyben, F.E. von
. Potential risk factors: These were blood pressure, diabetes, fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucosuria, cancer, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, tobacco, leisure-time physical activity, social class, and age...... gradually from the normal weight (BMI 20.0-25.0) to higher BMI groups. With respect to IHD, compared to normal weight men, obese men (BMI = 30.0) had an age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of 1.67(1.04-2.68); adjusted for potential confounders HR was 0.99 (0.59-1.66); corresponding estimates for ACM...
Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Picolo, Malena R; Monteiro, Paula A; Buonani, Camila; Lira, Fábio S; Freitas, Ismael F
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and concurrent training (aerobic plus strength training) on the lipid profiles of normotriacylglycerolemic and hypertriacylglycerolemic postmenopausal women and to verify whether the benefits of aerobic and concurrent training were sustained after 1 year. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), Triacylglycerol (TAG) and glucose were assessed in 46 normotriacylglycerolemic (TAGbenefits are sustained at the 1-year follow-up among the hypertriacylglycerolemic subjects.
Zhao Yanwei; Tianjin Medical College of Chinese People's Armed Police Force, Tianjin; Yu Xiaofeng; Xu Huali; Qu Shaochun; Sui Dayuan
Objective: To observe the effects of injection of ginseng fruit saponins (IGFS) on total cholesterol (TC), lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism and antioxidative activity in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Methods: The TC, lipoprotein cholesterol and lipidperoxidation (LPO) contents, prostacycline (PGI 2 ) and thromboxane (TXA 2 ) levels, superoxidedismutase (SOD) activity and blood viscosity were measured respectively in hyperlipidemia rats which had been given IGFS 10, 20 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d - '1 ip, respectively, for fifteen days. In addition, fat accumulation in liver was observed. Results: The triglyceride (TG), TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in serum, TXA 2 in plasma, LPO in serum and liver and blood viscosity were decreased significantly, and PGI 2 in plasma and SOD in serum and liver were significantly increased after administration with IGFS (20 and 40 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 ) in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Moreover, IGFS decreased ratios of TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c, increased the ratio of PGI 2 /TXA 2 and inhibit fat accumulation in liver. The content of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in serum were significantly increased after administration IGFS (40 mg·kg -1 · -1 ) in experimental hyperlipidemia rats. Conclusions: IGFS can inhibit arterioscleros by improving cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism, suppressing LPO and increasing antioxidation. (authors)
Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Sutthiwutthichai, Satjatham; Gunaparn, Siriluck; Phrommintikul, Arintaya
It has recently been shown that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Based on known ethic differences in lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk prediction, we sought to study the predictability of attaining non-HDL-C target and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in Thai patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to attaining LDL-C target. We retrospectively obtained the data of all patients who were admitted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai hospital due to AMI during 2006-2013. The mean non-HDL-C and LDL-C during long-term follow-up were used to predict MACE at each time point. The patients were classified as target attainment if non-HDL-C LDL-C LDL-C target and 21.2% experienced MACEs. LDL-C and non-HDL-C were directly compared in Cox regression model. Compared with non-HDL-C 130 mg/dl had higher incidence of MACEs (HR 3.15, 95% CI 1.46-6.80, P = 0.003). Surprisingly, LDL-C >100 mg/dl was associated with reduced risk of MACE as compared to LDL LDL-C goal was not associated with the higher risk. Therefore, non-HDL-C may be a more suitable target of dyslipidemia treatment than LDL-C in patients after AMI.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effect of fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves on blood lipid fractions and haematological profiles in broilers. One hundred and twelve broilers were distributed to 7 treatment groups. One group was fed diets without Sauropus androgynus leaves as the control, and other six groups were fed Sauropus androgynus leaves fermented by Neurospora crassa, Lactobacillus sp. or Saccharomyces cerevisiae at level of 25 g or 50 g/kg diet. Experimental results showed that the treatments had no effect on cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and atherogenic index, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c and triglyceride concentration (P>0.05. It was shown that fermented Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected red blood count (RBC, white blood count (WBC, packed cell volume (PCV, trombosit dan erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (P
Jesus, Íncare Correa de; Alle, Lupe Furtado; Munhoz, Eva Cantalejo; Silva, Larissa Rosa da; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Purim, Katia Sheylla Malta; Titski, Ana Claudia Kapp; Leite, Neiva
To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, insulin, and basal glycemia, were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of the polymorphism: non-carriers of the Arg64 allele, i.e., homozygous (Trp64Trp: n=54), and carriers of the Arg64 allele (Trp64Arg+Arg64Arg: n=18), in which the frequency of the Arg64 allele was 15.2%. The maximal oxygen uptake and peak of oxygen uptake during exercise were obtained through the symptom-limited, submaximal treadmill test. Maximal fat oxidation was determined according to the ventilatory ratio proposed in Lusk's table. Adolescents carrying the less frequent allele (Trp64Arg and Arg64Arg) had higher LDL-c levels (p=0.031) and lower maximal fat oxidation rates (p=0.038) when compared with non-carriers (Trp64Trp). Although the physiological processes related to lipolysis and lipid metabolism are complex, the presence of the Arg 64 allele was associated with lower rates of FATMAX during aerobic exercise, as well as with higher levels of LDL-c in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Ference, Brian A
Mendelian randomization studies have the potential to transform our understanding of cardiovascular medicine by generating naturally randomized data that can fill evidence gaps when a randomized trial would be either impossible or impractical to conduct. Here, we review recent Mendelian randomization studies evaluating the effect of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mendelian randomization studies consistently demonstrate that LDL-C is causally associated with the risk of CHD. Furthermore, exposure to genetically mediated lower LDL-C appears to be associated with a much greater than expected reduction in CHD risk, thus suggesting that LDL-C has a cumulative effect on the risk of CHD. In addition, genetically mediated lower LDL-C is log-linearly associated with the risk of CHD and the effect of polymorphisms in multiple different genes on the risk of CHD is remarkably consistent when measured per unit lower LDL-C. The naturally randomized genetic evidence suggests that LDL-C has a causal and cumulative effect on the risk of CHD, and that the clinical benefit of exposure to lower LDL-C is determined by the absolute magnitude of exposure to lower LDL-C independent of the mechanism by which LDL-C is lowered.
Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P
Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Mas, R; Molina, V; Valdes, S; Laguna, A
Policosanol is a natural mixture of higher primary aliphatic alcohols isolated and purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum, L.) wax, whose main component is octacosanol. Policosanol (5-200 mg/kg) orally administered for 4 weeks to normocholesterolemic New Zealand rabbits significantly reduced total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serum levels in a dose dependent manner. Serum triglyceride levels of treated and control animals were significantly different, but the reduction observed was not dose-dependent. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels remained unchanged. Results indicate that the reduction in total cholesterol values induced by policosanol is mainly mediated through a decrease in LDL-C levels.
Stender, Steen; Budinski, Dragos; Hounslow, Neil
Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III (NCEP ATP III) targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was determined.Results: Of the patients enrolled, 539 received at least one dose of pitavastatin (safety population: men, 45.5%; Caucasian, 99.1%; mean age, 70.3 years; range, 65......-89 years). Only 17% of patients required up-titration to pitavastatin 4 mg. After 60 weeks, NCEP ATP III and EAS targets were attained by 93.8% and 89.0% of patients, respectively. Plasma LDL-C declined by 43.4% and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 9.6% versus core-study baseline values...
Holme, Ingar; Cater, Nilo B; Faergeman, Ole
the relationships between on-treatment levels of lipoprotein components to subsequent major coronary events (MCE). FINDINGS: Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried more predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but LDL-C was less...... predictive than both non-HDL-C and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to MCE. However, for estimating differences in relative risk reduction between the treatment groups, apoB and non-HDL-C were the strongest predictors. INTERPRETATION: The on-treatment level of apoB/apoA-1...
Waghe, Prashantkumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kandasamy, Kannan; Choudhury, Soumen; Gupta, Priyanka; Harikumar, Sankarankutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar
Arsenic is a groundwater pollutant and can cause various cardiovascular disorders in the exposed population. The aim of the present study was to assess whether subchronic arsenic exposure through drinking water can induce vascular dysfunction associated with alteration in plasma electrolytes and lipid profile. Rats were exposed to arsenic as 25, 50, and 100 ppm of sodium arsenite through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. On the 91st day, rats were sacrificed and blood was collected. Lipid profile and the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) were assessed in plasma. Arsenic reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio, but increased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and electrolytes. The results suggest that the arsenic-mediated dyslipidemia and electrolyte retention could be important mechanisms in the arsenic-induced vascular disorder.
Insulin resistance (IR) is implicated as an independent risk factor for vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and\\/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the associations between IR, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and subclinical atherosclerosis (common and internal carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT)) in healthy European adults.
Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...
Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.
Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Woolley, J Michael; Sharma, Pradeep; Bittner, Vera; Rosenson, Robert S
Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is recommended as the primary marker to guide lipid-lowering therapy, some data suggest non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may better reflect coronary heart disease risk. Discordance between these measures has not been evaluated. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010 (n = 4986) to examine the discordance between these lipid parameters. Elevated levels of non-HDL-C and LDL-C were defined by using the 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C and LDL-C was 22.7% and 24.5%, respectively. Of participants with high non-HDL-C, 9.7% had normal LDL-C, whereas 15.7% of participants with high LDL-C had normal non-HDL-C. We estimate 3.9 million US adults had high non-HDL-C and normal LDL-C, whereas 6.8 million US adults had high LDL-C and normal non-HDL-C. Persons with high non-HDL-C and normal LDL-C were older, more likely to be men, Hispanic, and have impaired fasting glucose, diabetes metabolic syndrome, and more risk factors for coronary heart disease. Substantial discordance exists between high non-HDL-C and high LDL-C among US adults. Reliance on either single measure could result in failure to classify cardiovascular heart disease risks appropriately. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A combination of high concentrations of serum triglyceride and non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism--The Hoorn Study.
Bos, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Vegt, F. de; Diamant, M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is not only associated with hyperglycaemia, but also with disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of triglyceride and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations with cardiovascular disease in subjects with normal and abnormal
Blaauwwiekel, EE; Beusekamp, BJ; Sluiter, WJ; Hoogenberg, K; Dullaart, RPF
The effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E genotype on the lipoprotein response to a 1 year low cholesterol diet (200 mg cholesterol per day) was evaluated in 36 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus with albuminuria between 10 and 200 mu g min(-1). Apo E genotype was characterized by polymerase
Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.
assigned in a 1: 1 ratio to receive 20 mg of rosuvastatin daily or placebo. Measurements: The primary end point was the occurrence of a first cardiovascular event ( myocardial infarction, stroke, arterial revascularization, hospitalization for unstable angina, or death from cardiovascular causes). Results......: The 32% of trial participants 70 years or older accrued 49% (n = 194) of the 393 confirmed primary end points. The rates of the primary end point in this age group were 1.22 and 1.99 per 100 person-years of follow-up in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups, respectively ( hazard ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0...
Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects
Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos
OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610
Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR
Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8
Short-term red wine consumption promotes differential effects on plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sympathetic activity, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive, and healthy subjects
Ana CM Andrade
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10 or arterial hypertension (n=9, or healthy controls (n=7 were given red wine (250 mL/night for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01 and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05. Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine.
A combination of high concentrations of serum triglyceride and non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism - The Hoorn Study
Bos, G.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; de Vegt, F.; Diamant, M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.
Aims/hypothesis. Type 2 diabetes is not only associated with hyperglycaemia, but also with disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of triglyceride and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations with cardiovascular disease in subjects with normal and abnormal
The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects
Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K
in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose...... of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped......-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). RESULTS: In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive...
Conclusion: Teerankanchana's formula showed good correlation and minimal bias with dLDLC at all TG levels. Moreover, linear regression showed no difference in the two. It seems to be the most suitable formula for estimating LDLC in our HIV-positive population.
Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.
Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years ...
Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole; Gyntelberg, Finn
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men taking antihypertensive medication.......The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men taking antihypertensive medication....
Cuchel, M; Schwab, U S; Jones, P J; Vogel, S; Lammi-Keefe, C; Li, Z; Ordovas, J; McNamara, J R; Schaefer, E J; Lichtenstein, A H
The effects of replacing corn oil with corn oil margarine in stick form on endogenous cholesterol synthesis and susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly men and women aged 63 +/- 12 years (mean +/- SD) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (mean LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C], 4.24 +/- 0.59 mmol/L at the time of recruitment). Subjects consumed each of two diets for 32-day periods, one enriched in corn oil, which contained 30% of energy as fat (7% saturated fatty acid [SFA], 9% monounsaturated fatty acid [MUFA] [0.4% 18:1n9 trans], and 11% polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA]) and 85 mg cholesterol/4.2 MJ, and one enriched in stick corn oil margarine, which contained 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n9trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/4.2 MJ. Both diets were isocaloric and supplied by a metabolic research kitchen. Mean total cholesterol levels were lowest (P = .039) when subjects consumed the corn oil-enriched diet (5.01 +/- 0.51 mmol/L) as compared with the margarine-enriched diet (5.30 +/- 0.58 mmol/L). LDL-C levels were 3.24 +/- 0.51 and 3.50 +/- 0.54 mmol/L when subjects consumed corn oil-and margarine-enriched diets, respectively (P = .058). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or triglyceride concentrations between the two experimental periods. Consumption of the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet tended to result in lower cholesterol fractional synthetic rates ([C-FSRs] 0.0466 +/- 0.0175 and 0.0668 +/- 0.0298, respectively, P = .080) and cholesterol absolute synthetic rates ([C-ASRs] 1.1761 +/- 0.5375 and 1.6954 +/- 0.8685, respectively, P = .092); however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Consumption of the margarine-enriched diet versus the corn oil-enriched diet resulted in a significantly higher concentration of alpha-tocopherol in both plasma and LDL(P = .004 and P = .011, respectively). LDL particle
Moriyama, Kengo; Takahashi, Eiko
The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Japanese adults recommend using low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) calculated by Friedewald formula (F_LDL-C) for subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels ＜400 mg/dL and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels for subjects with TG levels ≥400 mg/dL. Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels ＜400 mg/dL. This study included 769 Japanese subjects who met our inclusion criteria and underwent an annual health examination, including sdLDL-C analyses. The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). The optimal cut-off point of non-HDL-C was 158 mg/dL. Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels ＜400 mg/dL.
Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir
Objectives: Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Methods: Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Results: Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Conclusions: Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. PMID:21603015
Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Haghighatjoo, Elham; Shidfar, Farzad; Afshari, Shirin; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Ziaee, Amir
Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio. Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.
Mohammad Reza Vafa
Full Text Available Objectives: Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. Methods: Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL, apolipoprotein B (Apo B, lipoprotein a (Lp a and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention. Results: Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B, Lp (a and LDL/HDL ratio. Conclusions: Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B, Lp (a and LDL/HDL ratio.
Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.
to men postprandially, irrespective of fasting levels or ongoing statin therapy. This might have implications in the atherosclerotic process and on any difference in the risk of CVD between genders. Keywords: Cholesterol; diabetes mellitus type-2; fasting; gender; hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase......Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM...
Lan, Jinfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Shaojie
OBJECTIVE: To study the level and heritability of serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in adult twins sampled from Qingdao City of China. METHODS: 316 pairs of healthy twin aged 18 to 60 years...... soft. RESULTS: The average levels of fasting serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG were (4.52 +/- 1.08), (1.46 +/- 0.39), (2.58 +/- 0.79) and (1.11 +/- 0.77) mmol/L, respectively. The best fitting models adjusted by sex and age in Mx soft were AE model for TC, HDL-C and LDL-C, whereas CE model for TG....... The heritability of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG were 53% , 62% , 57% and 0, respectively. CONCLUSION: It is considered that both genetic and environmental factors may influence the level of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C, whereas environmental effect may be the factor essential for the level of TG....
Siddiqui, S.A.; Shabbir, I.; Sherwani, M.U.I.K.; Hussain, R.
Background: The dyslipidaemia associated with type-2 diabetes is associated with raised plasma triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To assess the lipid abnormalities in patients with type-2 diabetes. Study design and settings: A cohort study carried out at Diabetic Clinic of PMRC Research Centre, FJMC, Lahore, Pakistan. Patients and Methods Eight years case records of type-2 diabetic patients seen at the research centre from 1999-2006 were reviewed. The research centre is a specialized centre for diagnosing and treating diabetes mellitus. All the patients were recruited for their follow up check up and laboratory investigations for dislipidemia. Adult treatment panel III guidelines for dyslipidaemia were followed. A 12 hours fasting blood sample was collected from each patient for serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and glucose as well as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) by using standard methods at Biochemistry laboratory of the research centre. LDL-C/ HDL-C ratios, Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and body mass index was calculated after anthropometery body mass index (BMI) less than or equal to 25 was considered as overweight while less than or equal 30 obese. HbA1c 40 mg/dl were seen in 67%. Raised VLDL-C (above 40 mg/dl) was seen in 32.9% cases. The group with high LDL and VLDL is at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridaemia was found in 55% and hypercholesterolaemia in 45.4% cases. Obesity as indicated by body mass index was found in 53.7% patients. Statistically significant association of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypo HDL cholesterolemia and VLDL-C was found with advancing age while only hypertriglyceridemia and VLDL-C showed a positive
Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz
BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...... be underestimated. In the current study, we used an LDL genetic risk score (GRS) to overcome this problem. METHODS: A weighted GRS was created using 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LDL-C levels. The LDL GRS was calculated in three Dutch cohorts: the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) (n = 3270......), the Leiden 85-plus study (n = 316) and the Rotterdam Study (n = 4035). We assessed the association between the LDL GRS and LDL-C levels, chronological age, familial longevity and mortality. RESULTS: Up to 90 years of age, in each age stratum individuals with high LDL GRS had higher LDL-C levels (P = 0...
Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (＞4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.
Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.
Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...
Full Text Available High blood total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG, and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C are related to risk for coronary heart disease (CHD development. Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise can prevent at least some of the negative effects on health associated with post. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of regular aerobic exercise for 12 weeks on the levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides. An experimental study was conducted comprising 62 postmenopausal women, aged 50-70 years, not on hormonal therapy, consuming a regular diet, living in East and South Jakarta, and willing to perform aerobic exercises regularly. The results of this study showed that all four lipid levels differed significantly between the control group and the intervention group, the respective mean levels ± SD for TC being 228.0 ± 39.7 mg/dL vs. 171.6 ± 18.4 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for LDL-C 149.0 ± 36.9 mg/dL vs. 97.7 ± 17.8 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; for HDL-C 50.9 ± 3.9 mg/dL vs. 71.5 ± 6.7 mg/dL, (p = 0.000; and for triglycerides 150.5 ± 67.5 mg/dL vs. 95.0 ± 37.8 mg/dL (p = 0.000. Thus practitioners recommending exercise for coronary artery disease risk reduction in postmenopausal women.
Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.
A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group
Vu, Khanh N; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nambi, Vijay; Volcik, Kelly A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C
Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit.
Comparison of PCSK9 Inhibitor Evolocumab vs Ezetimibe in Statin-Intolerant Patients: Design of the Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin-Intolerant Subjects 3 (GAUSS-3) Trial.
Nissen, Steven E; Dent-Acosta, Ricardo E; Rosenson, Robert S; Stroes, Erik; Sattar, Naveed; Preiss, David; Mancini, G B John; Ballantyne, Christie M; Catapano, Alberico; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Stein, Evan A; Xue, Allen; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Thompson, Paul D
Statins are the accepted standard for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, 5% to 10% of statin-treated patients report intolerance, mostly due to muscle-related adverse effects. Challenges exist to objective identification of statin-intolerant patients. Evolocumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), resulting in marked LDL-C reduction. We report the design of Goal Achievement After Utilizing an Anti-PCSK9 Antibody in Statin-Intolerant Subjects 3 (GAUSS-3), a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, ezetimibe-controlled study to compare effectiveness of 24 weeks of evolocumab 420 mg monthly vs ezetimibe 10 mg daily in hypercholesterolemic patients unable to tolerate an effective statin dose. The study incorporates a novel atorvastatin-controlled, double-blind, crossover phase to objectively identify statin intolerance. Eligible patients had LDL-C above the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III target level for the appropriate coronary heart disease risk category and were unable to tolerate ≥3 statins or 2 statins (one of which was atorvastatin ≤10 mg/d) or had a history of marked creatine kinase elevation accompanied by muscle symptoms while on 1 statin. This trial has 2 co-primary endpoints: mean percent change from baseline in LDL-C at weeks 22 and 24 and percent change from baseline in LDL-C at week 24. Key secondary efficacy endpoints include change from baseline in LDL-C, percent of patients attaining LDL-C <70 mg/dL (1.81 mmol/L), and percent change from baseline in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. Recruitment of 511 patients was completed on November 28, 2014. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Peng; Qin, Jin-Qiu; Wei, Ai-Qiu; Huang, Ping; Lai, Zhan-Feng; Lin, Fa-Quan
Studies on homocysteine (Hcy) have mainly focused on the correlation between the homocysteine concentration and disease development. Few epidemiological investigations have been performed. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) during routine physical examination in Guangxi Province, China and the correlation of serum Hcy with gender, age, serum uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood glucose (GLU) to provide evidence for preventing and treating HHcy. Data of 8043 patients who underwent physical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China from 2015 to 2016 were collected. These data included gender, age, and the serum Hcy, UA, GLU, TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C concentrations. The overall prevalence of HHcy was 50.8% (52.3% in males, 48.1% in females). Age, UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C were significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower in patients with than without HHcy, regardless of gender (all Pphysical examination in Guangxi Province, China. HHcy was related to gender, age, high concentrations of UA, TC, TG, and LDL-C; and low concentrations of HDL-C. Strengthening early intervention of HHcy can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yokoyama, Kenichi; Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Taguchi, Rie; Itani, Yasutaka; Ito, Yuichi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki
The purpose of this study is to verify the usefulness of the quantification of aortic wall involvement by enhanced computed tomography (CT). One-hundred thirteen Japanese patients underwent two enhanced CT of the descending thoracic aorta at intervals. We sliced the descending thoracic aorta continuously from the level of the tracheal bifurcation with 1 cm intervals, and we defined aortic wall volume (AWV) (cm 3 ) as the sum of a 7-slice area of aortic wall involving calcification. The average of AWV increased from 7.95±2.92 cm 3 to 8.70±2.98 cm 3 . The developmental rate of AWV (ΔAWV) was 0.270±0.281 cm 3 /year. ΔAWV did not have a significant correlation with any risk factor at the baseline. ΔAWV had significant correlation with total cholesterol, (LDL-C) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL-C/(HDL-C) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio at the follow-up, and by multivariate analysis with only the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. ΔAWV was not correlated with the intake status of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs. The cut-off level of total cholesterol with the most significant odds ratio for progression of aortic wall was 190 mg/dl, and that of LDL-C was 130 mg/dl. This method proved to be useful for the non-invasive assessment of aortic wall thickness. (author)
Ejtahed, H S; Mohtadi-Nia, J; Homayouni-Rad, A; Niafar, M; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M; Mofid, V; Akbarian-Moghari, A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic and conventional yogurt on the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic people. In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 60 people (23 males and 37 females) with type 2 diabetes and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) greater than 2.6 mmol/L were assigned to 2 groups. Participants consumed daily 300 g of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 or 300 g of conventional yogurt for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Probiotic yogurt consumption caused a 4.54% decrease in total cholesterol and a 7.45% decrease in LDL-C compared with the control group. No significant changes from baseline were shown in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the probiotic group. The total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio and LDL-C:HDL-C ratio as atherogenic indices significantly decreased in the probiotic group compared with the control group. Probiotic yogurt improved total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations in type 2 diabetic people and may contribute to the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freitas, Wladimir M; Quaglia, Luiz A; Santos, Simone N; de Paula, Rafaela C S; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael; Rivera, Juan J; Cury, Ricardo; Blumenthal, Roger; Nadruz-Junior, Wilson; Agatston, Arthur; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Nasir, Khurram; Sposito, Andrei C
Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been consistently demonstrated a predictor of atherosclerotic disease in a large spectrum of clinical settings, among individuals aged of 80 years or older this concept is uncertain. This study was evaluated in a carefully selected population if the association between LDL-C and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains significant in the very elderly. Individuals aged of 80 years or older (n = 208) who spontaneously sought primary prevention care and have never manifested cardiovascular disease, malnutrition, neoplastic or consumptive disease were enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis. Medical evaluation, anthropometric measurements, blood tests and cardiac computed tomography were obtained. In analyses adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking and statin therapy, no association was found between coronary calcium score (CCS) and LDL-C [1.79 (0.75-4.29)]. There was no association between triglycerides and CCS. The association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and CCS was significant and robust in unadjusted [0.32 (0.15-0.67)] as well as in the fully adjusted analysis [0.34 (0.15-0.75)]. The present study confirms in a healthy cohort of individuals aged of 80 years or more that while the association between LDL-C and coronary atherosclerosis weakens with aging, the opposite occurs with the levels of HDL-C.
Full Text Available The term disappearing HDL syndrome refers to development of severe high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C deficiency in noncritically ill patients with previously normal HDL-C and triglyceride levels. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS is a disorder of the immune system due to an inability to regulate lymphocyte homeostasis resulting in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. We describe a 17-year-old boy who was evaluated in the lipid clinic for history of undetectable or low HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Past medical history was significant for ALPS IA diagnosed at 10 years of age when he presented with bilateral cervical adenopathy. He was known to have a missense mutation in one allele of the FAS protein extracellular domain consistent with ALPS type 1A. HDL-C and LDL-C levels had been undetectable on multiple occasions, though lipids had not been measured prior to the diagnosis of ALPS. He had been receiving sirolimus for immunosuppression. The HDL-C and LDL-C levels correlated with disease activity and improved to normal levels during times when the activity of ALPS was controlled. This case highlights the importance of considering ALPS as a cause of low HDL-C and LDL-C levels in a child with evidence of lymphoproliferation.
Kapetanakis, M; Liuba, P; Odermarsky, M; Lundgren, J; Hallböök, T
Ketogenic diet is a well-established treatment in children with difficult to treat epilepsy. Very little is known about the long-term effects on vascular atherogenic and biochemical processes of this high-fat and low carbohydrate and protein diet. We evaluated 26 children after one year and 13 children after two years of ketogenic diet. High resolution ultrasound-based assessment was used for carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery distensibility and carotid artery compliance. Blood lipids including high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), apolipoprotein A (apoA), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were analysed. A gradual decrease in carotid distensibility and an increase in LDL-C, apoB and the TC:LDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C ratios were seen at three and 12 months of KD-treatment. These differences were not significant at 24 months. cIMT, BMI and hsCRP did not show any significant changes. The initial alterations in lipids, apoB and arterial function observed within the first year of KD-treatment appear to be reversible and not significant after 24 months of treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Dan; Liu, Xianbao; Xiang, Meixiang
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between lipids ratio and the degree of coronary artery stenosis. According to the Gensini score of inpatients in the Cardiology Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, China, from January 2008 to June 2010, a total of 207 patients (group 1: control group = 34 patients; group 2: 1-30 score group = 84 patients; group 3: 31-90 score group = 66 patients; and group 4: >90 score group = 23 patients) were enrolled, and the relationship between lipids and the degree of coronary artery stenosis was determined. Our study showed that the severity of coronary lesions was increased with the elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, triglycerides (TG), TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and reduction of HDL-C. Compared with group 1, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C were significantly increased in groups 2, 3 and 4 (p value of TG, TG/HDL-C among groups 2, 3 and 4 (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the Pearson correlation analysis revealed that LDL-C/HDL-C (r = 0.54, p value of TG/HDL-C needs further study. Received for publication 25 October 2010; accepted for publication 14 April 2011.
Althaf Hussain Shaik
Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction
De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Campanella, Daniela; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and serum lipid levels in adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Seventy consecutive patients with GAD were recruited and evaluated. Measures were the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All patients were assessed for: CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on almost all rating scales and altered serum CRP and lipid levels vs. non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of higher MADRS scores together with higher scores at the Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher rates of suicide ideation. Although alexithymic subjects with GAD may show a CRP and cholesterol dysregulation, this latter seems independent on increased suicide ideation, rather to Difficulty in Identifying Feelings, and subthreshold depressive symptoms. Study limitations and future research implications are discussed.
Spence, J David; Solo, Karla
Recent studies indicate that patients with lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have greater regression of coronary plaque. In 2002, we found that carotid plaque progression doubled cardiovascular risk. In 2003, we therefore implemented a new approach, treating arteries instead of risk factors. Since then, we have seen many patients with carotid plaque progression despite very low levels of LDL-C, suggesting other causes of atherosclerosis. We studied the relationship of achieved LDL-C and change in LDL-C to progression/regression of atherosclerosis, before and after 2003. All 4512 patients in our clinic database with at least 2 measurements of LDL-C and carotid total plaque area approximately a year apart and complete data for analyses (n=2025 before and 2487 after December 31, 2003) were included in the study. Baseline total plaque area was significantly higher after 2003 (129.56±134.32 versus 113.33±121.52 mm 2 ; P atherosclerosis. Many patients have Resistant Atherosclerosis, failing to achieve regression of atherosclerosis despite low levels of LDL-C. Instead of relying on LDL-C, measuring plaque burden may be a more useful way of assessing individual response to therapy, particularly in resistant atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Chan, K W; Leung, W S; Fung, Y S; Hung, H F; Tsui, P; Chu, H; Chan, Y W; Ko, G T C; Yeung, V T F
Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor approved for use in obesity. So far, no evidence has been reported on the use of orlistat in obese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To investigate the effect of orlistat on body weight and lipid profiles in obese patients with CAD and hypercholesterolemia. Thirty non-diabetic patients with CAD, body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m(2) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) > or = 2.6 and or = 25 kg/m(2) received orlistat 120 mg thrice daily for another 24 weeks. BMI was significantly reduced by 1.7% after 12 weeks of dietary treatment. The 24-week orlistat treatment resulted in further significant reduction in BMI (-2.8%) and LDL-C (-7.0%). Diet and orlistat treatment significantly reduced BMI and improved LDL-C in obese patients with CAD and hypercholesterolemia.
Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Messig, Michael
randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease to atorvastatin 80 mg per day or placebo. RESULTS: After 4.9 years, at each level of LDL-C reduction, subjects with HDL-C value above the median or systolic BP below the median had greater reductions......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relative contributions of on-treatment low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure (BP) control on the risk of recurrent stroke or major cardiovascular events in patients with stroke is not well defined. METHODS: We...... in stroke and major cardiovascular events and those with a reduction in triglycerides above the median or diastolic BP below the median showed similar trends. There were no statistical interactions between on-treatment LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, and BP values. In a further exploratory analysis, optimal...
Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S; Watts, Gerald F
. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle......Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness...... of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis...
Wu, Sheng-Hui; Ozaki, Koken; Reed, Terry; Krasnow, Ruth E; Dai, Jun
This study examined genetic and environmental influences on the lipid concentrations of 1028 male twins using the novel univariate non-normal structural equation modeling (nnSEM) ADCE and ACE models. In the best fitting nnSEM ADCE model that was also better than the nnSEM ACE model, additive genetic factors (A) explained 4%, dominant genetic factors (D) explained 17%, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental factors explained 47% and 33% of the total variance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The percentage of variation explained for other lipids was 0% (A), 30% (D), 34% (C) and 37% (E) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); 30, 0, 31 and 39% for total cholesterol; and 0, 31, 12 and 57% for triglycerides. It was concluded that additive and dominant genetic factors simultaneously affected HDL-C concentrations but not other lipids. Common and unique environmental factors influenced concentrations of all lipids.
Suadicani, P.; Hein, H.O.; Eyben, F.E. von
Aim: The aim of this study was to identify metabolic and lifestyle risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality (ACM) among normal weight, overweight, and obese men. Methods: This was a 16-year follow up of 2982 men 53 to 75 years without overt cardiovascular disease....... Potential risk factors: These were blood pressure, diabetes, fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucosuria, cancer, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, tobacco, leisure-time physical activity, social class, and age...... gradually from the normal weight (BMI 20.0-25.0) to higher BMI groups. With respect to IHD, compared to normal weight men, obese men (BMI = 30.0) had an age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) of 1.67(1.04-2.68); adjusted for potential confounders HR was 0.99 (0.59-1.66); corresponding estimates for ACM...
Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron
Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid...... the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify...... an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models...
Bilal, R.; Rashid, M.; Latif, W.
Objective: To compare the antihyperlipidemic effects of Eugenia Jambolana fruit pulp with Punica Granatum fruit in diet induced hyperlipidaemic rats at the same dose level. Methods: An experimental randomized control study was conducted on seventy five male albino rats over a period of 14 weeks in University of Health Sciences Lahore. They were divided into five groups labelled A, B, C, D and E with fifteen rats in each group. Group A was kept as normal control, groups B, C, D and E were given hyperlipidaemic diet for six weeks. In group B no further intervention was done, group C and D were given ethanolic extract of Eugenia Jambolana and Punica Granatum respectively for eight weeks. Group E was given combination of both for same duration. Serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG) were measured at zero, six and fourteen weeks. Results: At fourteenth week significant reductions in TC, LDL-c and TG and a rise in HDL-c was observed in interventional groups C, D and E as compared to experimental hyperlipidaemic control group B (p 0.57, p > 0.22, p > 0.56, p > 0.76, respectively. On sixth week, there was no significant difference between groups B, C, D and E (p > 0.05). However, 15 rats of group A had significant lower levels of cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and triglycerides when compared to 60 rats of groups B, C, D and E (p<0.05). Conclusion: In male albino rats combination of ethanolic extracts of Eugenia Jambolana and Punica Granatum fruit pulps was most effective in lowering serum total cholesterol and triglycerides while decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol and rise in high density lipoprotein cholesterol was same as the extracts given alone. (author)
Zafrir, Barak; Jubran, Ayman; Lavie, Gil; Halon, David A; Flugelman, Moshe Y; Shapira, Chen
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The introduction of potent therapeutic agents underlies the importance of improving clinical diagnosis and treatment gaps in FH.Methods and Results:A regional database of 1,690 adult patients with high-probability FH based on age-dependent peak-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cut-offs and exclusion of secondary causes of severe hypercholesterolemia, was examined to explore the clinical manifestations and current needs in the management of ASCVD, which was present in 248 patients (15%), of whom 83% had coronary artery disease (CAD); 19%, stroke; and 13%, peripheral artery disease. ASCVD was associated with male gender, higher peak LDL-C, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and traditional risk factor burden. Despite high-intensity statin (prescribed in 83% and combined with ezetimibe in 42%), attainment of LDL-C treatment goals was low, and associated with treatment intensity and drug adherence. Multivessel CAD (adjusted hazard ratios (HR), 3.05; 95% CI: 1.65-5.64), myocardial infarction, and the presence of ≥1 traditional risk factor (HR, 2.59; 95% CI: 1.42-4.71), were associated with repeat coronary revascularizations, in contrast with peak LDL-C >300 mg/dL (HR, 1.13; 95% CI: 0.66-1.91). Main manifestations of ASCVD in FH patients were premature, multivessel CAD with need for recurrent revascularization, associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors but not with peak LDL-C. In spite of intensive therapy with lipid-lowering agents, treatment gaps were significant, with low attainment of LDL-C treatment goals.
Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Cao, Xiao-Li; Hu, Xi-Jiang; Miao, Lin
Both alcohol consumption and the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene polymorphism modulate serum lipid levels, but their interactions on serum lipid profiles are still unknown. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G in 1352 unrelated subjects (785 non-drinkers and 567 drinkers) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions between PCSK9 E670G genotypes and alcohol consumption on serum lipid parameters were detected by using a factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders. The levels of serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB were lower in drinkers than in non-drinkers (P 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype in non-drinkers had higher serum LDL-C levels than the subjects with AG genotype, whereas the subjects with AG genotype in drinkers had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with AA genotypes (P effects of alcohol consumption on TC and LDL-C levels depended upon genotypes, the subjects with AA genotype had lower serum TC and LDL-C levels in drinkers than in non-drinkers. Alcohol consumption can modify the effects of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism on serum TC and LDL-C levels. The subjects with AA genotype of the PCSK9 E670G benefit more from alcohol consumption than the subjects with AG genotype in decreasing serum TC and LDL-C levels.
Vijayakumar, K; Rengarajan, R L; Radhakrishnan, R; Anand, A Vijaya
Plant-based natural extracts cure several diseases in human. However, the extract of Psidium guajava leaf is not yet evaluated on changes of lipid profile in hepatic disease affected rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the mitigation effect of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction on hepatotoxic rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was injected to rats for hepatic disease induction and silymarin drug was used as positive control to compare plant ethanolic extract. The lipid profiles were assessed in both plasma and liver tissue of diseased and control rats. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were increased and the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats. The treatment of P. guajava (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, bw) and isolated quercetin fraction (20 mg/kg, bw) doses decreased the elevated levels of all these parameters in diseased rats and restored the normal concentration of HDL-C. The results of the present study concluded that the P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction can significantly regulate lipid metabolism in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats and decrease the disease rate. Psidium guajava leaf extract reduces the hepatotoxicity and disease rate in ratsQuercetin fraction of leaf extract significantly regulates lipid profile in hepatic diseased rats. Abbreviations used: CCl 4 : Carbon tetrachloride; FFA: Free fatty acids; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LCAT: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PL: Phospholipids; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides; VLDL-C: Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Vijayakumar, K.; Rengarajan, R. L.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Anand, A. Vijaya
Background: Plant-based natural extracts cure several diseases in human. However, the extract of Psidium guajava leaf is not yet evaluated on changes of lipid profile in hepatic disease affected rats. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the mitigation effect of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction on hepatotoxic rats. Materials and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was injected to rats for hepatic disease induction and silymarin drug was used as positive control to compare plant ethanolic extract. The lipid profiles were assessed in both plasma and liver tissue of diseased and control rats. Results: Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were increased and the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased in CCl4-induced hepatotoxic rats. The treatment of P. guajava (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, bw) and isolated quercetin fraction (20 mg/kg, bw) doses decreased the elevated levels of all these parameters in diseased rats and restored the normal concentration of HDL-C. Conclusion: The results of the present study concluded that the P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction can significantly regulate lipid metabolism in CCl4-induced hepatotoxic rats and decrease the disease rate. SUMMARY Psidium guajava leaf extract reduces the hepatotoxicity and disease rate in ratsQuercetin fraction of leaf extract significantly regulates lipid profile in hepatic diseased rats. Abbreviations used: CCl4: Carbon tetrachloride; FFA: Free fatty acids; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LCAT: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PL: Phospholipids; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides; VLDL-C: Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Wu, Jia; Shi, Yong-hui; Niu, Dong-mei; Li, Han-qing; Zhang, Chun-ni; Wang, Jun-jun
To investigate retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and their associations in dyslipidemia subjects. We determined RBP4, sdLDL-C, ox-LDL levels in 150 various dyslipidemia subjects and 50 controls. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. The RBP4, sdLDL-C and ox-LDL levels were found increased in various dyslipidemia subjects. The sdLDL-C levels were positively correlated with RBP4 (r=0.273, P=0.001) and ox-LDL (r=0.273, P=0.001). RBP4 levels were also correlated with ox-LDL (r=0.167, P=0.043). The multiple regression analysis showed that only sdLDL-C was a significant independent predictor for RBP4 (β coefficient=0.219, P=0.009; adjusted R(2)=0.041) and ox-LDL (β coefficient=0.253, P=0.003; adjusted R(2)=0.057) levels, respectively. The independent associations of sdLDL-C with RBP4 and ox-LDL were observed in dyslipidemia subjects. RBP4 may play an important role in lipid metabolism of atherosclerosis, particularly in formation of sdLDL. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Menopause leads to changes in hormonal status, metabolism and lipid profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of menopause and age on lipid profile in women. Methods: This study included 160 postmenopausal and 260 premenopausal healthy women. Serum lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglyceride (TG and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP were estimated. Premenopausal women were further arranged in to two different age group of 22-45 years and above 45 years of age. The premenopausal and postmenopausal women were recruited and classified using a comprehensive questionnaire. Results: There were statistically significant increases in TC, LDL-C, TG and AIP but there was no significant difference in HDL-C level between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Only LDL-C level was significantly increased in premenopausal women above 45 years of age compared with the premenopausal women between 22-45 years of age. Conclusion: Menopause alters lipid profile. Atherogenic index of plasma which is a marker of plasma atherogenicity may be used to asses risk of developing atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.
Elshourbagy, Nabil A; Meyers, Harold V; Abdel-Meguid, Sherin S
Maintaining cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits is critical for decreasing the risk of heart disease. Dyslipidemia refers to the abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), also known as good cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), also known as bad cholesterol, and/or high TG levels that contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this article we reviewed some of the current therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia, with a primary focus on endothelial lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase for raising HDL-C, and the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the messenger RNA of apolipoprotein B for lowering LDL-C. In addition, we reviewed the role of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) in raising HDL-C, where we discuss three apoAI-based drugs under development. These are its mutated dimer (apoAI-Milano), a complex with phospholipids, and a mimetic peptide. Atherosclerosis, mainly because of dyslipidemia, is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Regarding the title of this article, the 'good' refers to HDL-C, the 'bad' refers to LDL-C, and the 'ugly' refers to atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Yang, N; Feng, J-P; Chen, G; Kou, L; Li, Y; Ren, P; Zhao, L-L; Qin, Q
Despite the amply evidence and guidelines in treating coronary artery disease (CAD) with lipid-lowering therapy, physicians still have concerns in treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients who have the low serum lipid level. We explored the adequacy of lipid-lowering therapy in treating AMI patients. Over 3000 CAD lipid profile data were collected, their data were divided into 3 groups (AMI; stable angina pectoris (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group) based their clinical characteristics. Statistical analyses were performed to compare their baseline lipid levels and clinical feature. The total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level in AMI patients were the lowest, followed by UAP patient group and SAP patient group. There were significant differences in white blood count (WBC) and ejection fraction (EF) between 3 groups. A good correlation was confirmed between EF% and the lipid parameters of TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, non-HDL-c. WBC did not correlate with the lipid except HDL-c. AMI is an acute inflammatory reaction that is accompanied with the change of lipid level. Although the level of TC, LDL-c and HDL-c are lower in AMI, but it is related with acute inflammatory reaction during the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid-lowering therapy should not be delayed in treating AMI patients with lower lipid level.
Tabara, Yasuharu; Arai, Hidenori; Hirao, Yuhko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kosugi, Shinji; Ito, Yasuki; Nakayama, Takeo; Matsuda, Fumihiko
Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption may increase circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the effect of alcohol on biologically important lipoprotein subfractions remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to clarify the effects of alcohol on lipoprotein subfractions using a Mendelian randomization analysis. The study subjects consisted of 8364 general Japanese individuals. The rs671 polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene, a rate-controlling enzyme of alcohol metabolism, was used as an instrumental variable. Lipoprotein subfractions were measured by a homogeneous assay. The biologically active *1 allele of the ALDH2 genotype was strongly associated with alcohol consumption in men (p Alcohol may increase HDL-C levels irrespective of the particle size. Moreover, alcohol may decrease the total LDL-C, although the proportion of atherogenic small-dense LDL-C increased partially due to a potential inter-relationship with decreased triglyceride levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Van Duyn, M A; Leo, T A; Margolis, S; Behall, K M; Michnowski, J E; Mendeloff, A I
While guar gum has been shown to lower total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in diabetic patients over the short-term, the long-term effects are less well studied and may be unpredictable. Granola bars with and without 6.6 g guar gum were developed and fed to 16 adult volunteers with Type II diabetes mellitus who had been randomized in a double-blind fashion into guar and placebo groups of equal size. Four to six bars were consumed daily with an ad lib diet over a 6-month period. Total cholesterol, total high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), subfractions HDL2-C and HDL3-C, LDL-C, and beta-apoprotein were measured at 0 and 6 months. Although LDL-C was lower and triglycerides higher at 6 months than at baseline, these changes were of equal magnitude and direction in both guar and placebo groups. Using each subject as his own control, only the change in triglycerides was statistically significant (P less than 0.025). When male subjects alone were analyzed, the guar group showed a statistically significant decrease in LDL, while the placebo group did not. Other lipid parameters were not significantly changed during the study, despite a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism from the guar bars. The data suggest either that the hypolipemic effects of guar gum in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus are not sustained for 6 months, or the effects occur only in men.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol ester storage disease (CESD is an autosomal recessive illness that results from mutations in the LIPA gene encoding lysosomal acid lipase. CESD patients present in childhood with hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia characterized by elevated total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, with elevated triglycerides and depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Usual treatment includes a low fat diet and a statin drug. Results In an 18-year old with CESD, we documented compound heterozygosity for two LIPA mutations: a novel frameshift nonsense mutation and a deletion of exon 8. The patient had been treated with escalating doses of lovastatin for ~80 months, with ~15% decline in mean LDL-C. The addition of ezetimibe 10 mg to lovastatin 40 mg resulted in an additional ~16% decline in mean LDL-C. Conclusion These preliminary anecdotal findings in a CESD patient with novel LIPA mutations support the longer term safety of statins in an adolescent patient and provide new data about the potential efficacy and tolerability of ezetimibe in this patient group.
Awaisheh, S S; Khalifeh, M S; Al-Ruwaili, M A; Khalil, O M; Al-Ameri, O H; Al-Groom, R
Probiotic bacteria and phytosterols are natural hypocholesterolemic agents with potential cardiovascular benefits. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats. Mixed probiotics treatment consisted of 8 probiotic strains: 2 strains of each of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus reuteri. The rats were fed for 8 wk with the given treatments in addition to a high-fat-high-cholesterol basal diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. Results showed that supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides compared with the controls. The symbiotic treatment was more effective in lowering LDL-C, whereas mixed probiotics treatment more effectively lowered serum total cholesterol and LDL-C than the phytosterol-containing treatment. The phytosterol-containing treatments induced the increased activity of thyroid glands, as evident by elevated levels of serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and free triiodothyronine. In conclusion, the lipid profile can effectively be reduced to lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease using combinations of Lactobacillus-based probiotics and phytosterols in functional foods. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elshourbagy, Nabil A.; Meyers, Harold V.; Abdel-Meguid, Sherin S.
Maintaining cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits is critical for decreasing the risk of heart disease. Dyslipidemia refers to the abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), also known as good cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), also known as bad cholesterol, and/or high TG levels that contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this article we reviewed some of the current therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia, with a primary focus on endothelial lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase for raising HDL-C, and the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the messenger RNA of apolipoprotein B for lowering LDL-C. In addition, we reviewed the role of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) in raising HDL-C, where we discuss three apoAI-based drugs under development. These are its mutated dimer (apoAI-Milano), a complex with phospholipids, and a mimetic peptide. Atherosclerosis, mainly because of dyslipidemia, is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Regarding the title of this article, the ‘good’ refers to HDL-C, the ‘bad’ refers to LDL-C, and the ‘ugly’ refers to atherosclerosis. PMID:24334831
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Use of Rosuvastatin versus Atorvastatin iN type 2 diabetes mellitUS (URANUS study compared rosuvastatin with atorvastatin for the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods After a 6-week dietary run-in, patients aged ≥ 18 years with type 2 diabetes and LDL-C ≥ 3.3 mmol/L were randomised to double-blind treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 232 or atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 233 for 4 weeks. Doses were then titrated up to a maximum of rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg over 12 weeks to achieve the 1998 European LDL-C goal ( Results Rosuvastatin reduced LDL-C levels significantly more than atorvastatin during the fixed-dose and titration periods (p Conclusion At the start dose and following dose titration, rosuvastatin was significantly more effective than atorvastatin at reducing LDL-C and achieving European LDL-C goals in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Huijgen, Roeland; Kindt, Iris; Verhoeven, Sjoerd B. J.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Vissers, Maud N.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hutten, Barbara A.
Background The risk of premature cardiovascular disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be profoundly reduced by cholesterol-lowering therapy, and current guidelines for FH advocate ambitious low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals. In the present study, we determined whether these goals are reflected in current clinical practice once FH has been diagnosed. Methodology/Principal Findings In 2008, we sent questionnaires to all subjects (aged 18–65 years) who were molecularly diagnosed with FH in the year 2006 through the screening program in the Netherlands. Of these 1062 subjects, 781 completed the questionnaire (46% males; mean age: 42±12 years; mean LDL-C at molecular diagnosis (baseline): 4.1±1.3 mmol/L). The number of persons that used cholesterol-lowering therapy increased from 397 (51%) at baseline to 636 (81%) after diagnosis. Mean treated LDL-C levels decreased significantly to 3.2±1.1 mmol/L two years after diagnosis. Only 22% achieved the LDL-C target level of ≤2.5 mmol/L. Conclusions/Significance The proportion of patients using cholesterol-lowering medication was significantly increased after FH diagnosis through genetic cascade screening. The attained LDL-C levels were lower than those reported in previous surveys on medication use in FH, which could reflect the effect of more stringent lipid target levels. However, only a minority of the medication users reached the LDL-C target. PMID:20169164
Pucci, Giacomo; Cicero, Arrigo F; Borghi, Claudio; Schillaci, Giuseppe
LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the most well-established risk factors for CV disease. Indeed, therapies that decrease LDL-C are proven to effectively reduce the risk of atherosclerotic CV disease. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have recently gained traction as a promising therapeutic strategy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the effectiveness of mAbs against PCSK9 in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other atherogenic lipid fractions. The discontinuation in the development of bococizumab due to efficacy and safety concerns, and the initial promising data about inclisiran, a long-acting small inhibiting RNA molecule against PCSK9 synthesis, is also discussed. Expert opinion: Initial data about cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in large scale, long-term studies suggest a possible further therapeutic pathway for LDL-C reduction, and currently support the notion that further LDL-C reduction, obtained with PCSK9 inhibition on top of best available therapy, provides increased CV protection in subjects at very high CV risk. The development and marketing of mAbs against PCSK9 could help to redefine current therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and risk, through the reduction of LDL-C concentrations. The cost-effectiveness of these emerging drugs is yet to be established.
Irma B. Ancheta
Full Text Available The Trp719Arg allele of KIF6 rs20455, a putative risk factor for CHD especially in those with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, was investigated in Filipino-American women (FAW, n=235 participating in health screenings in four cities. The rs20455 genotype of each subject was determined by a multiplex assay using a Luminex-OLA procedure. The risk allele Trp719Arg was present in 77% of the subjects. The genotype distribution was 23% Trp/Trp, 51% Arg/Trp, and 26% Arg/Arg. Genotype did not predict the presence of CHD risk factors. Moreover, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides mean values did not vary as a function of genotype. However, those with the Arg/Arg genotype on statin medication exhibited a significantly higher mean triglycerides level (P<0.01. Approximately 60% of participants regardless of genotype exhibited LDL-C levels ≥100 mg/dL but were not taking medication. Approximately 43% of those with the Trp719Arg risk allele on statins exhibited elevated LDL-C levels. Our study suggests that the Trp719Arg allele of KIF 6 rs20455 is common among Filipino-American women; thus, even with borderline LDL-C levels would benefit from statin treatment. Secondly, many participants did not exhibit guideline recommended LDL-C levels including many who were on statin drugs.
Mendelson, Michael M; Regh, Todd; Chan, James; Baker, Annette; Ryan, Heather Harker; Palumbo, Nicole; Johnson, Philip K; Griggs, Suzanne; Boghani, Meera; Desai, Nirav K; Yellen, Elizabeth; Buckley, Lucy; Gillman, Matthew W; Zachariah, Justin P; Graham, Dionne; de Ferranti, Sarah D
To determine the real-world effectiveness of statins and impact of baseline factors on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction among children and adolescents. We analyzed data prospectively collected from a quality improvement initiative in the Boston Children's Hospital Preventive Cardiology Program. We included patients ≤21 years of age initiated on statins between September 2010 and March 2014. The primary outcome was first achieving goal LDL-C, defined as goal within 1 year was 60% (95% CI 47-69). A lower probability of achieving LDL-C goals was associated with male sex (HR 0.5 [95% CI 0.3-0.8]) and higher baseline LDL-C (HR 0.92 [95% CI 0.87-0.98] per 10 mg/dL), but not age, body mass index percentile, lifestyle factors, or family history. The majority of pediatric patients started on statins reached LDL-C treatment goals within 1 year. Male patients and those with greater baseline LDL-C were less likely to be successful and may require increased support. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wagner, Elke M.; Catherine Jen, K-L; Artiss, Joseph D.; Remaley, Alan T.
High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion, and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of dietary α-CD on lipid metabolism in LDL receptor knock-out (L...
Nuotio, Joel; Oikonen, Mervi; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jula, Antti; Thomson, Russell; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus
Prediction of adult dyslipidemia has been suggested to improve with multiple measurements in childhood or young adulthood, but there is paucity of specific data from longitudinal studies. The sample comprised 1912 subjects (54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had fasting lipid and lipoprotein measurements collected at three time-points in childhood/young adulthood and had at least one follow-up in later adulthood. Childhood/young adult dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) or triglycerides (TG) in the highest quintile, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the lowest quintile. Adult dyslipidemia was defined according to European cut-points (TC > 5.0 mmol/L, LDL-C >3 mmol/L, Non-HDL-C >3.8 mmol/L, HDL-C 1.7 mmol/L). With the exception of triglycerides, Pearson correlation coefficients for predicting adult levels significantly improved when two lipid or lipoprotein measurements in childhood/young adulthood were compared with one measurement (all P dyslipidemia levels in adulthood for non-HDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG compared with one measurement (P dyslipidemia in adulthood grew according to the number of times a person had been at risk in childhood. Based on these results, it seems that compared to a single measurement two lipid measures in childhood/early adulthood significantly improve prediction of adult dyslipidemia. A lack of dyslipidemia in childhood does not strongly exclude later development of dyslipidemia. Multiple measurements increase the prediction accuracy, but the incremental prognostic/diagnostic accuracy of especially third measurement is modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seage, E C; Drobatz, K J; Hess, R S
There are conflicting reports of plasma lipoprotein lipid content in dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM). To determine lipoprotein lipid content of plasma of dogs with DM by spectrophotometry and ultracentrifugation; to compare lipoprotein lipid content in diabetic and healthy dogs; and to quantify apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) in dogs with DM. 22 dogs with DM and 9 healthy dogs. Cross-sectional study. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were measured by spectrophotometry. Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were calculated after ultracentrifugation. Non-HDL-C cholesterol was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from TC. ApoB was quantified by ELISA. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of median lipoprotein concentrations, and Spearman's correlation was used to assess associations between ApoB and lipoprotein fractions. All values are reported in mg/dL. Median TG (122), TC (343.5), HDL-C, (200), VLDL-C, (27) LDL-C (68), non-HDL-C (114), and ApoB (320) were significantly higher in dogs with DM, compared to healthy dogs (57, 197, 168, 12, 16, 31, and 258, respectively, P-values 0.0079, dogs with DM is characterized by pronounced increases in LDL-C and non-HDL-C concentrations, although all lipoprotein fractions are significantly increased. Knowledge of specific lipoprotein fraction alterations in dogs with DM can enhance treatment options for diabetic dyslipidemia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Kawada-Watanabe, Erisa; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Ryo; Arashi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Matsui, Kunihiko; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa
In contrast to current guidelines in Western countries, moderate reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is recommended for Japanese patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia even in secondary prevention. HIJ-PROPER (Heart Institute of Japan-PRoper level of lipid lOwering with Pitavastatin and Ezetimibe in acute coRonary syndrome) is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint multicenter trial designed to assess whether closely controlled LDL-C lowering with a standard statin dose plus ezetimibe, targeting LDL-C of syndrome (ACS) and dyslipidemia. We recruited patients with ACS and dyslipidemia who had undergone coronary angiography. Participants are randomly allocated to either intensive LDL-C lowering treatment (target LDL-C of <70mg/dL; pitavastatin plus ezetimibe) or standard LDL-C lowering treatment (target LDL-C of 90-100mg/dL; pitavastatin monotherapy). The primary endpoint is a composite of total death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke, unstable angina, and any ischemia-driven revascularization. Patients will be followed for a minimum of 3 years. Between January 2010 and April 2013, 1734 patients were enrolled from 19 hospitals in Japan with a mean age of 65.6 years; 75.5% were men and 83.3% were statin-naïve. The qualifying ACS was an acute MI in 61.5%. This study is expected to report its findings in August 2016. HIJ-PROPER will determine whether targeting LDL-C of <70mg/dL with pitavastatin plus ezetimibe can improve cardiovascular outcomes in Japanese patients with ACS and dyslipidemia in comparison to targeting LDL-C of 90-100mg/dL with standard pitavastatin monotherapy. UMIN000002742. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shimizu, Mikiko; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Mochizuki, Mayumi
Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested that probiotic supplementation has beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, there are conflicting results on the efficacy of probiotic preparations in reducing serum cholesterol. To evaluate the effects of probiotics on human serum lipid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of interventional studies. Eligible reports were obtained by searches of electronic databases. We included randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing probiotic supplementation with placebo or no treatment (control). Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.3.3. Subanalyses were also performed. Eleven of 33 randomized clinical trials retrieved were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. No participant had received any cholesterol-lowering agent. Probiotic interventions (including fermented milk products and probiotics) produced changes in total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.07 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (mean difference -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.13 mmol/L). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ significantly between probiotic and control groups. In subanalysis, long-term (> 4-week) probiotic intervention was statistically more effective in decreasing TC and LDL-C than short-term (≤ 4-week) intervention. The decreases in TC and LDL-C levels with probiotic intervention were greater in mildly hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic individuals. Both fermented milk product and probiotic preparations decreased TC and LDL-C levels. Gaio and the Lactobacillus acidophilus strain reduced TC and LDL-C levels to a greater extent than other bacterial strains. In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed that probiotic supplementation could be useful in the primary prevention of hypercholesterolemia and may lead to reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Mandoj, Chiara; Renna, Rosaria; Plantone, Domenico; Sperduti, Isabella; Cigliana, Giovanni; Conti, Laura; Koudriavtseva, Tatiana
So far, no studies have been conducted to evaluate possible correlations between lipid/lipoprotein levels and the anti-phospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity in multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between serum lipid profile and aPL positivity rates in MS patients, and their possible differences among secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, relapsing-remitting MS patients in remission (REM) and in relapse (REL). We included 16 SPMS, 58 REM and 26 REL. Their sera were tested for aPL (anti-cardiolipin, anti-β2glycoproteinI, anti-prothrombin, anti-annexinV), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein(a) levels. High TC levels were more frequent in SPMS patients than other groups (p=0.05). The REL had significantly higher rates of positivity for anti-β2glycoproteinI IgM (p<0.0001), anti-prothrombin IgG and IgM (both p=0.05) than the other groups. A significant positive correlation was found between age and both TC and LDL-C, disability and both TC and LDL-C, disease duration and LDL-C. TC levels were significantly higher (p=0.007) in anti-annexinV-IgG positive patients. The anti-annexinV-IgG positivity significantly associated with high levels of TC (p=0.002) and LDL-C (p=0.03). Our results support the hypothesis that both thrombogenic and neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with an abnormal cholesterol homeostasis might contribute to MS progression. Our study may have interesting practical implications, which could potentially open new therapeutic approaches in the context of appropriately designed clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83 to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026 and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003. Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6% vs doubling statin (41.2%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675. The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00652327
Mbikay, Majambu; Sirois, Francine; Gyamera-Acheampong, Charles; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Rippstein, Peter; Chen, Andrew; Mayne, Janice; Scott, Fraser W; Chrétien, Michel
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) downregulates clearance of plasma cholesterol by liver. Its inactivation increases this clearance, reducing cardiovascular risk. However, a lack of PCSK9 could also lead to cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islet beta cells, impairing insulin secretion. We reported earlier that 4-month-old male PCSK9-deficient (KO) C57BL/6 mice were hyperglycemic and insulin-insufficient relative to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Here, we examined how gender and diet affect lipid and glucose homeostasis in these mice at 8 months of age. After being fed a normal diet or a Western diet for over 6 months, KO mice were compared with same-gender WT mice for fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), glucose, and insulin; for glucose disposal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); and for pancreatic islet morphology. A. Females: On normal diet, KO mice showed lower plasma TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, higher plasma glucose, and normal glucose disposal despite impaired GSIS. On Western diet, they showed comparable plasma TC and HDL-C, but lower LDL-C, higher plasma glucose, and normal glucose disposal despite impaired GSIS. B. Males: On normal and Western diets, KO mice showed lower plasma TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, similarly elevated plasma glucose, glucose intolerance, and impaired GSIS. C. Both: KO mice on either diet showed pancreatic islet dysmorphism, with larger, possibly immature secretory granules. Lower LDL-C and impaired GSIS are two major phenotypes in aged PCSK9-deficient C57BL/6 mice. These phenotypes are modulated by gender and diet. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
CHOL), Low – density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high – density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) concentrations in rabbits fed high cholesterol diet was examined. Two groups of animals were ...
Guallar, E.; Jimenez, J.; Veer, van 't P.; Bode, P.; Riemersma, R.A.; Gomez-Aracena, J.; Kark, J.D.; Arab, L.; Kok, F.J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.
Chromium intake may increase insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol to low density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the epidemiologic evidence on the association between chromium and cardiovascular disease is very limited. To determine whether
Khanh N Vu
Full Text Available Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels.This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c, apolipoprotein B (apoB, and lipoprotein (a (Lp(a levels were analyzed.Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p < 0.001, a 7.71 mg/dL lower level of total cholesterol (p = 0.007, a 10.3% higher level of HDL2-c (p = 0.007, a 6.87 mg/dL lower level of LDL-c (p = 0.012, a 7.4% lower level of sdLDL-c (p = 0.037, and a 3.5% lower level of apoB (p = 0.058, poverall = 0.022.This study supports the causal role of regular low-to-moderate alcohol consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit.
Full Text Available Nadeem Tajuddin,1 Ali Shaikh,2 Amir Hassan2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 2Clinic of Endocrinology, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and metabolic syndrome contribute to hypertriglyceridemia, which may increase residual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with elevated triglyceride (TG levels despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels with statin therapy. Prescription products containing the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are an effective strategy for reducing TG levels. This article provides an overview of prescription OM3FAs, including relevant clinical data in patients with T2DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Prescription OM3FAs contain either combinations of DHA and EPA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A or EPA alone (icosapent ethyl. These products are well tolerated and can be used safely with statins. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that all prescription OM3FAs produce statistically significant reductions in TG levels compared with placebo; however, differential effects on LDL-C levels have been reported. Products containing DHA may increase LDL-C levels, whereas the EPA-only product did not increase LDL-C levels compared with placebo. Because increases in LDL-C levels may be unwanted in patients with T2DM and/or dyslipidemia, the EPA-only product should not be replaced with products containing DHA. Available data on the effects of OM3FAs in patients with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome support that these products can be used safely in patients with T2DM and have beneficial effects on atherogenic parameters; in particular, the EPA-only prescription product significantly reduced TG, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo B, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity CRP levels without increasing
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 strain, isolated from Tibetan mushrooms, on plasma lipids, egg cholesterol level, egg quality, and intestinal health of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 160 Beijing fatty laying hens (43 weeks old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% freeze-dried K. marxianus M3 powder for four weeks. The results showed that yeast supplementation reduced serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels (p<0.01, and increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level (p<0.05. Moreover, regardless of K. marxianus M3 dietary addition level, the cholesterol content of the eggs decreased by more than 26%. When0.3% yeast was supplemented, significant differences were found in the egg weights, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit and nutrient content of the eggs (p<0.01. Finally, 0.3% yeast supplementation improved the intestinal flora conditions of the hens by decreasing the Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts (p<0.01 and increasing the Bifidobacterium count (p<0.01. The results in this work demonstrated that yeast culture supplementation to the diets deceased the serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and increased egg quality.
Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim
Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam and mandatory for all healthy adult Muslims to fast from sunrise to sunset for a period of a month. During fasting, Muslims are required to refrain from all intakes of food, water, beverages, smoking and from sexual intercourse. Ramadan fasting causes many physiological, biochemical, metabolic and spiritual changes in the body. Ramadan Fasting increases the Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), platelet (PLT) count, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), and decreases the blood cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c). Moreover, it reduces body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat, blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and anxiety levels. Furthermore, Ramadan fasting decreases the inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor a and cancer promotion. Among healthy adults, there are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, haematologic, endocrine profile and cognitive functions. Ramadan fasting is a healthy non pharmacological means for minimizing the risk factors and improving health. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, but those with various illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, renal and eye illness should consult their physicians and firmly follow the scientific recommendations.
Lei Shujie; Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu; Wei Lvxin; Gen Jiwu; Wen Cuiju; Tan Huizhen; Zou Jianmin
Objective: To investigate the current status of nutrition and examine the difference between inhabitants in the high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA). Methods: Sixty and sixty-five male farmers aged 50 and over were randomly selected from HBRA and CA, respectively. Information on dwelling history, history of disease, medical treatment and X-ray examination were collected by interview. Body height and weight were measured, and BMIs were calculated. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin, triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo A1 and Apo B were measured. Results: There was difference in BMI distribution between the two groups. Averages of total biochemistry indexes measured were in normal range in the two groups. With adjustment to age distribution, the serum levels of total protein, albumin and triacylglycerol (TG) of residents in CA were higher than those in HBRA; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher in HBRA than that in CA. Conclusions: This serum assay of nutrients in HBRA and CA residents confirmed the results obtained from previous surveys. Both HBRA and CA residents have similar nutrition status, residents in CA consumed more animal protein and fat compared with those in HBRA. (authors)
Berryman, Claire E; Preston, Amy Griel; Karmally, Wahida; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M
Diet plays a seminal role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of tree nuts has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a primary target for coronary disease prevention, by 3-19%. Almonds have been found to have a consistent LDL-C-lowering effect in healthy individuals, and in individuals with high cholesterol and diabetes, in both controlled and free-living settings. Almonds are low in saturated fatty acids, rich in unsaturated fatty acids, and contain fiber, phytosterols, and plant protein. Other cardioprotective nutrients unique to almonds include α-tocopherol, arginine, magnesium, copper, manganese, calcium, and potassium. Mechanisms responsible for the LDL-C reduction observed with almond consumption are likely associated with the nutrients almonds provide. Biologically active by nature, these nutrients target primary mechanistic routes of LDL-C reduction, including decreased (re)absorption of cholesterol and bile acid, increased bile acid and cholesterol excretion, and increased LDL-C receptor activity. The nutrients present in almonds may regulate enzymes involved in de novo cholesterol synthesis and bile acid production. Research is needed to understand all mechanisms by which almonds reduce cardiovascular disease risk. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
Liu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xing-Min; Han, Cheng-Cheng; Fang, Xiang-Feng; Ma, Le
The root bark of Aralia is a rich source of bioactive components that may improve glycemic control and lipid status. In this study, 148 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were assigned randomly to receive either glipizide alone or glipizide plus Aralia root bark extract (ARBE) for 8 weeks to test the effects of ARBE plus glipizide therapy on glycemic control and lipid profiles in these patients. Levels of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h postprandial plasma glucose (2-h PPG) in both groups significantly decreased from baseline. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased marginally significantly in participants taking glipizide plus ARBE compared with the glipizide group (P = 0.06). Participants in the combination group had significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the between-group difference achieved statistical significance for LDL-C (P = 0.04). Reduction in HbA1c in the combination group was significantly associated with changes in TC (r = 0.32; P = 0.006) and LDL-C (r = 0.34; P = 0.005), and the change in FPG was inversely correlated with LDL-C reduction (r = 0.34; P = 0.004). In patients with T2DM, combination therapy with glipizide and ARBE resulted in moderately lowering HbA1c and LDL-C levels compared with glipizide alone. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gerrald, Katherine R; Dixon, Dave L; Barnette, Debra J; Williams, Virginia G
Hyperlipidemia is a significant, modifiable risk factor for developing coronary heart disease. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement has improved overall, but many high-risk patients remain above the desired LDL-C goals. Published data have demonstrated the ability of pharmacist-managed lipid clinics to improve lipid management in a variety of clinical settings. This observational analysis aimed to report the impact of a newly developed hospital-based, outpatient lipid clinic by the use of point-of-care testing on LDL-C goal attainment. A retrospective, observational analysis was conducted from February 2007 to December 2008. The primary outcome measure was the change in the proportion of patients who achieved their LDL-C goal at the end of the observation period compared with baseline. A total of 81 patients met study inclusion criteria. Mean duration of follow-up was 9.0 ± 4.9 (SD) months. At the end of the observation period, 82.9% of patients achieved their LDL-C goal compared with 55.3% at baseline (P used point-of-care testing to obtain lipid results for making therapy adjustments during the face-to-face visit. Copyright © 2010 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Jonathan; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Victoria; Sato, Yuichiro Z.; Jimenez-Fernandez, Susan; Newfield, Ron S.; Pourfarzib, Ray; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Gordon, John B.; Daniels, Lori B.; Burns, Jane C.
Objective To test the hypothesis that children and adults with history of Kawasaki disease (KD) are more likely to have abnormal lipoprotein particle profiles that could place them at increased risk of atherosclerosis later in life. Study design Fasting serum samples were obtained from 192 children and 63 adults with history of KD and 90 age-similar healthy controls. Lipoprotein particle (P) concentrations and sizes were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Liposcience Inc., Raleigh, NC) and serum was assayed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)-C. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)-C was estimated using the Friedewald formula. Data were analyzed in a least-square means model adjusting for age and sex and using Holm correction for multiple comparisons. Results Compared with respective control groups, both adult and pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower mean very-low-density lipoprotein-chylomicron particle concentrations (VLDLC-P), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), TG, and TC concentrations. Pediatric subjects with KD had significantly lower LDL-P and LDL-C concentrations and lower mean TC/HDL-C ratio (ppediatric and adult subjects with KD regardless of their aneurysm status are no more likely than age-similar, healthy controls to have lipid patterns associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:25039043
Ahmed, M.; Farooq, M.; Kousar, N.
To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)
Nissen, Steven E; Stroes, Erik; Dent-Acosta, Ricardo E
IMPORTANCE: Muscle-related statin intolerance is reported by 5% to 20% of patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with muscle symptoms confirmed by statin rechallenge and compare lipid-lowering efficacy for 2 nonstatin therapies, ezetimibe and evolocumab. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two......-stage randomized clinical trial including 511 adult patients with uncontrolled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and history of intolerance to 2 or more statins enrolled in 2013 and 2014 globally. Phase A used a 24-week crossover procedure with atorvastatin or placebo to identify patients having...... intolerance related to muscle-related adverse effects, the use of evolocumab compared with ezetimibe resulted in a significantly greater reduction in LDL-C levels after 24 weeks. Further studies are needed to assess long-term efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01984424....
Navar, Ann Marie; Wang, Tracy Y; Li, Shuang; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goldberg, Anne C; Virani, Salim; Roger, Veronique L; Wilson, Peter W F; Elassal, Joseph; Lee, L Veronica; Peterson, Eric D
The latest cholesterol guidelines have shifted focus from achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets toward statin use and intensity guided by atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Statin use and intensity were evaluated in 5,905 statin-eligible primary or secondary prevention patients from 138 PALM Registry practices. Overall, 74.7% of eligible adults were on statins; only 42.4% were on guideline-recommended intensity. Relative to primary prevention patients, ASCVD patients were more likely to be on a statin (83.6% vs 63.4%, Pcontemporary practice, 1 in 4 guideline-eligible patients was not on a statin; less than half were on the recommended statin intensity. Untreated and undertreated patients had significantly higher LDL-C levels than those receiving guideline-directed statin treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Galve, Enrique; Cordero-Fort, Alberto
Reducing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) is the main lipid goal of treatment for patients with very high cardiovascular risk. In these patients the therapeutic goal is to achieve a LDL-c lower than 70 mg/dL, as recommended by the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention commonly used in Spain and Europe. However, the degree of achieving these objectives in this group of patients is very low. This article describes the prevalence of the problem and the causes that motivate it. Recommendations and tools that can facilitate the design of an optimal treatment strategy for achieving the goals are also given. In addition, a new tool with a simple algorithm that can allow these very high risk patients to achieve the goals "in two-steps", i.e., with only two doctor check-ups, is presented. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Risk factors of non-communicable disease (NCD origin from early life, and exposure to environmental pollutant may be a predisposing factor. This study aimed to investigate the association of air quality index (AQI and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 with some NCD risk factors in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 to 2016 among children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, in Isfahan, Iran. Physical examination, including weight, height, and blood pressure, was conducted by standard methods. Fasting blood sample was obtained for fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, and triglycerides. The mean AQI and PM2.5 values from the study time till one year prior to the survey were used. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted for the association of AQI and PM2.5 with other variables. Results: Participants consisted of 186 children and adolescents with mean (SD age of 10.52(2.38 years. Exposure to higher level of PM2.5 had significant associations with higher levels of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. It also had positive relationship with other risk factors and inverse association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, but these associations were not statistically significant. The corresponding figures were not significant for AQI. Conclusion: At current study results showed that exposure to higher levels of fine particulates was associated with some NCD risk factors in children and adolescents. Early life prevention of NCDs can lead to large reductions in disease risk; adverse effects of ambient pollutants should be considered in this regard.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT
Mandai, Nozomu; Akazawa, Kohei; Hara, Nobuyuki; Ide, Yoshio; Ide, Koichi; Dazai, Ushio; Chishaki, Akiko; Chishaki, Hiroaki
We investigated the relationships between body weight (BWt) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors to elucidate the effect of BWt (?BWt) change and body mass index (BMI) on these factors in the Japanese population. Data were collected on MS-related parameters measured during two annual examinations of 16,640 men (mean age: 41.7±11.6 years) and 10,184 women (mean age: 45.0±12.2 years) without prior treatment of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia in 2006 and 2011 in Fukuoka, Japan. The subjects were divided into three groups according to BMI in 2006 (low, middle and high BMI) and into three groups according to change in BMI between 2006 and 2011 (decreased, stable, and increased BMI). Mean values for blood pressure (BP), systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) for each group were determined by sex and subjected to statistical analysis for comparison. High BMI (>26) was associated with higher SBP, LDL-C, FBG, and TG in both sexes. An increase≥1.1 BMI units in 5 years was associated with increased DBP, LDL-C, TG, HbA1c, and FBG and decreased HDL-C. In contrast, decreased BMI was associated with decreased BP and LDL-C and increased HDL-C in both sexes, and decreased TG in men and FBG in women. Maintaining a desirable weight or losing weight may help prevent hypertension and MS, even in non-obese individuals.
Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.
Full Text Available We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (Lr263 on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control, and experimental (n = 32, a HCD. After a two-week induction followed by a six-week supplementation with Lr263, the 32 hyperlipidemic hamsters were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or Lr263 by oral gavage at 2.1, 4.2, or 10.5 × 109 cells/kg/day for 6 weeks, designated the HCD, 1X, 2X and 5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of Lr263 supplementation were evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. Lr263 supplementation dose dependently increased serum HDL-C level and decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. In addition, Lr263 supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. Lr263 could be a potential agent with a hypolipidemic pharmacological effect.
Song, Lin; Lu, Juhong; Song, Hui; Liu, Herong; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Haiping
Discuss the relationship between obesity and hyperlipidemia in children and adolescent. According to the BMI classification criteria of overweight and obesity screening in Chinese school-age child and adolescent, and the gender and nationality, age ( ≤1 year-old), we performed the 1:1:1 match of the obesity, overweight and normal, there were 321 subjects in each group. Using "national unified measurement and method of youth physical fitness research", we did physical measurements on the subjects, and collected fasting venous blood to do biochemical detections, including blood glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ) , low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The differences of weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C were statistically significant among the three groups (all P obese group was significantly higher than the normal group. With the increase of BMI, the abnormal rate of TG and TC were all upward trend, the obese group was significantly higher than the normal group, the differences were statistically significant( all P obese group for hyperlipidemia was 1. 593 times than the normal group (95% CI 1. 144 -2. 220), it was statistically significance (P adolescents were higher than in Han., the level of TG were lower than in Han, but the differences were not statistically significant( All P > 0. 05) ). The abnormal rates of TC, LDL-C in Muslim children and adolescents were higher than in Han, the differences were statistically significant. The blood lipids levels of obese children and adolescents were obviously higher than that of normal one, especially TG and TC; obesity significantly increased the risk for hyperlipidemia in children and adolescents; the abnormal rates of TC, LDL-C in Muslim children and adolescents were significantly higher than in Han; Whether it is associated with ethnic genetic, remains to be further research.
Laforest, Laurent; Ambegaonkar, Baishali M; Souchet, Thierry; Sazonov, Vasilisa; Van Ganse, Eric
To determine the prevalence of single and mixed dyslipidemias among patients treated with statins in clinical practice in France. This is a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiologic study with a total of 2544 consecutive patients treated with a statin for at least 6 months. Prevalence of isolated and mixed dyslipidemias of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides among all patients and among patients at high cardiovascular risk; clinical variables associated with attainment of lipid targets/normal levels in French national guidelines. At least one dyslipidemia was present in 50.8% of all patients and in 71.1% of high-risk patients. Dyslipidemias of LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were present in 27.7%, 12.4%, and 28.7% of all patients, respectively, and in 51.0%, 18.2%, and 32.5% of high-risk patients, respectively. Among all subjects with any dyslipidemia, 30.9% had mixed dyslipidemias and 69.4% had low HDL-C and/or elevated triglycerides, while 30.6% had isolated elevated LDL-C; corresponding values for high-risk patients were 36.8%, 58.9%, and 41.1%. Age, gender, body mass index and Framingham Risk Score >20% were the factors significantly associated with attainment of normal levels for ≥2 lipid levels. At least one dyslipidemia persisted in half of all patients and two-thirds of high cardiovascular risk patients treated with a statin. Dyslipidemias of HDL-C and/or triglycerides were as prevalent as elevated LDL-C among high cardiovascular risk patients.
Cubeddu, Luigi X; Cubeddu, Roberto J; Heimowitz, Todd; Restrepo, Beatriz; Lamas, Gervasio A; Weinberg, Gloria B
Policosanol, commonly derived from purified sugar cane wax, has been reported to exert lipid-lowering effects. Policosanol is available in the United States as a nutritional supplement despite no US research clinical experience. This trial was designed to rigorously establish the lipid-lowering efficacy of policosanol as monotherapy and its potential additive and possibly synergistic effects when added to statin therapy. A randomized, parallel, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled design was used. Patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from 140 to 189 mg/dL were assigned into 1 of 4 groups to receive policosanol 20 mg, atorvastatin 10 mg, combination therapy, or placebo for 12 weeks. A total of 99 patients were examined. Baseline characteristics were similar among all treatment groups. Policosanol (20 mg/d for 12 weeks) did not significantly change plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels when compared with baseline values or with values of placebo-treated patients. Atorvastatin (10 mg/d for 12 weeks) reduced total cholesterol by 27% and LDL-C by 35%. Addition of policosanol to atorvastatin failed to produce any further reduction in lipid levels above that of atorvastatin alone. Policosanol was safe and did not affect liver enzyme or creatinine phosphokinase levels. Policosanol did not reduce LDL-C or total cholesterol levels either alone or in combination with atorvastatin. This observation supports the need for systematic evaluation of available products containing policosanol to determine their clinical lipid-lowering efficacy under rigorous experimental conditions. We propose that policosanol should be added to the list of nutritional supplements lacking scientific validity to support their use.
Kolovou, Vana; Marvaki, Apostolia; Karakosta, Agathi; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Kalogiani, Antonia; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Degiannis, Dimitrios; Marvaki, Christina; Kolovou, Genovefa
One of the important proteins involved in lipid metabolism is the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) encoding by ABCA1 gene. In this study we evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCA1 gene. We analyzed SNPs in chromosome 9 such as rs2230806 (R219K) in the position 107620867, rs2230808 (R1587K) in the position 106602625 and rs4149313 (I883M) in the position 106626574 according to gender and lipid profile of Greek nurses. The study population consisted of 447 (87 men) unrelated nurses who were genotyped for ABCA1 gene polymorphisms. Additionally, lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1] was evaluated. The distribution of all three studied ABCA1 gene polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. However, only R219K genotype distribution bared borderline statistical significance (p = 0.08) between the two studied groups. Moreover, allele frequencies of R219K, R1587K and I88M polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. In general, blood lipid levels did not seem to vary according to ABCA1 gene polymorphisms, when testing all subjects or when testing only men or only women. However, a significant difference of LDL-C distribution was detected in all subjects according to R1587K genotype, indicating lower LDL-C levels with KK polymorphism (p = 0.0025). The above difference was solely detected on female population (p = 0.0053). The ABCA1 gene polymorphisms frequency, distribution and lipid profile did not differ according to gender. However, in the female population the KK genotype of R1587K gene indicated lower LDL-C levels. Further studies, involving a higher number of individuals, are required to clarify genes and gender contribution.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective One of the important proteins involved in lipid metabolism is the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 encoding by ABCA1 gene. In this study we evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of ABCA1 gene. We analyzed SNPs in chromosome 9 such as rs2230806 (R219K in the position 107620867, rs2230808 (R1587K in the position 106602625 and rs4149313 (I883M in the position 106626574 according to gender and lipid profile of Greek nurses. Methods The study population consisted of 447 (87 men unrelated nurses who were genotyped for ABCA1 gene polymorphisms. Additionally, lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1] was evaluated. Results The distribution of all three studied ABCA1 gene polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. However, only R219K genotype distribution bared borderline statistical significance (p = 0.08 between the two studied groups. Moreover, allele frequencies of R219K, R1587K and I88M polymorphisms did not differ according to gender. In general, blood lipid levels did not seem to vary according to ABCA1 gene polymorphisms, when testing all subjects or when testing only men or only women. However, a significant difference of LDL-C distribution was detected in all subjects according to R1587K genotype, indicating lower LDL-C levels with KK polymorphism (p = 0.0025. The above difference was solely detected on female population (p = 0.0053. Conclusions The ABCA1 gene polymorphisms frequency, distribution and lipid profile did not differ according to gender. However, in the female population the KK genotype of R1587K gene indicated lower LDL-C levels. Further studies, involving a higher number of individuals, are required to clarify genes and gender contribution.
Smiderle, Lisiane [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lima, Luciana O.; Hutz, Mara Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sand, Cézar Roberto Van der; Sand, Luiz Carlos Van der; Ferreira, Maria Elvira Wagner; Pires, Renan Canibal [Centro de Diagnóstico Cardiológico, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Almeida, Silvana; Fiegenbaum, Marilu [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statins have been effective in controlling lipid levels. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of statins contribute to interindividual variations in drug efficacy and toxicity. To evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism in the efficacy and safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment. Lipid levels of 495 patients (331 women and 164 men) were measured at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment to assess the efficacy and safety profiles of both drugs. Women had higher baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with men (p < 0.0001). After treatment, women exhibited a greater decrease in plasma TC and LDL-C levels compared with men. After adjustment for covariates, baseline levels of TC and LDL-C influenced more than 30% of the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy (p < 0.001), regardless of sex. Myalgia [with or without changes in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels] occurred more frequently in women (25.9%; p = 0.002), whereas an increase in CPK and/or abnormal liver function was more frequent in in men (17.9%; p = 0.017). Our results show that baseline TC and LDL-C levels are the main predictors of simvastatin/atorvastatin therapy efficacy, regardless of sex. In addition, they suggest the presence of sexual dimorphism in the safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin. The effect of sex differences on receptors, transporter proteins, and gene expression pathways needs to be better evaluated and characterized to confirm these observations.
Robertson, Jamie; Porter, Duncan; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J; Caslake, Muriel; McInnes, Iain; McCarey, David
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes. In the KALIBRA study, lipoprotein kinetic studies were performed on 11 patients with severe active RA at baseline and following three intravenous infusions of the IL-6R blocker tocilizumab. The primary outcome measure was the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of LDL. Serum total cholesterol (4.8 vs 5.7 mmol/L, p=0.003), LDL-c (2.9 vs 3.4 mmol/L, p=0.014) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.23 vs 1.52 mmol/L, p=0.006) increased following tocilizumab therapy. The LDL FCR fell from a state of hypercatabolism to a value approximating that of the normal population (0.53 vs 0.27 pools/day, p=0.006). Changes in FCR correlated tightly with changes in serum LDL-c and C-reactive protein but not Clinical Disease Activity Index. Patients with RA have low serum LDL-c due to hypercatabolism of LDL particles. IL-6 blockade normalises this catabolism in a manner associating with the acute phase response (and thus hepatic IL-6 signalling) but not with RA disease activity as measured clinically. We demonstrate that IL-6 is one of the key drivers of inflammation-driven dyslipidaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Smiderle, Lisiane; Lima, Luciana O.; Hutz, Mara Helena; Sand, Cézar Roberto Van der; Sand, Luiz Carlos Van der; Ferreira, Maria Elvira Wagner; Pires, Renan Canibal; Almeida, Silvana; Fiegenbaum, Marilu
Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statins have been effective in controlling lipid levels. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of statins contribute to interindividual variations in drug efficacy and toxicity. To evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism in the efficacy and safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment. Lipid levels of 495 patients (331 women and 164 men) were measured at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment to assess the efficacy and safety profiles of both drugs. Women had higher baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with men (p < 0.0001). After treatment, women exhibited a greater decrease in plasma TC and LDL-C levels compared with men. After adjustment for covariates, baseline levels of TC and LDL-C influenced more than 30% of the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy (p < 0.001), regardless of sex. Myalgia [with or without changes in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels] occurred more frequently in women (25.9%; p = 0.002), whereas an increase in CPK and/or abnormal liver function was more frequent in in men (17.9%; p = 0.017). Our results show that baseline TC and LDL-C levels are the main predictors of simvastatin/atorvastatin therapy efficacy, regardless of sex. In addition, they suggest the presence of sexual dimorphism in the safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin. The effect of sex differences on receptors, transporter proteins, and gene expression pathways needs to be better evaluated and characterized to confirm these observations
Yu, K; Xue, Y; He, T; Guan, L; Zhao, A; Zhang, Y
There has been recent interest in spicy foods and their bioactive ingredients for cardiovascular health. This study aims to explore relationship between spicy food consumption frequency and serum lipid profiles in a cross-sectional sample of older Chinese from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). A total of 1549 participant aged 65 years and above from CHNS 2009 were included in the analysis. Information on spicy food consumption was obtained using a questionnaire survey and 24h dietary recalls over three consecutive days combined with weighted food inventory. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Correlations between spicy food consumption frequency and serum lipid profiles were evaluated by multivariate linear regression models. The result shows a significant positive association between frequency of spicy food consumption estimated by the frequency question and daily spicy food intake calculated from 24h recall. After adjustment for potential lifestyle and dietary confounding factors, men with higher frequency of spicy food consumption showed higher apoA1 level, and lower ratio of LDL-C/apoB (p for trend frequency of spicy food consumption was significantly associated with TC, LDL-C, apoB, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA1 in an inverse manner, and positively correlated with apoA1 level (p for trend food consumption frequency may favorably associated with some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statins have been effective in controlling lipid levels. Sex differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of statins contribute to interindividual variations in drug efficacy and toxicity. Objective: To evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism in the efficacy and safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment. Methods: Lipid levels of 495 patients (331 women and 164 men were measured at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months of simvastatin/atorvastatin treatment to assess the efficacy and safety profiles of both drugs. Results: Women had higher baseline levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C compared with men (p < 0.0001. After treatment, women exhibited a greater decrease in plasma TC and LDL-C levels compared with men. After adjustment for covariates, baseline levels of TC and LDL-C influenced more than 30% of the efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy (p < 0.001, regardless of sex. Myalgia [with or without changes in creatine phosphokinase (CPK levels] occurred more frequently in women (25.9%; p = 0.002, whereas an increase in CPK and/or abnormal liver function was more frequent in in men (17.9%; p = 0.017. Conclusions: Our results show that baseline TC and LDL-C levels are the main predictors of simvastatin/atorvastatin therapy efficacy, regardless of sex. In addition, they suggest the presence of sexual dimorphism in the safety of simvastatin/atorvastatin. The effect of sex differences on receptors, transporter proteins, and gene expression pathways needs to be better evaluated and characterized to confirm these observations.
Akhtar, M.S.; Ashraf, S.; Bhatty, N.; Ahmad, N.
A sample of 200 patients was randomly selected and interviewed. Various data related to their food consumption in previous weeks and other behavioral attitudes were recorded. Their blood pressure was measured and blood was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Spearman's correlation coefficient was worked out between blood pressure, serum lipid parameters and tea, vitamin C and fibre intake. Tea showed significant correlation with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (-0.2373; P<0.02), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.2299; P<0.02) and TC (-0.3454; P<0.01). Vitamin C showed a negatively significant correlation with TC (-0.4676; P<0.01), and LDL-C (-2661; P<0.01) and significant positive correlation with HDL-C (+0.2227; P < 0.05). The tea intake was found strongly correlated with blood pressure as compared to vitamin C, while vitamin C had stronger correlation with TC as compared to tea intake. Fibre was not found significantly correlated with any of the studied parameters. A 30-day control trial on 50 subjects revealed that antioxidant therapy during fat-restricted diet period significantly affected blood pressure and serum lipids. Comparative effect showed that lemon juice showed best results. Lemon juice decreased DBP, SBP, TC, TG and increased HDL-C, while tea added with lemon only significantly decreased DBP, SBP and TC. Salad, especially onion, only improved HDL-C and LDLC levels. Vitamin C supplement also significantly lowered DBP, SBP, TC, LDL-C and TG. Tea had negative correlation with blood pressure and TC, while vitamin C has showed relationship with TC, LDL-C and positive with HDL-C. It is conceivable, therefore, that dietary antioxidants cause a significant improvement in blood pressure and serum lipids than vitamin C supplement and simple fat-restricted diets. (author)
Full Text Available Aim: To examine the association of serum lipids, lipid ratios with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD in a Chinese population. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in China. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or albuminuria-to-creatinine ratio (ACR > 30 mg/g. Multivariable logistic regressions and multivariate regression models were used. Serum lipids and lipid ratios included total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Results: In men, only logarithm-transformed (log TG was associated with CKD. The odds ratio (every SD increment was 1.39 (95% CI 1.03–1.87, P = 0.03. In women, none of the serum lipids and lipid ratios was associated with CKD. Using multivariate regression models, it was shown that log TG and log TG/HDL-C were negatively correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05 in men and LDL-C and log LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were correlated with ACR in men. In female subjects, serum TC, log TG, log TG/HDL-C and log TC/HDL-C were negatively correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05. All of serum lipid profiles and lipid related ratio were not correlated with ACR in women. Conclusion: Serum TG is the only suitable predictor for CKD in men. However, in women, none of serum lipids and lipid ratio can be used as a predictor for CKD. Log TG and log TG/HDL-C are negatively correlated with eGFR in both genders.
Schauren, B C; Portal, V L; Beltrami, F G; dos Santos, T J; Pellanda, L C
Lifestyle changes have an impact on lipid metabolism. The overload of circulating lipids may lead to endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory response, which may be further aggravated in the presence of overweight. This study aims to describe the postprandial metabolism and inflammatory response in overweight and normal-weight adolescents. Sixty-two adolescents aged 11-18 years were divided into two groups: overweight (OW; n=38) and normal weight (NW; n=24). Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen and leukocytes were collected for fasting and 4 and 6 h after a oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) consisting of a high-fat meal with 1.000 Kcal, 27.4% carbohydrates, 14.7% protein and 57.8% lipids (30.4% saturated, 32.7% monounsaturated, 26.5% polyunsaturated fatty acids and 288 mg TC). Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA, multiple linear regression, and Pearson, Spearman and partial correlations. OW adolescents showed significantly higher fasting values of TC (P=0.036), LDL-C (P=0.010), fibrinogen (P=0.036) and hs-CRP (P=0.004). All variables, except for glucose, increased in response to OFTT, but there were no interactions between group and time. body mass index z-score was positively correlated to LDL-C, TG, fibrinogen and hs-CRP, and inversely correlated to HDL-C. In conclusion, adolescents with OW showed higher TC, LDL-C and inflammatory markers levels than NW adolescents. These findings have clinical implications for prevention of chronic diseases, as we spend most of our days in a postprandial state.
Nishide, Ritsuko; Ando, Michiko; Funabashi, Hidemitsu; Yoda, Yoshiko; Nakano, Masataka; Shima, Masayuki
To investigate the association of serum lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with obesity in school children and to explore whether hs-CRP levels could be used to predict the presence or absence of obesity 12 months later. The subjects were school children (6-11 years old) in Japan. Blood sampling and physical measurements were performed in school (2001); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and hs-CRP levels were measured. Data from children who could be followed 12 months later were analyzed. Subjects weighing 20% or more over his/her standard weight were regarded as obese, and the association of obesity with serum parameters was analyzed. Data from 612 subjects were analyzed (follow-up rate, 75.4%). The mean of each serum parameter was significantly higher (inverse for HDL-C; lower) in obese than that in non-obese children. Logistic regression analysis for obesity at baseline showed that the odds ratio (OR) of hs-CRP was the highest [OR, 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-2.78 for an interquartile rage (IQR) increase]; the association with triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C was significant. At the 12-month follow-up, the OR of high hs-CRP remained the highest of all serum parameters (2.09; 95% CI, 1.63-2.69 for an IQR increase). High levels of triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C, and hs-CRP increased the risk of obesity in school children. Hs-CRP is considered to be a better predictor of obesity 12 months later than is LDL-C/HDL-C.
Full Text Available It has been found that honey ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors in healthy individuals and in patients with elevated risk factors. The present study investigated the effect of natural honey on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triacylglycerole, C-reactive protein (CRP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and body weight in overweight individuals. There were 55 patients, overweight or obese, who were randomly recruited into the study and assigned into two groups: control group (17 subjects and experimental group (38 subjects. Patients in the control group received 70 g of sucrose daily for a maximum of 30 days and patients in the experimental group received 70 g of natural honey for the same period. In the control and experimental groups, body weight, body mass index, body fat weight, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triacylglycerole, FBG, and CRP were measured before treatment and at day 31 after the commencement of treatment. Results showed that honey caused a mild reduction in body weight (1.3% and body fat (1.1%. Honey reduced total cholesterol (3%, LDL-C (5.8, triacylglycerole (11%, FBG (4.2%, and CRP (3.2%, and increased HDL-C (3.3% in subjects with normal values, while in patients with elevated variables, honey caused reduction in total cholesterol by 3.3%, LDL-C by 4.3%, triacylglycerole by 19%, and CRP by 3.3% (p < 0.05. It is our conclusion that consumption of natural honey reduces cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in subjects with elevated risk factors, and it does not increase body weight in overweight or obese subjects.
Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura
There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.
Orio, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Spinelli, Letizia; Cascella, Teresa; Tauchmanovà, Libuse; Zullo, Fulvio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria
To evaluate the cardiovascular risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we investigated lipid profile, metabolic pattern, and echocardiography in 30 young women with PCOS and 30 healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched women. PCOS women had higher fasting glucose and insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment score of insulin sensitivity, total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and lower HDL-C levels than controls. Additionally, PCOS women had higher left atrium size (32.0 +/- 4.9 vs. 27.4 +/- 2.1 mm; P index (80.5 +/- 18.1 vs. 56.1 +/- 5.4 g/m(2); P 18 and 30 kg/m(2))], the differences between PCOS women and controls were maintained in overweight and obese women. In normal weight PCOS women, a significant increase in left ventricular mass index and a decrease in diastolic filling were observed, notwithstanding no change in TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratio, and TG compared with controls. In conclusion, our data show the detrimental effect of PCOS on the cardiovascular system even in young women asymptomatic for cardiac disease.
Parrinello, Christina M; Landay, Alan L; Hodis, Howard N; Gange, Stephen J.; Norris, Philip J; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C; Xue, Xiaonan; Lazar, Jason; Benning, Lorie; Tracy, Russell P; Kaplan, Robert C
Objective We examined serum lipids in association with carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. Methods In 2003–4, among 1827 Women’s Interagency HIV Study participants, we measured CIMT and lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], total cholesterol [TC], non-HDL-c). A subset of 520 treated HIV-infected women had pre-1997 lipid measures. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between lipids and CIMT. Results In HIV-uninfected women, higher TC, LDL-c and non-HDL-c were associated with increased CIMT. Among HIV-infected women, associations of lipids with CIMT were observed in treated but not untreated women. Among the HIV-infected women treated in 2003–4, CIMT was associated both with lipids measured a decade earlier in infection, and with late lipid measurements. Conclusion Among HIV-infected women, hyperlipidemia is most strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in treated women. Among treated women, the association appeared strongest early in the disease course. PMID:23089369
Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels
Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver
Full Text Available Objectives: Primordial prevention of chronic disease is of clinical andpublic health importance. Considering the fetal onset of atherosclerosis,we aimed to determine the cord blood level of lipoproteins andapolipoproteins as well as their correlation with birth weight and gestationalage.Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 100 healthy Indiannewborns. Ten ml. of cord blood was collected from placental end ofumbilical vein. Serum was separated by centrifugation and analyzed onthe same day for lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides(TG, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C, very lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL and low density lipoproteincholesterol(LDL-C, apolipoproteins A-I and B (ApoA-I, ApoB.Atherogenic index (AI was calculated as the ratio of ApoB to ApoA-I.Results: Cord blood of female newborns had higher TC, HDL-C,LDL-C, Apo A-I, Apo B and AI as compared to male newborns,whereas TG and VLDL-C were higher in male than in female newborns.Significant positive correlation was observed between cordblood Apo A-I and HDL-C (r= 0.45, p0.05.Conclusions: These findings are another confirmatory evidence forthe association of prenatal factors with cord blood lipid profile, andcan serve as starting point for studying lipid transport system changesduring early life.
Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston
The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).
Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is the commonest and usually the first observable vascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Along with hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia is a contributing factor for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy. It is postulated that dyslipidaemia results in formation of hard exudate by increasing blood viscosity and altering the fibrinolytic system. A case control study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007 to evaluate the serum lipid profile in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects with diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: Total 85 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were included in this study, 40 were cases having retinopathy and 45 were age and sex matched controls without retinopathy. Serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were compared between cases and controls. Unpaired t-test and chi-square test were done between groups as tests of significance. Results: All the parameters of lipid profile showed dyslipidaemic trend both in cases and controls. In the cases TG was significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower than that of controls (p < 0.05 whereas no significant difference was found between cases and controls with respect to serum TC and LDL-C. Conclusion: It can be concluded that high TG and low HDL-C are associated with diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
Nosseir, N.M.; Abdel -Messeih, Ph.L.; Mohamed, S.K.
Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Leptin and adiponectin are cytokines synthesized in adipose tissue and have been implicated as a link between obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, in this study we analyzed and compared: serum leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile including cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and body mass index (BMI) in breast cancer patients before and after Post Mastectomy Radio- therapy (PMRT).Serum leptin and adiponectin significantly increased and decreased respectively in patients after PMRT compared to the controls. BMI statistically decreased after radiotherapy while LDL-c increased in breast cancer patients; in both patients groups. HDL-c was statistically decreased but triglycerides showed significant increase in breast cancer patients. These results denoted that dyslipidemia may be associated with breast cancer risk and the evaluation of leptin and adiponectin can be used for follow up of patients under radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer
No significant improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators by a lifestyle intervention in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia compared to usual care: results of a randomised controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH may benefit from lifestyle changes supporting their primary treatment of dyslipidaemia. This project evaluated the efficacy of an individualised tailored lifestyle intervention on lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, glucose, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference in people with FH. Methods Adults with FH (n = 340, recruited from a Dutch cascade screening program, were randomly assigned to either a control group or an intervention group. The personalised intervention consisted of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling. The control group received care as usual. Lipids, systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after 12 months. Regression analyses were conducted to examine differences between both groups. Results After 12 months, no significant between-group differences of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk indicators were observed. LDL-C levels had decreased in both the intervention and control group. This difference between intervention and control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions This project suggests that an individually tailored lifestyle intervention did not have an additional effect in improving CVD risk indicators among people with FH. The cumulative effect of many small improvements in all indicators on long term CVD risk remains to be assessed in future studies. Trial registration NTR1899 at ww.trialregister.nl
Boronat, Mauro; García-Cantón, César; López-Ríos, Laura; Quevedo, Virginia; Lorenzo, Dionisio L; Batista, Fátima; Riaño, Marta; Nóvoa, Francisco J
This study analyses discordance rates between attainment of therapeutic goals for apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) and both low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in a sample of 152 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease from Gran Canaria (Spain), using treatment targets recommended by the American Diabetes Association/American College of Cardiology (ADA/ACC), the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) and by a Spanish population-based study. Among subjects with LDL-C levels at therapeutic goal, apoB was above target in 16.3% (ADA/ACC), 6.5% (ESC/EAS) and 39.1% (population-based criteria), and among subjects with non-HDL-C levels at therapeutic goal, apoB was above target in 10.5% (ADA/ACC), 1.2% (ESC/EAS) and 29.6% (population-based criteria). These findings show that clinical management would be very differently altered depending on the criteria used to set treatment targets for apoB. Cut-off points derived from population data identify a greater number of subjects suitable for a more intensive lipid-lowering therapy.
Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Leite, Neiva; Titski, Ana Cláudia C Kapp; Brito, Lilian Messias Sampaio; Boguszewski, Margaret C S
Evaluation of lipid profile in children and adolescents is important for early diagnosis of dyslipidemias. Physiological changes might be observed in the concentration of the lipid profile components, according to the stage of sexual maturation. To evaluate the variation in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in boys during puberty. The sample consisted of 570 male adolescents with ages between 10 and 17 years. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were determined by the enzymatic method, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Puberty was classified according to Tanner references. The percentile criterion was adopted for the distribution and identification of lipoprotein levels. The analysis of variance and description tests with ppuberty was observed. LDL-C levels rose during stage 3 of development, decreasing at the end of the pubertal process. TG levels did not change significantly with pubertal status. Lipid and lipoprotein concentrations tend to undergo changes during puberty in boys. The use of percentile values can be very useful to track variations in lipid and lipoprotein levels during the maturation process.
Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V; Grabeklis, Andrey R; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Tinkov, Alexey A
The objective of the present study was to investigate the level of toxic and essential trace elements in hair of adult overweight and obese persons as well as its association with metabolic parameters. Hair trace element levels were assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry in 112 overweight and obese patients and 106 lean controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glucose, uric acid (UA) levels, and cholinesterase (CE) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity were also assessed. Excessive body weight significantly affected hair trace element levels. In particular, hair Co (33%), Cu (13%), I (30%), Mg (2-fold), Mn (25%), Zn (17%), and Ni (21%) levels were lower, whereas Al (14%) and As levels were higher in comparison to those in the control group. Correlation analysis demonstrated the most significant correlations for hair Mg with body weight, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and UA, and for hair Al with body weight, BMI, TC, glucose, TG, CE, GGT, and UA. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that trace elements were not associated with TC and LDL-C levels neither in crude nor in adjusted models. In turn, crude and adjusted models accounted for 25 and 43% of serum TG variance. The most significant associations were observed for hair Al, Fe, Si, and V in adjusted model. The obtained data demonstrate that obesity-related metabolic disorders may be at least partially mediated by altered trace element and mineral levels.
Congestive heart failure is associated with lipoprotein components in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease Insights from the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial (IDEAL)
Holme, Ingar; Strandberg, Timo E; Faergeman, Ole
BACKGROUND: Very few, if any, studies have assessed the ability of apolipoproteins to predict new-onset of congestive heart failure (HF) in statin-treated patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). AIMS: To employ the Incremental Decrease in End points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Trial...... with the occurrence of new-onset HF. Variables related to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) carried less predictive information than those related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apoA-1 was the single variable most strongly associated with HF. LDL-C was less predictive than both non......-HDL-C (total cholesterol minus HDL-C) and apoB. The ratio of apoB to apoA-1 was most strongly related to HF after adjustment for potential confounders, among which diabetes had a stronger correlation with HF than did hypertension. ApoB/apoA-1 carried approximately 2.2 times more of the statistical information...
Liu, F; Zhang, R; Li, T T; Wang, H Y
Objective: To investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) and serum lipid level among male taxi drivers of a city in china. Methods: A total of 360 male taxi drivers were collected by two-stage random sampling method from september to november in 2016, the questionnaires were used to survey the status of PA and serum total cholesterol (TC) , triglyceride (TG) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , according to the recommended standards of the intenational consensus group on physical activity measurement (ICGPAM) , the participants were divided into 3 groups: high PA level group, moderate PA level group and low PA level group. Results: The percentages of individuals with high, moderate and low PA levels were 60.7%, 22.1%and 17.2% respectively, the levels of TG, LDL-C had a declining trend along with the PA level increase, and the level of HDL-C had a increasing trend, the difference was statistically significant ( P taxi drivers in this city is relatively low, and high PA can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia.
Diaf, Mustapha; Khaled, Boumediene M; Sellam, Fériel
The incidence of diabetes co-morbidities could probably be better assessed by studying its associations with major corpulence parameters and glycaemic control indicators. We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from 238 type 2 diabetic patients aged 57.4±11.9 years. The sera were analysed for glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB). Ratios of lipids and apolipoproteins were calculated and their associations with BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels were analysed. Our investigation showed increases in most fasting and postprandial lipid parameters according to BMI and WC. In men, postprandial HDL-c and TG levels were significantly higher (ppostprandial TC levels were significantly higher (ppostprandial lipid ratios in both men and women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio is helpful in assessing metabolic risk caused by overall obesity, abdominal obesity and impaired glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients.
Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.
Xiao, Hong-Bo; Wang, Ji-Ying; Sun, Zhi-Liang
Previous investigations have shown that inflammation induces changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and increased expression of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) contributes to the development of dyslipidemia. Here we investigated whether there is a correlation between increased ANGPTL3 expression and dyslipidemia in mastitis mice. Thirty mice were divided into two groups: control group and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced mastitis mice group. Changes in the levels of blood lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)]; activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO); concentrations of plasma inflammation biomarkers [interferon-γ (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-1α (IL-1α)]; concentration of plasma ANGPTL3 protein; lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in postheparin plasma; expressions of hepatic N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), hepatic ANGPTL3 and adipose LPL were determined. The major results indicated specific pathological mammary tissue changes, elevated MPO activity, reduced GALNT2 mRNA expression, elevated ANGPTL3 mRNA and protein expression and reduced LPL mRNA and protein expression. In plasma samples the S.aureus infused mice displayed elevated ANGPTL3 protein concentration, TG, TC and LDL-C levels, and reduced postheparin LPL activities and HDL-C level. The data suggests that ANGPTL3 is part of the machinery causing dyslipidemia majorily via LPL inhibition in mastitis mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.
Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Crimmins, Eileen M; Kim, Jung Ki; Winking, Jeff; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Finch, Caleb E
Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets. We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20-84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and village region. Most of the Tsimane (60%) carried at least one parasite species, averaging 1.3 species per person. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were below the U.S. norms and varied inversely with markers of infection and inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin (Ig) E and eosinophil count. Although no relationship of parasite load to blood-C was found, there was an association between anemia and parasite prevalence. We conclude that the highly infected environment of the Tsimane is related to low levels of blood total-C, HDL-C, and LDL-C. This may suggest a potential reason why arterial disease is largely absent in the Tsimane. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
lipids of RA women. Methods: In the present parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 RA patients were recruited and divided into 2 groups. They received either a daily capsule containing 108 CFU of L. casei 01, or identical capsules containing maltodextrin, for 8 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, dietary intake and physical activity were assessed at 2 ends of the study. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and triglyceride (TG were measured. Independent-samples t test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA test, and paired t test were used to test between- and within-group differences, respectively. Results: There were no significant between- or within-group differences for demographic and anthropometric parameters, physical activity and dietary intakes, throughout the study. No statistically significant within-group changes were observed for serum lipids in either group; between-group differences were also insignificant by the end of study period (TC: -0.18 [-0.65, 0.29], P = 0.801, HDL-C: -1.66 [-19.28, 15.59], P = 0.663, LDL-C: -2.73 [-19.17, 13.73], P = 0.666, TG: 0.12 [-19.76, 20.00], P = 0.900. Conclusion: Lactobacillus casei 01 could not improve serum lipids in RA patients. Further studies using probiotic foods and different probiotic strains are suggested.
Denisova, D V; Nikitin, Iu P; Zav'ialova, L G; Burakova, S V; Ivanova, M V
Hyperlipidemia is a known risk factor of coronary artery disease. The reduction of elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in childhood may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Aim of the study was to assess prevalence and trends in lipid profile and lipid disorders in adolescent population in Novosibirsk (1989-2003). Four cross-sectional surveys of school children aged 14-17 years in 1989 (n=656), in 1994 (n=620), in 1999 (n=626) and in 2003 (n=667) were carried out. Total sample was 2569 (1214 males and 1355 females). Blood total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG) were measured by enzymatic methods. LDL-C was calculated with Friedwald's formula. Associations of blood lipids with age, sex, year of study, body mass index (kg/m2), blood pressure and main nutrients of diet were measured by GLM method. Prevalence of dyslipidemia was evaluated with NCEP-peds criteria. Diet was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall. During the 15-year period (1989-2003) mean serum TC decreased from 175 to 162 mg/dl in males and from 191 to 175 mg/dl in females (p dislipidemias in adolescents of Novosibirsk significantly changed following the changes of body mass index and diet.
Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L
Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.
Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.
Li, Haiqiang; Sang, Zhongna; Tan, Long; Zhao, Na; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Guiqin; Liu, Hua; Wen, Songchen; Zhang, Wanqi
To investigate the iodine status and the prevalence of thyroid disease and dyslipidemia in adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water in Hebei Province, and to explore the impact of excessive iodine intake on dyslipidemia. Subjects were selected from Haixing County in Cangzhou, Hebei. Fasting morning urine and venous blood were collected to test the levels of urinary iodine and serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH). Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and total cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were also measured. The median of urinary iodine was 1094.92 (627.38 - 1511.81) microg/L. There were 66 (22.0%) adults diagnosed as thyroid disorder, including 3 (1.0%) hyperthyroidism patients, 7 (2.3%) subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, 12 (4.0%) hypothyroidism patients and 44 (14.7%) subclinical hypothyroidism patients. The levels of CHO, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were (5.46 +/- 1.06) mmol/L, 2.19 (1.70 - 2.96) mmol/L, 1.18 (1.03 - 1.45) mmol/L and (3.08 +/- 1.05) mmol/L respectively, no significant difference was observed between the thyroid disorder patients or non-patients. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in adults living in areas of excessive iodine in water was high.
Hansen, C K; Klingenberg, L; Larsen, L B; Lorenzen, J K; Sørensen, K V; Astrup, A
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas dairy generally is associated with a neutral or a beneficial CVD effect, the consumption of ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk has been reported to increase levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in an uncontrolled study. Our aim was to examine whether semi-skimmed UHT dairy milk increases the risk of CVD development compared with pasteurized (PAST) dairy milk in overweight healthy adults. Nineteen healthy men and women participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. The effect of intake of 1.5 l of UHT dairy milk or PAST milk, similar in nutritional content, was examined as a supplement to the participant's habitual diet for 21 days in each intervention period. Intake of other dairy products was not allowed during the intervention period. Clinical evaluation and blood samples took place preintervention and postintervention. There was no significant effect by type of milk on LDL-C (P=0.29). No effects of type of milk were observed in other blood lipid levels, such as total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides. No effects of type of milk were found for blood pressure, insulin, glucose concentration and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) or body weight. This study does not support the hypothesis that UHT processing of milk increases the risk of CVD.
Roberto Barbosa Bazotte
Full Text Available The effect of oral L-carnitine (LC or DL-carnitine (DLC supplementation during one or four weeks (200 or 400 mg.kg-1.day-1 in diabetic rats was investigated. After the supplementation period, the blood was collected for the evaluation of total (TC and free L-carnitine (FC, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerol. Tissues were collected for the determination of TC and FC concentrations. The carnitine supplementation did not change levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in the blood. Diabetic rats showed hypertriacylglycerolemia and decreased blood and tissue levels of FC and TC. Normalization of the blood triacylglycerol and increased blood and tissue levels of FC and TC were observed with the LC or DLC supplementation. However, the hyperglycemia remained unchanged. Thus, the reduction of blood triacylglycerol obtained with carnitine supplementation in the diabetic rats did not depend on an amelioration in the glycemia and was mediated partly at least by an increment of serum and tissue concentrations of FC and TC.
Lian, Xiao-Qing; Zhao, Di; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ze-Mu; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Zhang, Ding-Guo; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Lian-Sheng
To examine the influence of walking at different times of day on lipids and inflammatory markers in sedentary patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 330 patients recruited from Nanjing between September 2011 and November 2012 were randomly assigned to a control group (n=110), morning (n=110) or evening walking group (n=110). Both the walking groups were asked to walk 30 min/day or more on at least 5 days/week either in the morning or evening for 12 weeks. Lipids and inflammatory markers were measured before and after exercise intervention. Compared with baseline, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were improved in all groups. Significances were shown in the changes of fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, TC, triglycerides, LDL-C, lipoprotein(a) between groups. The evening walking group had a larger decrease in fibrinogen (0.16 ± 0.19 g/L, Pwalking program successfully resulted in a favorable change in lipids and inflammatory markers. Patients in the evening walking group gained more benefits than those walking in the morning walking group. NCT01887093. © 2013.
Full Text Available This study measured the impact of alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A 24-acetate, the main active ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicine Alismatis rhizoma, on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C levels of hyperlipidemic mice. The binding of alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A 24-acetate to the key enzyme involved in the metabolism of TC, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, was studied using the reagent kit method and the western blotting technique combined with a molecular simulation technique. According to the results, alisol acetates significantly lower the TC, TG, and LDL-C concentrations of hyperlipidemic mice, while raising HDL-C concentrations. Alisol acetates lower HMG-CoA reductase activity in a dose-dependent fashion, both in vivo and in vitro. Neither of these alisol acetates significantly lower the protein expression of HMG-CoA. This suggests that alisol acetates lower the TC level via inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase by its prototype drug, which may exhibit an inhibition effect via directly and competitively binding to HMG-CoA. The side chain of the alisol acetate was the steering group via molecular simulation.
Abd El-Azime, A.Sh.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.
Medicinal herbs are used in indigenous system of medicine for various diseases. Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) has a high medicinal value which has been recognized. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves against whole body gamma radiation-induced toxicity in rats. Rats received orally by gavage the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves 300 mg/Kg body weight/day for 40 days and rats subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy delivered as single exposure dose at day 35 of M. oleifera treatment rats and sacrificed at 5th day after irradiation. The results obtained showed that exposure to gamma radiation provoked a significant increase in serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (vLDL-C) level. While high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin level showed a significant decrease. Moreover a significant decrease of glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities associated to a significant increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were recorded in blood and liver of rats. Treatment with M. oleifera significantly reduced the radiation-induced serum and liver biochemical disorders which was associated with a significant amelioration in antioxidant status in both liver and serum. The results indicated that M. oleifera might protect from radiation induced damage due to its ability to scavenge free radicals
Abdel-Magied, N; Ahmed, A G; Shedid, S M
Infrared radiation has a potential therapeutic effect in some diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the therapeutic role of near infrared heat lamp (NIRHL) on the variations of the activity of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), in relation to lipid disorders, associated with oxidative stress in rats gamma-irradiated. In addition, study the effect of the duration of NIRHL treatment. Animals were divided into six groups. The results revealed that irradiated rats treated with NIRHL 20 min/once/day showed positive modulation of PON1 and MPO linked to significant improvement of lipid disorders evidenced by lower triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL-C) and higher density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as significant amelioration of redox state, manifested by markedly increase of glutathione (GSH) content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) associated with a noticeable decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (TNF-α, IL-1 beta and IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOs), malondialdehyde (MDA), compared to irradiated rats. The results showed also that the NIRHL treatment for 20 min/twice/day had negative effects on the previous parameters and on the behavior of rats such as itching, irritability, dyspnea and death in normal as well as, irradiated rats. In conclusion, the results in this study show that NIRHL therapy for a short time can effectively prevent the lipid disorders induced by radiation through the positive modulation mechanism of PON1 and MPO enzymes and improvement of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aims : Previous studies have shown that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in females to a greater extent than in males. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the lipid profiles of type 2 diabetic males and females. Materials and Methods : The study included 107 type 2 diabetic patients (41 males and 66 females, and 122 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients (39 males and 83 females, aged 15 years and older. Total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations were assayed for each group using standard biochemical methods. Results : The mean TC, TG, VLDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were higher in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic, and hypertensive non-diabetic control subjects, although these were not significant (P > 0.05. Hypertensive type 2 diabetic females had significantly higher serum TC (7.42 ± 1.63 mmol/L than hypertensive non-diabetic males (5.76±1.57 mmol/L; P 0.05. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that dyslipidemia exists in our type 2 diabetic population with greater TC in hypertensive type 2 diabetic females compared with hypertensive type 2 diabetic males. This suggests that hypertensive type 2 diabetic females are exposed more profoundly to risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia compared with males.
Karabudak, Efsun; Türközü, Duygu; Köksal, Eda
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels.
Toth Peter P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few large-scale, real-world studies have assessed the relative associations of lipid fractions with diabetic microvascular events. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the lipid profile components, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C with microvascular complications (MVCs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods This observational cohort study queried the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRDSM for newly-diagnosed (Index Date 18-64-year-old patients with diabetes mellitus between 01/01/2005-06/30/2010. Inclusion required ≥12 months pre-index continuous health plan eligibility and ≥1 pre-index lipid profile result. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and prior MVCs were excluded. Incident complications were defined as the earliest occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and/or nephropathy post-index. Cox proportional models and Kaplan-Meier (KM curves were used to evaluate associations among variables. Results Of the patients (N = 72,267, 50.05 % achieved HDL-C, 64.28 % LDL-C, 59.82 % TG, and 56.79 % non-HDL-C American Diabetes Association goals at baseline. During follow-up (mean, 21.74 months, there were 5.21 microvascular events per 1,000 patient-months. A 1-mg/dL increase in HDL-C was associated with 1 % decrease in any MVC risk (P P P P P P Conclusion This study demonstrates significant independent associations among lipid fractions and risk for microangiopathy. These findings suggest that attaining established ADA goals for HDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C may reduce risk for microvascular events among patients with diabetes.
Santos, Raul D.; Duell, P. Barton; East, Cara; Guyton, John R.; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Chin, Wai; Mittleman, Robert S.
Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended dosing with mipomersen in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (HC) taking maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Methods and results A planned interim analysis of an ongoing, open-label extension trial in patients (n = 141) with familial HC receiving a subcutaneous injection of 200 mg mipomersen weekly plus maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy for up to 104 weeks. The mean changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline to weeks 26 (n = 130), 52 (n = 111), 76 (n = 66), and 104 (n = 53) were −28, −27, −27, and −28%; and in apolipoprotein B −29, −28, −30, and −31%, respectively. Reductions in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) were comparable with decreases in LDL-C and apolipoprotein B levels. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from baseline by 7 and 6% at weeks 26 and 52, respectively. The long-term safety profile of mipomersen was similar to that reported in the associated randomized placebo-controlled Phase 3 trials. Adverse events included injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. There was an incremental increase in the median liver fat during the initial 6–12 months that appeared to diminish with continued mipomersen exposure beyond 1 year and returned towards baseline 24 weeks after last drug dose suggestive of adaptation. The median alanine aminotransferase level showed a similar trend over time. Conclusion Long-term treatment with mipomersen for up to 104 weeks provided sustained reductions in all atherosclerotic lipoproteins measured and a safety profile consistent with prior controlled trials in these high-risk patient populations. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00694109. PMID:24366918
El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb
ETHNPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: To investigate antidiabetic activity of purslane seeds on type-2 diabetic subjects and to provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea (PO). A thirty subject with type-2 diabetes divided into two groups, to receive 5 g of PO seeds twice daily while in the second group, their participants receive 1,500 mg of metformin/day. All participants were requested to report the effects of treatments on diabetic manifestations, their weights, body mass index (BMI), adverse effects, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose during treatment schedule. Blood samples from participants before and after treatment were taken for serum separation, which are used for measurement of serum lipids, liver enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, and insulin. It showed a significant decrease in serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (T(C)), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)), liver alanine-, aspartate- and gamma glutamyl transaminase (ALT, AST, and GGT), total and direct bilirubin, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, insulin, body weight and BMI while a significant increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) and albumin but non-significant change of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in PO seeds treated subjects. Metformin (M) group has the same results of PO group except in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)), LDL(C), and ALP levels had a different pattern. PO seeds could be effective and safe as adjuvant therapy for Type-2 diabetic subjects. These results demonstrated that PO seeds possessed notable hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and insulin resistance reducer effects; possibly due to its contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the protective activity of hempseed oil on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxicity in male rats at Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran in 2015. Normal control (NC group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with distilled water (0.5 ml/kg; CCl4-intoxicated group (TCC injected CCl4; hempseed oil treated group (HSO gavaged hempseed oil; TCC-HSO group was injected CCl4 prior to intake of hempseed oil and HSO-TCC group was gavaged hempseed oil prior to being injected with CCl4. In all treated groups, toxicity was induced by i.p. injection of CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg for two consecutive days and hemp seed, oil was gavaged at 8 ml/kg in respective group once daily for one week. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST levels increased in TCC. Protection against toxicity in HSO-TCC and TCC-HSO reduced AST and ALT activities compared to TCC. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity in TCC-HSO and HSO-TCC increased as compared with other groups. CCl4 decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in TCC. Hempseed oil decreased total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols in HSO compared to NC. Hempseed oil in TCC-HSO and HSO-TCC restored TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels to those of NC. Atherogenic index was lower in HSO in comparison to TCC. Based on histopathology, hempseed oil improved CCl4-induced-cardio- and hepatotoxicity in TCC-HSO and HSO-TCC; however, hempseed oil did not prevent CCl4-induced nephrotoxicity. To sum up, hempseed oil has mild protective effects against CCl4 toxicity in male rats.
Negative interference was established of the precipitating reagent (heparin/MnCl2) for the isolation of HDL in the determination of serum concentration of high density lipoproteins--cholesterol by the enzyme CHOD-PAP method. The combining of enzyme-substrate reagent with 8,0 mmol/l EDTA eliminated the negative interference, but induced a lightly manifested increase of the optical density regardless of cholesterol concentration. That is the reason, the calibration of the enzimatic method is recommended to be performen with cholesterol standards, pretreated with precipitating reagent, analogically to serum. The analytical significance of the modified method was studied as regards reproducibility (VK = 0,88% with investigation in series and VK = 4,57% with investigation in time) and of accurary (test of Lord, L = 0,073 less than Lp less than 0,05).
Huijgen, Roeland; Hutten, Barbara A; Kindt, Iris; Vissers, Maud N; Kastelein, John J P
Screening for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) within affected families is often based on cutoff values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, the diagnostic accuracy of LDL-C levels is influenced by the magnitude of the LDL-C overlap between FH patients and unaffected relatives. The purpose of the current study was to assess to what extent this overlap is influenced by the severity of specific FH mutations. Individuals were eligible if they underwent family screening for FH between 2003 and 2010. The entire cohort was then compared with those who were investigated for the presence of the most severe mutations (class 1). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the sensitivity of the 90th percentile of LDL-C were calculated for both cohorts. We included 26 406 individuals, of whom 9169 (35%) carried an FH-causing mutation. In the entire cohort at baseline, mean LDL-C was 4.63 ± 1.44 mmol/L for FH carriers (n=5372) and 2.96 ± 0.96 mmol/L for unaffected relatives (n=15 148); P<0.001. The corresponding operating characteristics curve (95% CI) was 86.6% (85.9%-87.2%), and the cutoff level of LDL-C above the 90th percentile showed a sensitivity of 68.5%. The operating characteristics curve and sensitivity significantly improved when the 5933 individuals tested for class 1 mutations were assessed separately; 96.2% (95.3%-97.1%) and 91.3%, respectively. In summary, the overlap in terms of LDL-C levels between those with molecularly proven FH and unaffected relatives is to a large extent because of the high prevalence of modestly severe LDL-receptor mutations in the Netherlands.
Saltijeral, Adriana; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Alonso, Rodrigo; Muñiz, Ovidio; Díaz-Díaz, José Luis; Fuentes, Francisco; Mata, Nelva; de Andrés, Raimundo; Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Pastor, José; Pinilla, José Miguel; Zambón, Daniel; Pinto, Xavier; Badimón, Lina; Mata, Pedro
Little is known about the characteristics of persons with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) younger than 18 years, the lipid-lowering therapy used in these patients, and the lipid goals reached in real life. Our aim was to evaluate the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals in FH patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large national registry. We analyzed patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large ongoing registry of molecularly-defined patients with FH in Spain. The attainment of guideline-recommended plasma LDL-C goals at entry and follow-up was analyzed in relation to the use of lipid-lowering therapy. We enrolled 392 individuals younger than 18 years. Of these, 217 were molecularly-diagnosed FH patients and had a complete follow-up. The median follow-up time was 4.69 years (interquartile range, 2.48-6.38 years), 68.2% of FH patients were on statins, and 41.5% patients had LDL-C < 130mg/dL. Statin use was the only predictor of LDL-C goal attainment. This study shows that a high proportion of FH patients younger than 18 years have high LDL-C levels and fail to achieve recommended LDL-C targets. Statin use was the only independent predictor of LDL-C goal achievement. No safety concerns were detected during follow-up. These results indicate that many FH patients are not adequately controlled and that there is still room for treatment improvement. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jena, Anupam B; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Stevens, Warren; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldman, Dana P
Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is suboptimally used in patients with hyperlipidemia in the 2 highest statin benefit groups (SBGs), as categorized by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. This study estimated the social value of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50% for patients in SBGs 1 and 2 who have been treated with standard LLT but have not reached LDL-C goal, as well as the potential value of PCSK9 inhibitors for patients in these groups. Simulation model. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and US Census data to project the population of SBGs 1 and 2 in the time period 2015 to 2035. We used insurance claims data to estimate incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and NHANES with National Vital Statistics data to estimate cardiovascular disease mortality rates. Using established associations between LDL-C and MACE risk, we estimated the value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50%. We incorporated results from a meta-analysis to estimate the value of PSCK9 inhibitors. Among those treated with LLT with LDL-C > 70 mg/dL in SBGs 1 and 2, the cumulative value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50% would be $2.9 trillion from 2015 to 2035, resulting primarily from 1.6 million deaths averted. The cumulative value of PCSK9 inhibitors would range from $3.4 trillion to $5.1 trillion (1.9-2.8 million deaths averted), or $12,000 to $17,000 per patient-year of treatment. Lowering LDL-C in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia has enormous potential social value. For patients in these high-risk groups, PCSK9 inhibitors may have considerable net value depending on the final prices payers ultimately select.
Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.
Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)
Liang, Dong-Ke; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Bing; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiang-Mei
The significance of associations between bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis in the Asian population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level associations between BMD and subclinical atherosclerosis. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Shenyang, China. A total of 385 Chinese women and men aged 37-87 years were studied. The BMD was measured at the total hip and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured to assess atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis was applied to study the associations. Multicolinearity was examined using the variance inflation factor, condition index, and variance proportions. Factor analysis and principal component regression were used to remove the problem of multicolinearity. The differences of ABI, PWV, and CIMT among the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups were not found. Total hip BMD was correlated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (r = 0.156). Sex-specific regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. Total hip BMD was associated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (per SD decrease in ABI: -0.130 g/cm(2), P = .022), but the association was borderline significant after full adjustment (P = .045). Total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD were not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT after full adjustment in participants without a fracture history. The risk of osteoporosis was not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT. Low BMD is not associated with
Mar 3, 2004 ... the borderline high LDL-C group of the National Cholesterol Education Program. (NCEP) classification (LDL-C 3.36 - 4.14mmol/L). Conclusion: There is lack of agreement between the FF and the Abbott direct LDL-. C assay. If the two methods are used interchangeably, there may be confusion in the.
Full Text Available Background and Design: Various reports have demonstrated an association between inflammatory skin disorders and oxidative stress. Additionally, dyslipidemia and systemic disorders have been found to associate with chronic inflammatory skin diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the oxidative stress parameters and the effect of dyslipidemia on the parameters of oxidative stress in lichen planus (LP. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with LP and 60 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-de nsity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels were studied in all participants. After participants with associated systemic diseases were excluded, total antioxidant status (TAS, paraoxonase (PON, arylesterease, stimulated PON and total thiol levels (TTL levels were studied in 36 patients with LP and control group. Results: 62.96% of the patients were detected to have dyslipidemia. Total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were found to be significantly higher and HDL-C levels were found to be significantly lower in patient group when compared with control group. Serum TAS was found to be significantly lower in patient group than in control group. When patients with dyslipidemia were compared with patients without dyslipidemia in terms of oxidative stress parameters, serum level of TTL was found to be lower in patients with dyslipidemia. Conclusion: In this study, LP was associated with dyslipidemia. Besides, our findings showed that decreased TAS activity might have a role in the pathogenesis of LP. Our findings support that associated dyslipidemia may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of LP by reducing the antioxidant defense. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to enlighten the possible effects of dyslipidemia on the incidence, mechanism and severity of LP
Matveeva, S A
To study relationships between the indicators of serum lipid composition (SLC) and the markers of acetylator (energy) status (AS) in women with coronary heart disease (CHD), stable exertional angina (SEA), metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (according to the data multivariate correlation analysis). One hundred and eight women aged 54.9 +/- 0.7 years with CHD, Functional Class I-III SEA, MS, and type 2 DM were examined. SLC was studied, by determining the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), atherogenic coefficient (AC), triglyceride coefficient (TC) (TC=TG/HDL-C). AS markers, such as blood acetylation degree (BAD) and the total acetylating capacity of the body (TACB), were concurrently determined. Correlations of each individual indicator of a lipidogram (TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, AC, and TC) and an AS marker (BAD, TACB) were analyzed in tandem. Examination of the relationships between SLC the indicators and AS markers in women with CHD, MS, and type 2 DM could establish that the values of a variant, 90th percentiles of SLC indicators (TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, AC, and TC) showed a significant strong direct (positive) relationship to those of the variant, 90th percentiles of AS markers (BAD, TACB). A significant inverse (negative) correlation was found between the values of the 90th percentile of AS markers (BAD, TACB), as well as between the values of >90th percentile of SLC indicators (TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, AC, and TC) and those of markers (BAD, TACB). The heterogeneity in the association was ascertained between the values of 90th percentile/variant of SLC and AS markers. The genetic polymorphism of AS - the phenotypes of slow/fast/intermediate acetylators (a three modal distribution) was stated. Knowledge of the patterns of relationships between BAD/AS and the
Toth, Peter P; Simko, Robert J; Palli, Swetha Rao; Koselleck, Dawn; Quimbo, Ralph A; Cziraky, Mark J
Few large-scale, real-world studies have assessed the relative associations of lipid fractions with diabetic microvascular events. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association of the lipid profile components, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) with microvascular complications (MVCs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This observational cohort study queried the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRDSM) for newly-diagnosed (Index Date) 18-64-year-old patients with diabetes mellitus between 01/01/2005-06/30/2010. Inclusion required ≥ 12 months pre-index continuous health plan eligibility and ≥ 1 pre-index lipid profile result. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and prior MVCs were excluded. Incident complications were defined as the earliest occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and/or nephropathy post-index. Cox proportional models and Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves were used to evaluate associations among variables. Of the patients (N=72,267), 50.05% achieved HDL-C, 64.28% LDL-C, 59.82% TG, and 56.79% non-HDL-C American Diabetes Association goals at baseline. During follow-up (mean, 21.74 months), there were 5.21 microvascular events per 1,000 patient-months. A 1-mg/dL increase in HDL-C was associated with 1% decrease in any MVC risk (P< .0001), but for LDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C, 1-mg/dL increase resulted in increases of 0.2% (P< .0001), 0.1% (P<0.001) and 0.3% (P<0.001) in MVC risk. Patients achieving HDL-C goals had a 11% lower risk of MVC versus non-achievers (RR 0.895, [95% CI, 0.852-0.941], P< .0001). Similarly, TG goal attainment was associated with a lowered risk for any MVC (RR 0.849, [95% CI, 0.808-0.892], P< .0001). Evaluation of KM survival curves demonstrated no significant difference in the risk of MVCs between patients achieving vs. not achieving LDL-C
Ancheta, Irma B; Battie, Cynthia A; Richard, Dan; Ancheta, Christine V; Borja-Hart, Nancy; Volgman, Annabelle S; Conley, Yvette
The Trp719Arg allele of KIF6 rs20455, a putative risk factor for CHD especially in those with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), was investigated in Filipino-American women (FAW, n = 235) participating in health screenings in four cities. The rs20455 genotype of each subject was determined by a multiplex assay using a Luminex-OLA procedure. The risk allele Trp719Arg was present in 77% of the subjects. The genotype distribution was 23% Trp/Trp, 51% Arg/Trp, and 26% Arg/Arg. Genotype did not predict the presence of CHD risk factors. Moreover, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides mean values did not vary as a function of genotype. However, those with the Arg/Arg genotype on statin medication exhibited a significantly higher mean triglycerides level (P Filipino-American women; thus, even with borderline LDL-C levels would benefit from statin treatment. Secondly, many participants did not exhibit guideline recommended LDL-C levels including many who were on statin drugs.
Wee, Christina C; Girotra, Saket; Weinstein, Amy R; Mittleman, Murray A; Mukamal, Kenneth J
This study examines whether obesity accelerates atherogenic progression or adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Obesity is a major risk factor for developing coronary heart disease. Whether obesity accelerates disease progression after CABG is unclear. We examined how body mass index (BMI) related to atherosclerotic graft progression and a clinical composite outcome of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, CABG surgery, or angioplasty among 1,314 participants in the Post CABG trial. Participants who had undergone CABG surgery were randomly assigned in a 2 x 2 factorial design to warfarin versus placebo and aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering with lovastatin 40 to 80 mg/day (to achieve LDL-C of 60 to 85 mg/dl) versus moderate LDL-C lowering with lovastatin 2.5 to 5 mg/day (to achieve LDL-C of 130 to 140 mg/dl). Angiographic progression was assessed by coronary angiography at 4 to 5 years. Higher BMI was associated with a higher likelihood of angiographic progression (p trend = 0.003) after adjustment for demographic factors, treatment assignment, smoking status, and years since CABG surgery, but not with clinical events (p trend = 0.81). In stratified analyses, higher BMI was associated with angiographic progression in the low-dose lovastatin group (p trend obesity-related acceleration of coronary heart disease.
Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum
Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho
Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.
Full Text Available Dyslipidemia was present in most of the patients with coronary heart disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anthocyanin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. This study aimed at collecting current clinical evidence and evaluating the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in dialysis patients.The search included PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database (up to July 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the association between anthocyanin and serum lipids. RevMan (version 5.2 was used for Meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger's weighted regression tests were performed by using STATA software (version 12.0; StatCorp, College Station, TX, USA.Six studies (seven arms involving 586 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that anthocyanin supplementation has significant effects on TC [MD = -24.06, 95% CI(-45.58 to -2.64 mg/dL, I2 = 93%], TG [MD = -26.14, 95%CI(-40.20 to -3.08 mg/dL, I2 = 66%1], LDL-C [MD = -22.10, 95% CI (-34.36 to -9.85 mg/dL, I2 = 61%], and HDL-C(MD = 5.58, 95% CI (1.02 to 10.14 mg/dL;I2 = 90%.Anthocyanin supplementation significantly reduces serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and increases HDL-C. Further rigorously designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the effectiveness of anthocyanin supplementation for dyslipidemia, especially hypo high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia.
Full Text Available Background: Menopause is a natural event in the ageing process and signifies the end of reproductive years with cessation of cyclic ovarian function as manifested by cyclic menstruation. Lipid profile is altered in menopause because of various reasons. Objectives: The study was aimed to compare the lipid profile in women with normal body mass index (BMI = 18.9-24.9 and women with BMI = 25-29.9 in both pre- and post-menopausal group. Materials and Methods: Estimation of total cholesterol (TC by CHOD-PAP Cholesterol Oxidase - Peroxidase + Aminophenazone + Phenol method, triglyceride (TG by enzymatic calorimetric method, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C phosphotungstic acid method, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C by using Friedewald formula and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL was done by using the formula -VLDL = TG/5 in 30 women selected in each group. Results: Our study revealed that serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly higher in post-menopausal women in comparison to their pre-menopausal counterparts, irrespective of BMI (P < 0.05. Similarly, HDL-C levels were significantly lower in post-menopausal women as compared with pre-menopausal women of similar BMI (P < 0.05. Conclusions: We found that serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were significantly higher in post-menopausal women in comparison to their pre-menopausal counterparts, irrespective of BMI. Similarly, HDL-C levels were significantly lower in post-menopausal women as compared to pre-menopausal women of similar BMI. Since we found similar changes in women of different BMIs, the difference in hormonal status is the probable cause of altered lipid profile. Hence, all post-menopausal women irrespective of body weight and BMI should be strongly counseled to have proper physical exercise and dietary habits to avoid the possible cardiovascular complications.
Wang, Xuewen; Smith, Gordon I; Patterson, Bruce W; Reeds, Dominic N; Kampelman, Janine; Magkos, Faidon; Mittendorfer, Bettina
Men and women with hyperandrogenemia have a more proatherogenic plasma lipid profile [e.g., greater triglyceride (TG) and total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations] than healthy premenopausal women. Furthermore, castration of male rats markedly reduces testosterone availability below normal and decreases plasma TG concentration, and testosterone replacement reverses this effect. Testosterone is, therefore, thought to be an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone on plasma TG concentration and kinetics. Furthermore, testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent in men, but its effect on muscle protein turnover in women is unknown. We measured plasma lipid concentrations, hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, and the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate in 10 obese women before and after trandermal testosterone (1.25 g of 1% AndroGel daily) treatment for 3 wk. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations increased (P testosterone treatment, reaching concentrations that are comparable to those in women with hyperandrogenemia, but lower than the normal range for eugonadal men. Except for a small (∼10%) decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein particle and cholesterol concentrations (P testosterone therapy had no effect on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle sizes, and hepatic VLDL-TG and VLDL-apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates (all P > 0.05); the muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, however, increased by ∼45% (P testosterone is a potent skeletal muscle protein anabolic agent, but not an important regulator of plasma lipid homeostasis in obese women.
Wang, Minzhen; Zheng, Shan; Nie, Yonghong; Weng, Jun; Cheng, Ning; Hu, Xiaobin; Ren, Xiaowei; Pei, Hongbo; Bai, Yana
Air pollution exposure may play an adverse role in diabetes. However, little data are available directly evaluating the effects of air pollution exposure in blood lipids of which dysfunction has been linked to diabetes or its complications. We aimed to evaluate the association between air pollution and lipids level among type 2 diabetic patients in Northwest China. We performed a population-based study of 3912 type 2 diabetes patients in an ongoing cohort study in China. Both spline and multiple linear regressions analysis were used to examine the association between short-term exposure to PM 10 , SO₂, NO₂ and total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). By spline analyses, we observed that the relationship between SO₂ and HDL-C and LDL-C was shown to be non-linear ( p _non-lin-association = 0.0162 and 0.000). An inverted U-shaped non-linear relationship between NO₂ and LDL-C was found ( p _non-lin-association < 0.0001). A J-shaped non-linear relationship between PM 10 and TC, HDL-C ( p _non-lin-association = 0.0173, 0.0367) was also revealed. In linear regression analyses, a 10 μg/m³ increment in SO₂ was associated with 1.31% (95% CI: 0.40-2.12%), 3.52% (95% CI: 1.07-6.03%) and 7.53% (95% CI: 5.98-9.09%) increase in TC, TG and LDL-C, respectively. A 10 μg/m³ increment in PM 10 was associated with 0.45% (95% CI: 0.08-0.82%), 0.29% (95% CI: 0.10-0.49%) and 0.83% (95% CI: 0.21-1.45%) increase in TC, HDL-C and LDL-C, respectively. For NO₂, an increment of 10 μg/m³ was statistically associated with -3.55% (95% CI: -6.40-0.61%) and 39.01% (95% CI: 31.43-47.03%) increase in HDL-C and LDL-C. The adverse effects of air pollutants on lipid levels were greater in female and elder people. Further, we found SO₂ and NO₂ played a more evident role in lipid levels in warm season, while PM 10 appeared stronger in cold season. The findings suggest that exposure to air
Full Text Available In Taiwan, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia increased due to lifestyle and dietary habit changes. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C are all significant predicting factors of coronary artery disease in Taiwan. We recognized that lipid control is especially important in patients with existed atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD, including coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Because the risk of ASCVD is high in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, chronic kidney disease (CKD and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, lipid control is also necessary in these patients. Lifestyle modification is the first step to control lipid. Weight reduction, regular physical exercise and limitation of alcohol intake all reduce triglyceride (TG levels. Lipid-lowering drugs include HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors (ezetimibe, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors, nicotinic acids (niacin, fibric acids derivatives (fibrates, and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Statin is usually the first line therapy. Combination therapy with statin and other lipid-lowering agents may be considered in some clinical settings. For patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and stable CAD, LDL-C 40 in men and >50 mg/dL in women in DM. LDL-C increased CV risk in patients with CKD. In adults with glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 without chronic dialysis (CKD stage 3–5, statin therapy should be initiated if LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL. Ezetimibe can be added to statin to consolidate the CV protection in CKD patients. Mutations in LDL receptor, apolipoprotein B and PCSK9 genes are the common causes of FH. Diagnosis of FH usually depends on family history, clinical history of premature CAD, physical findings of xanthoma or corneal arcus and high levels of LDL-C. In addition to conventional lipid
Li, Jing; Chen, Chang Xun; Shen, Yun Hui
Total glucosides of paeony (TGP), compounds extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, have been used as an anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Risk of cardiovascular diseases is significantly higher in patients with RA than in normal population. It has a great significance to study the effects of TGP on atherosclerosis. To investigate the effects of TGP on atherosclerosis induced by excessive administration of vitamin D and cholesterol in rats and study the mechanisms involved. Atherosclerosis was induced by excessive administration of vitamin D and cholesterol in rats. TGP was intragastrically administered for 15 weeks. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by automatic biochemistry analyzer. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were determined by immunoturbidimetry method, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The morphological changes of aorta were observed with optical microscopy. Compared to controls, TGP significantly lowered the serum level of TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoB, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and CRP, increased the ratios of HDL-C/LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB, decreased the intima-media thickness (IMT) of abdominal aortal wall and improved the morphological change of the aorta. TGP may attenuate the development of atherosclerotic disease. The beneficial effects are associated with its lowering blood lipids and inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Rasheed, Nawal; Al-Rasheed, Nouf; Bassiouni, Yieldez; Faddah, Laila; Mohamad, Azza M
Among famous medicinal plants with known antioxidant activity; black seed (Nigella sativa, NS) and garlic (Allium sativum) which have been used in traditional medicine. In recent years, rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) have been increasing globally. The present work was designed to study the potential protective effects of black seed and raw garlic homogenate against fructose-induced MS in rats and to assess the benefits gained from their combination. Fifty male albino Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. A control group was allowed to feed on normal chow and drink tap water. MS group was fed the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water. Treated groups received NS or garlic either alone or in combination as oral supplements along with high fructose diet for 8 weeks. Results revealed that body weight, liver weight, fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly increased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the activities of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose -6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PHD) and catalase in liver tissues were significantly decreased in MS group compared to the control group. Administration of NS or garlic either alone or in combination significantly ameliorated all the above-mentioned altered parameters. Treatment with both NS and garlic showed the utmost reduction in serum LDL-C and TG levels and could restore the activities of the studied enzymes in liver nearly to normal values. It was concluded that both NS and garlic were effective in attenuating multiple abnormalities of MS. Combination of these medicinal plants may have additional effectiveness in reducing serum TC, LDL-C and increasing HDL-C levels which could be a step in the prevention and management of MS.
Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan
The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = -9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, -1.53 mg/dl and - 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = -4.82 P syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.
Full Text Available Some epidemiological evidence shows a link between abnormality of lipid profiles and variations in serum calcium. However, it is unknown whether this association resulted from confounding factors. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum lipids and calcium. Serum calcium was corrected for albumin. Major confounding factors including age, gender, medications, menopause, parathyroid hormone (PTH and 25-OH-vitamin D status were controlled in analyses. A total of 1907 adult subjects from the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL, Canada participated in the study. Significant positive correlations were detected between serum total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c with variations of serum Ca ++ in both genders (p < 0.05–0.0001. Significant positive correlations were additionally detected between triglycerides (TG and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c with Ca ++ in women only (p < 0.0001 in partial correlation analyses. Similar significant results were detected in both females and males not taking any medication. Analyses were performed based on menopausal status as well. Significant correlations were seen in both pre- and post-menopausal women but higher correlation coefficients were observed in pre-menopausal women as compared to post-menopausal women. Subjects with low calcium levels had the lowest concentration of total cholesterol, TG, HDL-c and LDL-c, while subjects with high calcium levels had the highest concentration of all four markers in women. The significant associations between cholesterol, TG and LDL-c and serum Ca ++ remained after calcium was adjusted for 25-OH-vitamin D and PTH. Our results indicate that the abnormality of serum lipid profiles are significantly correlated with altered serum Ca ++ levels independent of age, obesity status, medication, phosphorus, magnesium, 25-OH-vitamin D and PTH.
Castaño, G; Más, R; Fernández, L; Fernández, J C; Illnait, J; López, L E; Alvarez, E
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of policosanol, a cholesterol-lowering drug purified from sugar-cane wax, in postmenopausal women with type II hypercholesterolemia. A total of 244 women who had experienced the menopause and showed elevated serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels despite 6 weeks on a standard lipid-lowering diet were randomized to receive placebo or policosanol 5 mg/day for 12 weeks, after which the dose was doubled to 10 mg/day for the next 12 weeks. Policosanol (5 and 10 mg/day) significantly lowered LDL-C levels (17.7% and 25.2%, respectively) and total cholesterol (12.6% and 16.7%, respectively), as well as the ratios of LDL-C to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (17.0% and 29.3%, respectively) and total cholesterol to HDL-C (16.7% and 27.2%, respectively), compared to the baseline and placebo; at the same time, policosanol significantly raised HDL-C levels by 16.5% and 29.3%, respectively. The drug was safe and well tolerated. No drug-related adverse events were observed, and even the extent of adverse events was less in the policosanol group than in the placebo group. Four serious adverse events occurred in the placebo group (one myocardial infarction, two cases of hypertensive status and one surgical intervention) compared to none in the policosanol group. In conclusion, policosanol is effective, safe and well tolerated in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.
Lipsky, L M; Gee, B; Liu, A; Nansel, T R
The impact of excess weight on cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 diabetes patients is unclear. This study examined associations of BMI and body composition with cardiovascular risk factors in youth followed prospectively for 18 months. The sample includes youth with type 1 diabetes (N = 136, baseline age = 12.3 ± 2.5y, glycated hemoglobin = 8.1 ± 1.1%) participating in an 18-month behavioral nutrition intervention trial. BMI, body composition (by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); triglycerides (TG), c-reactive protein (CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2α), adiponectin and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were assessed at clinic visits every 6 months. Random effects regression models for repeated measures estimated associations of time-varying BMI and body composition with time-varying cardiovascular risk factors, adjusted for treatment assignment and covariates. There was no intervention effect on cardiovascular risk factors. Percent body fat was positively associated with TG, LDL-C, CRP, SBP and DBP, while trunk fat mass and trunk %fat were associated positively with TG, LDL-C, CRP, SBP and DBP, and inversely with HDL-C. Higher BMI was associated with greater TG, CRP, SBP and DBP and lower HDL-C. BMI and body composition indicators were unrelated to 8-iso-PGF2α and adiponectin. Excess adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors in this sample of youth with type 1 diabetes. Non-significant associations with adiponectin and 8-iso-PGF2α suggest potential differences from the general population in the role of adiposity in cardiovascular health. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Red grape seed extract (RGSE contains oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes as a class of flavonoids. These compounds are potent antioxidants and exert many health-promoting effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of RGSE on serum levels of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI levels and paraoxonase (PON activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia (MMH. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Shahid-Modarres Hospital (Tehran, Iran and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Seventy MMH patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment (200 mg/day of RGSE or placebo for eight weeks. RESULTS: Significant elevation in serum levels of apo-AI (P = 0.001, HDL-C (P = 0.001 and PON activity (P = 0.001 and marked decreases in concentrations of TC (P = 0.015, TG (P = 0.011 and LDL-C (P = 0.014 were found in the cases. PON activity was significantly correlated with apo-AI (r = 0.270; P < 0.01 and HDL-C (r = 0.45; P < 0.001. Significant differences between the RGSE and control groups (before and after treatment for TC (P = 0.001, TG (P = 0.001, PON (P = 0.03, apo-AI (P = 0.001 and LDL-C (P = 0.002 were seen. CONCLUSION: It is possible that RGSE increases PON activity mostly through increasing HDL-C and apo-AI levels in MMH patients. It may thus have potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in these patients.
Krzowski, Bartosz; Płatek, Anna E; Szymański, Filip M; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Kotkowski, Marcin; Filipiak, Krzysztof J
Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases. In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.
Kianbakht, S; Dabaghian, F Hashem
Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) leaf extract in the treatment of hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. Randomized placebo-controlled parallel group study. Diabetes Clinic (Karaj City, Alborz Province of Iran). The efficacy and safety of taking S. officinalis leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule t.i.d. for 3 months) in treatment of 40 hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated and compared with the placebo group (n=40). Fasting blood levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), SGOT (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and creatinine. The extract lowered fasting glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C but increased HDL-C compared to baseline at endpoint. Percent difference mean (95% confidence interval) between the extract and placebo groups in terms of effects on fasting glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C at endpoint were 32.2 (26.5, 37.9), 22.7 (16.8, 28.6), 16.9 (9.7, 24.1), 56.4 (36.1, 76.7), 35.6 (29.9, 41.3) and 27.6 (15.8, 39.4) (P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.01, P=0.009, P0.05). No adverse effects were reported. S. officinalis leaves may be safe and have anti-hyperglycemic and lipid profile improving effects in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation.
Evans, Malkanthi; Rumberger, John A; Azumano, Isao; Napolitano, Joseph J; Citrolo, Danielle; Kamiya, Toshikazu
High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The efficacy of pantethine treatment on cardiovascular risk markers was investigated in a randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled study, in a low to moderate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk North American population eligible for statin therapy, using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines. A total of 32 subjects were randomized to pantethine (600 mg/day from weeks 1 to 8 and 900 mg/day from weeks 9 to 16) or placebo. Compared with placebo, the participants on pantethine showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol at 16 weeks (P=0.040) and LDL-C at 8 and 16 weeks (P=0.020 and P=0.006, respectively), and decreasing trends in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at week 8 and week 12 (P=0.102 and P=0.145, respectively) that reached significance by week 16 (P=0.042). An 11% decrease in LDL-C from baseline was seen in participants on pantethine, at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, while participants on placebo showed a 3% increase at week 16. This decrease was significant between groups at weeks 8 (P=0.027) and 16 (P=0.010). The homocysteine levels for both groups did not change significantly from baseline to week 16. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased from baseline to week 4 and remained elevated until week 16, in both the pantethine and placebo groups. After 16 weeks, the participants on placebo did not show significant improvement in any CVD risk end points. This study confirms that pantethine lowers cardiovascular risk markers in low to moderate CVD risk participants eligible for statins according to NCEP guidelines.
Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos, Guillermo; Asbun, Juan; Solache, Gustavo; Mendoza, Emma; Vela, Agustín; Meaney, Eduardo
This study assessed the effect of 3 lipid-lowering therapies on the reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in high-risk coronary Mexican patients. The study was a randomized, comparative, and open clinical trial. Ninety high-risk coronary patients were allocated to 3 groups: pravastatin 40 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, and simvastatin 20 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg initially. If the therapeutic goals were not attained (<100 mg/dL of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] for type C and <70 mg for type D), patients in group 1 received pravastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg, group 2 received simvastatin 80 mg, and group 3 received simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg. The primary endpoint was the change of IMT over the course of 1 year. The secondary endpoints were changes in LDL-C and in high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRPhs). The overall baseline IMTs generated by combining measurements in the internal carotid artery were 1.33+/-0.32 mm, 1.30+/-0.11 mm, and 1.23+/-0.28 mm for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After 1 year, IMT values were 0.93+/-0.13 mm, 0.90+/-0.11 mm, and 0.92+/-0.01 mm for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. At the end of the study, LDL-C levels were 48+/-41, 45+/-37, and 48+/-31 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. No significant differences were observed in CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and body mass index, among the groups. This study is one of the first providing evidence that dual therapy has a beneficial effect on a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis.
Gonnelli, S; Caffarelli, C; Tanzilli, L; Pondrelli, C; Lucani, B; Franci, B M; Nuti, R
Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are interconnected entities and share also some pathophysiological mechanisms. Moreover, recent literature data have supported the hypothesis that bisphosphonates (BPs) may have some antiatherogenic actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of one year with zoledronate or ibandronate given intravenously on lipid profile and on carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT). Sixty postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age: 66.6±7.8years) were randomly assigned to 1-year treatment with zoledronate 5mg i.v. annually or ibandronate 3mg i.v. every 3 months. In all patients at baseline and after 12months we measured CA-IMT, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I collagen β carboxy telopeptide (βCTX), osteocalcin (OC), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and sclerostin. The osteoporotic women treated with zoledronate showed a greater reduction in CA-IMT than those treated with ibandronate. HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C ratio showed a significant (pwomen treated with zoledronate and in those treated with ibandronate. At the end of the study period sclerostin serum levels showed a higher increase in the patients treated with zoledronate than in those treated with ibandronate. In osteoporotic women both zoledronate and ibandronate given intravenously resulted in an increase in HDL-C/LDL-C ratio and a reduction of CA-IMT which was significant only for zoledronate. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify whether the change in FGF-23 and sclerostin levels is a marker or a potential mechanism of the action of BPs at a vascular level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG] with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs.Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86-1.07 for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73-1.16 for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77-1.06 for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00 for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93 but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis.Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women.
Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Pirro, Matteo; Banach, Maciej; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Atkin, Stephen L; Cicero, Arrigo F G
Artichoke is a component of the Mediterranean diet. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine if artichoke extract supplementation affected human lipid parameters. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases up to March 28, 2017, to identify RCTs investigating the impact of artichoke extracts on plasma lipid levels. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with weighed mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as summary statistics. Meta-analysis of data from 9 trials including 702 subjects suggested a significant decrease in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: -17.6 mg/dL, 95%CI: -22.0, -13.3, p < 0.001), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C; WMD: -14.9 mg/dL, 95%CI: -20.4, -9.5, p = 0.011) and triglycerides (WMD: -9.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: -16.2, -2.1, p = 0.011). No significant alteration in plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations was observed (WMD: 1.0 mg/dL, 95%CI: -1.1, 3.1, p = 0.333). A significant association between the LDL-lowering effect of artichoke and baseline LDL-C concentrations (slope: -0.170; 95%CI: -0.288, 0.051; p = 0.005) was observed. Thus, supplementation with artichoke extract was associated with a significant reduction in both total and LDL-C, and triglycerides, suggesting that supplementation may be synergistic with lipid-lowering therapy in patients with hyperlipidemia.
Vivek G Patwardhan
Full Text Available Background: Despite abundance of sunshine in India, Vitamin D deficiency is common and therefore there is an increasing trend toward taking Vitamin D supplements either as prescription medicine or as a nutritional supplement. Studies have suggested that duration of sun exposure may influence serum lipid profile. Objectives: To study the effect of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on Vitamin D status and lipid profile in individuals with Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25OHD] 50 nmol/L, n = 50 and intervention (<50 nmol/L, n = 100 groups. Individuals from intervention group were randomly allocated to two groups; either “increased sunlight exposure group” (n = 50, received at least 20 min sunlight exposure to forearms and face between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. over and above their current exposure or “cholecalciferol supplement group” (n = 50, received oral cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day. Results: Significant increase in 25OHD concentrations was seen in both intervention groups (P < 0.01. Significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was seen in individuals with increased sunlight exposure (P < 0.05. Cholecalciferol supplement group showed a significant increase in TC and HDL-C (P < 0.05 and insignificant increase in LDL-C. Conclusions: Increase in Vitamin D concentrations through sunlight exposure significantly reduced TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations, and cholecalciferol supplementation increased TC and HDL-C concentrations.
Ojji, Dike B; Ajayi, Samuel O; Mamven, Manmak H; Atherton, John
High blood pressure and dyslipidemia additively increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Nigeria, but there are little data regarding the prevalence of dyslipidemia in subjects with high blood pressure. In this observational prospective study, we examined the prevalence of dyslipidemia in newly diagnosed normoglycemic subjects with high blood pressure. A total of 171 subjects presenting with high blood pressure for the first time in the cardiology and nephrology clinics at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital were studied. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined in fasting plasma. The total cholesterol/HDL-C and non-HDL-C values were calculated. These measures were then classified according to the 2001 report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Of the 171 subjects studied, 84 (49%) were male and 87 (51%) were female. Low HDL-C was present in 71 (45.8%), elevated LDL-C in 29 (17%), elevated total cholesterol in 19 (11.1%), and elevated triglyceride in 13 (7.6%), whereas eight (4.7%) of the study population had combined elevated total cholesterol and triglyceride. Female subjects had higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C than male subjects, but these differences were not statistically significant. Obese subjects, compared to the nonobese, had significantly higher LDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios in males and significantly higher triglyceride levels in females. Given the prevalence of dyslipidemia seen in this study, we suggest that fasting lipid measurements should be performed in all Nigerians with high blood pressure. These data suggest the need for health education and lifestyle modifications in hypertensive Nigerians to reduce both types of risk
Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Kelishadi, Roya; Jelokhanian, Hadi; Asgary, Sedigheh; Ghannadi, Alireza; Badri, Shirinsadat
Childhood obesity is a major public health concern worldwide while the current epidemic may be secondary to over consumption of high-fat, energy-rich foods. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) has been traditionally used in medicine for several antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. In this study the anti-dyslipidemic effects of Poleracea was evaluated in obese adolescents. In this triple-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was done from July 2011 to June 2012, obese adolescent patients whom were referred to the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute (Iran) were randomly allocated to the two arms of cases and controls. The cases group was asked to take one capsule containing powdered P. oleracea seeds (500 milligrams) two times a day for one month, and the controls group were asked to take identical but placebo (lactose) capsules in the same way. Biochemical parameters including 12-hours fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured before the initiation and after the completion of the study protocol. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG showed statistically significant changes over time (one month) in the P. oleracea group (p < 0.05). However, between-group analysis using general linear model (multivariate) test revealed that the differences in the mentioned parameters between two study groups were statistically significant just for LDL-C and TG, while others did not differ significantly. P. oleracea L. may have positive effects on serum lipids profile which may be attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds. This herbal drug seems to be well-tolerated in adolescent population as well. Further studies are recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of the aqueous and methanolic extracts from Bersama engleriana leaves in streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ-NA-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Animals were orally treated for 4 consecutive weeks with Bersama engleriana extracts at doses of 300 or 600 mg/kg. The anti-diabetic effect was examined by measuring blood glucose (BG at 0, 1, 14 and 28 days after STZ-NA treatment and, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG levels at sacrifice (day 29. Glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg was used for comparison. Results STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats showed moderate to significant increases in the levels of BG, TG, TC, LDL-C while body weight, HDL-C levels and relative weights of liver and pancreas were decreased compared to controls (non diabetic rats. Administration of the plant extracts to STZ-NA diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in BG, TG, TC and LDL-C and the dose 600 mg/kg of the methanolic extract was the most effective; HDL-C level was markedly increased after four weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. A dose-dependent increase in the relative weights of the diabetogenic organs was observed in the Bersama engleriana groups. It can be also noticed that the methanolic extract, especially the dose 600 mg/kg (p Conclusion Results of the present study showed that Bersama engleriana extracts and especially its methanolic extract possess antidiabetogenic properties and beneficial effects on diabetic hyperlipidemia. All these effects could be due to the bioactive components revealed in the Bersama engleriana extracts such as triterpenes and phenols and which could justify its ethnomedical use.
Yu, Zhenxiang; Xu, Huali; Yu, Xiaofeng; Sui, Dayun; Lin, Guangzhu
This study was to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effect of total flavonoid extract from Actinidiakolomikta (TFAK) in hyperlipidemia induced by a high-fat diet. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal group, model (hyperlipidemic diet) group, hyperlipedemic diet supplemented with TFAK (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and simvastatin (30 mg/kg) groups. The rats were administrated TFAK by oral for 28 days. Body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The atherogenic index (AI) and coronary risk index (CRI) were calculated. The activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in hepatic tissue was examined. Histopathologic changes were also checked. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-c were increased in model group. Compared to the model group, TFAK reduced significantly the body weight, TC, TG, LDL-c, AI, CRI and elevated the level of HDL-c. Moreover, the activity of SOD was elevated significantly, whereas the content of MDA decreased. The activity of HMG-CoA reductase was also decreased. Morphological evaluation found that rats in model group developed a severe steatosis, but the severity of liver steatosis was ameliorated in TFAK treated groups. The possible mechanism may be associated with decrease HMG-CoA reductase activity. Our results suggest that TFAK exerts strong antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects, prevents hepatic fatty deposition and regulates the HMG-CoA reductase.
Full Text Available Objective(s: This study was to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effect of total flavonoid extract from Actinidia kolomikta (TFAK in hyperlipidemia induced by a high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal group, model (hyperlipidemic diet group, hyperlipedemic diet supplemented with TFAK (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and simvastatin (30 mg/kg groups. The rats were administrated TFAK by oral for 28 days. Body weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase(CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured. The atherogenic index (AI and coronary risk index (CRI were calculated. The activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase in hepatic tissue was examined. Histopathologic changes were also checked. Results: The levels of TC, TG and LDL-c were increased in model group. Compared to the model group, TFAK reduced significantly the body weight, TC, TG, LDL-c, AI, CRI and elevated the level of HDL-c. Moreover, the activity of SOD was elevated significantly, whereas the content of MDA decreased. The activity of HMG-CoA reductase was also decreased. Morphological evaluation found that rats in model group developed a severe steatosis, but the severity of liver steatosis was ameliorated in TFAK treated groups. The possible mechanism may be associated with decrease HMG-CoA reductase activity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that TFAK exerts strong antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects, prevents hepatic fatty deposition and regulates the HMG-CoA reductase.
Full Text Available PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C. Using PCSK9 inhibitors could lead to a substantial decrement in LDL-C plasma level ranging from 50% to 70%, either as a monotherapy or on top of statins. A large number of trials have shown robust reduction of LDL-C plasma level with the use of PCSK9 inhibitors as a monotherapy or in combination with statins in familial and nonfamilial forms of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, PCSK9 inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of hepatic and muscle-related side effects. PCSK9 inhibitors proved to be a highly potent and promising antihypercholesterolemic drug by decreasing LDL-R lysosomal degradation by PCSK9 protein. Statin drugs are known to have some pleiotropic effects. In this article, we are also focusing on the effects of PCSK9 inhibitor beyond LDL-C reduction like endothelial inflammation, atherosclerosis, its safety in patients with diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease, and its influence on neurocognition and stroke.
De Cosmo, Salvatore; Viazzi, Francesca; Pacilli, Antonio; Giorda, Carlo; Ceriello, Antonio; Gentile, Sandro; Russo, Giuseppina; Rossi, Maria Chiara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Guida, Pietro; Di Bartolo, Paolo; Pontremoli, Roberto
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) entails a worse cardiovascular outcome. The aim of our work was to study the relationship between CKD and the achievement of recommended targets for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood pressure (BP) in a real-life sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We analysed a sample of 116 777 outpatients from the Network of the Italian Association of Clinical Diabetologists; all patients had T2DM and at least one measurement of HbA1c, LDL-c, BP, serum creatinine and albuminuria in the year 2010. The outcome was the achievement of HbA1c, LDL-c and BP values as recommended by International Guidelines. In the entire sample, the mean value of HbA1c was 7.2 ± 1.2%, of LDL-c was 102 ± 33 mg/dL and of BP was 138/78 ± 19/9 mmHg. CKD and its components were associated with poor glycaemic and BP control, notwithstanding greater use of glucose and BP-lowering drugs, while no association was found with LDL-c values. Factors independently related to unsatisfactory glycaemic control included female gender, body mass index, duration of disease and high albuminuria. Men, older people and those taking statins were more likely to reach LDL-c target levels. Male gender, age and high albuminuria strongly affected the achievement of BP targets. CKD or its components, mainly high albuminuria, are associated with failure to reach therapeutic targets, especially for HbA1c and BP, despite a greater use of drugs in patients with T2DM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François
Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J
Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gao, H; Tian, Y; Meng, H; Hou, J; Xu, L; Zhang, L; Shi, D; Lu, R; Feng, X; Wang, X; Chen, Z
Dyslipidemia is associated with aggressive periodontitis, a condition characterized by the rapid destruction of the periodontium. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) are involved in immunomodulation and inflammatory activity. We evaluated the association of LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms with serum lipid concentrations and generalized aggressive periodontitis within a Chinese population. Mean serum lipid concentrations were compared across LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms, among cases (n = 185) and controls (n = 138). Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent and combined associations of LRP5 and APOE polymorphisms with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Compared with controls, individuals with generalized aggressive periodontitis exhibited significantly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Individuals with LRP5 polymorphisms (rs682429-AA or rs312016-GG) exhibited higher TC, higher HDL-c and decreased odds for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Haplotype (A-G), determined by rs682429 and rs312016, was also associated with decreased odds for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, individuals with the combined polymorphisms (LRP5-rs682429-AA and APOE-rs429358-CC/CT) had higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, higher levels of TC and decreased odds for generalized aggressive periodontitis. Independently or combined with APOE, LRP5 polymorphisms may lead to dyslipidemia and are associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Dyslipidemia may be a risk indicator for generalized aggressive periodontitis in the Chinese population. Furthermore, two LRP5 polymorphisms (rs682429 and rs312016) might be useful for identifying subjects at higher risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E
1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO,